WorldWideScience

Sample records for cowpea mild mottle

  1. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  2. Inheritance and molecular mapping of an allele providing resistance to Cowpea mild mottle virus-like symptoms in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Cowpea mild mottle virus-like (CPMMV-L) symptoms (family: Betaflexiviridae, genus: Carlavirus) has been of increasing concern in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Soybean cultivars and lines differing in their reaction to the virus have been ...

  3. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A. A.; Elkhair, J.; Elfaha, A.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  4. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and

  5. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is

  6. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  7. Feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles as scaffold for epitope presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Creutzburg, S.; Heereveld, van L.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) have increasingly received attention from scientists for their use as a carrier of (peptide) molecules or as scaffold to present epitopes for use in subunit vaccines. To test the feasibility of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) particles as a

  8. Molecular interactions during the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus studied by magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, G.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of 1 H- and 13 C- NMR, EPR, ST-EPR and calculational methods to study cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. This virus consists of RNA encapsidated by 180 identical protein subunits, arranged icosahedrally. The

  9. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most ... Figure 1. Map of the West Mediterranean region of Turkey showing areas in which the surveys were conducted. showing virus-like symptoms were taken from symptomatic pepper .... SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch D, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds).

  10. Metal-ion-induced formation and stabilization of protein cages based on the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Wilke, Koos D.M.; Hendriks, Linda J.A.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2011-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a versatile building block for the construction of nanoreactors and functional materials. Upon RNA removal, the capsid can be reversibly assembled and disassembed by adjusting the pH. At pH 5.0 the capsid is in the native assembled conformation, while at

  11. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid

  12. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jiyuan; Schmidt, Timothy; Chase, Elaine; Bozarth, Robert F.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 A. The structures and sequences of three Carmoviruses, CPMoV, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) have been compared to TBSV from the Tombusvirus genus. CPMoV, TCV, and CarMV all have a deletion in βC strand in the S domain relative to TBSV that may be distinctive to the genus. Although CPMoV has an elongated C-terminus like TBSV, it does not interact with the icosahedrally related P domain as observed in TBSV. In CPMoV, the termini of A and B interact with the icosahedrally related shell domains of A and C, respectively, to form a chain of interactions around the 5-fold axes. The C subunit terminus does not, however, interact with the B subunit because of quasi-equivalent differences in the P domain orientations

  13. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hespenheide, B M; Jacobs, D J; Thorpe, M F

    2004-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  14. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  15. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  16. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  17. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe systemic viral symptoms were observed on the leaves of infected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants cultivated in Antalya located in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, in 2008. The symptoms on the diseased pepper plants included, mosaic, mottle, chlorosis coupled with stunting, chlorotic spots, distortion of the ...

  18. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which result in the capsid stiffening. Dynamic coupling of these modes defines the extent of elasticity and reversibility of capsid mechanical deformation. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function.

  19. Changes induced by the Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus on the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M; Sajnani, C; Barón, M

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry followed by a database search. In order to improve the resolution of the two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, we have made separate maps for the low and the high pH range. At least 200 spots were detected. We identified 72 polypeptides, some being isoforms of different multiprotein families. In addition, changes in this chloroplast proteome induced by the infection with the Spanish strain of the Pepper mild mottle virus were investigated. Viral infection induced the down-regulation of several chloroplastidic proteins involved in both the photosynthetic electron-transport chain and the Benson-Calvin cycle.

  20. MORFOLOGI GALUR-GALUR HARAPAN KEDELAI TAHAN CPMMV (COWPEA MILD MOTTLE VIRUS SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Andri Setiawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning resources can be used by students in the learning procces to obtaining the information and knowledge. One of the learning resources that is can be used students are morphological of CpMMV-resistant soybean promising lines. This reasearch was to introduce morphological soy plant from crosses of genotype cause variation in morphological characters can be used as a source of learning Biology. Identification was conducted at ILETRI on March-June 2015. Descriptive data analysis is carried out. The results showed the existence of variation of morphological characters derived from crosses of the genotype. Based on the study of the processes and results of the study, morphological of CpMMV-resistant soybean promising lines can be use as a source of learning Biology. Sumber belajar dapat digunakan siswa dalam proses belajar untuk memperoleh informasi dan pengetahuan. Salah satu sumber belajar yang dapat digunakan siswa yaitu morfologi galur-galur harapan kedelai tahan CpMMV. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalkan bahwa morfologi tanaman kedelai dari hasil persilangan genotipe menimbulkan variasi karakter morfologi yang dapat digunakan sebagai sumber belajar Biologi. Identifikasi dilakukan di BALITKABI pada bulan Maret—Juni 2015. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya variasi karakter morfologi yang berasal dari persilangan genotipe. Berdasarkan kajian proses dan hasil penelitian, morfologi galur-galur harapan kedelai tahan CpMMV dapat dijadikan sebagai sumber belajar Biologi.

  1. New Korean isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) differ in symptom severity and subcellular localization of the 126 kDa protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were selected from a nationwide survey of pepper fields in South Korea in 2014 and 2015, in which Cucumber mosaic virus was also detected; the two PMMoV isolates, Sangcheong 47 (S-47, KX399390) and Jeongsong 76 (J-76, KX399389), share ~99% nucleotide ...

  2. Classification of cryo electron microscopy images, noisy tomographic images recorded with unknown projection directions, by simultaneously estimating reconstructions and application to an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Zheng, Yili; Yin, Zhye; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-08-01

    Cryo electron microscopy is frequently used on biological specimens that show a mixture of different types of object. Because the electron beam rapidly destroys the specimen, the beam current is minimized which leads to noisy images (SNR substantially less than 1) and only one projection image per object (with an unknown projection direction) is collected. For situations where the objects can reasonably be described as coming from a finite set of classes, an approach based on joint maximum likelihood estimation of the reconstruction of each class and then use of the reconstructions to label the class of each image is described and demonstrated on two challenging problems: an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22.

  3. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruth M; Moreira, Lisela; Rojas, María R; Gilbertson, Robert L; Hernández, Eduardo; Mora, Floribeth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  4. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1 was obtained from a chayote (S. edule leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  5. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  6. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  7. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, Rob; Krijt, Jette

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  8. Evaluation of the suitability of a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus, as a surrogate of human enteric viruses for assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Yamashita, R

    2018-02-01

    Here, we evaluated the removal of three representative human enteric viruses - adenovirus (AdV) type 40, coxsackievirus (CV) B5, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) IB - and one surrogate of human caliciviruses - murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 - by coagulation-rapid sand filtration, using water samples from eight water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The removal ratios of a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) and two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) were compared with the removal ratios of human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of PMMoV, MS2, and φX174 as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV, evaluated via the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, were 0.8-2.5-log 10 when commercially available polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) and virgin silica sand were used as the coagulant and filter medium, respectively. The type of coagulant affected the virus removal efficiency, but the age of silica sand used in the rapid sand filtration did not. Coagulation-rapid sand filtration with non-sulfated, high-basicity PACls (basicity 2.1 or 2.5) removed viruses more efficiently than the other aluminum-based coagulants. The removal ratios of MS2 were sometimes higher than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, whereas the removal ratios of φX174 tended to be smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. In contrast, the removal ratios of PMMoV were similar to and strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. Thus, PMMoV appears to be a suitable surrogate for human enteric viruses for the assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  10. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Filloux, Denis; Martin, Darren P; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Gargani, Daniel; Ferdinand, Romain; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae]) five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus), two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae), a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae) and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae). Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples) and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  11. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea-Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essowè Palanga

    Full Text Available Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Besides the three cowpea-infecting virus species which have previously been reported from Burkina Faso (Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus [Family Potyviridae], the Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus-a strain of Bean common mosaic virus-[Family Potyviridae] and Cowpea mottle virus [Family Tombusviridae] five additional viruses were identified: Southern cowpea mosaic virus (Sobemovirus genus, two previously uncharacterised polerovirus-like species (Family Luteoviridae, a previously uncharacterised tombusvirus-like species (Family Tombusviridae and a previously uncharacterised mycotymovirus-like species (Family Tymoviridae. Overall, potyviruses were the most prevalent cowpea viruses (detected in 65.5% of samples and the Southern Sudan zone of Burkina Faso was found to harbour the greatest degrees of viral diversity and viral prevalence. Partial genome sequences of the two novel polerovirus-like and tombusvirus-like species were determined and RT-PCR primers were designed for use in Burkina Faso to routinely detect all of these cowpea-associated viruses.

  12. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imade Yolanda Nsa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar White and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu76. The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar White was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods and seeds. CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  13. Complete genome sequences of cowpea polerovirus 1 and cowpea polerovirus 2 infecting cowpea plants in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanga, Essowè; Martin, Darren P; Galzi, Serge; Zabré, Jean; Bouda, Zakaria; Neya, James Bouma; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Traore, Oumar; Peterschmitt, Michel; Roumagnac, Philippe; Filloux, Denis

    2017-07-01

    The full-length genome sequences of two novel poleroviruses found infecting cowpea plants, cowpea polerovirus 1 (CPPV1) and cowpea polerovirus 2 (CPPV2), were determined using overlapping RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. Whereas the 5845-nt CPPV1 genome was most similar to chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (73% identity), the 5945-nt CPPV2 genome was most similar to phasey bean mild yellow virus (86% identity). The CPPV1 and CPPV2 genomes both have a typical polerovirus genome organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the inferred P1-P2 and P3 amino acid sequences confirmed that CPPV1 and CPPV2 are indeed poleroviruses. Four apparently unique recombination events were detected within a dataset of 12 full polerovirus genome sequences, including two events in the CPPV2 genome. Based on the current species demarcation criteria for the family Luteoviridae, we tentatively propose that CPPV1 and CPPV2 should be considered members of novel polerovirus species.

  14. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, R; Krijt, J

    1982-09-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated into two large polypeptides with apparent molecular weights which were different for each virus and even for the two CPsMV strains. Neither the in vitro products from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and CPsMV M RNAs nor the in vitro product from tomato black ring virus RNA-2 were processed by the cowpea mosaic virus-encoded protease, indicating that the activity of this enzyme is highly specific.

  15. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  16. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  17. Menkes' disease in Mottled mice and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Prins, H.W.; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemically the defect of the Brindled allelic mutant of the Mottled mouse and of Menkes' disease in man are very similar if not identical. A modification of a normal Cu-binding protein or an unrestrained synthesis of a Cu-binding protein that normally is present only in small amounts is proposed as the basis of this disease

  18. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  19. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsa Imade Y

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White" and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76 were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control.

  20. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to activity of fungi.

  1. Selective depletion of organic matter in mottled podzol horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Schellekens, J.F.P.; Fritze, H.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Some well-drained podzols on quartz sands in the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium and Germany show mottling in all horizons due to selective removal of organic matter. Phospholipid analysis and morphology of the mottles suggests that this removal is due to a combination of bacteria, fungi, and

  2. Impact of Electrostatic Assist on Halftone Mottle in Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V. Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravure printing delivers intricate print quality and exhibit better feasibility for printing long run packaging jobs. PVC and PETG are widely used shrink films printed by gravure process. The variation in ink transfer from gravure cells on to the substrate results in print mottle. The variation is inevitable and requires close monitoring with tight control on process parameters to deliver good dot fidelity. The electrostatic assist in gravure improves the ink transfer efficiency but is greatly influenced by ESA parameters such as air gap (distance between charge bar and impression roller and voltage. Moreover, it is imperative to study the combined effect of ESA and gravure process parameters such as line screen, viscosity and speed for the minimization of half-tone mottle in shrink films. A general full factorial design was performed for the above mentioned parameters to evaluate half-tone mottle. The significant levels of both the main and interactions were studied by ANOVA approach. The statistical analysis revealed the significance of all the process parameters with viscosity, line screen and voltage being the major contributors in minimization of half-tone mottle. The optimized setting showed reduction in halftone mottle by 33% and 32% for PVC and PET-G respectively. The developed regression model was tested that showed more than 95% predictability. Furthermore, the uniformity of dot was measured by image to non-image area (ratio distribution. The result showed reduction in halftone mottle with uniform dot distribution.

  3. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  4. Physiological and molecular characterization of cowpea [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaga Diouf

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. presents phenotypical variabilities and in order to study the genetic diversity of cultivated Senegalese varieties, two experimental approaches were used. First, a physiological characterization based on nitrogen fixation was used to assess cowpea breeding lines. Inoculation with two ...

  5. Isolation of cowpea genes conferring drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate the genes conferring drought tolerance in cowpea. A cDNA library enriched for cowpea genes expressed specifically during responses to drought was constructed. A procedure called suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was successfully employed to obtain ...

  6. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.; Osiru, DSO.

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

  7. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  8. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  9. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  10. Detection and distribution of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    the evolution as well as the distribution of the feathery mottle virus was followed. Thus, the individuals tested have a high viral ... insured by bees. However, under natural conditions, few flowers are observed as well as incompatibility phenomena that are responsible for a weak seeds production. This plant is grown annually ...

  11. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  12. LABORATORY CULTURE METHODS FOR THE MOTTLED SCULPIN (COTTUS BAIRDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish from the family Cottidae (Sculpin Family) are being researched to determine their sensitivity to various metals in freshwater systems. The ability to culture them in the lab would facilitate species sensitivity comparisons. We collected adult mottled sculpins (C. bairdi) f...

  13. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  14. Genomics Data for Cowpea Pests in Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset contains the complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods. To get to the...

  15. COMPARATIVE GERMINATION RESPONSES OF COWPEA AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    inadequate soil moisture (25%) in both cowpea and maize with greater effect on ... Of all factors controlling productivity, seed germination and vigour are pre- .... depth and date of first irrigation on seed cane germination of two commercial.

  16. Molecular detection, distribution and Pathogenesis of cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... In addition, fresh leaf and mature seed samples (100 per field) were collected ... protocol. Seed samples were processed as described by Koenraadt and ..... of farmer perception on pesticide usage for management of cowpea.

  17. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from cowpea mosaic virus-infected cowpea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorssers, L.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was the purification and identification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase engaged in replicating viral RNA in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)- infected cowpea leaves.

    Previously, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase produced upon infection of

  18. Association analysis of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) resistance in the USDA cowpea germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop, widely grown in Africa, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the southern United States. Cowpea is consumed as both fresh vegetable and dry grain, and as an animal feed and fodder, and it is a major dietary protein source t...

  19. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  20. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  1. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  2. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  3. Ethics and quality assessment of cowpea grains sold in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the supply side of cowpea markets in two states of Nigeria. Specifically, quality status; grades of cowpea grains sold and effect of ethics on sales, quality and price were determined. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred cowpea grain sellers in the study areas. Questionnaire ...

  4. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This information showed that there is sufficient genetic variability in the cowpea genotypes studied, which can be exploited in breeding improved cowpea varieties for resistance to A. vogelii in Kenya. A great progress towards developing improved cowpea variety that meets farmer's preferences with durable resistance to A.

  5. Transgenic plants expressing the coat protein gene of cowpea aphid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a potyvirus that infects cowpea causing significant yield reduction. However, there is no durable natural resistance to the virus within the crop and genetic engineering for virus resistance was not possible because of a lack of an efficient, reliable and reproducible cowpea ...

  6. Yields and protein content of two cowpea varieties grown under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sole cowpea and sweet corn treatments were included and all treatments replicated four times. Fully expanded cowpea leaves on all cowpea plants in the two middle rows were harvested once at seven weeks after seed sowing prior to flowering. Growth and yield component data were collected from component crops while ...

  7. Influence of fermentation and cowpea steaming on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and cowpea steaming can be used to improve the protein quality and quantity of fermented maize dough. In the production of maize-cowpea blends, it is important that the quality characteristics are evaluated to determine their functionality in the products. A 5x4x2x2 factorial experiment with cowpea level, ...

  8. SELECTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES TO COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aires Sizenando Filho2

    2013-12-01

    1.5 = recommended rate + half the recommended rate. At the end of the experiment it was found that: the cowpea showed phytotoxicity to use herbicide among 14 and 21 AAD; the herbicides diuron and metolachlor showed a rate "middle" in control weed, while the pendimethalin wasn't efficient for those function.

  9. EFFECTS OF COWPEA FORTIFICATION, DEHYDRATION METHOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fortification of cereal-based traditional foods with legume protein can improve their nutritional value. It is, however, important to find out the extent to which the addition of cowpea affects the desirable quality characteristics of traditional weaning foods prepared from fermented maize and also to assess the effect of ...

  10. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  11. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  12. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  13. (ajst) influence of fermentation and cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Statgraphics (Graphics Software System, STCC, Inc. U.S.A). Comparisons .... 7 2. 0.473. 0.597. 1.056. 0.14. Co-fermentation. Fermented maize and cowpea blends showed varied effects ...... Oligosaccharides in eleven Legumes and their air-.

  14. First Report of Carnation vein mottle virus Infecting Dianthus amurensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV), a tentative member in genus Tobamovirus, was first reported from a greenhouse tomato sample collected in Mexico in 2013 (1). In August 2013, foliar mottle, shrinking and necrosis were observed on pepper plants in several vegetable greenhouses of Lhasa, Tibet Auton...

  15. Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the occurrence of print mottle in prints. In printing process three main components are involved: printing press, substrate and toner. They can be considered as separate components, but in most cases their interaction influences the quality of the print. The goal of this work was to examine the influence of surface roughness of different types of paper (coated and uncoated on print mottle of electrophotographic digital prints. We set up a hypothesis that print mottle will be more apparent on rougher surfaces. In the experimental part we printed four different substrates with different surface properties on electrophotographic printing press. Morphology of the papers surface was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM from which surface properties were calculated. For print mottle characterization Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM method was used. Based on the measurements and results we can conclude, contrary to the initial hypothesis, that uncoated papers with rougher surfaces produce smaller print mottle values.

  16. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

    2008-01-01

    greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

  17. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ilesanmi, Joana O.; Gungula, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea) of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfe...

  18. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  19. Physical and cooking characteristics of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzaffar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi; Mohd. Munaf Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Two local cowpea cultivars (Red cowpea and Black cowpea) were studied for various physical, cooking and textural properties. The moisture, crude protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate content of seeds ranged from 10.0% to 10.1%, 21.29–23.90%, 0.49–1.94%, 19.8–2.81%, and 60.53–62.45%, respectively. Sphericity, 1000-seed weight and surface area were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. However bulk density was found significantly higher for Black cowpea than Red cowpea. Black cowp...

  20. Intercropping maize with cassava or cowpea in Ghana | Ennin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize/cassava and maize/cowpea intercrops were evaluated in southern Ghana, over a 5-year period to determine the optimum combination of component crop varieties and component plant population densities to optimize productivity of maize-based intercropping systems. Results indicated that some cowpea varieties ...

  1. Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the inheritance of seed colour pattern in cowpea. Cowpea varieties of varying seed coat colour were used as parents for the investigation. Parental, F1 and segregating F2 populations were raised in the field and the study revealed that self colour ...

  2. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  3. Nutrient composition of climbing and prostrate vegetable cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the nutrient content of different accessions of two vegetable cowpea genotypes. The mineral content of the vegetable cowpea accessions were high. Potassium content of the accessions of the climbing genotype “Akidi enu” ranged from 1.25 to 1.52% with a mean value of 1.43 ± 0.13% while in the ...

  4. Bioactive metabolites in improved cowpea seeds | Ameen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has developed some pest and disease resistant cowpeas. From these the seeds of 8 cowpea cultivars were extracted with ethanol, and partitioned into chloroform and water-soluble fractions, the water-soluble fraction was further extracted with ethyl acetate. Residues ...

  5. Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To Attack By Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) ... in Ghana were screened for susceptibility to the cowpea beetle, C. maculatus, in storage for a period of 30 days in the laboratory at an ambient temperature of 27.5 ± 0.9oC and relative humidity of 64.6 ± 2%.

  6. Effects of high plant cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum bicarbonate values of baseline rats were significantly higher (P<0.01) in rats fed casein diet and cowpeas diets. However, urinary bicarbonate value of the casein fed rat was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of baseline and cowpeas fed rats. This study has shown that the intake of high casein diet leads to an ...

  7. Nutritional quality and utilization of local and improved cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpeas are grown for their leaves and grains both of which are used as relish or side dishes together with the staple food. Little information is available on the nutritional quality of local and improved cowpea varieties grown in Tanzania as well as the recipes in which they are ingredients. This study was done to investigate ...

  8. Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Cowpea Planting Density On Growth, Yield And Productivity Of Component Crops In Cowpea/Cassava Intercropping System. ... Similarly, fresh root yield (t/ha) of cassava was influenced by cropping system and population density in 2005/2006, but not in 2004/2005 cropping season. Cassava tuber yield was ...

  9. nature of resistance of cowpea alectra vogelii infestation abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The objective of this study was to identify the type of gene action controlling the trait for resistance to. Alectra vogelii in cowpea and estimate the heritability of the trait. Seven genotypes of cowpea were mated in half diallel and their F2 progeny, including parents, were evaluated for reaction to Alectra vogelii infection in the ...

  10. Nature of resistance of cowpea Alectra vogelii infestation | Mbwando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the type of gene action controlling the trait for resistance to Alectra vogelii in cowpea and estimate the heritability of the trait. Seven genotypes of cowpea were mated in half diallel and their F2 progeny, including parents, were evaluated for reaction to Alectra vogelii infection in the ...

  11. interactive effect of cowpea variety, dose and exposure time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Callosobruchus maculatus has for years remained a serious menace in cowpea in Sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genotypic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties, time and dose on C. maculatus exposed to powders of Piper guineense and Eugenia aromatica.

  12. Current approaches to Alectra vogelii control in cowpea | Ngwako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alectra vogelii (L.) Benth is a parasitic weed in the family Scrophulariaceae that causes substantial damage by attaching onto the cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) plant and tapping nutrients from it. Cowpea is one of the most important food legumes and is widely adapted to semi-arid environments in Africa. The crop is ...

  13. Field evaluation of improved cowpea lines for resistance to bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The average productivity of cowpea in the existing traditional systems is low due to a complex of biotic and abiotic stresses. The biotic factors include insect pests, parasitic plants, and viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. Concerted efforts are being made to develop improved cowpea varieties with combined ...

  14. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  15. Microbiology of natural fermentation of cowpea and groundnut for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, locustbean is fermented naturally for dawadawa production. Scarcity of locustbean indicated a need for using other legumes as substitutes for producing dawadawa. The feasibility of using cowpea and groundnut was therefore investigated. The microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of cowpea ...

  16. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  17. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  18. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  19. Genetic engineering in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): history, status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citadin, Cristiane T; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2011-01-01

    In the last three decades, a number of attempts have been made to develop reproducible protocols for generating transgenic cowpea that permit the expression of genes of agronomic importance. Pioneer works focused on the development of such systems vis-à-vis an in vitro culture system that would guarantee de novo regeneration of transgenic cowpea arising from cells amenable to one form of gene delivery system or another, but any such system has eluded researchers over the years. Despite this apparent failure, significant progress has been made in generating transgenic cowpea, bringing researchers much nearer to their goal than thirty years ago. Now, various researchers have successfully established transgenic procedures for cowpea with evidence of inherent transgenes of interest, effected by progenies in a Mendelian fashion. New opportunities have thus emerged to optimize existing protocols and devise new strategies to ensure the development of transgenic cowpea with desirable agronomic traits. This review chronicles the important milestones in the last thirty years that have marked the evolution of genetic engineering of cowpea. It also highlights the progress made and describes new strategies that have arisen, culminating in the current status of transgenic technologies for cowpea.

  20. Irradiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds to control southern cowpea beetle Callosbruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, E.A.; Hekal, A.M.; El-Refai, S.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma radiation as an alternative to fumigation or direct chemical applications for the control of stored-products insects was investigated in the laboratory and in a warehouse in Cairo, Egypt. Polyethylene bags of the type used in local markets were filled with cowpeas [Vigna unguiculata] Callosobruchus maculatus and irradiated at 400, 600 or 800 Gy [4, 6 or 8 krad]. All the treatments were effective, and no living adults infested by were found in the bags until 3 months later, when adults from outside penetrated the bags with their mandibles. It is therefore recommended that 4 krad should be administered for initial control, but that treated cowpeas should be stored in polypropylene rather than polyethylene bags in order to prevent reinfestation

  1. Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) ... and Bar genes for β-glucuronidase expression and bialaphos resistance respectively. ... expression also showed positive signals under PCR and Southern analysis giving ...

  2. Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea (Vigna ... that responds negatively to RP, using generation mean analysis of the parents, their ... was observed to be below the critical level, phosphorus uptake in the F1 and the ...

  3. Assessment of sorghum–cowpea intercrop system under water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... In such instances, crop models can be used as decision support ... Planting dates (trigger season climate method, modelling and fixed date approaches), .... cowpea intercrop system for biomass accumulation (2.1%), water.

  4. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jokonya

    AN EVALUATION OF SIX COWPEA VARIETIES GROWN ... provide cheap sources of protein, micronutrients and mineral elements that can ... traditional vegetables is that, these leafy vegetables are present in most home ..... REFERENCES. 1.

  5. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  6. inhibition of germination and growth behavior of some cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... COWPEA VARIETIES USING NEEM (AZADIRACTA INDICA) LEAF WATER. EXTRACTS ... Keywords: Neem, Allelopathic effect, Leaf extract, Germination, Growth behavior ... and lotion today, as well as biological insecticide.

  7. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  8. survey of the symptoms and viruses associated with cowpea (vigna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-29

    Oct 29, 2012 ... of the prevalence of virus disease symptoms and to specifically identify the viruses infecting cowpea. (Vigna unguiculata . ... 1Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of ..... emerging viruses. This will ...

  9. Seed yield and agronomic parameters of cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... 1Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Bozok University, Sivas ... Key words: Vigna unguiculata, seed yield, thousand seed weight, Black Sea. INTRODUCTION. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important.

  10. Effects of feeding different levels of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucose by the hexokinase method (Gemeni, ENI Company). Total protein was ... compared by an 8 by 2 chi-square contingency test, using sin- .... small intestinal morphology caused by feeding cowpea diet ... Similar views were documented.

  11. Assessment of the polytank for fumigation and storage of cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademang Korletey, Francis

    2009-06-01

    Insect infestation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in storage is identified as a major constraint facing cowpea farmers in Ghana. The major insect pest causing losses to stored cowpea in West Africa is the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus). Fumigation is the most effective control method against cowpea weevil considering its mode of infestation. The jute sack lined with a plastic film bag commonly used by farmers for fumigation and storage is very delicate to handle, not sufficiently airtight for fumigation and easily attacked by rodents. The objectives of the project were to (1) assess the polytank for fumigation and storage of cowpea, and (2) compare the storage qualities of stored cowpea using the polytank and jute sack lined with a plastic film bag. The cowpea was fumigated using aluminium phosphide tablets for a period of 7 days and stored for six mouths. Data was collected, analysed and compared between the two storage containers on seed germination, seed vigour, grain moisture content, insect infestation, percentage usable proportion by number and by weight before, mid-storage and after the trial. The levels of phosphine gas concentration in the polytank and the jute sack were assessed daily for 7 days. The results showed no significant differences (1% probability) between the two storage containers in their performance as storage containers in terms of grain moisture content, seed germination, seed vigour, insect infestation, percentage usable proportion by number and by weight. There was also significant difference (5%) in phosphine gas concentration between the two storage containers in their performance as fumigation containers except on day one. However, it was found that fumigation and storage using the polytank had a greater advantage over the jute sack lined with plastic film bag in terms of air tightness, handling and resistance to rodent attacks. (au)

  12. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  13. Gene Pools and the Genetic Architecture of Domesticated Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Lam Huynh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [ (L. Walp.] is a major tropical legume crop grown in warm to hot areas throughout the world and especially important to the people of sub-Saharan Africa where the crop was domesticated. To date, relatively little is understood about its domestication origins and patterns of genetic variation. In this study, a worldwide collection of cowpea landraces and African ancestral wild cowpea was genotyped with more than 1200 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Bayesian inference revealed the presence of two major gene pools in cultivated cowpea in Africa. Landraces from gene pool 1 are mostly distributed in western Africa while the majority of gene pool 2 are located in eastern Africa. Each gene pool is most closely related to wild cowpea in the same geographic region, indicating divergent domestication processes leading to the formation of two gene pools. The total genetic variation within landraces from countries outside Africa was slightly greater than within African landraces. Accessions from Asia and Europe were more related to those from western Africa while accessions from the Americas appeared more closely related to those from eastern Africa. This delineation of cowpea germplasm into groups of genetic relatedness will be valuable for guiding introgression efforts in breeding programs and for improving the efficiency of germplasm management.

  14. Photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of an EMS-mutagenized cowpea associated with its resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pedro F N; Silva, Fredy D A; Carvalho, Fabricio E L; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2017-01-01

    The seed treatment of a CPSMV-susceptible cowpea genotype with the mutagenic agent EMS generated mutagenized resistant plantlets that respond to the virus challenge by activating biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms. Cowpea is an important crop that makes major nutritional contributions particularly to the diet of the poor population worldwide. However, its production is low, because cowpea is naturally exposed to several abiotic and biotic stresses, including viral agents. Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) drastically affects cowpea grain production. This study was conducted to compare photosynthetic and biochemical parameters of a CPSMV-susceptible cowpea (CE-31 genotype) and its derived ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized resistant plantlets, both challenged with CPSMV, to shed light on the mechanisms of virus resistance. CPSMV inoculation was done in the fully expanded secondary leaves, 15 days after planting. At 7 days post-inoculation, in vivo photosynthetic parameters were measured and leaves collected for biochemical analysis. CPSMV-inoculated mutagenized-resistant cowpea plantlets (MCPI) maintained higher photosynthesis index, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents in relation to the susceptible (CE-31) CPSMV-inoculated cowpea (CPI). Visually, the MCPI leaves did not exhibit any viral symptoms neither the presence of the virus as examined by RT-PCR. In addition, MCPI showed higher SOD, GPOX, chitinase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities, H 2 O 2 , phenolic contents, and cell wall lignifications, but lower CAT and APX activities in comparison to CPI. All together, these photosynthetic and biochemical changes might have contributed for the CPSMS resistance of MCPI. Contrarily, CPI plantlets showed CPSMV accumulation, severe disease symptoms, reduction in the photosynthesis-related parameters, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic compound, and H 2 O 2 contents, in addition to increased β-1,3-glucanase, and catalase activities that might have

  15. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their

  16. A study of back-trap mottle in coated papers using electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, T.; Whalen-Shaw, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper methodology is been developed for analyzing both the surface and cross-sectional distributions for coating components using electron probe microanalysis and image analysis technology. Actual light and dark areas of print mottle are physically separated and analyzed to provide an unequivocal relationship between the distribution of coating components and the physical structure of the coating in areas of print mottle. Areas of low ink density were found to have higher surface latex concentration, greater mean coating thickness, and greater mean rawstock roughness. Furthermore, the difference in surface concentration of CaCO 3 within areas of, low and high ink density was established as a new and additional probable cause of back-trap mottle

  17. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Palaniappan, S. P. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore - 641 003 (India)

    1981-05-15

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts.

  18. Effect of Basalin on Cowpea Rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Palaniappan, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Basalin (5-Propyl-B-(2-chloroethyl) 2,6 dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl aniline) is a selective pre-emergence herbicide used for the control of common weeds in cultivated fields in India. The dehydrogenase activity in a red loamy. soil and in cowpea rhizosphere incorporated with various concentrations of Basalin viz., 0 ppm, 2 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, over a period of 8 weeks incubation was studied following the method of Klein et al. (1971). There was no significant effect of Basalin on the dehydrogenase activity at the recommended level of application, i.e. 2 ppm. However, there was reduction in dehydrogenase activity at the higher levels of Basalin. This decrease in dehydrogenase activity was found to be correlated with a decrease in bacterial actinomycete and fungal plate counts

  19. New research on the origin of mottled clay in Quaternary basins in the coastal area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Gao, Quanzhou; Chen, Guoneng

    2018-06-01

    Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) mottled clay occurs widely in Late Quaternary basins in south China coastal areas. Current research attributes its origin to exposure weathering of Late Pleistocene marine/fluvial deposits during the LGM. However, field data suggest that this is not the case as there is no gradual transition in lithology, grain size, structure and material composition among these layers. Instead, the mottled clay possesses sedimentary characteristics of exotic dust. In this study, three typical drill cores in the Pearl River Delta were studied using grain size analysis, diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and geochemical analysis to ascertain the clay's sedimentary characteristics and origin. Grain size distribution patterns and parameters of the mottled clay were similar to those of a typical loess, indicating aeolian origin. In DRS curves, the peak height of hematite > goethite, indicating that the mottled clay had not experienced strong hydration and constitutes a continental product. This conforms to a typical loess but differs from the underlying marine/fluvial deposits. The chemical composition of the mottled clay was homogeneous in the vertical and planar directions. Upper continental crust (UCC) normalized curves of major and trace elements of the mottled clay were close to the average UCC and were consistent with typical aeolian deposits. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and relationship with the underlying layer suggest that the mottled clay was a loess-like deposit during the LGM and its mottled structure originated from strong modification of oxidation during the postglacial period after homogeneous dust had accumulated.

  20. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  1. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The l...

  2. Performance of cowpea grown as an intercrop with maize of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative effects of shade were more pronounced in the semi-determinate cowpea than in the indeterminate. Therefore, in high maize populations, indeterminate spreading cowpeas should be grown; while semi-determinate cowpeas should be planted in low to moderate maize populations because of their intolerance ...

  3. Association mapping of aphid resistance in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, as well as other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. The utilization of aphid resistance in cowpea breeding is one of the most efficient and environmental friendly methods to contro...

  4. A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the

  5. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We

  6. Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of arbuscular ... Roots of the cowpea lines were all heavily colonized by the fungi and their leaf P was ... Total dry weight of inoculated cowpea was not affected by soil acidity while it ...

  7. Influence of microscopic mottle on the definition of small image details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selin, K; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    By a special technique of enlarging films a microscopic mottle caused by quantum fluctuations was demonstrated. It was found to affect depiction of small details in such a way as to suggest that it would be of importance for determining resolution capacity, especially in high-speed radiography. Thus, the modulation transfer function appears not to be the only factor determining radiographic resolution. The resolution of high-speed screens may be improved if the film speed is reduced, which leads to a diminished microscopic mottle.

  8. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, S.S.; Hundal, H.S.; Vig, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Rosa, Eduardo; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include a good protein quality with a high nutritional value, its nitrogen-fixing ability, and an ability to be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, studies of cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. The present review provides an overview of different aspects of cowpea, with a special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on biochemical and transcriptomic data with respect to evaluating cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for the improvement of cowpea because research on drought stress tolerance is of major interest for this crop in a challenging environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Mechanosensory based orienting behaviors in fluvial and lacustrine populations of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl Coombs; Gary D. Grossman

    2006-01-01

    We compared prey-orienting and rheotactic behaviors in a fluvial (Coweeta Creek) and lacustrine (Lake Michigan) population of mottled sculpin. Blinded sculpin from both populations exhibited unconditioned, mechanosensory based rheotaxis to low velocity flows. Whereas Lake Michigan sculpin generally showed increasing levels of positive rheotaxis to increasing velocities...

  11. Complete genome sequence of a tomato infecting tomato mottle mosaic virus in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genome sequence of an emerging isolate of tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting experimental nicotianan benthamiana plants in up-state New York was obtained using small RNA deep sequencing. ToMMV_NY-13 shared 99% sequence identity to ToMMV isolates from Mexico and Florida. Broader d...

  12. Kodak film type SO-394-4-1 mottling and hypersensitization test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    A number of tests were conducted to show the effects of various environmental conditions in terms of mottling and hypersensitization on Kodak Film type SO-394-4-1. The first two weeks of environmental testing is described, along with the test plan and matrix.

  13. An individual-based simulation model for mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) in a southern Appalachian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Rashleigh; Gary D. Grossman

    2005-01-01

    We describe and analyze a spatially explicit, individual-based model for the local population dynamics of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi). The model simulated daily growth, mortality, movement and spawning of individuals within a reach of stream. Juvenile and adult growth was based on consumption bioenergetics of benthic macroinvertebrate prey;...

  14. Rice yellow mottle virus is transmitted by cows, donkeys, and grass rats in irrigated rice crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarra, S.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), endemic in Africa, is believed to be spread by chrysomelid beetles, although the infections in a field often cannot be explained by the prevailing number of beetles. We show that the grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus, domestic cows (Bos spp.), and donkeys (Asinus spp.)

  15. Characterization of a Nepovirus causing a leaf mottling disease in Petunia hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the complete genome sequence and characterization of a new virus infecting petunia. Icosahedral virus-like particles were isolated from Petunia hybrida cuttings with interveinal chlorotic mottling. The virus was transmitted by mechanical inoculation from infected to healthy P. ...

  16. Characterization of cowpea genotype resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Passos de Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the resistance of 50 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata genotypes to Callosobruchus maculatus. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment (genotype was used. No-choice tests were performed using the 50 cowpea genotypes to evaluate the preference for oviposition and the development of the weevil. The genotypes IT85 F-2687, MN05-841 B-49, MNC99-508-1, MNC99-510-8, TVu 1593, Canapuzinho-1-2, and Sanzi Sambili show non-preference-type resistance (oviposition and feeding. IT81 D-1045 Ereto and IT81 D-1045 Enramador exhibit antibiosis against C. maculatus and descend from resistant genitors, which grants them potential to be used in future crossings to obtain cowpea varieties with higher levels of resistance.

  17. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaga, F. K.; Ofori, K.; Adiku, S. K.; Kugblenu, Y. O.; Asante, W.; Seidu, H. [College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  18. Management of foliar and soilborne pathogens of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White and pink garlic extracts were tested for their antifungal potentials on mycelial radial growth, spores and sclerotial production of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Colletotrichum destructivum O gara and Colletotrichum capsici (Syd) Butler and Bisby pathogens of cowpea in vitro. Water or ethanol extracts of ...

  19. Partial Molecular Characterization Of Cowpea Stunt Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial molecular characterization of the coat protein of the cowpea stunt-causing isolates of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) from Arkansas and Georgia revealed that both isolates of CMV belong to CMV subgroup I and differ at eight nucleotides positions, resulting in two amino acids difference. There was only one amino ...

  20. Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.

  1. Performance of polymer compositions as carrier to cowpea rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was to evaluate inoculant formulations to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) containing polymers as carrier materials and rhizobial strains. To assess the efficiency of the new inoculants formulations, the rhizobial survival in inoculated and stored seeds and the field performance of a selected formulation were evaluated.

  2. Growth and Yield Responses of Vegetable Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amendment of acidic soil with lime application enhances nutrient availability for optimum vegetable cowpea production. Field experiments were conducted in the teaching and research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons to determine the growth and yield ...

  3. Genetic analysis of seed proteins contents in cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to select cowpea genotypes with high food value, 10 varieties were genetically screened in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) for seed crude protein and its soluble fractions contents. Five divergent lines were studied through a 5 x 5 half diallel cross mating. The genotypes presented a significant genetic variability for these ...

  4. Purification and properties of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabel, P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis concerns the partial purification and properties of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase) produced upon infection of Vigna unguiculata plants with Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV). The enzyme is believed to be coded, at least in part, by the virus genome and to

  5. Weed control in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted between 1994 and 1997 at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin (8o29`N; 4o35`E), in the southern Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone, to evaluate the efficacy of pre-emergence applications of two imidazolinone-based herbicide mixtures in cowpea (Vigna ...

  6. Effect of Malting on the Chemical Composition of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The out-of-steep grains were germinated in the dark for 72 hours and oven dried at 50 °C. The malts were analyzed for diastatic activity and their contents of moisture, protein, sugar, fat, peroxidation products, phytate, tannin and trypsin inhibitor. Results: After malting, the diastatic activity of cowpea increased from 28.87 to ...

  7. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  8. Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot spots in Niger. M. SALIFOU1*, J. B. L. S. TIGNEGRE2, P. TONGOONA3, S. OFFEI3,. K. OFORI3 and E. DANQUAH3. 1National Agricultural Research Institute of Niger, Maradi Regional Research Centre, Niger. 2 The world Vegetable Centre, West and Central ...

  9. Short communication Effect of pesticides applied in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Mabel Antwi

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... cowpea crop, application of lambda cyhalothrin, dimethoate, and cypermethrin is recommended (Afun et al.,. 1991) and commonly practised in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries. Inherent problems of pesticide residue accumulation and degradation compounds in edible tissues (Laben, 1968) ...

  10. interactive effect of cowpea variety, dose and exposure time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    variety (V), exposure time (T) and dose (D) on the tolerance of C. maculatus to both plant materials. The effect ... laboratories and institutions of higher education in several West .... Each value is the mean±S.E of 20 cowpea seeds. Means ...

  11. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  12. Integrated management of cowpea insect pests using elite cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea planted in June flowered and podded between early to mid-August when post-flowering pests (M. vitrata, M. sjostedti and Clarigralla tomentosicollis) densities were relatively low and produced significantly higher grain yields without insecticide protection compared to other planting dates. The flowering and pod ...

  13. Numerical and RAPD Analysis of Eight Cowpea Genotypes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, numerical tools such as single linkage cluster analysis (SLCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) have been used to determine the extent of variability. This study was conducted to determine the performance, character contribution as well as variation pattern in eight cowpea genotypes collected in Nigeria.

  14. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  15. Climate change impacts on cowpea productivity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If a climate signal could be detected at state or regional level, it would be useful to policy planners, agricultural authority and farmers to prepare for climate change. This study, therefore, employed a statistical model to investigate the relationship between the yield of cowpea and temperature (in centigrade) and precipitation ...

  16. Needs assessment of cowpea production practices, constraints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... worsen the limitations to cowpea production in these provinces. Lack of .... avert risk, crop failure and distribution of farm labour. (Singh et al. ... turity groups was based on the length of rainfall. Farmer ... The market potential for bambara groundnut. ... Management of productivity of major cropping system.

  17. Plants regeneration from African cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plant was efficiently regenerated from cotyledonary node explants. The shoots multiplication rate was ... Africa, insect pests are often responsible for 100% losses of cowpea yields (Singh and .... 26 days after acclimatization first flower buds were observed; thus plants were ...

  18. Consumer preference for cowpea in Kwara State, Nigeria | Ayinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary data were collected through a structured from 120 respondents and secondary data was used to determine the factors for variation in prices of cowpea. The study revealed that consumers prefer that is of medium size, red in colour, very sweet in taste and a shelf-life of at least month. It also showed that the most ...

  19. Increased heavy metal tolerance of cowpea plants by dual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in artificially heavy metal polluted soil was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and Rhizobium (N-fixing bacteria, NFB) on the host plant cowpea (Vigna sinensis) in pot ...

  20. Yields and protein content of two cowpea varieties grown under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... cropping systems (sole and intercropping) and cowpea-leaf pruning regimes ... pruning did have consequential effects on the nutritional value of ... and cabbage for direct consumption or eaten as relish ... long history of fertilization (Mpangane et al., 2004). ..... cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) proteins.

  1. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51.

  2. Numerical and RAPD Analysis of Eight Cowpea Genotypes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta-Nigeria. (Received: ... Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is one of the world's main legumes and is an important source of ... length, 100-seed weight and seed weight per plant contributed significantly to the overall variation ... accounts for most of Africa's production, with.

  3. Improving growth and yield of cowpea by foliar application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress impaired cowpea plant growth and decreased ion percentage and chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentration in the shoot as well as yield and its quality. Foliar-applied chitosan, in particular 250 mg/l, increased plant growth, yield and its quality as well as physiological constituents in plant shoot under stressed ...

  4. Study on transformation of cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) gene was transferred into cauliflower by agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and 14 transgenic cauliflower plants were obtained. Cotyledons and hypocotyls were used as explants. The putative transformants were assayed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. The results ...

  5. Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties ... pattern of peasant farmers in Nigeria. Some of the advantages ... in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system as compared to sole crops. While intercropping ...

  6. CRY 1AB trangenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electroporation-mediated genetic transformation was used to introduce Cry 1 Ab insecticidal gene into cowpea. Nodal buds were electroporated in planta with a plasmid carrying the Cry 1Ab and antibiotic resistance npt II genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. T1 seeds derived from electroporated branches were selected ...

  7. Cowpea mosaic virus: effects on host cell processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.; Carette, J.E.; Lent, van J.; Wellink, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Taxonomy: Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of the Comoviridae and bears a strong resemblance to animal picornaviruses, both in gene organization and in the amino acid sequence of replication proteins. Little systematic work has been done to compare isolates of the virus from different

  8. Recent characterization of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodiness disease is the most important disorder of passion fruit worldwide. The causal agent in Brazil is the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and despite the economic relevance of passion fruit for agriculture there have been recently very few studies about this virus in Brazil and worldwide. This work reveals ...

  9. Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). DK Ojo, MS Oduola, OA Oduwaye. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Genetics Vol. 20 2006: pp. 17-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Res. Crop Evol. 48: 559-566. Mignouna HD, Ng NQ, Ikea J, Thottapilly G (1998). Genetic diversity in cowpea as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. J. Gen. Breed. 52: 151-159. Nei M, Li WH (1979). Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc.

  11. Breeding biology of Mottled Ducks on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Breeding biology of Anas fulvigula maculosa (Mottled Ducks) has been described in coastal marsh and associated habitats, but little information is available for agricultural habitats in Louisiana. We located nests to determine nest-initiation dates and clutch sizes during the primary breeding season (February-May) in 1999 (n = 29) and 2000 (n = 37) on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana. In 1999, 60% of located nests were initiated between 22 March and 10 April, whereas in 2000, only 22% of nests were initiated during the same time period. Average clutch size was 0.9 eggs smaller in 2000 than in 1999. Annual differences in reproductive parameters corresponded with extremely dry conditions caused by low rainfall before the laying period in 2000. Flooded rice fields appear to be important loafing and feeding habitat of Mottled Ducks nesting in agricultural lands, especially during drought periods when other wetland types are not available or where natural wetlands have been eliminated.

  12. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  13. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  14. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  15. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  16. Duckling survival, fecundity, and habitat selection of mottled duck broods on the upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the western Gulf Coast have exhibited a steep population decline since the mid 1990s. Low rates of breeding incidence and nest success have been implicated in this decline, but duckling survival and the habitat needs of broods have not been previously investigated in this region. We fitted mottled duck ducklings and adult females with radio transmitters and tracked broods to estimate duckling survival and brood habitat selection on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Duckling survival to 30 days was high (range among models 0.354–0.567) compared to other dabbling duck species. Estimated fecundity was low, (range among models 0.398–0.634) however, indicating that overall reproductive output is low. Within coastal marsh, broods selected home ranges with more water cover and less upland and fresh marsh landcover than was available in the study area. Within coastal marsh home ranges, broods selected for water cover relative to other landcover types, and there was some evidence that broods avoided unvegetated landcover. Although high quality brood habitat is undeniably important, management efforts to increase mottled duck population growth on the western Gulf Coast may best be spent on increasing nesting habitat quality to increase nest success and breeding incidence.

  17. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  18. Nest-site selection and success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Listing of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula maculosa) as a priority species in the Gulf Coast Joint Venture of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, coupled with recent declines of rice (Oryza sativa) acreage, led us to investigate the nesting ecology of this species on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana. We examined nest-site selection at macro- and microhabitat levels, nest success, causes of nest failures, and habitat features influencing nest success. We found that female mottled ducks preferred to nest in permanent pastures with knolls (53% of nests) and idle fields (22% of nests). Vegetation height was greater at nests than at random points within the same macrohabitat patch. Successful nests were associated with greater numbers of plant species, located farther from water, and associated with higher vegetation density values than were unsuccessful nests. We determined that mammalian predators caused most nest failures (77% of 52 unsuccessful nests). Our results suggest that nest success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana could be improved by 1) locating large permanent pastures and idle fields near rice fields and other available wetlands, 2) managing plant communities in these upland areas to favor dense stands of perennial bunch grasses, tall composites, dewberry (Rubus trivialis), and other native grasses and forbs, and 3) managing cattle-stocking rates and the duration and timing of grazing to promote tall, dense stands of these plant taxa during the nesting season (March-June).

  19. GERMINATION AND INITIAL GROWTH OF COWPEA CULTIVARS UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS AND SALICYLIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    ARAÚJO, EDILENE DANIEL DE; MELO, ALBERTO SOARES DE; ROCHA, MARIA DO SOCORRO; CARNEIRO, REBECA FERREIRA; ROCHA, MAURISRAEL DE MOURA

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cowpea is one of the major food crops in Northeast Brazil, where it is commonly cultivated in the semi-arid regions with limited water availability. It is important to study the elicitors associated with cowpea to mitigate any deleterious effects of abiotic stress on the initial establishment of this crop. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the morphophysiological changes in cowpea cultivars under osmotic stress with seeds soaked in salicylic acid. The germination test was conducted...

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research.

  1. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  2. Evaluation of ecophysiological characteristics of intercropping of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.

  3. Gel-free/label-free proteomic, photosynthetic, and biochemical analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) resistance against Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Anna Lidia N; Komatsu, Setsuko; Wang, Xin; Silva, Rodolpho G G; Souza, Pedro Filho N; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2017-06-23

    Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) causes significant losses in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production. In this present study biochemical, physiological, and proteomic analysis were done to identify pathways and defense proteins that are altered during the incompatible interaction between the cowpea genotype BRS-Marataoã and CPSMV. The leaf protein extracts from mock- (MI) and CPSMV-inoculated plantlets (V) were evaluated at 2 and 6days post-inoculation (DPI). Data support the assumptions that increases in biochemical (high hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and secondary compounds) and physiological responses (high photosynthesis index and chlorophyll content), confirmed by label-free comparative proteomic approach, in which quantitative changes in proteasome proteins, proteins related to photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, regulation factors/RNA processing proteins were observed may be implicated in the resistance of BRS-Marataoã to CPSMV. This pioneering study provides information for the selection of specific pathways and proteins, altered in this incompatible relationship, which could be chosen as targets for detailed studies to advance our understanding of the molecular, physiological, and biochemistry basis of the resistance mechanism of cowpea and design approachs to engineer plants that are more productive. This is a pioneering study in which an incompatible relationship between a resistant cowpea and Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) was conducted to comparatively evaluate proteomic profiles by Gel-free/label-free methodology and some physiological and biochemical parameters to shed light on how a resistant cowpea cultivar deals with the virus attack. Specific proteins and associated pathways were altered in the cowpea plants challenged with CPSMV and will contribute to our knowledge on the biological process tailored by cowpea in response to CPSMV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuik, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35 S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  5. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, E.; Colucci, G.; Ciardi, F.; Monti, L.

    1997-01-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T 1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, N.O.; Ogunbodede, B.A.; Adediran, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2002-01-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  8. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. B.

    2000-10-01

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  9. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afolabi, N O; Ogunbodede, B A; Adediran, J A [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ibadan (Nigeria). Inst. of Agricultural Research and Training

    1996-07-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, E; Colucci, G; Ciardi, F; Monti, L [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Univ. of Naples Federico 11, Portici (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 {mu}M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 {mu}M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T{sub 1} transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  11. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  12. 23 cowpea for a changing environment in the rainforest of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cowpea may be a desirable option for use in mitigating the effect of climate change in the context of shift in crops and animals that can ..... Table 4: Frequency distributions and selection scores for cowpea varieties. Selection attributes. Variety value. Selection score*. Number of varieties. Remarks. Biomass (kg ha-1). 876.0- ...

  13. On the involvement of host proteins in Cowpea mosaic virus intercellular spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of thesis Paulus den Hollander entitled “On the involvement of host proteins in Cowpea mosaic virus intercellular spread”.

    Defence: 18th of November 13.30 h

    Abstract

    Intercellular spread of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) occurs via movement

  14. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted at the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Research and Training farm Port Harcourt to test the effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control. The cultivars of cowpea used were Dan Kano, Bornu local and Sokoto local while the oil palm sludge levels applied ...

  15. SWJ:39-42 Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea INHERITANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    Mustapha & Singh (2008) SWJ:39-42. Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea. INHERITANCE OF POD COLOUR IN. COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP). * MUSTAPHA, Y1. & SINGH, B. B2. 1 Department of Biological Sciences. Bayero University, Kano Nigeria. 2 Department of Genetics and Plant breeding,. G.B. Pant ...

  16. Protein and Iron composition of cowpea leaves: An evaluation of six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein and Iron composition of cowpea leaves: An evaluation of six cowpea varieties grown in eastern Africa. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Mineral element, protein-energy and micronutrient deficiencies are primary public health concerns in Eastern and Southern Africa. Promoting the ...

  17. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  18. Effects of cowpea fortification and the level of ripeness of plantain on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cowpea fortification and the level of ripeness of plantain on the nutritive value of plantain based snack foods. ... The proximate composition and acceptability of products using a 7-point hedonic scale were evaluated. With the addition of 30% cowpea, the protein content of the Kaklo from the firm ripe and soft ripe ...

  19. The helper component-proteinase of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a

  20. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.

  1. Utilization of graded levels of corn cobs and cowpea husk on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corncob (CC) and cowpea husk (CH) are by – products of maize and cowpea production respectively. They can be used as alternative feed resources for ruminants especially during the dry season. A 70d study was conducted to determine the effects of CC and CH based diets on performance of WAD rams. Sixteen ewes ...

  2. Socio-cultural factors influencing and maintaining yam and cowpea diversity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Vodouhè, S.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Ahanchédé, A.; Agbo, V.

    2007-01-01

    Yam and cowpea are important elements in the food culture of local communities in the Transitional Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin. Yam and cowpea serve to satisfy vital needs in households and in communities, but also play an essential role in the rituals and ceremonies of the agrarian civilizations of

  3. Drought increases cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) susceptibility to cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) at early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodolpho G G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Martins, Thiago F; Varela, Anna L N; Souza, Pedro F N; Lobo, Ana K M; Silva, Fredy D A; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2016-12-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of a drought tolerant, virus-susceptible cowpea genotype exposed to drought stress (D), infected by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) (V), and to these two combined stresses (DV), at 2 and 6 days post viral inoculation (DPI), were evaluated. Gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO 2 partial pressure) were reduced in D and DV at 2 and 6 DPI compared to control plants (C). Photosynthesis was reduced by stomatal and biochemical limitations. Water use efficiency increased at 2 DPI in D, DV, and V, but at 6 DPI only in D and DV compared to C. Photochemical parameters (effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport rate) decreased in D and DV compared to C, especially at 6 DPI. The potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II did not change, indicating reversible photoinhibition of photosystem II. In DV, catalase decreased at 2 and 6 DPI, ascorbate peroxidase increased at 2 DPI, but decreased at 6 DPI. Hydrogen peroxide increased at 2 and 6 DPI. Peroxidase increased at 6 DPI and chitinase at 2 and 6 DPI. β-1,3-glucanase decreased in DV at 6 DPI compared to V. Drought increased cowpea susceptibility to CPSMV at 2 DPI, as verified by RT-PCR. However, at 6 DPI, the cowpea plants overcome this effect. Likewise, CPSMV increased the negative effects of drought at 2 DPI, but not at 6 DPI. It was concluded that the responses to combined stresses are not additive and cannot be extrapolated from the study of individual stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting fat content in mottled ducks on the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Brian; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick; Conway, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Body condition, or an individual's ability to address metabolic needs, is an important measure of organism health. For waterfowl, body condition, usually some measure of fat, provides a useful proxy for assessing energy budgets during different life history periods and potentially is a measure of response to ecosystem changes. The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is relatively poorly studied in respect to these dynamics and presents a unique case because its non-migratory life-history strategy releases it from metabolic costs experienced by many related migratory waterfowl species. Additionally, as a species in decline and of conservation concern in many parts of its range, traditional methods of fat content estimation that involve destructive sampling are less viable. The goal of this study was to produce an equation for estimating fat content in mottled ducks using birds (n = 24) donated at hunter-check stations or collected by law enforcement efforts on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge Complex from 2005 - 2007. Morphometric measurements were taken, and ether extraction and fat removal was used to estimate percent body fat content and abdominal fat mass, respectively. A hierarchical simple linear regression modeling approach was used to determine external morphometrics that best predicted abdominal fat content. A ratio model based on body mass and a length metric (keel and wing chord length possessed equal model support) provided the best relationship with abdominal fat in sampled individuals. We then applied the regression equation to historical check station data to examine fluctuations in fat content over time; fat content or condition varied relatively little with the exception of years characterized by major disturbances. The mottled duck condition model created here can be used to better monitor population status and health without destructively sampling individuals.

  5. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Prasad, T.V.; Pramod, R.; Verma, V.P.; Petwal, V.; Dwivedi, J.; Bhalla, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M 1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy

  6. Cowpeas as growth substrate do not support the production of aflatoxinby Aspergillus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houssou, P.A.; Schnidt-Heydt, M.; Geisen, R.

    2008-01-01

    A number of 21 Aspergillus sp. strains isolated from cowpeas from Benin (Africa) were characterizedby RAPD methodology. Seven of these strains grouped with A. flavus in the dendrogram generated with the RAPD data. Only three were able to produce aflatoxin in significant amounts. Twelve other...... produced high amounts of aflatoxin after growth on YES medium. However after growth on cowpea based medium aflatoxin biosynthesis was strongly ceased, albeit the growth of the colony was only partly reduced. This was true for media made either with the whole cowpea seed or with cowpea seed without seed...... coat. Interestingly when the cowpea medium was heat sterilized the fungus was able to produce high amounts of aflatoxin. This, however, was not the case after the use of gamma irradiation as sterilization method for the medium. The expression of the nor-1 gene, which is one of the early genes involved...

  7. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  8. Nucleotide sequences from the genomes of diverse cowpea accessions for discovery of genetic variation as part of the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Climate Resilient Cowpea

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Nucleotide sequences were generated from 37 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) accessions relevant to Africa, China and the USA to discover at type of genetic...

  9. Advantage of Sesame and Cowpea Intercrops in Different Fertilizer Application Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Aminifar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different fertilizer applications and sesame/cowpea intercropping systems on soil fertility, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted in Fasa, Fars province, during 2014. The main plots were five fertilizer levels consisted of: using chemical fertilizers nitrogen+phosphorous (F1, organic fertilizers (F2, biofertilizers (F3, 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% organic fertilizer (F4 and 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% biofertilizer (F5, and sub plots consisted of: sole cropping of sesame (M1, sole cropping of cowpea (M2, 50:50 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M3, 75:25 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M4 and 25:75 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M5. The results showed that soil fertility and cropping systems affected the yield and yield components of sesame and cowpea significantly. The highest yield of sesame (1292.6 kg.ha-1, and cowpea (3772.4 kg.ha-1 were obtained from their sole croppings. Among the applications of fertilizer, the highest yield of sesame (950.49 kg.ha-1 and cowpea (2582.50 kg.ha-1 belonged to bioorganic and biofertilizer treatments, respectively. In spite of these results, the highest land equivalent ratio (LER belonged to F4 (1.24 and M3 (1.03 treatments. In general, according to the results, it seems that 50:50 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M3 and application of 30 kg.ha-1 N + 50 kg.ha-1 P + 150 kg.ha-1 bio-organic fertilizer (F4, may reduce application of chemical fertilizers and be beneficial to sesame-cowpea intercropping system.

  10. N fixation and transfer in Maize/Cowpea and Sorghum/Cowpea inter cropping systems as determined by N-15 isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayatilake, G.A.; Subasinghe, S.; Senaratne, R.

    2000-01-01

    N fixation and transfer in maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea intercropping systems, as determined by N-15 dilution technique was studied in two field trials conducted at Bata-atha, in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Two cvs. of cowpea i.e; Bombay and MI-35 were used in maize/cowpea intercropping system, with following combinations of treatments; maize/Bombay, maize/MI-35, Bombay (monocrop), MI-35 (monocrop) and maize (monocrop). A similar set of treatments was used in sorghum/cowpea intercropping system also. The N-15 atom excess, percentage Ndfa, total amount of N fixed, N yield and the total dry matter production were estimated. Maize/cowpea intercropping resulted in an increase in total dry matter production and total N yield compared to monocrop treatment. However the percentage Ndfa and total N fixed showed a decrease compared to monocrop stand. The percentage Ndfa was 60-65 percent monocrop while the same was 45-50 percent in intercropped treatments

  11. SEED AND POLLEN TTRANSMISSION OF A NEW UNIDENTIFIED MOTTLE DISORDER OF MAIZE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wakman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new unidentified mottle disorder of maize Indonesia was found at the Research Institute for Maize and Other Cereals (RIMOC, Maros, South Sulawesi in 1995. Attempts to identify the disorder were made by mechanical inoculation, insect vector (Rhopalosiphum maidis and Peregrinus maidis transmission, seed and pollen transmission, electron microscopy, and serological test. Fifty seeds from each of 22 ears of Arjuna maize plants showing the disorder were planted and symptoms on the seedlings were recorder at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 40 to 100. Pollen of affected Arjuna was then used to pollinate four sweet corn female flowers. Hybrid seeds (50 per ear of the crosses were planted and symptoms were recorded at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The results showed that percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 22 to 84. Electron microscopy and ELISA tests on 15 viruses and one phytospiroplasma antiserum however, gave negative results. Therefore, maize disorder at Maros was not identical to any known viral disease of maize. It could be a genetical disorder and has been given the name maize mottle.

  12. Foliar Desiccators Glyphosate, Carfentrazone, and Paraquat Affect the Technological and Chemical Properties of Cowpea Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Lang, Gustavo Heinrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien

    2017-08-16

    The effects of the use of glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate plus carfentrazone (GLY/CAR), and paraquat (PAR) as plant desiccators on the technological and chemical properties of cowpea grains were investigated. All studied desiccants provided lower cooking time to freshly harvested cowpea. However, the coat color of PAR- and GLY/CAR-treated cowpea was reddish in comparison to the control treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data sets showed a clear distinction among cowpea from the different treatments. Catechin-3-glucoside and epicatechin significantly contributed for discriminating GLY-treated cowpea, while citric acid was responsible for discriminating GLY/CAR-treated cowpea. Quercetin derivative and gluconic acid were responsible for discriminating control treatment. Residual glyphosate and paraquat content was higher than the maximum limits allowed by Codex Alimentarius and the European Union Commission. Improvements in the technological and chemical properties of cowpea may not be overlapped by the risks that those desiccants exhibit when exceeding the maximum limits of tolerance in food.

  13. De novo transcriptomic analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) for genic SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Liangliang; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2017-07-11

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions. However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. Approximately 54 million high-quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from cowpea based on Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and were de novo assembled to generate 47,899 unigenes with an N50 length of 1534 bp. Sequence similarity analysis revealed 36,289 unigenes (75.8%) with significant similarity to known proteins in the non-redundant (Nr) protein database, 23,471 unigenes (49.0%) with BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database, and 20,654 unigenes (43.1%) with high similarity in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Further analysis identified 5560 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as potential genic molecular markers. Validating a random set of 500 SSR markers yielded 54 polymorphic markers among 32 cowpea accessions. This transcriptomic analysis of cowpea provided a valuable set of genomic data for characterizing genes with important agronomic traits in Vigna unguiculata and a new set of genic SSR markers for further genetic studies and breeding in cowpea and related Vigna species.

  14. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  15. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  16. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  17. Studies in Sri Lanka on cowpea: N2 fixation, growth, yield, and effects on cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senaratne, R.; Dayatilake, G.A.; Subasinghe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of seed inoculation and N-fertilization on nodulation, plant dry-matter production, and seed yield was studied through a series of field experiments with cultivars of cowpea. In some instances there were positive growth responses to applied N, indicating the potential to improve N 2 fixation and yields by combining compatible genotypes and bradyrhizobial strains. Beneficial residual effects on growth of subsequent maize could not be related to N 2 fixation by the preceding cowpea. Although there was no evidence of direct transfer of N from cowpea to intercropped maize, there was greater efficiency of use of N for total crop production during intercropping

  18. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China.

  20. Infeksi Cucumber mosaic virus dan Chilli veinal mottle virus pada Cabai di Kabupaten Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Sutrawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Chilli veinal mottle Virus (ChiVMV has been distributed widely in chilli in Indonesia and considered as important disease. A research was conducted to investigate the spread and incidence of CMV and ChiVMV in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu and to identify its insect vector. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were collected systematically from several chillipepper fields for further detection by DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbant assay using specific antibody for CMV and ChiVMV. The result showed that infection of both CMV and ChiVMV was found with disease incidence reached 20-50%, whereas infection only by ChiVMV or CMV were 50-80% and 20-50%, respectively. One species of aphid, i.e. Aphis gossypii was found from the fields.Key words: Aphis gossypii, CMV, ChiVMV, disease incidence

  1. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  2. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  3. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Label-free Proteomic Reveals that Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus Transiently Suppresses the Host Leaf Protein Accumulation During the Compatible Interaction with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Ana L S; Oliveira, Jose T A; de Souza, Gustavo A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2016-12-02

    Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction. Cowpea leaves were mock- or CPSMV-inoculated and 2 and 6 days later proteins were extracted and analyzed. More than 3000 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD005025) and 75 and 55 of them differentially accumulated in response to CPSMV, at 2 and 6 DAI, respectively. At 2 DAI, 76% of the proteins decreased in amount and 24% increased. However, at 6 DAI, 100% of the identified proteins increased. Thus, CPSMV transiently suppresses the synthesis of proteins involved particularly in the redox homeostasis, protein synthesis, defense, stress, RNA/DNA metabolism, signaling, and other functions, allowing viral invasion and spread in cowpea tissues.

  5. Analysis of pre- and post-harvest practices of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Practices such as farming and storage conditions may influence the production ... Cowpea infestation by insects on farm and in storage was a major problem mentioned by farmers.

  6. The major economic field diseases of cowpea in the humid agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... high relative humidity, which correlates with high rainfall .... BThe 18 lines are representative samples of the 71-cowpea lines evaluated showing high, moderate and ... Nigeria has shown that water or alcohol extract of Piper.

  7. 23 cowpea for a changing environment in the rainforest of south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea adapted and grown in the rainforest ... kg ha-1 with adjusted moisture at 15%. Above ... distributions were done by dividing the range ... several workers. .... *significant at 5% level of probability; **significant at 1% level of probability.

  8. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Ahanchédé, A.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Agbicodo, E.; Struik, P.C.; Sanni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the

  9. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

  10. Management of Seed-Borne Fungi in Cowpea Using Leaf Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-15

    Apr 15, 2018 ... Management of Seed-Borne Fungi in Cowpea Using Leaf Extracts and Sodium. Bicarbonate ... is regarded as the most essential legume crop for poor people in ..... legumes and oil seeds of Nigeria: Principles of. Production ...

  11. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented

  12. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using residual soil 15N in poppy (Papaver somniferum L) cowpea sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, D.D.; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by cowpea was carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots each containing 12 kg soil. Different 15 N sources included residual soil 15 N where urea was applied to opium poppy before planting of cowpea as fixing and maize as non-fixing crop. Other N sources were labelled urea, 15 N labelled poppy straw, and labelled urea + unlabelled poppy straw. The amount of N 2 fixed varied with the source of 15 N in soil. Plant material treatment gave a higher estimate at 40 days, whereas the estimate was highest with residual 15 N at 75 days. Such variation is attributed to variation in 1 5N enrichment which can be reduced by utilizing the residual 15 N which gives a more stable enrichment of soil 15 N with time. It may also alleviate the errors resulting from the differential pattern of 15 N uptake by fixing and nonfixing plant due to temporal variation in 15 N enrichment in soil. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  13. RNAi-derived transgenic resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Tanti, Bhaben; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important grain legume crop of Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Leaf curl and golden mosaic diseases caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) have emerged as most devastating viral diseases of cowpea in Southeast Asia. In this study, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to control cowpea-infecting MYMIV. For this, we generated transgenic cowpea plants harbouring three different intron hairpin RNAi constructs, containing the AC2, AC4 and fusion of AC2 and AC4 (AC2+AC4) of seven cowpea-infecting begomoviruses. The T0 and T1 transgenic cowpea lines of all the three constructs accumulated transgene-specific siRNAs. Transgenic plants were further assayed up to T1 generations, for resistance to MYMIV using agro-infectious clones. Nearly 100% resistance against MYMIV infection was observed in transgenic lines, expressing AC2-hp and AC2+AC4-hp RNA, when compared with untransformed controls and plants transformed with empty vectors, which developed severe viral disease symptoms within 3 weeks. The AC4-hp RNA expressing lines displayed appearance of milder symptoms after 5 weeks of MYMIV-inoculation. Northern blots revealed a positive correlation between the level of transgene-specific siRNAs accumulation and virus resistance. The MYMIV-resistant transgenic lines accumulated nearly zero or very low titres of viral DNA. The transgenic cowpea plants had normal phenotype with no yield penalty in greenhouse conditions. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-derived resistance to MYMIV in cowpea.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thimmaiah, S.K.; Mahadevu, P; Srinivasappa, K.N.; Shankara, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is regarded as hardy and one of the important tropical legumes. The plants respond differently to mutagenic treatments. Ionizing radiations affect a wide range of physiological and biochemical activities of plants. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour of two important cowpea varieties viz., KBC-1 and TVX-994-02E in M 1 generation under laboratory conditions. (author)

  15. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, F.C.K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O.; Wilson, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: → We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. → Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. → Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. → Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  16. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onim, J.F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M 2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  17. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  18. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  19. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  20. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants.

  1. Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridi, Efstathia; Ntatsi, Georgia; Fernández, Juan A; Karapanos, Ioannis; Carnide, Valdemar; Savvas, Dimitrios; Bebeli, Penelope J

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. Among cowpea cultivated material, a relatively large number of landraces can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity. To assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, the characterization and estimation of diversity levels is therefore required. In the present study, an estimation of the diversity and evaluation of cowpea landraces originating from Portugal, Spain and Greece, in terms of their fresh pod traits, was performed, aiming to assist with the problem of low cowpea production in Southern Europe. A notable mean total phenotypic diversity (H T = 0.57) was observed in the whole collection. The Spanish cv. - gr. unguiculata collection exhibited the highest value of total phenotypic diversity (0.56). Landraces did not differ significantly from each other regarding the three countries of origin. Landraces such as Cp4906, Vg60 and BGE038478 presenting higher values of some traits studied could contribute to the breeding of new cowpea varieties for fresh pod production. Positive correlations were observed, indicating the feasibility of breeding for preferable traits regarding fresh pod consumption. The present study has revealed a wide diversity among and within cowpea landraces that could enhance fresh pod production in South European countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  3. Identification of QTL controlling domestication-related traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sassoum; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Boukar, Ousmane; Herniter, Ira; Cisse, Ndiaga; Guo, Yi-Ning; Roberts, Philip A; Xu, Shizhong; Fatokun, Christian; Close, Timothy J

    2018-04-19

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is a warm-season legume with a genetically diverse gene-pool composed of wild and cultivated forms. Cowpea domestication involved considerable phenotypic changes from the wild progenitor, including reduction of pod shattering, increased organ size, and changes in flowering time. Little is known about the genetic basis underlying these changes. In this study, 215 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a cultivated and a wild cowpea accession were used to evaluate nine domestication-related traits (pod shattering, peduncle length, flower color, days to flowering, 100-seed weight, pod length, leaf length, leaf width and seed number per pod). A high-density genetic map containing 17,739 single nucleotide polymorphisms was constructed and used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these nine traits. Based on annotations of the cowpea reference genome, genes within these regions are reported. Four regions with clusters of QTL were identified, including one on chromosome 8 related to increased organ size. This study provides new knowledge of the genomic regions controlling domestication-related traits in cowpea as well as candidate genes underlying those QTL. This information can help to exploit wild relatives in cowpea breeding programs.

  4. Characterisation and determination of virus resistance among cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettey, Carlos Kweku

    2017-07-01

    Several households in Ghana feed on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] which serves as good source of protein. However, cowpea viral diseases and the lack of adaptable cultivars have become a limiting factor in cowpea production. This work therefore sought to explore morphogenetic diversity and viral resistance traits in cowpea germplasm to improve productivity. Thirty-eight exotic and local cowpea genotypes were cultivated at the Teaching and Research Field of the School of Agriculture, the University of Cape Coast. Two plants were maintained per stand at planting distance of 50 cm x 30 cm with three replications in a randomized complete block layout during the major (June – September) and minor seasons (November – February). The cowpea genotypes were characterised using both morphological and molecular methods to assess diversity in the coastal savanna agro-ecological zone of Ghana. They were also screened for resistance to cowpea viruses using visual scale on-field and DAS-ELISA protocol. The cowpeas showed significant (P < 0.05) variations in plant height, canopy diameter, number of branches, area of leaf, days to 50% flowering, days to pod maturity, pod length, number of seeds per pod and hundred seed weight. There were significant and positive correlations between pod weight and seed yield (r = 0.985, P < 0.05), plant height and canopy diameter (r = 0.576, P < 0.05), canopy diameter and number of branches (r = 0.576) as well as pod length and the number of seeds per pod (r = 0.530, P < 0.05). Hundred seed weight ranged from 10.03 g to 22.7 g. On the whole, 23 quantitative and qualitative parameters differentiated the cowpea genotypes into two main clusters with sub-clusters. Genomic analysis involving nine polymorphic SSR primers showed a mean genetic diversity of 0.7, polymorphic information content of 0.67 and allele frequency of 0.4 among the cowpea genotypes, which were differentiated into two main clusters with sub-clusters. Incidence and severity

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  6. Association analysis of salt tolerance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at germination and seedling stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelombola, Waltram; Shi, Ainong; Weng, Yuejin; Mou, Beiquan; Motes, Dennis; Clark, John; Chen, Pengyin; Srivastava, Vibha; Qin, Jun; Dong, Lingdi; Yang, Wei; Bhattarai, Gehendra; Sugihara, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    This is the first report on association analysis of salt tolerance and identification of SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most important cultivated legumes in Africa. The worldwide annual production in cowpea dry seed is 5.4 million metric tons. However, cowpea is unfavorably affected by salinity stress at germination and seedling stages, which is exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The lack of knowledge on the genetic underlying salt tolerance in cowpea limits the establishment of a breeding strategy for developing salt-tolerant cowpea cultivars. The objectives of this study were to conduct association mapping for salt tolerance at germination and seedling stages and to identify SNP markers associated with salt tolerance in cowpea. We analyzed the salt tolerance index of 116 and 155 cowpea accessions at germination and seedling stages, respectively. A total of 1049 SNPs postulated from genotyping-by-sequencing were used for association analysis. Population structure was inferred using Structure 2.3.4; K optimal was determined using Structure Harvester. TASSEL 5, GAPIT, and FarmCPU involving three models such as single marker regression, general linear model, and mixed linear model were used for the association study. Substantial variation in salt tolerance index for germination rate, plant height reduction, fresh and dry shoot biomass reduction, foliar leaf injury, and inhibition of the first trifoliate leaf was observed. The cowpea accessions were structured into two subpopulations. Three SNPs, Scaffold87490_622, Scaffold87490_630, and C35017374_128 were highly associated with salt tolerance at germination stage. Seven SNPs, Scaffold93827_270, Scaffold68489_600, Scaffold87490_633, Scaffold87490_640, Scaffold82042_3387, C35069468_1916, and Scaffold93942_1089 were found to be associated with salt tolerance at seedling stage. The SNP markers were consistent across the three models and

  7. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A ...

  8. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  9. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  10. Fertilizer Use and Management Practices among Maize and Cowpea Smallholder Farmer in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okebalama, CB.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of West Africa, poverty contributes immensely to poor fertilizer adoption by smallholder farmers. Fertilizer adoption could be improved with micro-dosing technology. A socio-economic survey was conducted in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to assess the extent of fertilizer use and management among maize and cowpea smallholder farmers. Oral interview with structured questionnaire was used to interview one hundred farmers each at two locations. The results showed that farmers are aware of the use of fertilizer to increase crop yield. About 65% and 80% of maize and cowpea farmers respectively, identified high cost of fertilizer as a major constraint to fertilizer utilization. Consequently, only 32% maize farmers and 19% cowpea farmers were fertilizer users. In addition, the choice of fertilizer type to use was dependent on the type available on the market. As such, NPK 15:15:15 was mostly used for both maize and cowpea crops. Also, fertilizer application rate was mainly determined by the quantity farmer can purchase. On average, fertilizer application rate for maize and cowpea crops were 18.45 kg/ha and 9.05 kg/ha, respectively. The prevalent fertilizer application method on maize was mostly by point/side placement while ring application was largely used for cowpea. Awareness of fertilizer micro-dosing among the farmers was only 10%. Since the quantity of fertilizer used by the farmers as well as the fertilizer application methods were comparable to fertilizer micro-dosing, dissemination of micro-dosing technology to these farmers could promote fertilizer use and management among smallholder farmers, and ultimately sustain maize and cowpea production.

  11. Isolation of protoplast from soybean, cowpea, and tobacco and their fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwansyah.

    1988-01-01

    Protoplast were isolated from leaf and callus. Young leaf of 3-4 weeks old plant of soybean T219 and A24, A27, C4, E1, and H6 of cowpeas strains (strains named by Prof. S. Sakamoto, University of Kyoto) were suspended in digestive medium containing cellulase 'Onuzuka' R-10, macerozyme R-10, mannitol, CaCl, and 2 (N-morpholilno) echane sulfonic acid (MES). For soybean leaf, the medium was enriched with driselase and pectolyase Y-23. They were incibated in full darkness at 27 Celcius centigrade by constant shaking at 50 rpm orbitor shaker. Callus wich has been two times resubcultured was suspended in the digestive medium without driselase, CaCl2, and MES and incubated in lowlight intensity by constant shaking at 100 rpm in reciprocal water shaker at 30 celcius centigrade. Leaf protoplast were releasaed in 10-14 h, soybean and tobacco callus protoplast in 3-4 h, and cowpeas callus protoplast in 4-6 h of incubation. Protoplast were collected by centrifugation of 400 g and a thin layer of the suspension was irradiated with ultraviolet light. Fusion was induced with PEG 6000 solution according to Uchimia and fused protoplasts were collected by centrifugation of 200 g. Protoplast were cultured on the medium of Ikeda and Uchimia. On both medium leaf protoplast, irradiated protoplasts and their fused do not regenerate cell wall and all cultured died out within four weeks incubation. Cell wall generation was observed. Regeneration of cell wall observed progessively in mother protoplast from tobacco, cowpea (A27, E1, and H6) and fused protoplast of soybean with tobacco, tobacco with cowpea (C4, E1, and H6), soybean with cowpea (C4) and between cowpea (C4) and cowpea (E1). (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Pseudomonas oleovorans strain KBPF-004 culture supernatants reduced seed transmission of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and Pepper mild mottle virus, and remodeled aggregation of 126 kDa and subcellular localization......

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to control viral diseases in crop production include several types of physical or chemical treatments; antiviral extracts from a number of plants have also been examined to inhibit plant viral infection. However, treatments utilizing naturally selected microorganisms with activity against pl...

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osekre, E. A.; Abrahamani, J.; Abudu, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

  14. Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum

  15. Characterization of sida golden mottle virus isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, H A; Iqbal, Zafar; Polston, J E

    2018-06-21

    The genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated from Sida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus yellow spot virus (DQ875869), SiGMBuV (JX162592) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFlV) (HE806443). There was extensive recombination in the SiGMoV DNA-A and much less in DNA-B. Full-length clones of SiGMoV were infectious and were able to infect and cause symptoms in several plant species.

  16. Genetic variation of eggplant mottled dwarf virus from annual and perennial plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappi, Polyxeni G; Maliogka, Varvara I; Amoutzias, Gregory D; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2016-03-01

    The genetic diversity of eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, was studied using isolates collected from different herbaceous and woody plant species and remote geographic areas. Sequences corresponding to the N, X, P, Y, M and G ORFs as well as the untranslated regions (UTRs) between ORFs were determined from all isolates. Low genetic diversity was found in almost all genomic regions studied except for the X ORF and the UTRs, which were more variable, while interestingly, an EMDV isolate from caper possessed a truncated G gene sequence. Furthermore, low d N /d S ratios, indicative of purifying selection, were calculated for all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the EMDV isolates clustered in three distinct subgroups based on their geographical origin, with the exception of one subgroup that consisted of isolates from northern Greece and Cyprus. Overall, the level of genetic diversity of EMDV differed between seed- and asexually propagated plants in our collection, and this could be related to the mode of transmission.

  17. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mottled skate: Raja pulchra (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a mottled skate, Raja pulchra was sequenced as being circular molecules of 16,907 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich control region. The organization of the PCGs is the same as those found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of 29.8% A, 28.0% C, 27.9% T, and 14.3% G with a bias toward A + T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of [Formula: see text] which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome will provide essential information for better phylogenetic resolution and precision of the family Rajidae and the genus Raja as well as for establishment of a fish stock recovery plan of the species.

  19. Development of real-time PCR assay for genetic identification of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Kwan; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Hyun-Su; Choi, Dong-Ho; Kang, Pil-Won; Lee, Yang-Han; Cho, Nam-Soo; Park, Ki-Won; Chae, Ho Zoon

    2015-10-01

    The mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra is one of the commercially important fishes in the market today. However, B. pulchra identification methods have not been well developed. The current study reports a novel real-time PCR method based on TaqMan technology developed for the genetic identification of B. pulchra. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) nucleotide sequences of 29 B. pulchra, 157 skates and rays reported in GenBank DNA database were comparatively analyzed and the COI sequences specific to B. pulchra was identified. Based on this information, a system of specific primers and Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe were designed. The assay successfully discriminated in 29 specimens of B. pulchra and 27 commercial samples with unknown species identity. For B. pulchra DNA, an average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 19.1±0.1 was obtained. Among 27 commercial samples, two samples showed average Ct values 19.1±0.0 and 26.7±0.1, respectively and were confirmed to be B. pulchra based on sequencing. The other samples tested showed undetectable or extremely weak signals for the target fragment, which was also consistent with the sequencing results. These results reveal that the method developed is a rapid and efficient tool to identify B. pulchra and might prevent fraud or mislabeling during the distribution of B. pulchra products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV), a new potyvirus infecting Petunia x hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhoff, A; Wetzel, T; Peters, D; Kellner, R; Krczal, G

    1998-01-01

    With the introduction of cutting-grown Petunia x hybrida plants on the European market, a new potyvirus which showed no serological reaction with antisera against any other potyviruses infecting petunias was discovered. Infected leaves contained flexuous rod-shaped virus particles of 750-800 nm in length and inclusion bodies (pinwheel structures) typical for potyviruses in ultrathin leaf sections. The purified coat protein with a Mr of approximately 36 kDa could be detected in Western immunoblots with a specific antibody to the coat protein of the petunia-infecting virus. The 3' end of the viral genome encompassing the 3' non-coding region, the coat protein gene, and part of the NIb gene was amplified from infected leaf material by IC/PCR using degenerate and specific primers. Sequences of PCR-generated cDNA clones were compared to other known sequences of potyviruses. Maximum homology of 56% was found in the 3' non-coding region between the petunia isolate and other potyviruses. A maximum homology of 69% was found between the amino acid sequence of the coat protein of the petunia isolate and corresponding sequences of other potyviruses. These data indicate that the petunia-infecting virus is a previously undescribed potyvirus and the name petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV) is suggested.

  1. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from cowpea unigene ...

  3. First report of root rot of cowpea caused by Fusarium equiseti in Georgia in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot was observed on cowpea in Tift County, Georgia, in May of 2015. The disease occurred on approximately 10% of cowpea plants in 2 fields (2 ha). Symptoms appeared as sunken reddish brown lesions on roots and stems under the soil line, secondary roots became dark brown and rotted, and infected...

  4. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  5. Sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich space of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Foo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its drought tolerance and ability to grow on poor quality soils. Approximately 80% of cowpea production takes place in the dry savannahs of tropical West and Central Africa, mostly by poor subsistence farmers. Despite its economic and social importance in the developing world, cowpea remains to a large extent an underexploited crop. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs is the stacking of desirable agronomic traits, such as disease and pest resistance and response to abiotic stresses. Implementation of marker-assisted selection and breeding programs is severely limited by a paucity of trait-linked markers and a general lack of information on gene structure and organization. With a nuclear genome size estimated at ~620 Mb, the cowpea genome is an ideal target for reduced representation sequencing. Results We report here the sequencing and analysis of the gene-rich, hypomethylated portion of the cowpea genome selectively cloned by methylation filtration (MF technology. Over 250,000 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs with an average length of 610 bp were generated, yielding ~160 Mb of sequence information. The GSRs were assembled, annotated by BLAST homology searches of four public protein annotation databases and four plant proteomes (A. thaliana, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and P. trichocarpa, and analyzed using various domain and gene modeling tools. A total of 41,260 GSR assemblies and singletons were annotated, of which 19,786 have unique GenBank accession numbers. Within the GSR dataset, 29% of the sequences were annotated using the Arabidopsis Gene Ontology (GO with the largest categories of assigned function being catalytic activity and metabolic processes, groups that include the majority of cellular enzymes and components of amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A

  6. Symbiotic functioning and bradyrhizobial biodiversity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakora Felix D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to strain IGS types at the continent level. In this study, 9 cowpea genotypes were planted in field experiments in Botswana, South Africa and Ghana with the aim of i trapping indigenous cowpea root-nodule bacteria (cowpea "rhizobia" in the 3 countries for isolation, molecular characterisation using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing of the 16S - 23S rDNA IGS gene, ii quantifying N-fixed in the cowpea genotypes using the 15N natural abundance technique, and iii relating the levels of nodule functioning (i.e. N-fixed to the IGS types found inside nodules. Results Field measurements of N2 fixation revealed significant differences in plant growth, δ15N values, %Ndfa and amounts of N-fixed between and among the 9 cowpea genotypes in Ghana and South Africa. Following DNA analysis of 270 nodules from the 9 genotypes, 18 strain IGS types were found. Relating nodule function to the 18 IGS types revealed significant differences in IGS type N2-fixing efficiencies. Sequencing the 16S - 23S rDNA gene also revealed 4 clusters, with cluster 2 forming a distinct group that may be a new Bradyrhizobium species. Taken together, our data indicated greater biodiversity of cowpea bradyrhizobia in South Africa relative to Botswana and Ghana. Conclusions We have shown that cowpea is strongly dependant on N2 fixation for its N nutrition in both South Africa and Ghana. Strain IGS type symbiotic efficiency was assessed for the first time in this study, and a positive correlation was discernible where there was sole nodule occupancy. The differences in IGS type diversity and symbiotic efficiency probably accounts for the genotype × environment interaction that makes it difficult to select superior genotypes for use across Africa. The root-nodule bacteria nodulating cowpea in this study

  7. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamananjara, A. [LRI-SRA, Laboratoire des Radio-isotopes, Universite d' Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Abdou, M. Malam [Laboratoire Banques de genes CERRA / KOLLO, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN), Niamey (Niger); Pernot, C.; Drevon, J. J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier (France)

    2013-11-15

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1}. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N{sub 2}-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N{sub 2}-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g{sup -1} nodule DW showing large variation among lines

  8. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  9. Proanthocyanidin profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) reveals catechin-O-glucoside as the dominant compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph

    2013-08-15

    Proanthocyanidin (PA) profile and content can have important nutritional and health implications on plant foods. Six diverse cowpea phenotypes (black, red, green, white, light-brown and golden-brown) were investigated for PA composition using normal-phase HPLC and reversed-phase UPLC-TQD-MS. Catechin and (epi)afzelechin were the major flavan-3-ol units. Unusual composition was observed in all cowpea phenotypes with significant degrees of glycosylation in the monomers and dimers. The PA content of cowpea (dry basis) ranged between 2.2 and 6.3 mg/g. Monomeric flavan-3-ols were the largest group of PA (36-69%) in cowpea, with catechin-7-O-glucoside accounting for most (about 88%) of the monomers. The oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-4 ranged from 0.41 to 1.3 mg/g (15-20%), whereas DP>10 polymers accounted for only 13.5% of PA. Future studies that highlight the impact of the unusual cowpea PA profile on nutritional and bioactive properties of this important legume are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening selected genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] for salt tolerance during seedling growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogile, A; Andargie, M; Muthuswamy, M

    2013-07-15

    The environmental stress such as, salinity (soil or water) are serious obstacles for field crops especially in the arid and semi-arid parts of the world. This study was conducted to assess the potential for salt tolerance of cowpea genotypes during the seedling stage. The experimental treatments were 9 cowpea genotypes and 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) and they were tested in greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized design in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1) statistical software. Seedling shoots and root traits, seedling shoots and root weight, number of leaves and total biological yield were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length, shoot length, seedling shoot and root weight of cowpea genotypes. The extent of decrease varied with genotypes and salt concentrations. Most genotypes were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. The correlation analysis revealed positive and significant association among most of the parameters. Genotypes 210856, 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The study revealed the presence of broad intra specific genetic variation in cowpea varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production.

  11. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  12. Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René

    2017-06-01

    Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used for the experiments, and a second-order polynomial to model the effects of hydrolysis time, SLR and ESR on the degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of time 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) yielded a nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and the peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared with the concentrate. The solubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Insect pests associated with cowpea – sorghum intercropping system by considering the phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana González Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the main insect pest populations and their behavior in the combination cowpea - sorghum. This work took into account the phenology of each crop. The study was conducted on a Cambisol soil from the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “Día y Noche”, which belongs to the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “28 de Octubre”, Santa Clara municipality, Villa Clara province, Cuba. The experimental design was a random blocks included four treatments and four repetitions. The first arrangement consisted of two rows of cowpea for each row of sorghum; the second one included three rows of cowpea and one row of sorghum. The other treatments were the monocultures of cowpea and sorghum. The methodology included visual observations of plants with a weekly frequency until crop harvest to detect the presence of the insects. Also, the phenology of each crop was considered. The phytophagous insects quantified in the cowpea crop belong to the families Chrysomelidae, Pyralidae, Cicadellidae, while in the sorghum crop, these insects belong to the families Noctuidae and Aphididae. Finally, the results showed the positive effects of both spatial arrangements with a smaller incidence of insect pest populations.

  14. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  15. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  16. Fate and distribution of lindane and endosulfan in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, P.O.; Montford, K.G.; Klake, R.K.; Akpabli, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative study is presented on linande and endosulfan residues in maize and cowpea ecosystems respectively. Both pesticides were found to dissipate very fast under the tropical Ghanaian conditions. The high rate of dissipation in leaves is attributed to the fact that the leaves were exposed to sunshine and wind leading to increased volatilisation. Endosulfan was found to dissipate faster from the cowpea ecosystem than lindane did in the maize ecosystem. The mean residue levels of lindane in maize grains were 0.02 μg g -1 ; whilst residue levels of endosulfan in cowpea seeds were 0.05 μg g -1 . These levels are lower than the maximum residue limits recognized as acceptable by the Codex Alimentarus Commission. (author). 11 refs, 7 tabs

  17. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  18. Effects of effluent water on the abundance of cowpea insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Sitwane, Monametsi; Obopile, M; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Ali, Sajjad

    2017-10-03

    Botswana experiences low and unreliable rainfall. Thus, the use of effluent water in agriculture is increasingly important. Insect damage is the major constraint for cowpea grain production in the most cowpea-producing lands. We investigated the effects of effluent water on insect pest abundance on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under field conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 100, 75, 50, and 25% of effluent water and 0% (control-clean tap water) treatments. Treatments with 100% effluent water resulted in a significant increase in insect pest populations as compared with the control. These results show that the use of effluent water to irrigate crops may increase incidence, abundance, and damage caused by insect pests possibly by decreasing plant vigor. The use of effluent water in agriculture should be addressed in a wise way.

  19. NOTE - Phenotypic correlations between combining abilities of F 2 cowpea populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline de Jesús Pires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is a crop that has become socio-economically relevant, mainly in developing countries. Correlation studies are important to determine the association between quantitative traits and yield to guide the selection, i.e., choose direct or indirect selection. The objective was to estimate the correlations between six agronomic traits in cowpea as well as the correlations between the estimates of combining abilities of parents. Genotypes with high pod weight and pod length, 100-grain weight, and number of beans per pod should be used to improve grain yield in cowpea. The breeder should preferably insert plants into his group of crosses that have a high combining ability for pod length, number of grains per pod and yield per plot.

  20. Effect of different irrigation systems on root growth of maize and cowpea plants in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Mahgoub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University to study the influence of different irrigation systems on root length density and specific root length of maize and cowpea plants cultivated in sandy soil. Three irrigation systems (Surface, drip and sprinkler irrigation were used in this study. The NPK fertilizers were applied as recommended doses for maize and cowpea. Root samples were collected from the soil profile below one plant (maize and cowpea which was irrigated by the three irrigation systems by using an iron box (30 cm× 20 cm which is divided into 24 small boxes each box is (5× 5 × 5 cm. At surface irrigation, root length density of cowpea reached to soil depth 30-40cm with lateral distances 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm. Vertical distribution of root length density of maize was increased with soil depth till 20-25 cm, and then it decreased till soil depth 35-40cm. Under drip irrigation, root length density of cowpea increased horizontally from 0-5cm to 10-15cm then it decreased till soil depth 25-30 cm and below this depth root length density disappeared. For the root length density and specific root length of maize under drip irrigation, the data showed that root length density and specific root length decreased with increasing in soil depth. The root length density of cowpea under sprinkler irrigation at 0-5cm disappeared from horizontal distance at 25-30 cm. The data showed that root length density of maize under sprinkler irrigation was higher at the soil top layers 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm than other layers from 10-40 cm.

  1. Characterization of active-site residues of the NIa protease from tobacco vein mottling virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D C; Kim, D H; Lee, J S; Kang, B H; Han, J; Kim, W; Song, B D; Choi, K Y

    2000-10-31

    Nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of tobacco vein mottling virus is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. In order to identify the active-site residues of the TVMV NIa protease, the putative active-site residues, His-46, Asp-81 and Cys-151, were mutated individually to generate H46R, H46A, D81E, D81N, C151S, and C151A, and their mutational effects on the proteolytic activities were examined. Proteolytic activity was completely abolished by the mutations of H46R, H46A, D81N, and C151A, suggesting that the three residues are crucial for catalysis. The mutation of D81E decreased kcat marginally by about 4.7-fold and increased Km by about 8-fold, suggesting that the aspartic acid at position 81 is important for substrate binding but can be substituted by glutamate without any significant decrease in catalysis. The replacement of Cys-151 by Ser to mimic the catalytic triad of chymotrypsin-like serine protease resulted in the drastic decrease in kcat by about 1,260-fold. This result might be due to the difference of the active-site geometry between the NIa protease and chymotrypsin. The protease exhibited a bell-shaped pH-dependent profile with a maximum activity approximately at pH 8.3 and with the abrupt changes at the respective pKa values of approximately 6.6 and 9.2, implying the involvement of a histidine residue in catalysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the three residues, His-46, Asp-81, and Cys-151, play a crucial role in catalysis of the TVMV NIa protease.

  2. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  3. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  4. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Rafaela S; Abreu, Rayane A; Lamas, Natalia S; Alves-Freitas, Dione M T; Vidal, Andreza H; Poppiel, Raul R; Melo, Fernando L; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P; Campos, Magnolia A; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2018-04-02

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae : passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus . Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12-30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891-921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7-3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina , Arabidopsis thaliana , and Passiflora edulis .

  5. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  6. Endothelial Targeting of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) via Surface Vimentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Plummer, Emily M.; Trauger, Sunia A.; Siuzdak, Gary; Manchester, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission. PMID:19412526

  7. Endothelial targeting of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV via surface vimentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J Koudelka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission.

  8. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniappan, S.; Balasubramanian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  9. Genesis of a mottled horizon by Fe-depletion within a laterite cover in the Amazon Basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolen , Vania; Lamotte , Mathieu; Boulet , René; Trichet , Jean; Rouer , Olivier; José Melfi , Adolpho

    2002-01-01

    A mottled horizon in a laterite cover (without any duricrust) was studied by microscopy and quantitative chemical microanalysis. Apart from the voids, light red spots consisting of Fe-rich particles (≈2 μm) are set in clayey plasma. Dark red spots consisted of concentrations of Fe-rich particles. These patterns are inherited. On the border of structural or biological voids, where Fe-depletion features are systematic, gray or yellow spots result from dissolution of the Fe-rich particles and im...

  10. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  11. Influence of Gamma Irradiation, Soaking and Cooking the Detoxification of Aflatoxin β1 and sensory characteristics of Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with the effect of gamma irradiation, soaking in water and cooking on reducing or removal of aflatoxin β 1 as well as on sensory characteristics of cow peas. Long-time soaking (12 h) of gamma irradiated (5-10 kGy) Cowpea caused remarkable reduction in the levels of aflatoxin β 1 by about 88.4 to 97.28% . Cooking under pressure of gamma irradiated cowpea was more effective in detoxifying aflatoxin β 1 than ordinary cooking under pressure of 6 hours pre-soaked 7.5 kGy irradiated cowpea detoxified aflatoxin β 1 by 95.92% and there was no aflatoxin β 1 in 10 kGy irradiated cowpea. The sensory evaluation of pre-soaked and cooking under pressure of 10 kGy irradiated cowpea improved the overall acceptability of cowpea. In general, gamma irradiation, soaking and cooking (ordinary or under pressure) detoxified aflatoxin β 1 and did not induce any significant effect on the sensory profile in the cowpea

  12. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the

  13. Diversity and Symbiotic Characteristics of Cowpea Bradyrhizobium Strains in Ghanaian Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fening, Joseph Opoku

    1999-08-01

    This study reports investigation of the biodiversity of bradyrhizobia isolates that nodulate cowpea in Ghanaian soils. As a prelude, some components of nitrogen fixation of cowpea in the various soils were examined through: (1) assessment of the natural nodulation of 45 cowpea cultivars in 20 soils sampled from 5 ecozones (coastal savanna, tain forest, semi deciduous forest, forest savanna transition and guinea savanna), (2) determination of the numbers of bradyrhizobial isolates in the soils and (3) determination of the response of cowpea to nitrogen fertilization. The results of the ability of 45 cowpea cultivars to nodulate naturally in different soil types showed large variability among the cultivars. Counts of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population in the soils showed that most of the soils in Ghana harbour large populations of bradyrhizobia (in the range of 0.6 x 10 to 31 x 10 3 ) capable of nodulating cowpea. Response of cowpea to nitrogen fertilizer differed in the different soils. In general all the cultivars showed significant responses to increasing levels of nitrogen, an indication that nitrogen fixation was not supplying the plants with all the external nitrogen required for maximum yield. A combination of morpho-physiological and molecular analysis was used to assess the diversity of the bradyrhizobia isolates. A total of 100 isolates were assessed. The results of the morpho physiological analysis indicated that cowpea is nodulated by both fast and slow growing rhizobia. The results also showed that the isolates were versatile and could survive under different soil conditions particularly acidity and salt stress. A cross inoculation study of the isolates with nine legume species produced seven major groupings with 28 subgroups based on distinct nodulation patterns. Results of the serology (ELISA) assay indicated that only a small fraction of the isolates reacted strongly with antisera of each other. The greater proportion showed no cross reactivity

  14. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D.D.; Ofosu, D.O.; Ocloo, F.C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation of cowpea on quality characteristics of its resultant flour. ► Flour was prepared from four cowpea cultivars irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. ► Proximate and physical properties of flour from irradiated cowpea were generally not affected by the radiation doses used. ► Functional properties of flour samples were affected by gamma irradiation of cowpea. ► Pasting parameters studied were also affected by the radiation at various radiation doses.

  15. Effect of "6"0Co-induced gamma radiation exposure and Jasmonic acid on antioxidant responses in Cowpea varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep Kumar; Bhagoji, Ravi; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati; Maurice, Navodita

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea used to be the first crop harvested before the cereal crops are ready and therefore is referred to as 'hungry-season crop'. The gamma irradiation is known to increase nutritional values of food sources and also enhance and accelerate growth of certain vegetables Antioxidants are the metabolites, produced by the plant in response to different stress conditions e.g. radiation stress etc. Seeds of four cowpea varieties were treated with different doses of gamma radiation and effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant response of cowpea was studied. The results showed that there was no linear correlation between application of JA and different antioxidant contents. (author)

  16. Cloning of cDNA sequences encoding cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins: Computational simulations suggest a binding mode of cowpea vicilins to chitin oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Antônio J; Sousa, Bruno L; Girão, Matheus S; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Monteiro-Júnior, José E; Oliveira, José T A; Nagano, Celso S; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Rocha, Bruno A M; Freire, Valder N; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2018-05-27

    Vicilins are 7S globulins which constitute the major seed storage proteins in leguminous species. Variant vicilins showing differential binding affinities for chitin have been implicated in the resistance and susceptibility of cowpea to the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. These proteins are members of the cupin superfamily, which includes a wide variety of enzymes and non-catalytic seed storage proteins. The cupin fold does not share similarity with any known chitin-biding domain. Therefore, it is poorly understood how these storage proteins bind to chitin. In this work, partial cDNA sequences encoding β-vignin, the major component of cowpea vicilins, were obtained from developing seeds. Three-dimensional molecular models of β-vignin showed the characteristic cupin fold and computational simulations revealed that each vicilin trimer contained 3 chitin-binding sites. Interaction models showed that chito-oligosaccharides bound to β-vignin were stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds, a common structural feature of typical carbohydrate-binding proteins. Furthermore, many of the residues involved in the chitin-binding sites of β-vignin are conserved in other 7S globulins. These results support previous experimental evidences on the ability of vicilin-like proteins from cowpea and other leguminous species to bind in vitro to chitin as well as in vivo to chitinous structures of larval C. maculatus midgut. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cowpea bean production under water stress using hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Barcelos Souza Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population increase and the need of intensifying food production, coupled with the scarcity of water resources, have led to the search of alternatives that reduce consumption and optimize the water use during cultivation. In this context, hydrogels become a strategy in agricultural management, due to their water retention capacity in the soil and availability to plants. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of hydrogels on the development and production of cowpea bean ('Sempre-verde' cultivar under water stress, in a greenhouse. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design, with five replications, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of four types of hydrogel (Hydroplan-EB HyA, with granulometry of 1-3 mm; Hydroplan-EB HyB, with granulometry of 0.5-1 mm; Hydroplan-EB HyC, with granulometry < 0.5 mm; Polim-Agri, with granulometry of 1-0.5 mm and five concentrations (0 g pot-1; 1.5 g pot-1; 3 g pot-1; 4.5 g pot-1; 6 g pot-1. The following traits were evaluated: number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod and grain yield. The highest concentration (6 g pot-1 resulted in a higher number of pods and yield for all the hydrogels, especially for HyC and Polim-Agro, which presented 7.4 pods plant-1 and 7.0 pods plant-1, with yield of 15.43 g plant-1 and 16.68 g plant-1, respectively. The use of hydrogel shows to be efficient for reducing yield losses under water stress.

  18. Productivity of Roselle/cowpea intercropping system in a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three planting densities (27,700; 37,000 and 55,500 plants ha-1) of roselle grown sole or intercropped with cowpea were investigated in two field trials in the 1997 and 1998 wet seasons at Sokoto. The leaf area index (LAI) of roselle was highest with the highest roselle planting density in the sole or ...

  19. Insects observed on cowpea flowers in three districts in the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main insects observed on the cowpea flowers were bees such as Apis mellifera, Ceratina sp, Megachile sp, Xylocopa calens, Xylocopa imitator, Braussepis sp., .Lipotriches sp., Melecta sp and Amegilla sp. and other insects, such as thrips, flies, butterflies / moths, beetles, and Dysdercus sp. Thrips were the insects most ...

  20. Spectrophotometric versus NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for discriminating the impact of freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Ramos, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo As; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods, and thus the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (i.e. at 6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, with the samples being concomitantly assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), both mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR), aiming to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices. A decrease in phytochemical contents during freezing was observed, allowing the classification of samples according to the freezing period based on such variations. Also, MIR and NIR allowed discrimination of samples: the use of the first derivative demonstrated a better performance for this purpose, whereas the use of the normalized spectra gave the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance. Freezing of cowpea pods leads to a decrease of phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, whereas the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... weed control in the humid forest zone of Nigeria ... tropics, where rainfall is scanty and soils are sandy with ... Impact of oil palm sludge on 3 cultivars of cowpea length or roots at 6 and 8 WAP in wet and dry season. 6 WAP.

  2. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Margam, Venu; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    ) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five

  3. BIOCHAR AS SOIL CONDITIONER IN THE SUCCESSION OF UPLAND RICE AND COWPEA FERTILIZED WITH NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEYTON DE OLIVEIRA MIRANDA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biochar and nitrogen application on yields of upland rice and cowpea and on soil fertility were determined in a greenhouse in Macaíba, RN, Brazil. The trial consisted of the succession of two crops in a completely randomized design and a factorial scheme, with four replicates. Initially, four doses of biochar and four doses of nitrogen were tested for cultivation of rice. Subsequently, four doses of biochar and two doses of nitrogen were tested in half of the pots maintained for planting cowpea. Soil was sampled after rice harvest for half of the pots and at end of the trial for the remaining pots. We evaluated the following parameters: mass of hundred grains of rice, dry shoot mass, panicle number, number of filled spikelets and of empty spikelets, and grain production. Determinations for cowpea were: pod number per pot, grain number per pod, and grain production per pot. Measured soil parameters were: pH, contents of organic carbon, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable sodium percentage. Biochar addition did not influence yield components of upland rice and cowpea, but resulted in increased soil N retention, which influenced rice dry shoot mass, spikelets sterility, panicle number, and grain mass. Biochar also promoted increased soil pH, potassium content, and exchangeable sodium percentage and decreased calcium and magnesium concentrations.

  4. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  5. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  6. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of koose, a deep-fat fried cowpea cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Serem, June C; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2017-12-15

    Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The phenolic acids identified included benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The predominant flavonoid classes were flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Deep-fat frying of the cowpea pastes decreased their TPC, radical scavenging capacities and total quantified flavonoids. The koose inhibited radical-induced oxidative cellular and DNA damage. It is concluded that koose is a potential functional food that can contribute to alleviating radical-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. US-1136, US-1137, and US-1138 cowpea lines for cover crop use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following five years of field evaluation, three cowpea populations were selected as best adapted for use as a cover crop. A pure line selection procedure was used to develop genetically uniform lines from the segregating populations. Field evaluations demonstrated that the lines grow rapidly for u...

  8. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  10. Are investments in an informal seed system for cowpea a worthwhile endeavour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Kamara, A.; Abdoulaye, T.; Hearne, S.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    High seed quality is a critical component for realising yield potential. For smallholder cowpea farmers in northern Nigeria the informal seed system is a major supplier of genetically high-quality seed, but the physiological quality of farmers’ produced seed remains unknown. The project “Promoting

  11. The major economic field diseases of cowpea in the humid agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea, which has now become an important protein source for the teeming populace of Nigerians especially those living in the humid agro-ecological zones of South-western Nigeria, is severely attacked by diseases. The causal agents of these diseases find the environment more conducive for survival and hence induce ...

  12. Growth and yield of cassava as influenced by maize and cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field trials were conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike, Igbariam sub-station (060151N, 060521E) in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 cropping seasons to determine the growth and yield of cassava as influenced by maize and cowpea population densities. Cassava at ...

  13. The NTP-binding motif in cowpea mosaic virus B polyprotein is essential for viral replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S A; Verver, J; Nollen, E A; van Lent, J W; Wellink, J; van Kammen, A

    1994-01-01

    We have assessed the functional importance of the NTP-binding motif (NTBM) in the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) B-RNA-encoded 58K domain by changing two conserved amino acids within the consensus A and B sites (GKSRTGK500S and MDD545, respectively). Both Lys-500 to Thr and Asp-545 to Pro substitutions

  14. Development of a protein-rich composite sorghum-cowpea instant porridge by extrusion cooking process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available temperature gave lower NSI, TS and WAI, ESS, ER and WSI increased with severity of heat treatment. The composite of 50% sorghum and 50% cowpeas extruded at 130 degrees C was the most similar to a commercial instant maize-soya composite porridge in terms...

  15. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst

  16. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  17. Ecology and management of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Senegal/Niger/rotation/millet/isolate characterization/fonio/compost amendment / bioagent/ Clonostachysrosea /solarizationCowpea ( Vignaunguiculata Walp.) is the most important pulse crop in

  18. Proteolytic processing of the primary translation products of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, H.

    1984-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of a group of plant viruses, the comoviruses, with a genome consisting of two single stranded RNA molecules separately encapsidated in icosahedral particles. A characteristic feature of the two genome RNAs is that they are both polyadenylated at their

  19. The genomic sequence of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and its similarities with other potyviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Kampen, van T.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The genomic sequence of a Zimbabwe isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV-Z) was determined by sequencing overlapping viral cDNA clones generated by RT-PCR using degenerate and/or specific primers. The sequence is 9465 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly (A) tail and

  20. Genes and sequences involved in the replication of cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the RNA replication of the cowpea mosaic virus genome. Previously the replication of CPMV RNA has been examined extensively with crude membrane fractions prepared from

  1. Mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein of cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, J.E.; Kujawa, A.; Gühl, K.; Verver, J.; Wellink, J.; Kammen, van A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we have performed a mutational analysis of the cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) genome-linked protein VPg to discern the structural requirements necessary for proper functioning of VPg. Either changing the serine residue linking VPg to RNA at a tyrosine or a threonine or changing the

  2. The ability of rhizobacteria to solubilize phosphate and synthesize of indoleacetic acid in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslany Silva Rocha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado comprises a vast ecoregion in central Brazil where plants show both growth and nitrogen fixation deficiencies due to low soil fertility. Farmers may overcome such problem using species of microorganisms capable of improving soil fertility such as the Rhizobia bacteria. This work aimed to assess the ability of phosphate solubilization and synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA of Rhizobium isolates obtained from Cerrado soils in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, evaluating their symbiotic efficiency in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. plants. We used a total of 32 isolates (or strains of Rhizobium and a reference species of Bradyrhizobium. The capacity of phosphate solubilization and synthesis of IAA was evaluated in vitro, while the symbiotic function of rhizobia isolates and the effect on cowpea biomass was assessed in a greenhouse. Only eight strains were able to solubilize calcium phosphate, while all isolates produced IAA. The rhizobia inoculation caused a significant increase in biomass and nodulation of cowpea. The isolates UFT R122 and UFT R124 stood out with the highest values for the studied parameters, showing rises above 33% of relative efficiency in comparison to the treatment with nitrogen fertilization. By associating the results of phosphate solubilization capacity, IAA synthesis, symbiotic ability, and nodulation, we conclude that the isolates that showed good performance are potential inoculants for cowpea in Cerrado soils.

  3. Recent advances in cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] “omics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After decades of research on cowpea, significant amount of omics datasets are available and useful in understanding the genetic relationship between Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and other species belonging to the same genus as well as its genetic variation. Besides, the development of genetic map allowed the ...

  4. Biology and ecology of Apanteles taragamae, a larval parasitoid of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius is a key insect pest of cowpea in West Africa. Larvae of this moth can cause up to 80% of yield losses. The first classical biological control programme against M. vitrata started in 2005 with the introduction of Apanteles taragamae Viereck

  5. Structure, morphogenesis and function of tubular structures induced by cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D.T.J.

    1999-01-01

    During systemic plant infection, viruses move from the initially infected cells through plasmodesmata to neighbouring cells. Different mechanisms have been proposed for this cell-to-cell movement. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) employs one of the major movement mechanisms, i.e. tubule-guided

  6. AFLP/SSR mapping of resistance genes to Alectra vogelii in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find and map the resistance gene to A. vogelii in cowpea, a F2 population from a cross involving a resistant parent IT81D-994 and a susceptible TVX3236 was screened. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in combination with Single Sequence Repeat (SSR) analysis was used to identify markers that may be ...

  7. Alleviating acid soil stress in cowpea with a local population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from this system have been found to promote ... Total dry weight of inoculated cowpea was not affected by soil acidity while it was ... leaves and fresh fruit, fodder and dry seed (Steele et al.,. 1985).

  8. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early emergence and stand establishment of cowpea are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors in rainfed areas. Laboratory tests and afield experiment were conducted in RCB design in 2011 at a research farm in Ramhormoz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydropriming (8, 12 and 16 hours duration and halo priming (solutions of 1.5% KNO3 and 0.8% NaCl on seedling vigor and field establishment of cowpea. Analysis of variance of laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate, seed vigor index, and seedling dry weights. However, germination percentage for seeds primed with KNO3 and non-primed seeds were statistically similar, but higher than those for NaCl priming. Overall, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in the laboratory tests. Invigoration of cowpea seeds by hydropriming and NaCl priming resulted in higher seedling emergence and establishment in the field, compared to control and seed priming with KNO3. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seeds with water, suggesting that hydropriming is a simple, low cost and environmentally friendly technique for improving seed and seedling vigor of cowpea.

  9. Land use and vegetation cover on native symbionts and interactions with cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. F. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia are important components of agroecosystems and they respond to human interference. The objective of this study was to investigate native communities of those microorganisms in soil collected under the native forest, four pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, Arachis pintoi and Stylosanthes guianensis and a fallow soil after maize cultivation, in interaction with cowpea (Vigna unguculata. The cowpea grew in a greenhouse until flowering. They were randomly distributed depending on soil, in five replications. The lowest mycorrhizal fungi sporulation and mycorrhizal root colonization occurred under the Panicum and forest soil. In the soils under forest and Stylosanthes, the cowpea did not exhibit nodules and grew less. Among the anthropized areas, the effect was variable, with stimulus to the multiplication and symbiosis of these microorganisms, except in areas of Panicum and Stylosanthes. When the native vegetation is substituted by pasture or farming, the mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia proliferation predominate. However, the effect and its magnitude depends on the grown plant species, with reflects on the plant species in succession, such as the cowpea.

  10. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  11. The First Report of KRT5 Mutation Underlying Acantholytic Dowling-Degos Disease with Mottled Hypopigmentation in an Indian Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam; Pasternack, Sandra M.; Rütten, Arno; Ruzicka, Thomas; Betz, Regina C.; Hanneken, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Galli Galli disease (GGD) is the name given to a rare form of acantholytic Dowling-Degos disease. (DDD), the latter itself being a rare condition. We believe we are describing for the first time in Indian dermatologic literature a case of GGD in a family where 25 persons have DDD and have been able to document a KRT5 mutation in four members of the family. Whereas reticulate pigmentation is a hallmark of DDD there are rare reports of mottled pigmentation with multiple asymptomatic hypopigmented macules scattered diffusely along with the pigmentation. All the cases described here show a mottled pigmentation comprising hypo and hyperpigmented asymptomatic macules. After the clinical diagnosis was made by one of the authors (SV) in India, the German authors repeated histological examination and successfully demonstrated a heterozygous nonsense mutation, c.C10T (p.Gln4X), in exon 1 of the KRT5 gene, from various centers in Munich, Bonn, Dusseldorf and Friedrichschafen in Germany. PMID:25284854

  12. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-09-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water temperature (12.8 to 24.2°C), and the best hatching temperature was 18°C. The number of fish hatched was 4 to 5 fish/egg capsules, and the hatching rate was 100%. The sex ratios of hatching larvae were 45.5% female and 54.5% male. Therefore this study will provide fundamental data and information for artificial reproduction of the mottled skate.

  13. Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), a new male-lethal coat colour mutation of the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A new semidominant X-chromosomal mutation, Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), which causes coat colour variegation is described. Mo sup(N) arose in the second postirradiation generation after 2 x 200 R of X-rays (24 hours apart) to oocytes of X/O mice. Heterozygous Mo sup(N) females have irregular patches of fully and lightly coloured fur over the whole coat with curly vibrissae. Their viability is reduced, about 3% of the heterozygotes dying prenatally and 6 to 28% dying postnatally before weaning. Survivors are fertile without externally visible abnormalities. Hemizygous Mo sup(N) males die in utero after implantation. The recombination frequency between Mo sup(N) and tabby (Ta) was 3.65 +- 3.16% (with 95% -confidence limits). Therefore, it is suggested that Mo sup(N) is a new allele of the mottled (Mo) locus of the house mouse. Mo sup(N)-bearing ova seem to have a lower chance of becoming fertilized by wild-type spermatozoa than by Ta-bearing spermatozoa. (orig.) [de

  14. Determination of some mineral components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, I.K; Acheampong, A.O.; Adu-Dapaah, H.

    2007-01-01

    Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers' accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock. (au)

  15. QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis of cowpea reveals candidate genes for root-knot nematode resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jansen Rodrigo Pereira; Ndeve, Arsenio Daniel; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William Charles; Roberts, Philip Alan

    2018-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN). Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL) population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL) were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.

  16. QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis of cowpea reveals candidate genes for root-knot nematode resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Rodrigo Pereira Santos

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important food and forage legumes in drier regions of the tropics and subtropics. However, cowpea yield worldwide is markedly below the known potential due to abiotic and biotic stresses, including parasitism by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN. Two resistance genes with dominant effect, Rk and Rk2, have been reported to provide resistance against RKN in cowpea. Despite their description and use in breeding for resistance to RKN and particularly genetic mapping of the Rk locus, the exact genes conferring resistance to RKN remain unknown. In the present work, QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL population 524B x IT84S-2049 segregating for a newly mapped locus and analysis of the transcriptome changes in two cowpea near-isogenic lines (NIL were used to identify candidate genes for Rk and the newly mapped locus. A major QTL, designated QRk-vu9.1, associated with resistance to Meloidogyne javanica reproduction, was detected and mapped on linkage group LG9 at position 13.37 cM using egg production data. Transcriptome analysis on resistant and susceptible NILs 3 and 9 days after inoculation revealed up-regulation of 109 and 98 genes and down-regulation of 110 and 89 genes, respectively, out of 19,922 unique genes mapped to the common bean reference genome. Among the differentially expressed genes, four and nine genes were found within the QRk-vu9.1 and QRk-vu11.1 QTL intervals, respectively. Six of these genes belong to the TIR-NBS-LRR family of resistance genes and three were upregulated at one or more time-points. Quantitative RT-PCR validated gene expression to be positively correlated with RNA-seq expression pattern for eight genes. Future functional analysis of these cowpea genes will enhance our understanding of Rk-mediated resistance and identify the specific gene responsible for the resistance.

  17. Complete genomic characterization of milk vetch dwarf virus isolates from cowpea and broad bean in Anhui province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhua; Zheng, Hongying; Yan, Dankan; Han, Kelei; Song, Xijiao; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Cowpea and broad bean plants showing severe stunting and leaf rolling symptoms were observed in Hefei city, Anhui province, China, in 2014. Symptomatic plants from both species were shown to be infected with milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) by PCR. The complete genomes of MDV isolates from cowpea and broad bean were sequenced. Each of them had eight genomic DNAs that differed between the two isolates by 10.7% in their overall nucleotide sequences. In addition, the MDV genomes from cowpea and broad bean were associated with two and three alphasatellite DNAs, respectively. This is the first report of MDV on cowpea in China and the first complete genome sequences of Chinese MDV isolates.

  18. Identification of water storage tissue in the stem of cowpea plant (Vigna unguliculata Walp) by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Don-Jin, K.; Ishii, R.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) is considered one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops. It was suggested that in the lower part of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. However, such tissue has not been identified yet. In order to identify the water storing tissue in the stem of cowpea plant, the authors performed neutron radiography, which provides a non-destructive image of water distribution pattern in a plant. Common bean plant and soybean plant were used as references. Comparing the neutron radiograph for the stems of the plants, i.e., cowpea, common bean and soybean plants, the parenchymatous tissue with water storing function was distinguished in the intermode between primary leaf and the first trifoliate leaf specifically in cowpea plant. (author)

  19. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (pcowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  1. Effects of Tillage on Yield and Economic Returns of Maize and Cowpea in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Nyamwaro, S.O; Heng, K.L

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and financial returns are important criteria for adoption of conservation tillage by farmers. A study was conducted between 2007-2010 to compare the financial returns of subsoiling-ripping and tied-ridge tillage with the conventional ox-plough tillage in the production of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under semi-arid subsistence farming conditions in lower eastern Kenya. Four cropping systems namely maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure were evaluated in a split-plot treatments arrangement with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots. The grain yields of maize and cowpea, prevailing market prices for cowpea and maize grains, labour, inputs applied and other relevant socio-economic data were collected every season, to enable estimation of economic returns and acceptability of the technologies. The results showed that average grain yield for maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure cropping systems under tied-ridge were 5, 9, 97 and 27% greater than the yields under oxplough tillage, respectively. Crop yields produced under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillage were generally similar. However, land preparation and weeding labour expenses (KES 4240 / ha) for ox-plough tillage were 34% greater than those for subsoiling-ripping tillage but 40% lower than those for tied-ridge tillage. When averaged across seasons and tillage systems, the highest gross margins (KES 8567 / ha) were obtained in sole cowpea cropping system, followed by sole maize with manure (KES 4070 / ha), intercrop (KES 864 / ha) and least (loss of KES 1330 / ha) in sole maize without manure cropping system. (author)

  2. Genomic regions, cellular components and gene regulatory basis underlying pod length variations in cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xinyi; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Wang, Baogen; Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Yaowen; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Zhou, Wen; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2017-05-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp) is a climate resilient legume crop important for food security. Cultivated cowpea (V. unguiculata L) generally comprises the bushy, short-podded grain cowpea dominant in Africa and the climbing, long-podded vegetable cowpea popular in Asia. How selection has contributed to the diversification of the two types of cowpea remains largely unknown. In the current study, a novel genotyping assay for over 50 000 SNPs was employed to delineate genomic regions governing pod length. Major, minor and epistatic QTLs were identified through QTL mapping. Seventy-two SNPs associated with pod length were detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Population stratification analysis revealed subdivision among a cowpea germplasm collection consisting of 299 accessions, which is consistent with pod length groups. Genomic scan for selective signals suggested that domestication of vegetable cowpea was accompanied by selection of multiple traits including pod length, while the further improvement process was featured by selection of pod length primarily. Pod growth kinetics assay demonstrated that more durable cell proliferation rather than cell elongation or enlargement was the main reason for longer pods. Transcriptomic analysis suggested the involvement of sugar, gibberellin and nutritional signalling in regulation of pod length. This study establishes the basis for map-based cloning of pod length genes in cowpea and for marker-assisted selection of this trait in breeding programmes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...

  5. Quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea (vigna unguiculata, L. walp) cultivars in Ghana and their resultant flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.

    2010-01-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. During storage, cowpeas may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. These losses can be minimized by irradiating the stored cowpea against microorganisms and insects attacks primarily Callosobruchus maculatus. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality characteristics of gamma irradiated cowpea cultivars and their resultant flours. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy. The unirradiated cultivars were used as controls. A portion of the samples were hammer milled, passed through sieve of 250μm and stored at 4 o C for analysis. Physicochemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties were determined using standards and/or appropriate methods. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were also determined. Radiosensitivity and storage studies on Callosobruchus maculatus were also done for one month. In general, significant effect (p 0.05) affected by the irradiation. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the radiation. Generally, significant increase (p o C. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. Irradiating at even a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the insects on average within eight days. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils. The percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. It was established that at the lower doses studied although the radiation effect did not follow any

  6. METODE PENAPISAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. UNTUK KETAHANAN TERHADAP CHILLI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS (Chi VMV DAN CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah, Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat, dan Sriani Sujiprihati .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening Method for Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus  (Chi VMV and Cucumber Mosaic Virus  (CMV Resistance in Chillipepper.  ChiVMV and CMV have been reported as the causal agents of main diseases in chillipepper in Indonesia and other Asian countries.  Mix infection of this two viruses was commonly occurred in the field, causing severe disease .  The use of resistance varieties has been proposed for dealing with the yield losses causing by  the viruses.  Breeding program is undergoing for development of chillipepper varieties resistant to ChiVMV and CMV.  Methodology for routine screening activity of chillipepper for resistance to both ChiVMV and CMV needs to be established. This research was conducted in Cikabayan Glass House and Plant Virology Laboratory, Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University from May 2006 to June 2007. Aim of the research was to develop screening method for simultaneous infection by the two viruses, ChiVMV and CMV.  Inoculation of ChiVMV and CMV was done by single inoculation or repetitive inoculation methods.  In both methods, ChiVMV and CMV were inoculated in different sequences, either ChiVMV or CMV first.  The result showed that incubation period was shorter when CMV was inoculated in advance both in single and repetitive inoculation method.  Mosaic, mottle and malformation type symptom was observed in infected plants. Based on disease incidence, infection of ChiVMV was higher compared to CMV in repetitive inoculation as well as in single inoculation.  Repetitive inoculation methods with virus sequence ChiVMV-CMV-ChiVMV-CMV  was selected for resistance evaluation of chillipepper genotypes.

  7. Impact of sucrose contents and cooking time on cowpea prices in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mb.D Faye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An alternative approach to traditional consumer behaviour and demand theory is characteristics theory, which assumes that a consumer’s utility function is generated by the characteristics, or attributes, that goods and services possess. Instead of a utility being a function of a product, it becomes a function of the attributes provided by these products. In this paper a hedonic pricing model is used to investigate the influence of sucrose level and cooking time on cowpea prices in Senegal.  Cooking time has a significant impact on price only at Tilene market in Dakar, while the sucrose contents tend to provide a premium throughout. Further investigation shows that the local varieties, AW, Matam and Ndiassiw have higher sucrose contents than the other cowpea varieties.

  8. Relative infestation of some local and developed chickpea genotypes by cowpea weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Six chickpea genotypes, half of them are local varieties (Giza 1, Giza 88 and Giza 2) and the other three were developed either by hybridization or through a mutation breeding programme L 1, L 2 and L 3) were evaluated for resistant to cowpea weevil callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Giza 1, Giza 88, L 1 and L 2 are large seeded type, while Giza 2 and L 3 have small seeds. Results indicated that L 1 was more resistant to cowpea weevil than the other large seeded genotypes. On the other hand, L 3 exhibited much more resistant to this pest than Giza 2. However L 1 and L 3 are characterized by high seed yield/plant and have rounded seeds with smooth cream test a. These traits are desirable for the common consumers in Egypt. This means that L 1 and L 3 as a new chickpea germplasm may be of value for the egyptian farmers planting this crop. 3 tab

  9. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Adoption of Kerala Agricultural University Recommended Practices of Amaranthus and Vegetable Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K Anju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Ninety farmers engaged in commercial cultivation of amaranthus and vegetable cowpea were selected through three stage random sampling procedure. Ten independent variables were selected based on judges’ relevancy rating. Majority of the respondents belonged to medium category with respect to adoption. In the case of amaranthus growers, four variables, namely, contact with extension agency, scientific orientation, innovativeness and mass media exposure were found to be significantly and positively related to adoption. Education, scientific orientation and innovativeness were found to be significantly and positively related to adoption in the case of vegetable cowpea growers.

  11. Inactivation and purification of cowpea mosaic virus-like particles displaying peptide antigens from Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Jamie P.; Dang, Nghiep; Rasochova, Lada

    2007-01-01

    Chimeric cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles displaying foreign peptide antigens on the particle surface are suitable for development of peptide-based vaccines. However, commonly used PEG precipitation-based purification methods are not sufficient for production of high quality vaccine candidates because they do not allow for separation of chimeric particles from cleaved contaminating species. Moreover, the purified particles remain infectious to plants. To advance the CPMV technology furthe...

  12. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Genome resources for climate-resilient cowpea, an essential crop for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Xu, Pei; Wanamaker, Steve I; Luo, MingCheng; Alhakami, Hind; Alpert, Matthew; Atokple, Ibrahim; Batieno, Benoit J; Boukar, Ousmane; Bozdag, Serdar; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Farmer, Andrew; Fatokun, Christian; Gu, Yong Q; Guo, Yi-Ning; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Jackson, Scott A; Kusi, Francis; Lawley, Cynthia T; Lucas, Mitchell R; Ma, Yaqin; Timko, Michael P; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank; Barkley, Noelle A; Roberts, Philip A; Lonardi, Stefano; Close, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a legume crop that is resilient to hot and drought-prone climates, and a primary source of protein in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. However, genome resources for cowpea have lagged behind most other major crops. Here we describe foundational genome resources and their application to the analysis of germplasm currently in use in West African breeding programs. Resources developed from the African cultivar IT97K-499-35 include a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical map, and assembled sequences from 4355 BACs. These resources and WGS sequences of an additional 36 diverse cowpea accessions supported the development of a genotyping assay for 51 128 SNPs, which was then applied to five bi-parental RIL populations to produce a consensus genetic map containing 37 372 SNPs. This genetic map enabled the anchoring of 100 Mb of WGS and 420 Mb of BAC sequences, an exploration of genetic diversity along each linkage group, and clarification of macrosynteny between cowpea and common bean. The SNP assay enabled a diversity analysis of materials from West African breeding programs. Two major subpopulations exist within those materials, one of which has significant parentage from South and East Africa and more diversity. There are genomic regions of high differentiation between subpopulations, one of which coincides with a cluster of nodulin genes. The new resources and knowledge help to define goals and accelerate the breeding of improved varieties to address food security issues related to limited-input small-holder farming and climate stress. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses Onim, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M 3 and M 4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

  15. Business Dynamics and Informal Contracts: Experimental Evidence from the Cowpea Street Food Sector in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan R.; Wu, Steven Y.; Ibro, Germaine

    2010-01-01

    We use field experiments in Niger to investigate the nature and efficiency of contractual structures in market transactions between kossai vendors and cowpea grinders (key input suppliers). Three contractual structures were employed: gift contract, standard price contract and discretionary bonus contract (most incomplete). Gift contracts and standard price contracts involve an upfront payment of grinding fees where discretionary bonus contracts involve payment after the quality of service is ...

  16. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled...... trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three....... At enrollment, 3%, 38%, and 59% had a hypocoagulable, normocoagulable, and hypercoagulable TEG clot strength (MA), respectively. In the hypothermia group, functional coagulopathy improved during the hypothermia phase, measured by R and MA, in patients with hypercoagulation as well as in patients...

  17. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  18. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyaku, M. F.

    2000-10-01

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  19. Comparison of inoculant and indigenous rhizobial dinitrogen fixation in cowpeas by direct nitrogen-15 analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElHassan, G.A.; Focht, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Soil that contained 15 N enriched organic matter (0.461 % 15 N) was used to determine competitiveness of six strains at different logarithmic inoculum densities against indigenous rhizobia and against a previous surviving inoculant (strain P132). Analyses of N content of plant tissues by direct 15 N technique showed that cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were capable of deriving 60 to 98% of shoot N from N 2 fixation. The two fast-growing strains (176A26 and 176A28) were poorer competitors and fixed less N 2 compared to the other slow-growing strains. Inoculum density had no effect upon yield response of cowpeas, but inoculation with strains P132, 401, and 22A1 effected greater seed yield, shoot dry matter, total N, and percentage of N derived from fixation (86-98%) than other strains and the uninoculated control (60-73%). By contrast, N 2 fixation and yield parameters in inoculated cowpeas were not significantly different from inoculated controls that contained residual P132 from a previous inoculum study. The higher hydrogen uptake (Hup) efficiency of nodules containing residual P132 (98 ± 2%) facilitated presumptive identification of P132 (100% ± 0 Hup efficiency axenically) as the surviving and infecting inoculant strain since nodules infected by indigenous rhizobia had lower Hup efficiencies (88 ± 2%)

  20. Removal of six pesticide residues in cowpea with alkaline electrolysed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; An, Quanshun; Pan, Canping

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta-cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. The residue magnitudes were determined by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results showed that the removal effect of AlEW solution on the six pesticides was superior to tap water, 5% sodium chloride, 5% sodium carbonate and 5% acetic acid solution. AlEW with pH 12.2 had more potential to eliminate the six pesticides in cowpeas. Moreover, the reduction of pesticide residues gradually increased with the increase of washing time. This study demonstrated that AlEW solution with pH of 12.2 could be used to reduce pesticide residues on fresh cowpea samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The damage caused by Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea grains is dependent on the plant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elida Barros; Nóbrega, Rafaela S A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Silva, Luciana Barboza; Dos Santos Carvalho, Gabriel; Marinho, Rita de Cassia Nunes; Pavan, Bruno E

    2016-09-01

    Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. In this study, the population growth of Callosobruchus maculatus reared on beans from four cowpea cultivars fertilized with different nitrogen sources was evaluated. The factors tested were beans from four cowpea cultivars and seven different nitrogen sources: mineral N fertilization, inoculation with five strains of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria, and soil nitrogen (absolute control). BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars had lower cumulative emergence and instantaneous rate of population growth of the insects compared with other cultivars, indicating antixenosis resistance against C. maculatus. Inoculation of BRS Acauã cultivar with the diazotrophic bacteria strain BR 3299 resulted in higher mortality of C. maculatus. For BRS Tapaihum cultivar, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria strains BR3267, BR 3262 and BR 3299, and nitrogen fertilization resulted in higher mortality among C. maculatus. BRS Tapaihum and BRS Acauã cultivars showed the lowest cumulative insect emergence and instantaneous rates of population growth, and the highest insect mortality, mainly when the grains were obtained from plants inoculated with rhizobial strains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Diversity in 113 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] accessions assessed with 458 SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbadzor, Kenneth F; Ofori, Kwadwo; Yeboah, Martin; Aboagye, Lawrence M; Opoku-Agyeman, Michael O; Danquah, Eric Y; Offei, Samuel K

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in characterization of 113 cowpea accessions comprising of 108 from Ghana and 5 from abroad. Leaf tissues from plants cultivated at the University of Ghana were genotyped at KBioscience in the United Kingdom. Data was generated for 477 SNPs, out of which 458 revealed polymorphism. The results were used to analyze genetic dissimilarity among the accessions using Darwin 5 software. The markers discriminated among all of the cowpea accessions and the dissimilarity values which ranged from 0.006 to 0.63 were used for factorial plot. Unexpected high levels of heterozygosity were observed on some of the accessions. Accessions known to be closely related clustered together in a dendrogram drawn with WPGMA method. A maximum length sub-tree which comprised of 48 core accessions was constructed. The software package structure was used to separate accessions into three groups, and the programme correctly identified varieties that were known hybrids. The hybrids were those accessions with numerous heterozygous loci. The structure plot showed closely related accessions with similar genome patterns. The SNP markers were more efficient in discriminating among the cowpea germplasm than morphological, seed protein polymorphism and simple sequence repeat studies reported earlier on the same collection.

  4. Radiation-use efficiency of soybean, mungbean and cowpea under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Robertson, M.J.; Pengelly, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-use efficiency (RUE), defined as the amount of biomass accumulated per unit radiation intercepted, is a key measure of the photosynthetic performance of crops growing in different environments. The RUE of soybean (Glycine max L.), mungbean (Vigna radiata) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) growing under well-watered field conditions in tropical and subtropical environments was determined from frequent biomass samplings and continous logging of intercepted radiation throughout growth. The slope of the relationship between net biomass accumulation and intercepted radiation was linear throughout most of growth, almost until the end of pod-filling in all species and all environments. The decrease in RUE just prior to maturity was associated with losses of biomass due to leaf shedding, and also with a decline in specific leaf nitrogen. The RUE during the linear phase was slightly higher in cowpea than in mungbean and soybean. For each species, the RUE was similar in different environments despite large differences in air temperature, water vapour saturation deficit and incident radiation. It was concluded that RUE under well-watered conditions is constant throughout most of growth and unaffected by the aerial environment. Baseline values of RUE were 0.88 g MJ -1 for soybean, 0.94 g MJ -1 for mungbean, and 1.05 g MJ -1 for cowpea. (author)

  5. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  6. Importance and correlations of characters for cowpea diversity in traditional varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Silva de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cowpea is a legume with ample plasticity, versatility and nutritional potential. It is a species widely used as a source of income and subsistence for small farmers in several Brazilian states, among them Acre. Due to the different varieties found in the State, it is the target of studies aiming at its genetic improvement. Thus, as one of the first stages of its improvement, it was aimed to determine the importance and correlations of characters for diversity and selection in traditional varieties of cowpea. The experiment was carried in completely randomized design, with plots consisting of four vase with capacity to 15.7 L, with one plant each and two replicates. The characteristics evaluated were: days for emergence, flowering (days, plant vigor (note, number of main stem nodes, apical leaflet length (mm, apical leaflet width (mm, length of pod (cm and width of the pod (cm. The correlation coefficients (phenotypic, genotypic and environmental were obtained, and the principal components analysis and the importance of the characters by the method proposed by Singh were carried out. The Singh method and principal components analysis were partially concordant in the distinction of the evaluated characters. The days for emergence, width of the apical leaflet, flowering and length of the apical leaflet were the main determinants for quantification of the genotypes and those that contributed the most to the variability of cowpea. The least discriminant characteristic by principal component analysis and recommended for discarding was plant vigor.

  7. Evaluation of the Genetic Variation of Cowpea Landraces (Vigna unguiculata from Western Cameroon Using Qualitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscani NGOMPE-DEFFO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic diversity and analysis of the genetic relationship between accessions of a crop species is a key step in breeding superior cultivars. The main objective of the hereby study was to determine the genetic variation between 30 cowpea accessions collected throughout the eight divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon using qualitative traits. Phenotypic variation of these accessions was evaluated using diversity indices and cluster analyses. A total of twenty qualitative traits were used for the study. Fifteen of them (75% were polymorphic, displaying each at least two phenotypic classes. The monomorphic characters were growth pattern, leaf color, leaf hairiness, plant hairiness and pod hairiness, each with only one phenotypic class. Results showed a relatively significant level of genetic diversity among the studied cowpea accessions. Overall, the average of the observed and effective number of phenotypic classes per qualitative trait were Na = 2.350 and Ne = 1.828 respectively. The Nei’s genetic diversity and the Shannon weaver diversity index were He = 0.369, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.655 (growth habit and H’ = 0.609, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.996 (seed crowding, respectively. The dendrogram constructed from the twenty qualitative traits revealed 05 accessions clusters with the number of accessions in each cluster varying from one to eleven. Information obtained from this study is likely be useful for future cowpea breeding program.

  8. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PIGEON PEA INOCULATED WITH RHIZOBIUM ISOLATED FROM COWPEA TRAP HOST PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALOMÃO LIMA GUIMARÃES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon pea is an important protein source grown in several tropical and sub - tropical countries, and is considered a multi - purpose plant that is resistant to the conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado. Among the possible uses for cowpea, its use as a green manure, increasing soil nitrogen content through the association with diazotrophic bacteria, generically known as rhizobia, is noteworthy. The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Rhizobium strains isolated from cowpea plants in the development of pigeon peas cultured in Red Latosol. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of inoculation with four Rhizobium strains (MT8, MT15, MT16, and MT23 and one commercial inoculant comprising Bradyrhizobium spp. strains BR 2801 and BR 2003. There were two controls, one absolute (without inoculation or nitrogen fertilization and the other with nitrogen fertilization. Each experimental plot consisted of an 8 - dm 3 vase containing three plants. Analyzed variables included plant height, SPAD index, number and dry weight of nodules, and shoot and root dry masses. Pigeon peas responded significantly to inoculation treatment, since all the plants inoculated with Rhizobium strains isolated from cowpea strains showed results similar to plants in the nitrogen control and commercial inoculant treatments. This demonstrates a favorable plant – bacteria interaction, which can be utilized as an alternative nitrogen source for pigeon peas.

  11. Genome-wide association mapping and agronomic impact of cowpea root architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, James D; Schneider, Hannah M; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Bucksch, Alexander; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2017-02-01

    Genetic analysis of data produced by novel root phenotyping tools was used to establish relationships between cowpea root traits and performance indicators as well between root traits and Striga tolerance. Selection and breeding for better root phenotypes can improve acquisition of soil resources and hence crop production in marginal environments. We hypothesized that biologically relevant variation is measurable in cowpea root architecture. This study implemented manual phenotyping (shovelomics) and automated image phenotyping (DIRT) on a 189-entry diversity panel of cowpea to reveal biologically important variation and genome regions affecting root architecture phenes. Significant variation in root phenes was found and relatively high heritabilities were detected for root traits assessed manually (0.4 for nodulation and 0.8 for number of larger laterals) as well as repeatability traits phenotyped via DIRT (0.5 for a measure of root width and 0.3 for a measure of root tips). Genome-wide association study identified 11 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) from manually scored root architecture traits and 21 QTL from root architecture traits phenotyped by DIRT image analysis. Subsequent comparisons of results from this root study with other field studies revealed QTL co-localizations between root traits and performance indicators including seed weight per plant, pod number, and Striga (Striga gesnerioides) tolerance. The data suggest selection for root phenotypes could be employed by breeding programs to improve production in multiple constraint environments.

  12. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, I. B.; Amadou, L.; Margam, V.; Murdock, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    Several technologies reputedly minimize losses of stored cowpea grain to bruchid beetles on low resource farms in Africa. Side by side comparison of these different postharvest storage methods can provide the basis for deciding which performs best. We compared six different technologies for cowpea storage: (1) grain mixed with ash; (2) mixed with sand; (3) fumigated with phostoxin; (4) admixed with the stems and leaves of . Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir, a potential botanical insecticide; (5) disinfested using a solar heater, and; (6) hermetically sealed in triple-layer plastic bags. Sampling was done at thirty-day intervals over five months of storage. Counts were made of (i) adult emergence holes, (ii) dead larvae and (iii) surviving bruchid larvae and adults. Controls, which consisted of infested cowpea grain stored in cloth bags, were damaged extensively. . Boscia senegalensis-treated grain suffered similar severe damage. All other treatments suppressed bruchid population increases as was evident from the much lower counts of emergence holes and lower numbers of surviving or dead insects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis for plant growth habit in worldwide Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea is a legume widely grown in Africa, North, Central and South America, and Asia. The Cowpea plant growth habits consist of erect, semi-prostrate, and prostrate types. Developing a cultivar while considering plant growth habit is essential within a breeding program since the need for a particul...

  14. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component.

  15. Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity yield and N2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kuyper, T.W.; Leeuwis, C.; Abekoe, M.K.; Cobbinah, J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N-2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent

  16. Cowpea fresh pods - a new legume for the market: assessment of their quality and dietary characteristics of 37 cowpea accessions grown in southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanos, Ioannis; Papandreou, Anastasia; Skouloudi, Marianna; Makrogianni, Despoina; Fernández, Juan A; Rosa, Eduardo; Ntatsi, Georgia; Bebeli, Penelope J; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is traditionally cultivated in some regions of southern Europe for its dried seeds; however, there is a scarcity of information on the quality and dietary characteristics of fresh pods, which are occasionally used in folk diets. This paper aims at covering this gap in knowledge, thereby contributing to the dissemination of fresh cowpea pods as a novel product for the market. The quality and dietary characteristics of pods from 37 accessions (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and ssp. sesquipedalis) grown in southern Europe were assessed in an attempt to provide information on pod quality and nutritional properties and to identify relationships between quality traits and accession origin. Pods from the sesquipedalis accessions were heavier and larger, and reached commercial maturity 2 days later, than those from the unguiculata accessions. There were also large differences in the quality and dietary characteristics of the accessions. The pods of most accessions were rich in proteins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics, and showed high antioxidant activity and low concentrations of nitrates and raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Cluster analysis based on quality, dietary or antinutritional traits did not reveal any apparent grouping among the accessions. All the quality characteristics were independent of accession origin and subspecies. Most of the accessions produced fresh pods of good quality and high dietary value, suitable for introduction in the market and/or for use as valuable genetic material for the development of new improved varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Using violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for crop yield assessment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Tetteh, Jonathan P.

    2004-07-01

    The use of violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra to monitor the growth of five varieties of cowpea in the University of Cape Coast Botanical Garden is presented. Radiation from a continuous-wave violet laser diode emitting at 396 nm through a fibre is closely incident on in vivo leaves of cowpea to excite chlorophyll fluorescence, which is detected by an integrated spectrometer with CCD readout. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra with peaks at 683 and 731 nm were used for growth monitoring of the cowpea plants over three weeks and analysed using Gaussian spectral functions with curve fitted parameters to determine the peak positions, area under the spectral curve and the intensity ratio F683/F731. The variation in the intensity ratio of the chlorophyll bands showed sensitive changes indicating the photosynthetic activity of the cowpea varieties. A discussion of the fluorescence result as compared to conventional assessment is presented with regard to discrimination between the cowpea varieties in terms of crop yield performance.

  18. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, E.

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  19. New observations on gametogenic development and reproductive experimental tools to support seed yield improvement in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Gamboa, Rigel; Johnson, Susan D; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Koltunow, Anna M G; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Cowpea reproductive tools. Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea) is recognized as a major legume food crop in Africa, but seed yields remain low in most varieties adapted to local conditions. The development of hybrid cowpea seed that could be saved after each generation, enabling significant yield increases, will require manipulation of reproductive development from a sexual to an asexual mode. To develop new technologies that could support the biotechnological manipulation of reproductive development in cowpea, we examined gametogenesis and seed formation in two transformable, African-adapted, day-length-insensitive varieties. Here, we show that these two varieties exhibit distinct morphological and phenological traits but share a common developmental sequence in terms of ovule formation and gametogenesis. We present a reproductive calendar that allows prediction of male and female gametogenesis on the basis of sporophytic parameters related to floral bud size and reproductive organ development, determining that gametogenesis occurs more rapidly in the anther than in the ovule. We also show that the mode of megagametogenesis is of the Polygonum-type and not Oenothera-type, as previously reported. Finally, we developed a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol and applied it to detect meiotic proteins in the cowpea megaspore mother cell, opening opportunities for comparing the dynamics of protein localization during male and female meiosis, as well as other reproductive events in this emerging legume model system.

  20. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimadadi, A.; Rostamza, M.; Jahansooz, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.; Tavakol Afshari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  1. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3262, an effective microsymbiont recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Leite, Jakson; Marie Rouws, Luc Felicianus; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    The strain BR 3262 was isolated from nodule of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) growing in soil of the Atlantic Forest area in Brazil and it is reported as an efficient nitrogen fixing bacterium associated to cowpea. Firstly, this strain was assigned as Bradyrhizobium elkanii, however, recently a more detailed genetic and molecular characterization has indicated it could be a Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi species. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. pachyrhizi strain BR 3262, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. The whole genome with 116 scaffolds, 8,965,178bp and 63.8% of C+G content for BR 3262 was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and shown 8369 coding sequences, 52 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic variability in dinitrogen fixation between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] cultivars determined using the nitrogen-15 isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiaye, M.A.F.; Spencer, M.M.; Gueye, M.

    2000-01-01

    N fixed in 16 cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] inoculated with effective Bradyrhizobium strains collected from the West African MIRCEN culture collection was measured by 15N isotope dilution technique. In all plant parts, significant differences in the percentage of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) and the amount of Ndfa occurred between the cultivars. Ndoute variety exhibited the highest %Ndfa (74.33% in shoots; 60.90% in roots) and accumulated more fixed N (960 mg N plant–1 and 38 mg N plant–1 in shoots and roots, respectively). Therefore this cultivar should be selected as the highest N-fixing cowpea cultivar. It also should be used in a breeding programme to contribute to the development of cultivars that could stimulate an intensive use of cowpea in many different cropping systems in Africa with a view to maintaining soil fertility. (Authors)

  4. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3267, an elite strain recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract The strain BR 3267 is a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria isolated from soil of semi-arid area of Brazilian Northeast using cowpea as the trap plant. This strain is used as commercial inoculant for cowpea and presents high efficient in nitrogen fixation as consequence of its adaptation potential to semi-arid conditions. We report here the draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3267, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. Whole genome sequencing of BR 3267 using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology has 55 scaffolds with a total genome size of 7,904,309 bp and C+G 63%. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and has shown 7314 coding sequences and 52 RNA genes.

  5. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BR 3262, an effective microsymbiont recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract The strain BR 3262 was isolated from nodule of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp growing in soil of the Atlantic Forest area in Brazil and it is reported as an efficient nitrogen fixing bacterium associated to cowpea. Firstly, this strain was assigned as Bradyrhizobium elkanii, however, recently a more detailed genetic and molecular characterization has indicated it could be a Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi species. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. pachyrhizi strain BR 3262, an elite bacterium used as inoculant for cowpea. The whole genome with 116 scaffolds, 8,965,178 bp and 63.8% of C+G content for BR 3262 was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Annotation was added by the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation service and shown 8369 coding sequences, 52 RNAs genes, classified in 504 subsystems.

  6. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  7. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  8. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  9. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species. PMID:22837688

  10. Rapid development of microsatellite markers with 454 pyrosequencing in a vulnerable fish, the mottled skate, Raja pulchra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1-10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni's correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  11. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; An, Mengnan; Xia, Zihao; Bai, Xiaojiao; Wu, Yuanhua

    2017-12-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A total of 1,621 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in CGMMV-inoculated watermelon, among which 1,052 were up-regulated and 569 were down-regulated. Functional annotation analysis showed that several DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and signaling transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interactions. We furthermore found that some DEGs were related to cell wall components and photosynthesis, which may directly be involve in the development of the symptoms associated with diseased watermelons. To confirm the RNA-Seq data, 15 DEGs were selected for gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR. The results showed a strong correlation between these two sets of data. Our study identified many candidate genes for further functional studies during CGMMV-watermelon interactions, and will furthermore help to clarify the understanding of pathogenic mechanism underlying CGMMV infection in cucurbit plants.

  13. Bio-efficacy of gamma irradiation against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus L. infesting cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sumit Kumar; Bhalla, S.; Gautam, S.

    2015-01-01

    The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus is an important pest of cowpea in storage. It has cosmopolitan distribution with wide host range and also has different strains. It causes 20-60 per cent losses during storage of cowpea. Hazardous environmental effects posed by the chemicals used for its management necessitate the need for an alternative ecofriendly strategy to control the insect. Gamma irradiation seems to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free, ecofriendly strategy. The experimental insect, C. maculatus was reared on the cowpea seeds under controlled conditions (28±1℃ and 65±5% RH). The freshly emerged adults (about 24-36 h of age) were exposed in very fine thin polythene envelops to gamma radiation at different doses viz., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy using Cobalt-60 Gamma irradiation facility at Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The parameters observed included adult mortality, longevity, fecundity of the survivors and adult emergence in F1 generation. Dose dependent insect mortality was observed with immediate mortality at higher doses. High mortality was observed within 24 hour of irradiation. However, complete mortality resulted within five days of irradiation at 600 and 800 Gy as compared to 12 days in control. Adult longevity decreased with increase in radiation dose. The mean longevity decreased from 6.00 days in control to 2.48 days at the highest dose. The eggs laid by the treated adult beetles did not develop into the adults of next generation. Much higher doses were required to kill the adult while the complete sterility (100% sterility) was found even at the lowest dose of 25 Gy. Thus, gamma irradiation has potential to be used as an eco-friendly mitigation measure against C. maculatus. (author)

  14. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Diallel crosses for resistance to Macrophomina phaseolina and Thanatephorus cucumeris on cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L R L; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Noronha, M A; Schurt, D A; Rocha, M M

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed at identifying and selecting through partial diallel analysis, segregating populations of cowpea resistant to Macrophomina phaseolina and Thanatephorus cucumeris, based on the evaluation of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA), involved in the genetic control of resistance. For this reason, 19 grouped cowpea genotypes, considering the resistance to these pathogens, were crossed in partial diallel scheme 14 x 5, during 2013 and 2014. The 70 F 2 populations and the 19 parents were evaluated in a greenhouse as the reaction to pathogens, separately. The diallel analysis was performed according to the model of partial diallel proposed by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). The additive effects predominated in the genetic control of the traits severity of charcoal rot (SEV) and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) to web blight, enabling the achievement of genetic gain with selection of resistant strains. Analyzing the effects of GCA, the parents BR 14-Mulato, BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, have a higher concentration of favorable alleles, highlighting, according to the values of SCA, the combinations BR 14-Mulato x MNC02-675F-4-10, BRS Tumucumaque x IT98K-1092-1, BRS Tumucumaque x MNC02-675F-4-10, BRS Tumucumaque x MNC02-675F-9-2, BRS Guariba x IT98K-1092-1, BRS Guariba x MNC02-675F-4-9, and BRS Guariba x MNC02-675F-4-10, as the most promising and indicated to obtain lines resistant to M. phaseolina and T. cucumeris in cowpea, simultaneously.

  16. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  17. Improvement of pigenonpea and cowpea for drought, disease and insect pest tolerance through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanga, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pigeonpea and cowpea are widely grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of Kenya by small scale farmers. The average yields are usually low due to insect pests, diseases and long growth duration of the local land races. Little success has been achieved through conventional breeding methods for tolerance to insect pests and diseases despite the development of high yielding and early maturing lines. Therefore, mutation induction was initiated to widen the genetic variability in the improved lines. Seeds of three promising pigeonpea cultivars KAT 60/8, KAT 777 and KAT E31/4 and of cowpea KAT 419, K80 and M66 were subjected to three doses of gamma rays; 80, 120 and 150 Gy for pigeonpea and 160, 200 and 250 Gy for cowpea. In M 1 generation, doses of 150 Gy and 250 Gy reduced emergence by about 50% and increased seedling deformities in both crops. In M 2 generation of KAT 60/8, high yielding mutants with oval shaped seeds (T 1 P 58 ) and branching (T 3 P 28 ) were identified. Two progenies of KAT 777 (T 1 P 7 and T 1 P 11 ) had small slender leaves. Selected plant progenies in M 3 , M 4 and M 5 generation gave some promising high yielding variants. Although, the difference in days to flower and maturity of mutant progenies and untreated bulk were small, some mutant progenies of KAT 777 and KAT 60/8 showed tolerance to Fusarium wilt. None of the progenies of KAT E31/4 gave better score for Cercospora leaf-spot compared to the check. (author). 2 refs, 4 tabs

  18. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  19. Modelling farmers’ decisions on adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Issoufou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Niger, global change leads farmers increasingly to intensify their agricultural production. That is one of the reason improved seeds have been diffused among farmers since decades. The study uses Logit and Tobit software for modeling farmers’ decision on adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds. The sample consisted of 612 agricultural households selected by random sampling without replacement in 16 villages. Data was collected in 2015 to 2016 through individual survey and focus group. The results show that the rate of improved cowpea seed adoption is 39.7% after three years of introduction. The accessibility of village, age and availability, accessibility of seeds determine at the same time decisions of adoption and intensification of improved cowpea seeds. The probability of improved seeds adoption is determined by education, access to agricultural extension and adaptability, productivity of seeds. Crops Risk perception and preference, precocity of seeds only affect the intensification probability. The analysis of marginal effects shows that adoption probability increases for accessibility of village, education, access to agricultural extension and adaptability, availability and productivity of improved seeds. On the other hand, the probability decreases for age and the availability of seed. Looking at also the marginal effects on seed intensification, it was observed that the probability increases for accessibility of village, perception of production risk and preference, availability and precocity of improved seeds. However, this probability decreases for age and seeds accessibility. These determinants of adoption and intensification are essential for improved seeds dissemination action to enhance the rate of adoption, intensity of seeds use, impact and sustainability for producers.

  20. Improvement of pigenonpea and cowpea for drought, disease and insect pest tolerance through induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanga, P A [National Dryland Farming Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Inst., Machakos (Kenya)

    1997-07-01

    Pigeonpea and cowpea are widely grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of Kenya by small scale farmers. The average yields are usually low due to insect pests, diseases and long growth duration of the local land races. Little success has been achieved through conventional breeding methods for tolerance to insect pests and diseases despite the development of high yielding and early maturing lines. Therefore, mutation induction was initiated to widen the genetic variability in the improved lines. Seeds of three promising pigeonpea cultivars KAT 60/8, KAT 777 and KAT E31/4 and of cowpea KAT 419, K80 and M66 were subjected to three doses of gamma rays; 80, 120 and 150 Gy for pigeonpea and 160, 200 and 250 Gy for cowpea. In M{sub 1} generation, doses of 150 Gy and 250 Gy reduced emergence by about 50% and increased seedling deformities in both crops. In M{sub 2} generation of KAT 60/8, high yielding mutants with oval shaped seeds (T{sub 1} P{sub 58}) and branching (T{sub 3} P{sub 28}) were identified. Two progenies of KAT 777 (T{sub 1} P{sub 7} and T{sub 1} P{sub 11}) had small slender leaves. Selected plant progenies in M{sub 3}, M{sub 4} and M{sub 5} generation gave some promising high yielding variants. Although, the difference in days to flower and maturity of mutant progenies and untreated bulk were small, some mutant progenies of KAT 777 and KAT 60/8 showed tolerance to Fusarium wilt. None of the progenies of KAT E31/4 gave better score for Cercospora leaf-spot compared to the check. (author). 2 refs, 4 tabs.

  1. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Hall, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  2. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6, Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1 and soybean (pb1, MISB1 for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P. Seed shape, seed coat texture and colour, seed size and 100 seed weight (g were observed morphological characteristics in present study. Most of the characteristics of mung bean and soybean were similar within their species whereas characteristics of cowpea varieties largely differed. Values of 100 seed weight among the varieties of mung bean, soybean and cowpea were ranged from 5.8 - 6.5 g, 13.5 - 14.1 g and 13.4 - 17.2 g, respectively. The moisture content of all legume seeds ranged from 6.81% to 11.99%. Results were shown that the protein content significantly higher in soybean (36.56 - 39.70% followed by mung bean (26.56 - 25.99% and cowpea (25.22 - 22.84% respectively. Range of total carbohydrate, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash contents of nine legume varieties varied from 15.29 - 62.97%, 1.25 - 22.02%, 3.04 - 7.93% and 3.43 - 6.35 respectively. potassium (K, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn ranged from 1000 - 1900, 360 - 669, 15.0 - 192.3, 2.26 - 11.6 and 1.67 - 4.26 mg.100g-1 respectively in all the species of studied legume varieties. The wide variation in the chemical and physical properties of observed nine legume varieties, suggesting possible applications for various end-use products. 

  3. The molecular basis of the antigenic cross-reactivity between measles and cowpea mosaic viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewska, Wieslawa; Steward, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Two nonrelated viruses, cowpea mosaic virus (wtCPMV) and measles virus (MV), were found to induce cross-reactive antibodies. The nature of this cross-reactivity was studied and results are presented here demonstrating that antiserum raised against wtCPMV reacted with peptide from the fusion (F) protein of MV. Furthermore, the F protein of MV was shown to share an identical conformational B cell epitope with the small subunit of CPMV coat protein. Passive transfer of anti-wtCPMV antibodies into BALB/c mice conferred partial protection against measles virus induced encephalitis. The results are discussed in the context of cross-protection

  4. Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea to Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilization in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Boahen, Stephen; Savala, Canon E. N.; Chikoye, David; Abaidoo, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a major source of dietary protein and essential component of the cropping systems in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, yields are very low due to lack of improved cultivars, poor management practices, and limited inputs use. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of rhizobia inoculant and P on nodulation, N accumulation and yield of two cowpea cultivars in Mozambique. Field study was conducted in three contrasting environments during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons using randomized complete block design with four replications and four treatments. Treatments consisted of seed inoculation, application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1, inoculation + P, and a non-inoculated control. The most probable number (MPN) technique was used to estimate the indigenous bradyrhizobia populations at the experimental sites. The rhizobia numbers at the sites varied from 5.27 × 102 to 1.07 × 103 cells g-1 soil. Inoculation increased nodule number by 34–76% and doubled nodule dry weight (78 to 160 mg plant-1). P application improved nodulation and interacted positively with the inoculant. Inoculation, P, and inoculant + P increased shoot dry weight, and shoot and grain N content across locations but increases in number of pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, and 100-seed weight were not consistent among treatments across locations. Shoot N content was consistently high for the inoculated plants and also for the inoculated + P fertilized plants, whereas the non-inoculated control plants had the lowest tissue N content. P uptake in shoot ranged from 1.72 to 3.77 g kg-1 and was higher for plants that received P fertilizer alone. Inoculation and P either alone or in combination consistently increased cowpea grain yield across locations with yields ranging from 1097 kg ha-1 for the non-inoculated control to 1674 kg ha-1 for the inoculant + P treatment. Grain protein concentration followed a similar trend as grain yield and ranged from 223 to

  5. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  6. Polyelectrolyte-modified cowpea mosaic virus for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J

    2014-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte surface-modified cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) can be used for the templated synthesis of narrowly dispersed gold nanoparticles. Cationic polyelectrolyte, poly(allylamine) hydrochloride, is electrostatically bound to the external surface of the virus capsid. The polyelectrolyte-coated CPMV promotes adsorption of aqueous gold hydroxide anionic species, prepared from gold(III) chloride and potassium carbonate, that are easily reduced to form CPMV-templated gold nanoparticles. The process is simple and environmentally benign using only water as solvent at ambient temperature.

  7. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  8. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; van Munster, E.B.; Vischer, N.O.; Gadella, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region

  9. Studies on the origin and structure of tubules made by the movement protein of Cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.; Velden, van der T.; Willemse, J.; Borst, J.W.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Bisseling, T.; Wellink, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) moves from cell to cell by transporting virus particles via tubules formed through plasmodesmata by the movement protein (MP). On the surface of protoplasts, a fusion between the MP and the green fluorescent protein forms similar tubules and peripheral punctate spots. Here

  10. Enhanced Synthesis of Antioxidant Enzymes, Defense Proteins and Leghemoglobin in Rhizobium-Free Cowpea Roots after Challenging with Meloydogine incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T. A. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloydogine spp., particularly Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica species, parasitize several plant species and are responsible for large annual yield losses all over the world. Only a few available chemical nematicides are still authorized for RKN control owing to environmental and health reasons. Thus, plant resistance is currently considered the method of choice for controlling RKN, and research performed on the molecular interactions between plants and nematodes to identify genes of interest is of paramount importance. The present work aimed to identify the differential accumulation of root proteins of a resistant cowpea genotype (CE-31 inoculated with M. incognita (Race 3 in comparison with mock-inoculated control, using 2D electrophoresis assay, mass spectrometry identification and gene expression analyses by RT-PCR. The results showed that at least 22 proteins were differentially represented in response to RKN challenge of cowpea roots mainly within 4–6 days after inoculation. Amongst the up-represented proteins were SOD, APX, PR-1, β-1,3-glucanase, chitinases, cysteine protease, secondary metabolism enzymes, key enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, proteins involved in MAPK pathway signaling and, surprisingly, leghemoglobin in non-rhizobium-bacterized cowpea. These findings show that an important rearrangement in the resistant cowpea root proteome occurred following challenge with M. incognita.

  11. Effects of compost amendment and the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea on the development of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a destructive pathogen causing charcoal rot of cowpea and other crops in the semi- arid areas of the Sahel (north-west Africa). Chemical management is not feasible in conditions of subsistence farming, and the plurivorous nature of the fungus limits the effectiveness of

  12. Effects of manufactured nano-copper on copper uptake, bioaccumulation and enzyme activities in cowpea grown on soil substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Clement O; Jimoh, Mahboob A; Asogwa, Nnaemeka T; Viswanathan, K; Vishwakarma, Vinita; Fatoba, Paul O

    2018-07-15

    Increased use of nanoparticles-based products in agriculture portends important implications for agriculture. Therefore, the impact of nano-copper particles (nano-Cu for 65 days. Results indicated significant (Pnano-Cu levels compared to control, and bioaccumulation increased in seeds by at least 250%. Response of antioxidant enzymes to both nano-Cu types was concentration-dependent. Activity of APX and GR was enhanced in leaves and roots in response to both nano-Cu treatments in similar patterns compared to control. Both nano-Cu increased CAT activity in roots while SOD activity reduced in both leaves and roots. This shows that response of antioxidant enzymes to nano-Cu toxicity was organ-specific in cowpea. Malondialdehyde, a measure of lipid peroxidation, increased at 500 -1000 mg/kg of 25 nm nano-Cu in leaves by average of 8.4%, and 60-80 nm nano-Cu in root by 52.8%, showing particle-size and organ-dependent toxicity of nano-Cu. In conclusion, exposure of cowpea to nano-Cu treatments increased both the uptake and bioaccumulation of Cu, and also promoted the activity of APX and GR in root and leaf tissues of cowpea. Therefore, APX- and GR-activity level could be a useful predictive biomarker of nano-Cu toxicity in cowpea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Productive performance of cowpea-radish intercropping under different amounts of rooster tree biomass incorporated into the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. S. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intercropping systems of cowpea with radish are beginning to be deployed in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte state. The great challenge is to know whether or not there is productive efficiency in these systems when fertilized with organic matter produced by spontaneous species from the ‘Caatinga’ biome. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of cowpea-radish intercropping systems under different amounts of rooster tree biomass incorporated into the soil. The study was conducted at the experimental farm Rafael Fernandes, rural zone of Mossoró, RN, in the period from June to September 2013, in an experimental design of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of the following amounts of rooster tree biomass incorporated into the soil (10, 25, 40 and 55 t ha-1 on a dry weight basis. The best productive performance of the cowpea-radish intercrop was obtained when the rooster tree biomass amount of 50.01 t ha-1 was incorporated to the soil. The use of rooster tree biomass as green manure is agronomically viable in intercropped systems of cowpea-radish.

  14. Using artificial neural networks to select upright cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes with high productivity and phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Nascimento, A C C; Azevedo, C F; Teixeira, F R F

    2016-11-03

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is grown in three Brazilian regions: the Midwest, North, and Northeast, and is consumed by people on low incomes. It is important to investigate the genotype x environment (GE) interaction to provide accurate recommendations for farmers. The aim of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability for growing in the Brazilian Cerrado, and to compare the use of artificial neural networks with the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method. Six trials with upright cowpea genotypes were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the States of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The data were subjected to adaptability and stability analysis by the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method and artificial neural networks. The genotypes MNC99-537F-4 and EVX91-2E-2 provided grain yields above the overall environment means, and exhibited high stability according to both methods. Genotype IT93K-93-10 was the most suitable for unfavorable environments. There was a high correlation between the results of both methods in terms of classifying the genotypes by their adaptability and stability. Therefore, this new approach would be effective in quantifying the GE interaction in upright cowpea breeding programs.

  15. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  16. Comparison of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences between old and new world strains of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial DNA provides useful tools for inferring population genetic structure within a species and phylogenetic relationships between species. The complete mitogenome sequences were assembled from strains of the cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora, from the old (15,308 bp) and new world (15,305 bp...

  17. Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanamaker Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. Results Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. Conclusion We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression of full-length DNA copies of the genomic RNAs of cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to unravel various aspects of the mechanism of gene expression of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). For this purpose full-length DNA copies of both genomic RNAs of CPMV were constructed. Using powerful invitro

  19. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a

  20. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  1. A compendium of transcription factor and Transcriptionally active protein coding gene families in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vikram A; Wang, Yu; Timko, Michael P

    2017-11-22

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is the most important food and forage legume in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa where approximately 80% of worldwide production takes place primarily on low-input, subsistence farm sites. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs are the rapid manipulation of agronomic traits for seed size and quality and improved resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses to enhance productivity. Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical plant cellular processes would contribute tremendously to these improvement aims. We used a computational approach that employed three different predictive pipelines to data mine the cowpea genome and identified over 4400 genes representing 136 different TF and TAP families. We compare the information content of cowpea to two evolutionarily close species common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max) to gauge the relative informational content. Our data indicate that correcting for genome size cowpea has fewer TF and TAP genes than common bean (4408 / 5291) and soybean (4408/ 11,065). Members of the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene families appear to be over-represented in the genome relative to common bean and soybean, whereas members of the MADS (Minichromosome maintenance deficient 1 (MCM1), AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS, and serum response factor (SRF)) and C2C2-YABBY appear to be under-represented. Analysis of the AP2-EREBP APETALA2-Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein (AP2-EREBP), NAC (NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF1, 2 (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)), and WRKY families, known to be important in defense signaling, revealed changes and phylogenetic rearrangements relative to common bean and soybean that suggest these groups may have evolved different functions. The availability of detailed

  2. Two Novel Motifs of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus NSs Protein Are Responsible for RNA Silencing Suppression and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Hao; Hsiao, Weng-Rong; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A J; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) is the RNA silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant. In this study, serial deletion and point-mutation mutagenesis of conserved regions (CR) of NSs protein were performed, and the silencing suppression function was analyzed through agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found two amino acid (aa) residues, H113 and Y398, are novel functional residues for RNA silencing suppression. Our further analyses demonstrated that H113 at the common epitope (CE) ((109)KFTMHNQ(117)), which is highly conserved in Asia type tospoviruses, and the benzene ring of Y398 at the C-terminal β-sheet motif ((397)IYFL(400)) affect NSs mRNA stability and protein stability, respectively, and are thus critical for NSs RNA silencing suppression. Additionally, protein expression of other six deleted (ΔCR1-ΔCR6) and five point-mutated (Y15A, Y27A, G180A, R181A and R212A) mutants were hampered and their silencing suppression ability was abolished. The accumulation of the mutant mRNAs and proteins, except Y398A, could be rescued or enhanced by co-infiltration with potyviral suppressor HC-Pro. When assayed with the attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash plants, the recombinants carrying individual seven point-mutated NSs proteins displayed symptoms much milder than the recombinant carrying the wild type NSs protein, suggesting that these aa residues also affect viral pathogenicity by suppressing the host silencing mechanism.

  3. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  4. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A.; Serafini, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s -1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  5. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  6. European cowpea landraces for a more sustainable agriculture system and novel foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Bebeli, Penelope J; Pereira, Graça; Castro, Isaura; Egea-Gilabert, Catalina; Matos, Manuela; Lazaridi, Efstathia; Duarte, Isabel; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Ntatsi, Georgia; Rodrigues, Miguel; Savvas, Dimitrios; Rosa, Eduardo; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-10-01

    Genetic diversity is fundamental to breeding programs and consequently has an important role in obtaining new varieties. To properly use the genetic diversity present in germplasm collections, a good knowledge of the agro-morphological traits of each accession is needed. The aim of this study was to explore the production capacity of 24 cowpea landraces from southern Europe, through phenotypic characterization and evaluation in three different locations in Greece and Portugal. Most qualitative parameters tested showed a high stability among the three locations. A wide difference was observed among the three locations with respect to number of days to flowering, ranging from 55 to 99 days. Quantitative traits showed a higher genotype × environment than genetic variance component. In general, an inverse relationship between σ 2 ge /σ 2 g ratio (where σ 2 ge is genotype × genotype interaction and σ 2 g is genotype impact) and heritability value was observed. Principal component analysis was able to group accessions based on their origin. The first two principal components explained 97.52% of variation, being the number of seeds per plant, plant height and seed protein content, the traits which contributed most to variability. The results show that sufficient variation exists in different traits within landraces in the studied cowpea germplasm to pursue a breeding program. However, the quantitative traits showed a higher genotype × environment component. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  8. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  9. Toxic effects of Pb2+ on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Asher, Colin J.; Kopittke, Rosemary A.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    A concentration as low as 1 μM lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb 2+ activity of 0.2 μM for the shoots and at a Pb 2+ activity of 0.06 μM for the roots. The primary site of Pb 2+ toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb 2+ ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 μM for the shoots and 0.06 μM for the roots

  10. Alternation of cowpea genotypes affects the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus (fabr. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is an important pest in stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The effect of alternation of cowpea genotypes, susceptible (S and resistant (R, on the biology of (C. maculatus was studied after four generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with five treatments, four host combinations (RR, RS, SR and SS and five replications. Each replication consisted of 30 grains of each genotype infested by two insect couples. The number of eggs per female was not different within or between combinations, evidencing that the genotypes and their alternation did not affect C. maculatus fecundity. Egg viability, however, varied between genotypes and between combinations. In combination RR, the longest duration of the immature stage was verified for genotype IT89KD-245; in addition, all genotypes presented the smallest survival for the same stage, resulting in a higher mortality of the pest. The resistance index categorized combination RR as moderately resistant for genotypes IT89KD-245, BR14-Mulato and BR17-Gurguéia, and as susceptible (S only for IT89KD-260, demonstrating that these combinations were not very adequate for the development of C. maculatus, a fact that was confirmed by the better performance of the pest on the genotype from combination SS, and because of a reduction in its performance when it returned to resistant genotypes.

  11. Cluster analysis technique for assessing variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp accessions from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi Abiola Toyin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability among 10 accessions of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp was studied by the use of 13 qualitative and 13 quantitative traits. From the results on qualitative traits, dendrogram grouped the 10 accessions into two major clusters, 1 and 2.Cluster 1 had 3 accessions and cluster 2 had 2 sub-clusters (I and II, having 2 accessions in sub-cluster I and 5 accessions in sub-cluster II. The dendrogram revealed two major clusters, 1 and 2, for quantitative data, for the 10 accessions. At distance of 4 and 6, cluster 1 had two sub-clusters (I and II, with sub-cluster I having 5 accessions, sub-cluster II having 4 accessions while cluster 2 had only 1 accession. This study made the observation that identification of the right agro-morphological traits of high discriminating capacity is essential, before embarking on any genetic diversity; as it was revealed that some traits discriminated more efficiently among the accessions than others. A group of accessions, which are NGSA1, NGSA2, NGSA3, NGSA4, NGSA7, NGSA9 and NGSA10, was identified as being different from the others for number of seeds per pod, pod length, plant height, peduncle length, seed weight and number of pods per plant. These accessions may be good for cowpea improvement programs.

  12. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  13. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  14. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  15. Variation in relative water content, proline accumulation and stress gene expression in two cowpea landraces under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaoui, Zahia; Planchais, Séverine; Cabassa, Cécile; Djebbar, Reda; Abrous Belbachir, Ouzna; Carol, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Many landraces of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] are adapted to particular geographical and climatic conditions. Here we describe two landraces grown respectively in arid and temperate areas of Algeria and assess their physiological and molecular responses to drought stress. As expected, when deprived of water cowpea plants lose water over time with a gradual reduction in transpiration rate. The landraces differed in their relative water content (RWC) and whole plant transpiration rate. The landrace from Menia, an arid area, retained more water in adult leaves. Both landraces responded to drought stress at the molecular level by increasing expression of stress-related genes in aerial parts, including proline metabolism genes. Expression of gene(s) encoding proline synthesis enzyme P5CS was up regulated and gene expression of ProDH, a proline catabolism enzyme, was down regulated. Relatively low amounts of proline accumulated in adult leaves with slight differences between the two landraces. During drought stress the most apical part of plants stayed relatively turgid with a high RWC compared to distal parts that wilted. Expression of key stress genes was higher and more proline accumulated at the apex than in distal leaves indicating that cowpea has a non-uniform stress response at the whole plant level. Our study reveals a developmental control of water stress through preferential proline accumulation in the upper tier of the cowpea plant. We also conclude that cowpea landraces display physiological adaptations to water stress suited to the arid and temperate climates in which they are cultivated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization and genetic relatedness among 37 yardlong bean and cowpea accessions based on morphological characters and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinich Saereeprasert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four yardlong bean and 13 cowpea accessions were planted in the field to characterize their morphology and genetic relatedness. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replicationswas used. Growth habit, days to flowering, pod color, pod length, number of pods/plant, yield/plant and consumption quality were recorded. The results showed that pod length, number of pods/plant and podyield/plant among 37 accessions were highly significant differerence. Mean pod yield and pod length of 24 yardlong bean accessions were 212.1 g/plant and 48.7 cm, respectively, while mean pod yield and pod lengthof 13 cowpea accessions were 117.4 g/plant and 21.3 cm, respectively. Twenty two yardlong bean accessions exhibited indeterminate growth habit while 10 of 13 cowpea had determinate growth habit and the restsexhibited semi-determinate growth. Genetic variation and relationships among accessions were investigated based on RAPD technique. Total DNA was extracted from young leaf samples of all accessions using CTAB buffer. One hundred and twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened and 5 primers (OPC-06,OPR-12, OPZ-03, OPZ-08, OPZ-13 were chosen for further evaluation. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed based on 23 polymorphic bands obtained from 5 primers using UPGMA in SPSS program,which revealed separate groups between yardlong bean and cowpea. The similarity coefficient among yardlong bean and cowpea accessions ranged from 0.515 to 1.000 and 0.548 to 1.000, respectively.

  17. Genetic diversity and a population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed from cowpea unigene and genome sequences, respectively. Among them, 27 genic and 27 genomic SSR markers were polymorphic and were used for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in 105 selected cowpea accessions. A total of 155 alleles and 2.9 alleles per marker were identified, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC value was 0.3615. The average PIC of genomic SSRs (0.3996 was higher than that of genic SSRs (0.3235, and most of the polymorphic genomic SSRs were composed of di- and trinucleotide repeats (51.9% and 37.0% of all loci, respectively. The low level of detected genetic diversity may be attributed to a severe genetic bottleneck that occurred during the cowpea domestication process. The accessions were classified by structure and cluster analysis into four subgroups that correlated well with their geographic origins or collection sites. The classification results were also consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis and can be used as a guide during future germplasm collection and selection of accessions as breeding materials for cultivar improvement. The newly developed genic and genomic SSR markers described in this study will be valuable genomic resources for the assessment of genetic diversity, population structure, evaluation of germplasm accessions, construction of genetic maps, identification of genes of interest, and application of marker-assisted selection in cowpea breeding programs.

  18. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  19. Effect of extrusion conditions and lipoxygenase inactivation treatment on the physical and nutritional properties of corn/cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Moguel, Odri; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge; Martínez-Ayala, Alma; González, Rolando; Drago, Silvina; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lipoxygenase inactivation and extrusion cooking on the physical and nutritional properties of corn/cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) blends was studied. Corn was blended in an 80:15 proportion with cowpea flour treated to inactivate lipoxygenase (CI) or non-inactivated cowpea flour (CNI). Extrusion variables were temperature (150 degrees C, 165 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and moisture (15%, 17% and 19%). Based on their physical properties, the 165 degrees C/15% corn:CNI, and 165 degrees C/15% corn:CI, and 150 degrees C/15% corn:CI blends were chosen for nutritional quality analysis. Extrudate chemical composition indicated high crude protein levels compared with standard corn-based products. With the exception of lysine, essential amino acids content in the three treatments met FAO requirements. Extrusion and lipoxygenase inactivation are promising options for developing corn/cowpea extruded snack products with good physical properties and nutritional quality.

  20. Obtenção de plantas de feijão-caupi resistentes ao Cowpea severe mosaic virus e ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislanne Brito Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.

  1. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF BEST ACTION, FURADAN, AND NEEM EMULSION IN THE CONTROL OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments to determine the efficacy of Best Action (30g/litre cypermethrine plus 250g/litre dimethoate as water emulsifiable concentrates, Furadan 10G (carbofuran, Neem emulsion (Azadiracta indica as insecticide treatments in the control of major insect pests of cowpea were conducted in two agro-environments simultaneously in Enugu Area, South Eastern Nigeria in 2014 cropping season using two cowpea varieties (Ife brown, and Potiskum as test crops. The experimental design was a split plot in a randomized compete block (RCB replicated three times. Best Action was more effective in controlling cowpea insect pests, followed by Furandan 10G, and Neem emulsion respectively and their effectiveness was not affected by climatic factors variations in the two agro-environments (Nsukka and Agbani. Ife brown and Potiskum did not significantly resist the attack of major insect pests of cowpea. Insecticides and cowpea varieties did not have a significant interaction effect on the control of major insect pests of cowpea.

  2. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  3. Yield and biological nitrogen fixation of cowpea varieties in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago de Freitas, Ana Dolores; Fernandes Silva, Acácia; Valadares de Sá Barretto Sampaio, Everardo

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is an important crop in small properties of the Brazilian semi-arid region, where it is cultivated without fertilizer application. In spite of the fundamental role played by biological Nitrogen fixation (BNF), little is known of the symbiosis between cowpea varieties and native rhizobia or recommended rhizobia strains. A field experiment was conducted aiming to estimate BNF and productivities of local varieties, in association with two previously described bradyrhizobial inoculant strains and native rhizobia (no inoculation). The plants received 20 kg ha −1 of enriched 15 N fertilizer to allow the use of the isotopic dilution method. After harvest (80 days) straw and grain biomass was determined. The varieties differed in grain and straw productivity and in N and N derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa). Corujinha had the highest grain productivity (1147 kg ha −1 ), followed by Sempre Verde (920 kg ha −1 ), Azul (912 kg ha −1 ) and Cariri (889 kg ha −1 ). Costela de Vaca had the highest straw productivity (2258 kg ha −1 ), highest N content in the straw (28 g ha −1 ) and highest BNF (79 %Ndfa, corresponding to 45 kg ha −1 of N for total aboveground biomass and 39 kg ha −1 for the straw), but the lowest grain productivity (381 kg ha −1 ) and the lowest harvest index (0.14). The inoculations did not significantly alter productivities, N contents or %Ndfa but there was a tendency of lower grain productivities in the non-inoculated plants, which was reflected in lower total and biologically fixed N quantities, indicating that the native strains may be slightly less efficient. -- Highlights: ► We estimate N fixation and productivities of local cowpea varieties in Brazil. ► Plants were inoculated or not with two recommended rhizobia strains. ► All local varieties had high proportions of their N derived from the air (%Ndfa). ► They differed in BNF in grain and straw productivity. ► Inoculation did not alter productivities or %Ndfa but

  4. The 96th Amino Acid of the Coat Protein of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Affects Virus Infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV is one of the most devastating viruses infecting members of the family Cucurbitaceae. The assembly initiation site of CGMMV is located in the coding region of the coat protein, which is not only involved in virion assembly but is also a key factor determining the long-distance movement of the virus. To understand the effect of assembly initiation site and the adjacent region on CGMMV infectivity, we created a GTT deletion mutation in the GAGGTTG assembly initiation site of the infectious clone of CGMMV, which we termed V97 (deletion mutation at residue 97 of coat protein, followed by the construction of the V94A and T104A mutants. We observed that these three mutations caused mosaic after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Nicotiana benthamiana, albeit with a significant delay compared to the wild type clone. The mutants also had a common spontaneous E96K mutation in the coat protein. These results indicated that the initial assembly site and the sequence of the adjacent region affected the infectivity of the virus and that E96 might play an essential role in this process. We constructed two single point mutants—E96A and E96K—and three double mutants—V94A-E96K, V97-E96K and T104A-E96K—to further understand the role of E96 in CGMMV pathogenesis. After inoculation in N. benthamiana, E96A showed delayed systemic symptoms, but the E96K and three double mutants exhibited typical symptoms of mosaic at seven days post-infection. Then, sap from CGMMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves was mechanically inoculated on watermelon plants. We confirmed that E96 affected CGMMV infection using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and sequencing, which further confirmed the successful infection of the related mutants, and that E96K can compensate the effect of the V94, V97, and T104 mutations on virus infectivity. In

  5. Cryptic genetic diversity in the mottled rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens with mitochondrial introgression at a contact zone in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravago-Gotanco, Rachel; de la Cruz, Talna Lorena; Pante, Ma Josefa; Borsa, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The taxonomy of the mottled rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens species complex has long been challenging. In this study, we analyzed microsatellite genotypes, mitochondrial lineages, and morphometric data from 373 S. fuscescens individuals sampled from the northern Philippines and Hong Kong (South China Sea, Philippine Sea and Sulu Sea basins), to examine putative species boundaries in samples comprising three co-occurring mitochondrial lineages previously reported to characterize S. fuscescens (Clade A and Clade B) or S. canaliculatus (Clade C). We report the existence of two cryptic species within S. fuscescens in the northeast region of the South China Sea and northern Philippine Sea, supported by genetic and morphological differences. Individual-based assignment methods recovered concordant groupings of individuals into two nuclear genotype clusters (Cluster 1, Cluster 2) with (1) limited gene flow, if any, between them (FST = 0.241; P South China Sea. Mitonuclear discordance due to introgression obscures phylogenetic relationships for recently-diverged lineages, and cautions against the use of mitochondrial markers alone for species identification within the mottled rabbitfish species complex in the South China Sea region.

  6. Complementary feeding with cowpea reduces growth faltering in rural Malawian infants: a blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kevin B; Agapova, Sophia E; Divala, Oscar; Kaimila, Yankho; Maleta, Kenneth M; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M Isabel; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend. Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old). The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in EED, as measured by percentage of lactulose excretion (%L). %L Cowpea and common bean added 4.6-5.2 g protein/d and 4-5 g indigestible carbohydrate/d to the diet. LAZ and weight-for-height z score were reduced in all 3 groups from 6 to 12 mo of age. The changes in LAZ [mean (95% CI)] for the cowpea, common bean, and control groups from 6 to 9 mo were -0.14 (-0.24, -0.04), -0.27 (-0.38, -0.16), and -0.27 (-0.35, -0.19), respectively. LAZ was reduced less in infants receiving cowpea than in those receiving control food from 6 to 9 mo ( P = 0.048). The absolute value of %L did not differ between the dietary groups at 9 mo of age (mean ± SD: 0.30 ± 0.43, 0.23 ± 0.21, and 0.26 ± 0.31 for cowpea, common bean, and control, respectively), nor did the change in %L from 6 to 9 mo. Conclusion: Addition of cowpea to complementary feeding in Malawian infants resulted in less linear growth faltering. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02472262. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  8. Complete sterility studies in three mutants of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Dapaah, H. K.; Singh, B. B.; Fatokun, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Three completely-sterile cowpea mutants IT85D-3625, IT85D-3628, IT85D-3641 obtained from spontaneous mutation and gamma irradiation were-characterized. Reciprocal crosses between them and fertile plants failed to set pods. These lines showed significant differences with respect to various traits such as number of pollen grain per anther, anther length and width, plant height, anther indehiscence,unopened flower buds, and premature abortion of pods and seeds. The major cause of sterility was chromosome aberrations. Complete sterility in each of the three lines was conditioned by a simple recessive gene pair. Sterility in each of the three mutants was associated with floral aberrations. The symbols cs 1 , cs 2 and cs 3 are being assigned to IT85D-3625, IT85D-2628 and IT85D-3641 respectively. The three mutants were homogeneous with reference to sterility inheritance. (au)

  9. Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, E; Monti, L [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Univ. of Naples Federico 2, Naples (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ``bottle-neck`` to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome.

  10. Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission using layer-by-layer assembled cowpea mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Deng, Zhaoqi; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Geng, Yanhou; Ma, Dongge; Su, Zhaohui

    2009-01-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly technique was used to construct ultrathin film of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) by electrostatic interactions, and the film was employed as a precursor on which an OF8T2 film was deposited by spin coating. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed and improved for the OF8T2 film. Compared with OF8T2 film on quartz, the introduction of CPMV nanoparticles reduced the threshold and loss, and remarkably increased the net gain. The threshold, loss, and gain reached 0.05 mJ/pulse, 6.9 cm-1, and 82 cm-1, respectively. CPMV nanoparticles may enormously scatter light, resulting in a positive feedback, thus the ASE is easily obtained and improved.

  11. New molecular features of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata, l. Walp) β-vignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Capraro, Jessica; Sessa, Fabio; Magni, Chiara; Demonte, Aureluce; Consonni, Alessandro; Augusto Neves, Valdir; Maffud Cilli, Eduardo; Duranti, Marcello; Scarafoni, Alessio

    2018-02-01

    Cowpea seed β-vignin, a vicilin-like globulin, proved to exert various health favourable effects, including blood cholesterol reduction in animal models. The need of a simple scalable enrichment procedure for further studies for tailored applications of this seed protein is crucial. A chromatography-independent fractionation method allowing to obtain a protein preparation with a high degree of homogeneity was used. Further purification was pursued to deep the molecular characterisation of β-vignin. The results showed: (i) differing glycosylation patterns of the two constituent polypeptides, in agreement with amino acid sequence features; (ii) the seed accumulation of a gene product never identified before; (iii) metal binding capacity of native protein, a property observed only in few other legume seed vicilins.

  12. Chickpea and cowpea grain improvement using mutation and other advanced genetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, E.; Monti, L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of genetic engineering methodologies in breeding programmes seems to be very promising to find new resistance-related genes present in other phyla, to clone and transfer them into plants; and, to shorten the time to obtain an improved genotype since only a single gene is involved in this process. The main ''bottle-neck'' to apply this scheme in chickpea and cowpea is the absence of a reliable protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation. In this frame, following some pilot experiments on these grain legumes to induce regeneration and gene transfer, we attempted to find a regeneration medium, assay the effect of different hormones on young tissues; and, to select the best procedures for transfer of genes into the plant genome

  13. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  14. Monitoring soil coverage and yield of cowpea furrow irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Leila Rocha Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Cowpea crop is of great importance for northeast Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of saline water in different developing stages on plant growth and changes in soil characteristics, measured by soil coverage, and on yield of cowpea plants. The experiment was conducted under field conditions, during the dry season in a completely randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 4 lines of plants with 5.0 m long. The treatments evaluated were: 1. irrigation with groundwater with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.8 dS m-1 during the whole crop cycle; 2. saline water (5.0 dS m-1 during the whole crop cycle; 3, 4 and 5. saline water (5.0 dS m-1 up to 22nd, during 23rd to 42nd and from the 43rd to 62nd days after sowing, respectively, and groundwater in the remaining period. Soil coverage was evaluated by digital images using the software ENVI for image processing and classification. It was found that the continuous use of saline water inhibits plant growth, while irrigation with saline water during germination and initial growth stages caused retardation in plant development, but in this last case a recovery was observed in the final part of the experimental period. For treatments 2 and 3, a reduction was verified in the number of pods and in seed production, as compared to other treatments. Irrigation with saline water during 23 to 42 and 43 to 62 days after sowing did not affect reproductive and vegetative growth, but the saline water application in the pre-flowering (treatment 4 caused anticipation of the reproductive cycle.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon...

  16. Assessment of sorghum-cowpea intercrop system under water-limited conditions using a decision support tool

    OpenAIRE

    Chimonyo, VGP; Modi, AT; Mabhaudhi, T

    2016-01-01

    Intercropping can improve crop productivity through increased water use efficiency (WUE). However, limited information exists to support its adoption and subsequent management. In such instances, crop models can be used as decision support tools to complement data from field trials. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator Model (APSIM) was used to develop best management practices for improved yield and WUE for a sorghum-cowpea intercrop system for 5 sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...

  17. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F. M.; Fernandes-J?nior, Paulo I.; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R.; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and ...

  18. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48 T and B. liaoningense USDA 3622 T and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F M; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo I; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R; Radl, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and soil type. As expected, Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant genus of the detected genera. Furthermore, we found a high bacterial diversity associated to cowpea nodules; OTUs related to the genera Enterobacter, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium , and unclassified Enterobacteriacea were the most abundant. The presence of these groups was significantly influenced by the soil type and, to a lesser extent, plant genotype. Interestingly, OTUs assigned to Chryseobacterium were highly abundant, particularly in samples obtained from an Ultisol soil. We confirmed their presence in root nodules and assessed their diversity using a target isolation approach. Though their functional role still needs to be addressed, we postulate that Chryseobacterium strains might help cowpea plant to cope with salt stress in semi-arid regions.

  20. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F. M.; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo I.; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R.; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and soil type. As expected, Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant genus of the detected genera. Furthermore, we found a high bacterial diversity associated to cowpea nodules; OTUs related to the genera Enterobacter, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, and unclassified Enterobacteriacea were the most abundant. The presence of these groups was significantly influenced by the soil type and, to a lesser extent, plant genotype. Interestingly, OTUs assigned to Chryseobacterium were highly abundant, particularly in samples obtained from an Ultisol soil. We confirmed their presence in root nodules and assessed their diversity using a target isolation approach. Though their functional role still needs to be addressed, we postulate that Chryseobacterium strains might help cowpea plant to cope with salt stress in semi-arid regions. PMID:28163711

  1. Genotypic gain with simultaneous selection of production, nutrition, and culinary traits in cowpea crosses and backcrosses using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D G; Rocha, M M; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Sá, F V; Lima, L R L; Resende, M D V

    2017-08-17

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genotypic gain with simultaneous selection of production, nutrition, and culinary traits in cowpea crosses and backcrosses and to compare different selection indexes. Eleven cowpea populations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Fourteen traits were evaluated, and the following parameters were estimated: genotypic variation coefficient, genotypic determination coefficient, experimental quality indicator and selection reliability, estimated genotypic values ​​- BLUE, genotypic correlation coefficient among traits, and genotypic gain with simultaneous selection of all traits. The genotypic gain was estimated based on tree selection indexes: classical, multiplicative, and the sum of ranks. The genotypic variation coefficient was higher than the environmental variation coefficient for the number of days to start flowering, plant type, the weight of one hundred grains, grain index, and protein concentration. The majority of the traits presented genotypic determination coefficient from medium to high magnitude. The identification of increases in the production components is associated with decreases in protein concentration, and the increase in precocity leads to decreases in protein concentration and cooking time. The index based on the sum of ranks was the best alternative for simultaneous selection of traits in the cowpea segregating populations resulting from the crosses and backcrosses evaluated, with emphasis on the F 4 BC 12 , F 4 C 21 , and F 4 C 12 populations, which had the highest genotypic gains.

  2. Estimation of N2-fixation in cowpea grown in monoculture or in mixture with maize using 15 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammaa, Mouhammad; Kurd Ali, Fawaz

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under natural climatic conditions to determine the proportion of different nitrogen sources (air, soil, fertilizer) in cowpea and maize grown alone or in mixture using 15 N isotope dilution technique. On average, the proportion of N derived from fixation by cowpea grown in mixed culture was 55% lower than that derived by the sole cropped cowpea (77%). Dry matter produced by one plant of maize grown in mixed culture was twice as much as that produced by a plant grown in mono culture. Moreover, total nitrogen content in one maize plant grown in mixed culture was 213 mg higher than that determined by two plant of maize grown in mono culture (171 mg). However, the amount of nitrogen derived from soil by maize grown in mixed culture was equal or even higher than that taken up by two plants of maize grown in mono culture. This indicates a better utilization of soil N by the maize in mixed culture. This data emphasize the crucial role of interspecific competition in soil N uptake. Data from this study do not support the hypothesis of N transfer from the legume to the cereal because no significant differences were found between mixed and pure maize in terms of 15 N in excess content. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  3. Effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates from the Land Uses of Amazon Region in Symbiosis with Cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gláucia Alves E; Siqueira, José O; Stürmer, Sidney L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide several ecosystem services, including increase in plant growth and nutrition. The occurrence, richness, and structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities are influenced by human activities, which may affect the functional benefits of these components of the soil biota. In this study, 13 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates originating from soils with different land uses in the Alto Solimões-Amazon region were evaluated regarding their effect on growth, nutrition, and cowpea yield in controlled conditions using two soils. Comparisons with reference isolates and a mixture of isolates were also performed. Fungal isolates exhibited a wide variability associated with colonization, sporulation, production of aboveground biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake, and grain yield, indicating high functional diversity within and among fungal species. A generalized effect of isolates in promoting phosphorus uptake, increase in biomass, and cowpea yield was observed in both soils. The isolates of Glomus were the most efficient and are promising isolates for practical inoculation programs. No relationship was found between the origin of fungal isolate (i.e. land use) and their symbiotic performance in cowpea.

  4. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  5. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  6. Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits by low income consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovi, Koya Ap; Chiremba, Constance; Taylor, John Rn; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-02-01

    The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L * a * b * colour and texture of the biscuits were determined. The CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards. Whole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha -1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha -1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha -1 . Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  8. The role of detoxifying enzymes in the resistance of the cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch to thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch is considered a serious insect pest attacking several crops. We carried out biochemical studies to elucidate the role of the metabolising enzymes in conferring resistance to thiamethoxam, in two strains (resistant and susceptible of the cowpea aphid. Bioassay experiments showed that the thiamethoxam selected strain developed a 48 fold resistance after consecutive selection with thiamethoxam for 12 generations. This resistant strain also exhibited cross-resistance to the tested carbamates; pirimicarb and carbosulfan, organophosphorus (malathion, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and the neonicotinoid (acetamiprid. Synergism studies have indicated that S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF, a known inhibitor for esterases, increased thiamethoxam toxicity 5.58 times in the resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain. Moreover, the biochemical determination revealed that carboxylestersae activity was 30 times greater in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. In addition, the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST and mixed function oxidases (mfo increased only in the resistant strain 3.7 and 2.7 times, respectively, in relation to the susceptible (the control. Generally, our results suggest that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzymes, particularly carboxylesterase, in the resistant strain of the cowpea aphid, apparently have a significant role in endowing resistance to thiamethoxam, although additional mechanisms may contribute.

  9. Biological and physicochemical properties of cowpea severe mosaic comovirus isolated from soybean in the State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula V. Bertacini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean plants with symptoms of bud blight were growing close to cowpea with severe symptoms of mosaic associated with blisters in the leaves. A group of plants of both species were collected and used for etiological studies. This kind of symptom in soybeans was common in certain areas of the State of Paraná, induced by tobacco streak ilarvirus. Host range, serological reaction, particle morphology and size, protein and nucleic acid analysis, and transmission by beetles from species Cerotoma arcuata Oliv. showed that the virus involved was cowpea severe mosaic comovirus. This is the first report on the occurrence of this virus in soybean plants in the State of Paraná. Results using indirect ELISA showed that in cowpea the relative virus concentration was higher in green leaf areas than in chlorotic ones. Also, virus concentration, determined through indirect ELISA was much higher in plants kept at diurnal regime of 25º C x 23º C (12 x 12 h than at 30º C x 28º C.

  10. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were

  12. Distribution and Phylogeny of Microsymbionts Associated with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Nodulation in Three Agroecological Regions of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidebe, Ifeoma N; Jaiswal, Sanjay K; Dakora, Felix D

    2018-01-15

    Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeographic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution and phylogenies of rhizobia at different agroecological regions of Mozambique using PCR of the BOX element (BOX-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-RFLP), and sequence analysis of ribosomal, symbiotic, and housekeeping genes. A total of 122 microsymbionts isolated from two cowpea varieties (IT-1263 and IT-18) grouped into 17 clades within the BOX-PCR dendrogram. The PCR-ITS analysis yielded 17 ITS types for the bacterial isolates, while ITS-RFLP analysis placed all test isolates in six distinct clusters (I to VI). BLAST n sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes ( glnII , gyrB , recA , and rpoB ) showed their alignment with Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species. The results revealed a group of highly diverse and adapted cowpea-nodulating microsymbionts which included Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi , Bradyrhizobium arachidis , Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense , and a novel Bradyrhizobium sp., as well as Rhizobium tropici , Rhizobium pusense , and Neorhizobium galegae in Mozambican soils. Discordances observed in single-gene phylogenies could be attributed to horizontal gene transfer and/or subsequent recombinations of the genes. Natural deletion of 60 bp of the gyrB region was observed in isolate TUTVU7; however, this deletion effect on DNA gyrase function still needs to be confirmed. The inconsistency of nifH with core gene phylogenies suggested differences in the evolutionary history of both chromosomal and symbiotic genes. IMPORTANCE A diverse group of both Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium species responsible for cowpea

  13. Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kombiok, J.M.; Safo, E.Y; Quansah, C.

    2006-01-01

    Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (P I). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

  14. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts. PMID:22741546

  15. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population for genetic analysis and improvement of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Huang, Bevan Emma; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Santos, Jansen R P; Ndeve, Arsenio; Batieno, Benoit J; Boukar, Ousmane; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Fatokun, Christian; Kusi, Francis; Agyare, Richard Y; Guo, Yi-Ning; Herniter, Ira; Lo, Sassoum; Wanamaker, Steve I; Xu, Shizhong; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2018-03-01

    Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations are an emerging type of resource for dissecting the genetic structure of traits and improving breeding populations. We developed a MAGIC population for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) from eight founder parents. These founders were genetically diverse and carried many abiotic and biotic stress resistance, seed quality and agronomic traits relevant to cowpea improvement in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa, where cowpea is vitally important in the human diet and local economies. The eight parents were inter-crossed using structured matings to ensure that the population would have balanced representation from each parent, followed by single-seed descent, resulting in 305 F 8 recombinant inbred lines each carrying a mosaic of genome blocks contributed by all founders. This was confirmed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping with the Illumina Cowpea Consortium Array. These lines were on average 99.74% homozygous but also diverse in agronomic traits across environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for several parental traits. Loci with major effects on photoperiod sensitivity and seed size were also verified by biparental genetic mapping. The recombination events were concentrated in telomeric regions. Due to its broad genetic base, this cowpea MAGIC population promises breakthroughs in genetic gain, QTL and gene discovery, enhancement of breeding populations and, for some lines, direct releases as new varieties. © 2018 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

  17. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside...... the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher...... under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate...

  18. Integration of Gamma Irradiation and Some Botanical oils To Protect Cowpea And Chickpea Seeds From Infestation With The Bruchid Beetle Callosobruchus Maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Sileem, Th.M.

    2013-01-01

    The lethal effect of gamma radiation doses of 0.75 or 1.0 kGy on the adults Callosobruchus maculates reared on cowpeas and chickpeas were slow during the first and third days post-treatments. By increasing the dose to 1.5 kGy, the values of the percent mortality of adults in both seeds 24 h posttreatment were 53 and 40%, respectively. On the other hand, the dose 2 kGy caused sooner mortality for adults post-treatment for cowpeas. Different concentrations from eight plant oils; lemon grass, pinus sylvestris, parsley, fennel, geranium, peppermint, petitgrain and sweet basil, were used for protection of cowpea and chickpea seeds from infestation by Callosobruchus maculates. The results showed that sweet basil and geranium caused 89 and 79 % larval mortality, respectively, in case of cowpeas at concentration 0.5 % with exposure period of 48 hour while 71.0 and 63.33% adult mortality was occurred at the same concentration of both oils in chickpeas. The latent effects of tested plant oils on adult stage when beetles of C. maculatus were fed on seeds treated with the lowest two concentrations (0.0312, 0.0625%) of tested oils, the number of eggs laid per female was decreased in female exposed to all tested oils especially in case of cowpea treated with sweet basil and lemongrass. Most of the tested oils caused high reduction in larval penetration in both types of seeds. The adult weight was non significantly reduced at all treatments. The use of different plant oils leads to reduction in the progeny comparing to the control and sweet basil or geranium was found to be highly effective in decreasing the percentage of emergence (30 and 40% , respectively). No harmful effect was observed on germination of plant oils treated cowpea and chickpea seeds with concentration 2%.

  19. Influence of farmyard manure on some morphological and biochemical parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedling grown in cadmium-treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asagba, Samuel Ogheneovo; Ezedom, Theresa; Kadiri, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of the two kinds of farmyard manure (poultry and pig manures) as amendments for soil on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants using cowpea seedlings as plant model. Cd toxicity was evaluated by assessing the effect of the metal on the growth rate and antioxidant status as well as the ability of the plant to metabolise xenobiotic. There was a significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in all the treated soils relative to control. Addition of poultry manure to the soil significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in Cd-treated soil augmented with poultry manure but not in cowpea seedlings in cadmium-treated soil with pig manure amendments. Similarly, augmentation of Cd-treated soil with pig manure did not alter the Cd-induced effect on the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in leaf, stem and roots, as SOD remained significantly (p cowpea seedlings grown in Cd-treated soils amended with poultry manure were restored to a level not significantly (p > 0.05) different from control. Like in the case of SOD, the Cd-induced inhibition of the activity of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, aldehyde oxidase and sulphite oxidase remained significantly (p  0.05) different from control. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed that supplementation of Cd-treated soils with pig and poultry manures reversed effects of Cd on cowpea seedlings. However, poultry manure was more effective than pig manure in ameliorating the effects of Cd.

  20. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as trap plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  1. Temperature and Development Impacts on Housekeeping Gene Expression in Cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphidiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To standardize gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to consistently expressed housekeeping genes (HKGs is required. In this study, ten candidate HKGs including elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11, ribosomal protein L14 (RPL14, ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8, ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (ATPase, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S, and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S from the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch were selected. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method were employed to evaluate the expression profiles of these HKGs as endogenous controls across different developmental stages and temperature regimes. Based on RefFinder, which integrates all four analytical algorithms to compare and rank the candidate HKGs, RPS8, RPL14, and RPL11 were the three most stable HKGs across different developmental stages and temperature conditions. This study is the first step to establish a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in A. craccivora following the MIQE guideline. Results from this study lay a foundation for the genomics and functional genomics research in this sap-sucking insect pest with substantial economic impact.

  2. Gas exchange and mass distribution of the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona-Ayala Carlos Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is important for the survival and productivity of plants in environments where drought periods are increasing as a result of climate variability attributable to natural causes and climate change caused by human activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE=A/gs as a function of soil moisture content over a period of drought and the post-stress recovery of 14 cowpea genotypes. The studied genotypes tolerated soil moisture tensions close to -2 Mpa with no permanent wilting. Starting at a soil hydric potential of -0.7 MP a, decreases in photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E were evident, as well as an increase in A/gs, which varied by genotype. Estimating with regression models allowed for the discrimination of the degrees of drought tolerance between the cultivars. At 4 days after resuming hydration, no significant differences were found between the means of A, gs, A/gs and E, suggesting drought tolerance in all genotypes. The genotypes: L-047 and L-034 conserved between 4 and 6 leaves, displaying the highest delayed leaf senescence during drought. Furthermore, they presented the highest biomass at 16 days post-stress recovery

  3. The effect of Sprouting on the In vitro Digestibility of Maize and Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Malomo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high protein content of cowpeas, their maximum contribution to nutrition has not been fully exploited in many parts of the world because of the following problems: the presence of anti-nutritional factors, such as trypsin inhibitor, which are common with legumes; flatulence factors; low level of sulphur amino acids, particularly methionine; and, in many instances, the inconvenience involved in their long preparation into local dishes. Moreover, there is the problem of the beany off-flavour. Grinding treatments that break most of the cells and release the cell contents of raw legumes prevent the subsequent development of the characteristic beany flavor on cooking. An off-flavour develops when ground raw legumes are suspended in water probably because of mixing of the cell contents enzyme lipoxygenase and could be controlled by adjusting the pH of the slurry towards the acid side. Germination is widely claimed as a means of correcting nutrient deficiencies of particular seeds, especially through alterations in the amino-acid balance of the proteins and enhancement of the content of vitamins. This wide belief is emphasized and investigated in this research. In maize, however, the various food enzymes exited during germination had already played vital roles in breaking down the higher molecular components to simple molecules especially protein, which eases the digestibility as depicted in this investigation.

  4. Genetic parameters and path analysis in cowpea genotypes grown in the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, K V; Teodoro, P E; Silva, F A; Silva, M T; Fernandes, R L; Rodrigues, T C; Faria, T C; Corrêa, A M

    2017-05-18

    Estimating genetic parameters in plant breeding allows us to know the population potential for selecting and designing strategies that can maximize the achievement of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of a population of 20 cowpea genotypes by estimating genetic parameters and path analysis among the traits to guide the selection strategies. The trial was conducted in randomized block design with four replications. Its morphophysiological components, components of green grain production and dry grain yield were estimated from genetic use and correlations between the traits. Phenotypic correlations were deployed through path analysis into direct and indirect effects of morphophysiological traits and yield components on dry grain yield. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the genotypes for most the traits, indicating the presence of genetic variability in the population and the possibility of practicing selection. The population presents the potential for future genetic breeding studies and is highly promising for the selection of traits dry grain yield, the number of grains per pod, and hundred grains mass. A number of grains per green pod is the main determinant trait of dry grain yield that is also influenced by the cultivar cycle and that the selection for the dry grain yield can be made indirectly by selecting the green pod mass and green pod length.

  5. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, P. H.; Wen, A. M.; Sheen, M. R.; Fields, J.; Rojanasopondist, P.; Steinmetz, N. F.; Fiering, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  7. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  9. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amara, D S [Sierra Leone Univ., Njala Univ. College, Freetown (Sierra Leone). Dept. of Soil Science; Suale, D S [Institute of Agricultural Research, Freetown (Sierra Leone)

    1996-07-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs.

  10. Effect of organic fertilizer and its residual on cowpea and soybean in acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Kuntyastuty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of planting areas on acid soils is one of the strategies to achieve Indonesian self-sufficiency program on food. Acidic soil has low pH that causes contents of Al, Fe, and Mn are high. In addition, acidic soil also only has low microbial population. These conditions make soybean growth is not optimal. This research consisted of two phases i.e., the first and second planting. The first planting was aimed to study the effectiveness of fertilizer treatment, with three replications, using cowpea commodity. The second planting was done without additional fertilizer that consisted of three replicates (continued from the first planting using soybean. This research that was carried out at Iletri’s greenhouse Malang in 2014 was arranged in a randomized block design consisting of eight treatments, namely: (a control/without fertilizer; (B 300 kg/ha (15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O, 10% S; (C 1500 kg/ha cow manure; (D 3000 kg/ha cow manure; (E 5000 kg/ha cow manure; (F 1500 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures; (G 3000 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures; and (H 5000 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures. The results showed that organic fertilizer (cow manure 5000 kg/ha had higher yields both in the first planting and second planting compared to inorganic fertilizer 300 kg/ha (15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O, 10% S

  11. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  12. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Dart, Peter J.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu 2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu 2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu 2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu 2+ . The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu 2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu 2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu 2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu 2+ , rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  13. Effectiveness of BPMC Application against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius Population and CMMV Disease Incidence on Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Wartono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Control of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is the starting point in suppressing the CMMV disease (cowpea mild mottle virus. This study aims to determine the influence of applications BPMC (500 g a.i./l against B. tabaci populations and disease incidence of CMMV on soybean plants. Research was conducted in the field with randomized complete block design consisting of 5 treatments i.e. five concentration levels: 0.75, 1.50,2.25, and 3.00 ml/l including control (untreated with 5 replications. The results showed that BPMC is effective in suppressing the adult population of B. tabaci and disease incidence of CMMV.

  14. Grain legume improvement in Ghana with induced mutagenesis - Special reference to winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaah, G.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two varieties each of winged bean and cowpea were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source. Seed emergence, seedling height, seedling survival, plant survival at maturity, and plant and pod fertility were all progressively reduced with increasing dosage of irradiation. Mutants isolated in th M 2 for winged bean included a single stem erect mutant, a multiple branch bush, early, extra long-poded, strap and a spectrum of seed size and colour mutants. In cowpea an erect mutant was isolated. (author)

  15. Genetic and physical mapping of candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum race 3 in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Wanamaker, Steve; Ma, Yaqin Q; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum (Fot) is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in cowpea. Fot race 3 is one of the major pathogens affecting cowpea production in California. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance determinants will expedite delivery of improved cultivars by replacing time-consuming phenotypic screening with selection based on perfect markers, thereby generating successful cultivars in a shorter time period. Resistance to Fot race 3 was studied in the RIL population California Blackeye 27 (resistant) x 24-125B-1 (susceptible). Biparental mapping identified a Fot race 3 resistance locus, Fot3-1, which spanned 3.56 cM on linkage group one of the CB27 x 24-125B-1 genetic map. A marker-trait association narrowed the resistance locus to a 1.2 cM region and identified SNP marker 1_1107 as co-segregating with Fot3-1 resistance. Macro and microsynteny was observed for the Fot3-1 locus region in Glycine max where six disease resistance genes were observed in the two syntenic regions of soybean chromosomes 9 and 15. Fot3-1 was identified on the cowpea physical map on BAC clone CH093L18, spanning approximately 208,868 bp on BAC contig250. The Fot3-1 locus was narrowed to 0.5 cM distance on the cowpea genetic map linkage group 6, flanked by SNP markers 1_0860 and 1_1107. BAC clone CH093L18 was sequenced and four cowpea sequences with similarity to leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinases were identified and are cowpea candidate genes for the Fot3-1 locus. This study has shown how readily candidate genes can be identified for simply inherited agronomic traits when appropriate genetic stocks and integrated genomic resources are available. High co-linearity between cowpea and soybean genomes illustrated that utilizing synteny can transfer knowledge from a reference legume to legumes with less complete genomic resources. Identification of Fot race 3 resistance genes will enable transfer into high yielding cowpea varieties

  16. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped

  17. Rapid detection of fifteen known soybean viruses by dot-immunobinding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-11-01

    A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was optimized and used successfully for the rapid detection of 15 known viruses [Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV)] infecting soybean plants in Oklahoma. More than 1000 leaf samples were collected in approximately 100 commercial soybean fields in 24 counties of Oklahoma, during the 2012-2013 growing seasons. All samples were tested by DIBA using polyclonal antibodies of the above 15 plant viruses. Thirteen viruses were detected, and 8 of them were reported for the first time in soybean crops of Oklahoma. The highest average incidence was recorded for PeMoV (13.5%) followed by SVNV (6.9%), TSV (6.4%), BYMV, (4.5%), and TRSV (3.9%), while the remaining seven viruses were detected in less than 2% of the samples tested. The DIBA was quick, and economical to screen more than 1000 samples against 15 known plant viruses in a very short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and yield of cowpea/sunflower crop rotation under different irrigation management strategies with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Leila Rocha Neves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of management strategies of irrigation with saline water on growth and yield of cowpea and sunflower in a crop rotation. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with thirteen treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2, T3 and T4 using water of 0.5 (A1, 2.2 (A2, 3.6 (A3 and 5.0 (A4 dS m-1, respectively, during the entire crop cycle; T5, T6 and T7, use of A2, A3 and A4 water, respectively, only in the flowering and fructification stage of the crop cycle; using different water in a cyclic way, six irrigations with A1 followed by six irrigations with A2 (T8, A3 (T9 and A4, (T10, respectively; T11, T12 and T13, using water A2, A3 and A4, respectively, starting at 11 days after planting (DAP and continuing until the end of the crop cycle. These treatments were employed in the first crop (cowpea, during the dry season, and the same plots were used for the cultivation of sunflower as succeeding crop during rainy season. The strategies of use of saline water in the salt tolerant growth stage (treatments T5, T6 and T7 or cyclically (treatments T8, T9 and T10 reduced the amount of good quality water used in the production of cowpea by 34 and 47%, respectively, without negative impacts on crop yield, and did not show the residual effects of salinity on sunflower as a succeeding crop. Thus, these strategies appear promising to be employed in areas with water salinity problems in the semiarid region of Brazil.

  19. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Lucrative status of improved dual purpose cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp in Damboa, Borno State, North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Gabdo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Thisstudydivulgedthecost-returnsanalysisbetweenimproveddualpurposecowpea (IDPCvarietiesandothernon-IDPC/localcowpeavarieties in Azir, Damboa town, Kuboa and Sabongari villages of Damboa local council, Borno State, Nigeria. Socio-economic stratification of the villages into Low Population Low Market (LPLM and Low Population High Market (LPHM on the basis of human demographic profile and proximity to wholesale market were the criteria adopted for selecting the villages for this study. A total of 150 cowpea farmers responded to the questionnaire instrument; administered between December, 2006 and February, 2007. Results of the budgetary techniques used show that adopters of IDPC varieties generate $386.01ha-1 as net income as against $248.37ha-1 for the non-IDPC adopters; proportional to 55.42% rise in net income per hectare of cowpea resulting from the impact factor of IDPC adoption alone. Similarly, farmers in Sabongari village realized the highest net income of $491.99ha-1 as against Azir the lowest net income of $247.21ha-1 across the four villages owing to demand factor; interplay between human population and proximity to wholesale market; both in favour of Sabongari but none in favour of Azir. In terms of ratios, farmers in Sabongari were adjudged as more lucrative across adopters’ category, socio-economic domain and villages respectively owing to higher return on sale ratio and lower operating ratio. Azir and Sabongari villages were found to exhibit potentiality for comparative cost advantage and comparative sales advantage respectively. Thus, the research concludes that an expansion path for cowpea is feasible if cultivation and sales are premised on cost and sales advantages.