Sample records for covering seasonal variation

  1. Seasonal variation of grassland basal cover | JW | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction of a portable bridge for establishing 1100 relocatable points is described. Basal cover, measured by wheel-point and bridge-point methods, showed a statistically significant seasonal increase through summer and a decrease again after the rainfall began decreasing with the onset of winter. An initial small ...

  2. Impacts of Land Cover and Seasonal Variation on Maximum Air Temperature Estimation Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Cai


    Full Text Available Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST, a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season. Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub, suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.

  3. Surface Energy Exchange in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Environment: Flux Partitioning, and Seasonal and Land Cover-Related Variations (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; González-Martínez, T.


    Relationships between seasonal climate, land cover and surface energy exchange in tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) environments are poorly understood. Yet, understanding these linkages is essential to evaluating the impacts of land use and climate change on the functioning of these unique ecosystems. In central Veracruz, Mexico, TMCF occurs between 1100 and 2500 m asl. The canopy of this forest consists of a mix of deciduous and broadleaved-evergreen tree species, the former of which shed their leaves for a short period during the dry season. The aim of this study was to quantify the surface energy balance, and seasonal variations therein, for TMCF, as well as for shaded coffee (CO) and sugarcane (SU), two important land uses that have replaced TMCF at lower elevations. Sensible (H) and latent heat (LE) fluxes were measured using eddy covariance and sap flow methods. Other measurements included: micrometeorological variables, soil heat flux, soil moisture and vegetation characteristics. Partitioning of available energy (A) into H and LE showed important seasonal changes as well as differences among land covers. During the wet-season month of July, average midday Bowen ratios for sunny days were lowest and least variable among land covers: 0.5 in TMCF and SU versus 0.7 in CO. However, because of higher A, along with lower Bowen ratio with respect to CO, LE over TMCF was ca. 20% higher compared to CO and SU. During the late dry-season months of March and April, average midday Bowen ratios for sunny days were generally much higher and more variable among land covers. The higher Bowen ratios indicated a reduction of LE under the drier conditions prevailing (low soil moisture and high VPD), something rarely observed in TMCFs. Moreover, because some trees were still partially leafless in March, LE over TMCF was about half that over CO and SU, suggesting an important effect of phenology on energy exchange of this TMCF. Observed differences between seasons and land

  4. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo


    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  5. Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature, and Asian orography (United States)

    Demenocal, Peter B.; Rind, David


    A general circulation model was used to investigate the sensitivity of Asian and African climate to prescribed changes in boundary conditions with the objective of identifying the relative importance of individual high-latitude glacial boundary conditions on seasonal climate and providing a physical basis for interpreting the paleoclimate record. The circulation model is described and results are presented. Insolation forcing increased summer Asian monsoon winds, while increased high-latitude ice cover strengthened winter Asian trade winds causing decreased precipitation. These factors had little effect on African climate. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperatures enhanced winter trade winds over North Africa, southern Asian climate was relatively unaffected. Reducing Asian orography enhanced Asian winter circulation while decreasing the summer monsoon. These model results suggest that African and southern Asian climate respond differently to separate elements of high-latitude climate variability.

  6. Variations in snow cover seasonality across the Kyrgyz Republic from 2000 to 2016 revealed through MODIS Terra and Aqua snow products (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M. A.; Henebry, G. M.


    The vertical transhumance practiced by herders in the highlands of Kyrgyzstan is vulnerable to environmental change. Herd movements and pasture conditions are both affected by spatial and temporal variations in snow cover and the timing of snowmelt. Early growing season soil moisture conditions affect the phenology and growth of vegetation, especially in the high elevation pastures used for summer forage. To evaluate snow seasonality, we examined three snow cover variables—the first day of snow (FDoS), the last day of snow (LDoS), and the duration of snow cover (DoSC) over 17 years based on 8-day snow product from MODIS Terra and Aqua (MOD/MYD10A2) across the Kyrgyz Republic (KYR). To track the "snow season" efficiently in the presence of snow-capped peaks, we start each snow season at day of year (DOY) 169, approximately the summer solstice, and extend to DOY 168 of the following year. To track the interannual variation of these variables, we applied two nonparametric statistics: the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Theil-Sen linear trend estimator. Our preliminary results focusing on four rayons in two oblasts indicate both large swaths of positive and negative significant trends over the different regions of the country. Positive trends in FDoS, meaning later snow arrival, were detected in parts of central KYR. Negative trends in FDoS meaning earlier arrival were detected at lower elevations in southwestern KYR. Earlier snowmelt (negative trend in LDoS) in eastern KYR resulted in a shorter snow season (negative trend in DoSC); in contrast, later snowmelt in southwestern KYR (positive trend in LDoS) resulted in a longer period of snow cover (positive trend of DoSC). We extend the analysis to the entire country and explore the influence of terrain attribites (elevation, slope, and aspect) and MODIS IGBP land cover type (MCD12Q1) on trends in snow cover seasonality. Additionally, we ran the trend tests for the Terra and Aqua snow products separately to evaluate

  7. Wet-dry seasonal and vertical geochemical variations in soil water and their driving forces under different land covers in southwest China karst (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Bill X.; Wu, Chuanhao; Xu, Kai


    Karst aquifers supply drinking water for 25% of the world's population, and they are, however, vulnerable to climate change. Bimonthly hydrochemical data in karst soil water samples from July 2010 to July 2011 were obtained to reveal the seasonal and vertical geochemical variations in soil water under five vegetation types in Qingmuguan, a small karst catchment in southwest China. Soil water chemistry was dominated by Ca2+, HCO3-, and SO42- because of the dissolution of limestone, dolomite, and gypsum minerals in the strata. The predominant hydrochemical types in soil water were Ca2+-HCO3-, Ca2+-SO42-, and mixed Ca2+-HCO3-SO42-. Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations ranked in the following order: shrub land > dry land > afforestation farmland > bamboo land > grassland. In warm and wet seasons, the main ion concentrations in soil water from grasslands were low. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations in soil water from other lands were high. An opposite trend was observed in cold and dry seasons. Marked seasonal variations were observed in Ca2+, HCO3-, and NO3- in soil water from dry land. The main ion concentrations in soil water from bamboo lands decreased as soil depth increased. By contrast, the chemistry of soil water from other lands increased as soil depth increased. Their ions were accumulated in depth. A consistent high and low variation between the main ions in soil water and the contents of carbonate and CO2 was found in the soil. Hydrochemical changes in soil water were regulated by the effects of dilution and soil CO2.

  8. Seasonal variation in sports participation. (United States)

    Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim


    This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.

  9. Personal exposure to PM2.5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Andersen, Helle Vibeke


    concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental...... factor. Seasons were defined as a dichotomised grouping of outdoor temperature (above and below 8 degrees C). For NO(2) there was a significant association between personal exposure and both the bedroom, the front door and the background concentrations, whereas for PM(2.5) and BS only the bedroom...... three measurements, and the association between the front door and the background concentrations was significant for PM(2.5) and NO(2), but not for BS, indicating greater spatial variation for BS than for PM(2.5) and NO(2). For NO(2), the relationship between the personal exposure and the front door...

  10. Personal exposure to PM2.5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation. (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Nielsen, Ivan V; Hertel, Ole


    Epidemiological studies have found negative associations between human health and particulate matter in urban air. In most studies outdoor monitoring of urban background has been used to assess exposure. In a field study, personal exposure as well as bedroom, front door and background concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and burning of candles was collected by questionnaires. The personal exposure, the bedroom concentration and the front door concentration was set as outcome variable in separate models and analysed by mixed effect model regression methodology, regarding subject levels as a random factor. Seasons were defined as a dichotomised grouping of outdoor temperature (above and below 8 degrees C). For NO(2) there was a significant association between personal exposure and both the bedroom, the front door and the background concentrations, whereas for PM(2.5) and BS only the bedroom and the front door concentrations, and not the background concentration, were significantly associated to the personal exposure. The bedroom concentration was the strongest predictor of all three pollution measurements. The association between the bedroom and front door concentrations was significant for all three measurements, and the association between the front door and the background concentrations was significant for PM(2.5) and NO(2), but not for BS, indicating greater spatial variation for BS than for PM(2.5) and NO(2). For NO(2), the relationship between the personal exposure and the front door concentration was dependent upon the "season", with a stronger association in the warm season compared with the cold season, and for PM(2.5) and BS the same tendency was seen. Time exposed to

  11. Diurnal cycle and seasonal variation of cloud cover over the Tibetan Plateau as determined from Himawari-8 new-generation geostationary satellite data. (United States)

    Shang, Huazhe; Letu, Husi; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Wang, Ziming; Ma, Run; Wang, Tianxing; Lei, Yonghui; Ji, Dabin; Li, Shenshen; Shi, Jiancheng


    Analysis of cloud cover and its diurnal variation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is highly reliant on satellite data; however, the accuracy of cloud detection from both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites over this area remains unclear. The new-generation geostationary Himawari-8 satellites provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information about clouds over the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the cloud detection of MODIS and AHI is investigated and validated against CALIPSO measurements. For AHI and MODIS, the false alarm rate of AHI and MODIS in cloud identification over the TP was 7.51% and 1.94%, respectively, and the cloud hit rate was 73.55% and 80.15%, respectively. Using hourly cloud-cover data from the Himawari-8 satellites, we found that at the monthly scale, the diurnal cycle in cloud cover over the TP tends to increase throughout the day, with the minimum and maximum cloud fractions occurring at 10:00 a.m. and 18:00 p.m. local time. Due to the limited time resolution of polar-orbiting satellites, the underestimation of MODIS daytime average cloud cover is approximately 4.00% at the annual scale, with larger biases during the spring (5.40%) and winter (5.90%).

  12. Towards a Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Land Susceptibility to Degradation: Examining Seasonal Variation in Land Use-Land Cover for Modelling Land Degradation in a Semi-Arid Context (United States)

    Mashame, Gofamodimo; Akinyemi, Felicia


    Land degradation (LD) is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC) and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Organization of Standardization (ISO) code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22%) of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mashame


    Full Text Available Land degradation (LD is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO International Organization of Standardization (ISO code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22% of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  14. Seasonal variation in pediatric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Sabyasachi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The under-five population is a unique and vulnerable component of our society that always demands special attention. Aims: Our present work aimed to study the seasonal variation, age-wise variation and distribution of lesions of common dermatoses of this age group. Materials and Methods: We clinically studied all fresh cases attending the skin OPD of our hospital for one month each from summer, rainy season and winter. Total number of patients was 879. Results: The top six skin diseases in our study were impetigo, miliaria, scabies, furunculosis, seborrheic dermatitis and papular urticaria. On statistical analysis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis were more prevalent during winter while impetigo, furunculosis and miliaria were more during summer and rainy season. Papular urticaria was more frequent in the rainy season. Seborrheic dermatitis predominantly affected the infants while impetigo, furunculosis, miliaria and popular urticaria were commoner in older age groups. Conclusion: Distribution of lesions of common dermatoses will help diagnose difficult cases and extensive evaluation of the body parts which, by virtue of being commonly affected, are must-examine sites in under-five children.

  15. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Consistent seasonal ... Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and ...

  16. Modeling the Seasonality of Snow Cover in Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M. A.; Henebry, G. M.


    Vertical transhumance practiced by herders in the highlands of Kyrgyzstan is strongly affected by timing of snow melt in high-elevation summer pastures. To model snow cover seasonality, we explore a novel approach through the synergistic use of "frost degree-days" obtained from MODIS land surface temperature data and the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) derived from over 16 years of Landsat imagery (2000-2015). From the fitted parameter coefficients of a convex quadratic model linking NDSI to accumulated frost degree-days (AFDD), we calculated two key metrics—the Peak Height of the NDSI and the Thermal Time (in AFDD) to the Peak Height—to examine the interannual variation in the timing of snow cover onset, snow melt, and snow cover duration. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this modeling approach to snow cover seasonality as well as demonstrate how it complements the land surface phenology modeling for understanding climatic influences on the highland pastures of Naryn oblast in Central Kyrgyzstan.

  17. Seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area was investigated. The objectives of the study were to determine the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination and to determine the influence of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal contamination. Groundwater samples were ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 Department of Biology, BahirDar Teachers' College. PO Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. ABSTRACT; The diet composition and its use by Oreochromis niloticus in. Lake Tana, Ethiopia, were studied from monthly samples taken over 13 months. The composition of the diet varied seasonally, with dramatic increases in quality.

  19. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a positive correlation between fish abundance and biomass for wet and dry seasons (r = 0.60 and 0.76 respectively). There was no significant difference between fish abundance in the two seasons. Variations occurred between physico-chemical parameters of water samples. Analysis of the lagoon waters showed ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 5, 2015 ... investigation is focused on seasonal variation in groundwater quality of Valsad district of south Gujarat (India). Groundwater ... natural resource that has to be conserved and preserved for sustenance of life in future [1]. Groundwater was ... The groundwater quality may also vary with seasonal changes [2].

  1. Seasonal variations in hospital admissions for mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan


    BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is characterized by a seasonal pattern with emerging evidence that weather conditions may trigger symptoms. Thus, our aims were to investigate if year-to-year variations in admissions with mania correlated with year-to-year variations in key meteorological variables, ...

  2. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build- up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH. 1. Introduction. Mountainous regions around the globe are storehouses.

  3. Seasonal variations in sleep disorders of nurses. (United States)

    Chang, Yuanmay; Lam, Calvin; Chen, Su-Ru; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey


    To investigate the difference between nurses and the general population regarding seasonal variations in sleep disorders during 2004-2008. The effects of season and group interaction on sleep disorders with regard to different comorbidities were also examined. Studies on seasonal variations in sleep disorders were mainly conducted in Norway for the general population. Furthermore, whether different comorbidities cause seasonal variations in sleep disorders in nurses remains unknown. A retrospective study. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used in generalised estimating equation Poisson distribution models to investigate the differences in sleep disorders between nurses and the general population diagnosed with sleep disorders (each n = 7643) as well as the interaction effects of sleep disorders between the groups with respect to different seasons. Furthermore, the interaction effects between groups and seasons on sleep disorders in the subgroups of comorbid anxiety disorders and depressive disorders were studied. Both the nurses and the general population had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in other seasons. The nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. The nurses had more outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in summer compared with the general population in the comorbid depressive disorder subgroup but not in the comorbid anxiety disorder subgroup. Nurses and the general population exhibited similar seasonal patterns of sleep disorders, but nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. For nurses with comorbid depressive disorders, outpatient visits for sleep disorders were more numerous in winter than in summer, potentially because nurses with comorbid depressive disorders are affected by shorter daylight exposure during winter. Depression and daylight exposure may

  4. Seasonal variations of haematological parameters in athletes. (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul; Lippi, Giuseppe


    The influence of training and competition workloads is crucial for evaluation of longitudinal haematological data in athletes. There are only a few papers on the variation of haematological parameters during long-lasting periods and, especially, during an entire competitive season. We summarized that some haematological parameters can be influenced by long-term training and competition periods. Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) are decreased during the more intense periods of training, throughout the season. In different sport disciplines, the decline of Hb ranges from 3 to 8% during the competition season, while the range of reticulocytes (Ret%) varies from 5 to 21%. Reticulocytes are also decreased after long periods of training and competitions, but their variation is not necessarily associated with that of Hb. The qualitative variations (trend of modifications) of haematological parameters are roughly independent of the sport discipline, but quantitatively (amount of modifications) dependent on sport discipline. The modifications are more evident in cycling, running, swimming than they are in football and rugby. The variations of haematological parameters within the same sport discipline are qualitatively concordant and quantitatively different among separate but consecutive competitive seasons. These findings are described in aerobic and team sports sportsmen. The definition of reliable reference ranges in sportsmen would only be possible by following the best laboratory practices. For antidoping purposes more studies investigating haematological modifications during the season are advisable.

  5. Seasonal variations of equatorial spread-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. V. Subbarao


    Full Text Available The occurrence of spread-F at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, dip 0.5°N has been investigated on a seasonal basis in sunspot maximum and minimum years in terms of the growth rate of irregularities by the generalized collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT instability mechanism which includes the gravitational and cross-field instability terms. The occurrence statistics of spread-F at Trivandrum have been obtained using quarter hourly ionograms. The nocturnal variations of the growth rate of irregularities by the GRT mechanism have been estimated for different seasons in sunspot maximum and minimum years at Trivandrum using h'F values and vertical drift velocities obtained from ionograms. It is found that the seasonal variation of spread-F occurrence at Trivandrum can, in general, be accounted for on the basis of the GRT mechanism.

  6. seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. 2, 2010: 143- ... Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area was investigated. The objectives ... and anthropogenic input is the only source influencing the contamination indices in the case of chromium hexavalent.

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of seasonal snow cover in Kashmir valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 6 ... Different geographical parameters of these regions were studied to evaluate the influence on snow cover and it was observed that altitude and position of region with respect to mountain range are the deciding factors for retaining the seasonal snow ...

  8. Monitoring and evaluation of seasonal snow cover in Kashmir valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in Kashmir valley using remote sensing, GIS and ancillary data. H S Negi∗, N K Thakur, Rajeev Kumar and Manoj Kumar. Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh 160 036, India. ∗ e-mail: negi− Seasonal snow cover is a vital natural resource in the Himalaya.

  9. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H


    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  10. MODIS Snow Cover Recovery Using Variational Interpolation (United States)

    Tran, H.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.


    Cloud obscuration is one of the major problems that limit the usages of satellite images in general and in NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global Snow-Covered Area (SCA) products in particular. Among the approaches to resolve the problem, the Variational Interpolation (VI) algorithm method, proposed by Xia et al., 2012, obtains cloud-free dynamic SCA images from MODIS. This method is automatic and robust. However, computational deficiency is a main drawback that degrades applying the method for larger scales (i.e., spatial and temporal scales). To overcome this difficulty, this study introduces an improved version of the original VI. The modified VI algorithm integrates the MINimum RESidual (MINRES) iteration (Paige and Saunders., 1975) to prevent the system from breaking up when applied to much broader scales. An experiment was done to demonstrate the crash-proof ability of the new algorithm in comparison with the original VI method, an ability that is obtained when maintaining the distribution of the weights set after solving the linear system. After that, the new VI algorithm was applied to the whole Contiguous United States (CONUS) over four winter months of 2016 and 2017, and validated using the snow station network (SNOTEL). The resulting cloud free images have high accuracy in capturing the dynamical changes of snow in contrast with the MODIS snow cover maps. Lastly, the algorithm was applied to create a Cloud free images dataset from March 10, 2000 to February 28, 2017, which is able to provide an overview of snow trends over CONUS for nearly two decades. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe would like to acknowledge NASA, NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) National Weather Service (NWS), Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites (CICS), Army Research Office (ARO), ICIWaRM, and UNESCO for supporting this research.

  11. Seasonal variations in depression and osteoarthritis


    Harris, Conrad M.


    Seasonal variations in consultations for depression and osteoarthritis were discovered in the 1980 morbidity data of five London practices with a total of 32,524 patients. Depression showed a bimodal pattern similar to that described from hospital data and national suicide statistics, but not previously recorded from general practice. Osteoarthritis also showed a bimodal pattern, with peaks in spring and autumn; this came as a surprise and needs confirmation from other studies. It may reflect...

  12. Surface ultraviolet radiation over east Siberia: seasonal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhalev

    Full Text Available The results of spectral measurements of the daily near-noon surface direct solar ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range of 295–345 nm obtained in Irkutsk (East Siberia for the time interval of 1998–2000 are presented. For the period under consideration, the seasonal UV radiation variations are analysed that are associated with the total ozone dynamics, the transition of cyclonic and anticyclonic (Siberian anticyclone periods, the presence of snow cover, and other factors. The analysis reveals an asymmetric behaviour of the seasonal course in ground-level UV radiation around the time of the summer solstice, with seasonal variation dependence on the wavelength. We have determined the irregular variations of surface UV radiation that is typical for the region, with their properties dependent on the season and on the spectral range analysed. The similarity of the above noted features from year to year was revealed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Transmission and scattering of radiation; instruments and techniques – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  13. Occurrence of suicide and seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retamal C. Pedro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the estimated suicide rates for the Region Metropolitan, the main socio-political center in Chile, for the period 1979-1994, and to determine whether they follow a seasonal pattern. METHOD: Data available for the period 1979-94 at the Forensic Services in Chile was analyzed using ANOVA. RESULTS: It was register 5.386 suicides. While the "warm" months (October, November, December & January concentrated 39.0% of cases, the so called "cold" months reported 28,7%. This contrast is made even clearer by the month-to-month analysis, showing the highest suicide rate in December (10.9% against the lowest rate in June (7.0%. Further statistical analysis revealed these differences to be significant. CONCLUSION: The study shows that in Chile, representing as it does the Southern Hemisphere, the suicide rates tend to present a seasonal variation as has elsewhere been determined for in the North Hemisphere.

  14. Seasonal variations of the high-latitude F region for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, J.J.; Schunk, R.W.; Raitt, W.J.


    We combined a plasma convection model with an inosphere-atmospheric composition model in order to study the seasonal variations of the high-latitude F region for strong convection. Our numerical study produced time-dependent, three-dimensional, ion density distributions for the ions NO + , O 2 + , N 2 + , O + , N + , and He + . We covered the high-latitude ionosphere above 42 0 N magnetic latitude and at altitudes between 160 and 800 km for a time period of one complete day. From our study we found the following: (1) For strong convection, the high-altitude ionosphere exhibits a significant UT variation both during winter and summer. (2) In general, the electron density is lower in winter than in summer. However, at certain universal times the electron density in the dayside polar cap is larger in winter than in summer owing to the effect of the mid-latitude 'winter anomaly' in combination with strong antisunward convection. (3) In both summer and winter, the major region of low electron density is associated with the main or mid-latitudde trough. The trough is deeper and its local time extend is much greater in winter than in summer. (4) Typically, the electron density exhibits a much larger variation with altitude in winter than in summer. (5) The ion composition and molecular/atomic ion transition altitude are highly UT dependent in both summer and winter. (6) The ion composition also displays a significant seasonal variation. However, at a given location the seasonal variation can be opposite at different universal times. (7) High-speed convection cells should display a marked seasonal variation, with a much larger concentration of molecular ions near the F region peak in summer than in winter

  15. Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum complex were studied in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, with the objectives of discovering the season with the highest biting densities and relating the seasonal biting densities with the farming seasons of the people. The study ...

  16. Seasonal Variation in Group Size Is Related to Seasonal Variation in Neuropeptide Receptor Density. (United States)

    Wilson, Leah C; Goodson, James L; Kingsbury, Marcy A


    In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus). We used receptor autoradiography to quantify seasonal plasticity in available binding sites for three neuropeptides known to influence social behavior. We examined binding sites for 125I-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 125I-sauvagine (SG, a ligand for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors) and 125I-ornithine vasotocin analog (OVTA, a ligand for the VT3 nonapeptide). For all species and ligands, brain areas that exhibited a seasonal pattern in binding density were characterized by a winter increase. Compared to nonflocking species, seasonally flocking species showed different binding patterns in multiple brain areas. Furthermore, we found that winter flocking was associated with elevated winter 125I-VIP binding density in the medial amygdala, as well as 125I-VIP and 125I-OVTA binding density in the rostral arcopallium. While the functional significance of the avian rostral arcopallium is unclear, it may incorporate parts of the pallial amygdala. Our results point to this previously undescribed area as a likely hot spot of social modulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Seasonal variation in heavy metal concentration in mangrove foliage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...

  18. Linkages between Snow Cover Seasonality, Terrain, and Land Surface Phenology in the Highland Pastures of Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Henebry, Geoffrey; Tomaszewska, Monika; Kelgenbaeva, Kamilya


    In the highlands of Kyrgyzstan, vertical transhumance is the foundation of montane agropastoralism. Terrain attributes, such as elevation, slope, and aspect, affect snow cover seasonality, which is a key influence on the timing of plant growth and forage availability. Our study areas include the highland pastures in Central Tien Shan mountains, specifically in the rayons of Naryn and At-Bashy in Naryn oblast, and Alay and Chong-Alay rayons in Osh oblast. To explore the linkages between snow cover seasonality and land surface phenology as modulated by terrain and variations in thermal time, we use 16 years (2001-2016) of Landsat surface reflectance data at 30 m resolution with MODIS land surface temperature and snow cover products at 1 km and 500 m resolution, respectively, and two digital elevation models, SRTM and ASTER GDEM. We model snow cover seasonality using frost degree-days and land surface phenology using growing degree-days as quadratic functions of thermal time: a convex quadratic (CxQ) model for land surface phenology and a concave quadratic (CvQ) model for snow cover seasonality. From the fitted parameter coefficients, we calculated phenometrics, including "peak height" and "thermal time to peak" for the CxQ models and "trough depth" and "thermal time to trough" for the CvQ models. We explore how these phenometrics change as a function of elevation and slope-aspect interactions and due to interannual variability. Further, we examine how snow cover duration and timing affects the subsequent peak height and thermal time to peak in wetter, drier, and normal years.

  19. Seasonal variation in stomach contents and diet composition in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in stomach contents and diet composition in the large girdled lizard, Cordylus giganteus (Reptilia: Cordylidae) in the Highveld grasslands of the northeastern Free State, South Africa.

  20. Seasonal variation of radon concentrations in UK homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J C H; Howarth, C B; Hunter, N


    The patterns of seasonal variation of radon concentrations were measured in 91 homes in five regions of the UK over a period of two years. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the regions in the pattern or magnitude of seasonal variation in radon concentrations. The arithmetic mean variation was found to be close to that found previously in the UK national survey. Differences in the pattern between the two years of the study were not significant. Two-thirds of homes in the study followed the expected pattern of high radon in the winter and low radon in the summer. Most of the rest showed little seasonal variation, and a few showed a reversed seasonal pattern. The study does not provide any clear evidence for the recorded house characteristics having an effect on the seasonal variation in radon concentrations in UK homes, though the statistical power for determining such effects is limited in this study. The magnitude of the seasonal variation varied widely between homes. Analysis of the individual results from the homes showed that because of the wide variation in the amount of seasonal variation, applying seasonal correction factors to the results of three-month measurements can yield only relatively small improvements in the accuracy of estimates of annual mean concentrations.

  1. Seasonal Variations of Stratospheric Age Spectra in GEOSCCM (United States)

    Li, F.; Waugh, D. W.; Douglass, A. R.; Pawson, S.; Newman, P. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.


    The stratospheric age spectrum is the probability distribution function of the transit times since a stratospheric air parcel had last contact with a tropospheric boundary region. The age spectrum provides valuable information on stratospheric transport timescales such as the mean age, modal age, spectral width, and stratospheric decay rate. However, knowledge of the age spectrum's seasonal variability is very limited. In this study, we investigate the seasonal variations of stratospheric age spectra using the pulse tracer method in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). The differences between the age spectrum and the Boundary Impulse Response (BIR), which is the direct product of the pulse tracer method, are clarified. We introduce a simplified method to reconstruct seasonally varying age spectra from seasonally varying BIRs. Age spectra in the GEOSCCM have significant seasonal variations throughout the stratosphere. The largest seasonal changes occur in the lowermost and lower stratosphere and the subtropical overworld. Up to 40% differences between the individual month and annually averaged mean age are commonly found in these regions. The modal ages and spectral shapes demonstrate even bigger changes in the polar stratosphere. The seasonal variations of the age spectra reflect the seasonal evolution and relative importance of the slow Brewer-Dobson circulation and the fast isentropic mixing. The seasonal and interannual variations of the BIRs are also investigated. Our results clearly show that computing an ensemble of seasonally dependent BIRs is necessary in order to capture the seasonal and annual mean properties of the stratospheric age spectra.

  2. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H


    ), leukocyte histamine release (HR), measurement of specific IgE, and immunoblotting experiments. The sensitivity of the DBPCFC, when compared with the result of the open challenge, was 0.74 (14/19) before the season and 0.80 (16/20) during the season. None of the patients reacted to the blinded challenge...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Parameters analysed are temperature, turbidity, TDS, TSS, pH, DO, BOD, total hardness, conductivity, iron content, nitrate, sulphate, E.coli and faecal streptococci. Result of the analyses showed that all the parameters have higher concentration during the wet season than in the dry season in all the Groups, except for BOD,.

  4. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland. (United States)

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia


    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map.

  5. Assessing the thermal dissipation sap flux density method for monitoring cold season water transport in seasonally snow-covered forests. (United States)

    Chan, Allison M; Bowling, David R


    Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported. Here we examine the feasibility of using the Granier thermal dissipation (TD) sap flux density method to monitor transpiration and dormancy of evergreen conifers during the cold season. We conducted a laboratory experiment which demonstrated that the TD method reliably detects xylem water transport (when it occurs) both at near freezing temperature and at low flow rate, and that the sensors can withstand repeated freeze-thaw events. However, the dependence between sensor output and water transport rate in these experiments differed from the established TD relation. In field experiments, sensors installed in two Abies forests lasted through two winters and a summer with low failure. The baseline (no-flow) sensor output varied considerably with temperature during the cold season, and a new baseline algorithm was developed to accommodate this variation. The Abies forests differed in elevation (2070 and 2620 m), and there was a clear difference in timing of initiation and cessation of transpiration between them. We conclude that the TD method can be reliably used to examine water transport during cold periods with associated low flow conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal 1-km AVHRR land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover...

  7. Seasonal variation in diversity and abundance of understorey birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...

  8. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, Camilla; Gamborg, Michael; Raymond, Kyle


    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine...... exposure during pregnancy. METHODS: The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude...

  9. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal 1-km AVHRR land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional...

  10. Seasonal variations in the microflora from mangrove swamps in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Seasonal variations in bacterial and fungal counts from the water and sediment samples of mangrove ecosystem of Goa (India) show that this ecosystem supports a very high population of fungi and bacteria...

  11. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...

  12. Seasonal Variation in Trypanosomosis Rates in Small Ruminants at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit. Centrifugation Technique ...

  13. Seasonal variation in admission for heart failure, hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seasonal variation in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease has been described in the temperate regions of the world as well as in Northern Nigeria. Increase admission rates during the cold seasons have been reported in these areas. No studies have been done in Southern Nigeria. This study is thus ...

  14. Seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations in soil and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the seasonal variations in concentrations of the heavy metals - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn - in soil and crops from a farm near the refuse dump site of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to assess the pollution ...

  15. Seasonal variation in the superficial vein thrombosis frequency. (United States)

    Frappé, Paul; Bertoletti, Laurent; Presles, Emilie; Buchmuller-Cordier, Andréa; Merah, Adel; Le Hello, Claire; Peycelon, Déborah; Tardy, Bernard; Décousus, Hervé


    A seasonal variation of venous thromboembolic disease frequency is subject to discussion, and has been recently suggested for superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) in a small retrospective study. Our aim was to search for a seasonal variation of SVT frequency according to the data of larger studies. We analyzed the data of three French prospective multicenter studies with different designs which have included patients with SVT (STENOX, POST, and STEPH studies). Seasonal variation of SVT frequency was evaluated by comparing the observed seasonal frequency of SVT to a theoretical frequency of 25% for each season. The analysis included 1395 patients and 4.75 seasonal cycles. The difference to a theoretical frequency of 25% was statistically significant in one study (POST, p = 0.044). The higher risk difference was -6.1% (95% CI -11.7–−0.5) in summer in STENOX, +7.1% (95% CI +2.7-+11.5) in winter in POST and 4.2% (95% CI -5.2-+13.7) in spring in STEPH, corresponding to a relative risk of 0.80, 1.40 and 1.20, respectively. A seasonal variation was found in only one study which has the weakest methodology to warrant completeness. Variation pattern was

  16. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia


    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  17. Does seasonal variation influence the phytochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 19, 2008 ... Bioactive phytocom- pounds isolated from plants include flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, etc, and according to Korotkova et al. ... ture and stored in a dark cupboard in separate covered glass beakers at room temperature. Extraction procedure. Two grams (2 g) of each of the leaf samples was extracted ...

  18. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  19. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  20. Cloud Cover and Wildfire Variations in Vietnam and Southeast Asia (United States)

    Lasko, K.


    Monitoring fires from space is constrained by cloud cover, particularly in tropical regions. Cloud cover-fire variations were assessed using the CERES SSF1Deg and MODIS active fire (MCD14ML) products in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. Twelve years (2003-2014) of data have been analyzed spatially and temporally at four spatial scales: a) country level; b). 1x1 degree scale; c). land cover type; d). regions. Country-level results suggested Vietnam having the highest monthly cloud cover (72.37%) followed by Cambodia (69.69%), Laos (67.64%), Thailand (67.58%), and Myanmar (59.90%). Strong negative correlation between cloud cover and MODIS active fires has been observed during the biomass burning months (Jan-Apr). Of the different countries, Vietnam also had the lowest monthly fire detections. Pixel by pixel spatial correlation at 1x1 degree suggested negative fire-cloud relationships over the Red River Delta of Vietnam, the forests of northern Laos, and agriculture-dominated peninsulas of Thailand and Myanmar. Among the different land cover types, the average monthly cloud cover varied between 64% - 66%. Further, results from daily data showed the Red River Delta to have consistently more cloud cover (20-40% more) than the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam, with fewer fire detections in the former than the latter. The study highlights potential fire under-detection due to clouds. Our results highlight spatial and temporal variations in cloud-fire relationships and the difficulty of using optical data for fire detection and characterization in persistently cloudy regions.

  1. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie


    is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  2. Seasonal variation and predictors of epistaxis. (United States)

    Purkey, Matthew R; Seeskin, Zachary; Chandra, Rakesh


    To examine the incidence of epistaxis as a function of season and age and to determine predictors of episodes within the epistaxis patient population presenting to a tertiary hospital system. Retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical record charts of patients presenting to the Northwestern Emergency Department, admitted to an inpatient ward, or seen in an outpatient setting between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed and selected for an International Classifications of Disease-Ninth Revision epistaxis code of 784.7. Season of presentation, demographic factors (age, race, gender, insurance status), medication use (including anticoagulants and topical nasal steroid administration), and several comorbidities were analyzed as potential predictors of episodes. A total of 2,405 patients were identified with a total of 3,666 individual epistaxis episodes over 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis (CRS), coagulopathy, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), hematologic malignancy, and hypertension (HTN) as predictors of a higher number of cases. Epistaxis occurred more frequently during colder months and in older patients. Epistaxis occurs more commonly during the winter and in older patients. AR, CRS, coagulopathy, HHT, hematologic malignancy, and HTN are associated with increased epistaxis incidence. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  4. Testing for converging deterministic seasonal variation in European industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R.M. Kunst (Robert)


    textabstractIn this paper we consider deterministic seasonal variation in quarterly production for several European countries, and we address the question whether this variation has become more similar across countries over time. Due to economic and institutional factors, one may expect convergence

  5. On the nature of seasonal variations of subsurface radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, V.P.


    Qualitative comparison of the curve of average monthly temperature variations of atmospheric air with change in concentration of subsurface radon and the curve of thermoplastic deformations of the earth surface conditioned by temperature variations of the surface layer of atmosphere is conducted on the basis of measurements of forecasting site in the Central Asic. Wave of thermoplastic deformations conditioned by seasonal variation of air temperature of the surface layer of the atmosphere is shown to be one of the sources of seasonal variations of subsurface radon concentration. Effect of deformations conditioned by temperature variations of the atmospheric surface layer, atmospheric precipitations and hydrogeological reasons should be taken into account in forecasting measurements of variations of underground radon concentration

  6. Diurnal and seasonal variations of surface water vapour density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diurnal and seasonal variations of surface water vapour density over some meteorological stations in Nigeria. ... Ife Journal of Science ... the three Sahelian stations, was 5.29±0.39; while during the rainy season, they were 21.72±1.22, 19.60±0.12 and 19.47±0.07 for the Southern, Midland and Northern regions respectively.

  7. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical...... analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste....

  8. Seasonal variation of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov


    Full Text Available Тhe aim of the present study was identification of flavone aglycones and determination of the content of each and the content of total flavonoids as well as investigation of the eventual seasonal variations of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae. The plant samples were collected at six different locations in Republic of Macedonia, during summer in 1999, 2000 and 2003. For determination of seasonal variations, the samples were collected in v. Koleshino, in 2004, each month during the whole season. Six flavone aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin and cirsilineol were identified in the hydrolyzed extracts of the over ground part of Teucrium polium by HPLC method. The most abundant flavone was luteolin, followed by apigenin and cirsimaritin. Great seasonal variations were found in the content of each and in the content of total amount of flavonoids. The most abundant flavone during the whole season was luteolin with the highest content in May. The content of total flavonids was the highest in the period from May to July, which could be recommended as the most convenience period in the season for collecting of the plant material from Teucrium polium.

  9. Watershed Land Use and Seasonal Variation Constrain the ... (United States)

    While watershed and local scale controls on stream metabolism have been independently investigated, little is known about how controls exerted at these different scales interact to determine stream metabolic rates, or how these interactions vary across seasons. To address this knowledge gap, we measured ecosystem metabolism in four urban and four reference streams in northern Kentucky, USA, with paired closed and open riparian canopies, during each of the four seasons of the year. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) were all best predicted by models with season as a main effect, but interactions between season, canopy and watershed varied for each response. Urban streams exhibited higher GPP during most seasons, likely due to elevated nutrient loads. Open canopy reaches in both urban and forested streams supported higher rates of GPP than the closed canopy reaches during the summer and fall when the overhead vegetation shaded the closed reaches. Surprisingly, the effect of canopy cover on GPP was similar among urban and forested streams. The combination of watershed and local-scale controls resulted in urban streams that alternated between net heterotrophy (NEP 0) between seasons with and without dense canopy cover. This finding has management relevance because net production can lead to accumulation of algal biomass and associated issues like dissolved oxygen sags at night. Our study reinforces

  10. Seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in a desert climate. (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, H M; Nuseirat, M; Aljarrah, K; Al-Akhras, M-Ali H; Bani-Salameh, H


    Radon is one of the sources that negatively affect dwellings air quality and is ranked as a main cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. The indoor radon concentrations usually affected by the conditions of the environment surrounding the dwellings. Seasonal variations can have a significant impact on the indoor radon concentrations. In this article, we studied the seasonal variations of indoor radon concentration in a desert climate, particularly in gulf countries that usually leave the windows and doors closed all over the time. Four hundred dosimeters containing CR-39 detectors were planted for three months to measure the variation in radon concentration between winter and summer seasons. Our measurements showed that a building with a basement revealed a significant variation between radon concentration in winter (44.3 ± 3.1Bqm -3 ) and in summer (26.1 ± 1.7Bqm -3 ). Buildings without basements showed that the indoor radon concentration in winter (16.1 ± 1.7Bqm -3 ) is very much close to that in summer (16.7 ± 1.8Bqm -3 ). Our results indicated that seasonal variations can significantly affect indoor radon concentration for buildings established with basements. However; in the study region, the average indoor radon concentration as well as the annual effective dose rate are found to be below the action level recommended by ICRP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface energy balance of seasonal snow cover for snow-melt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study describes time series analysis of snow-melt, radiation data and energy balance for a seasonal snow cover at Dhundi field station of SASE, which lies in Pir Panjal range of the. N–W Himalaya, for a winter season from 13 January to 12 April 2005. The analysis shows that mean snow surface temperature remains ...

  12. Patterns and Seasonal Variations of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease occurs in 2-10% of patients with ulcer disease and its principal treatment is surgical. Objective: To describe the socio-demographics of the patients, seasonal variation in its incidence, modes of surgical management and outcome of patients. Methods: This was a retrospective ...

  13. Seasonal variation in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 22, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Seasonal variation in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in different tissues of various Broccoli cultivars. Shiva Ram Bhandari and Jung-Ho Kwak*. Vegetable Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration,.

  14. A seasonal variation of the three Leading diagnoses over fifty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seasonal variation of the three Leading diagnoses over fifty months at the Duk Lost Boys Clinic, South Sudan. William Reed, Tom Dannan, Daniel Friedman, Gabriel Manyok, Barbara Connor, David Reed. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  15. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ence of the nutritional quality of water that can be used for mass cultivation of Catenella repens. 1. ... America, South America and Europe (McHugh. 2003). ... Catenella repens; biochemical composition; physico-chemical parameters; seasonal variation; data analysis. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118, No. 5, October 2009, pp. 497–505.

  16. Seasonal variation in the production of secondary metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guapira graciliflora and Pseudobombax marginatum are two species used in the treatment of various diseases in traditional medicine of the Brazilian semiarid region, but no studies assessing their phytochemical and pharmacological properties have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate seasonal variation in the ...

  17. Patterns and Seasonal Variations of Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    treatment is surgical. Objective: To describe the socio- demographics of the patients, seasonal variation in its incidence, modes of surgical management and outcome of patients. ... of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as a causative agent in the 1980s. ... treatment is usually delayed hence with advanced peritonitis and sepsis.

  18. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15. Rhodophyta) ...

  19. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) ...

  20. Seasonal variations in groundwater quality of Valsad District of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is an important precious natural resource. For optimum utilization of water resources, it is necessary to know both the quality as well as quantity of water. The present investigation is focused on seasonal variation in groundwater quality of Valsad district of south Gujarat (India). Groundwater samples from fifteen ...

  1. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted on the physico-chemical variability of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, South-east coast of India. Seasonal variation study was carried out to examine level of varying physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    Primary data on the average storage cost of maize and the average selling price of maize for 2004 were also used ... examined its seasonal price rise and analyzed the inter-market variation in prices of maize in the study ..... improve knowledge, combat supply uncertainty and reduce risk associated with inter- market trade.

  3. Seasonal and daily variation in blood and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 17, 1998 ... Seasonal and daily variation in blood and urine concentrations of free-ranging. Angolan free-tailed bats (Mops condy/urus) in hot roosts in southern Africa. Rochelle Buffenstein-. Department of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown. 2193 South Africa &. Department of Biology, ...

  4. Role of women in food security and seasonal variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics, role of women and expenditure pattern as it relates to seasonal variation in lagoon and marine fishing communities in Lagos State. A two stage stratified sampling method was used to select the sample size of 210 fishing (35 female and 175 male–headed) ...

  5. Seasonal variation in phytoplankton in the southern Benguela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pigment indices and satellite imagery were used to investigate the seasonal variation in phytoplankton in the southern Benguela, with the aid of monthly monitoring on two transect lines. Sea surface temperature images revealed the similarity in thermal conditions during autumn, winter and spring, with a broad zone of ...

  6. Influence of flood variation on seasonal floodplain vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of flooding variation on floodplain vegetation in the Nxaraga Lagoon seasonal floodplains by sampling community composition and soil nutrient content in 1997, when flood levels were unusually low, and again in 2010 when flood levels were unusually high. In each of the eight ...

  7. Effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on macrobenthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on the distribution and density of macrobenthic invertebrates of the coastal Warri River, southern Nigeria was carried out from July 2014 to February 2015. Samples were collected from five longitudinal stations from headwater to mouth during high and low ...

  8. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  9. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy. Ilaria Guagliardi1,2,∗. , Natalia Rovella2, Carmine Apollaro2, Andrea Bloise2,. Rosanna De Rosa2, Fabio Scarciglia2 and Gabriele Buttafuoco1. 1National Research Council of Italy – Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems in ...

  10. Seasonal variation of PAHs in marshy sediments from Warri City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation was used to analyse the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marshy sediments in Warri city, Niger Delta region in Southern Nigeria. Sediment samples were collected from four locations in the city and labelled ST 1, ST 2, ST 3 and ST 4. Control samples were also collected 20 km.

  11. Seasonal variations in aerosol optical properties over China (United States)

    Yuesi Wang; Jinyuan Xin; Zhanqing Li; Shigong Wang; Pucai Wang; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Hongbin Chen; Lili Wang; Yang Sun


    Seasonal variations in background aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol type are investigated over various ecosystems in China based upon three years' worth of meteorological data and data collected by the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network. In most parts of China, AODs are at a maximum in spring or summer and at a minimum in autumn or winter. Minimum values (0.10~0....

  12. Predictor model for seasonal variations in skid resistance, volume 1 (United States)

    Henry, J. J.; Saito, K.; Blackburn, R.


    Two models, utilizing data collected in 1979 and 1980, were developed to predict variations in skid resistance due to rainfall conditions, temperature effects, and time of the year. A generalized predictor model was developed from purely statistical considerations and a mechanistic model was developed from hypothesized mechanisms. This model may be utilized to estimate the skid resistance at any time in the season from a measurement made during the same season, or to adjust skid-resistance measurement made at any time during the season to the end-of-season level. The mechanistic model requires, in addition to the above inputs, two pavement properties describing the polishing characteristics of the aggregate and an estimate of the percent normalized gradient of the skid resistance. The application of these models is summarized.

  13. Seasonal Variation of the North/South Equatorial Current Bifurcation (United States)

    Chen, Z.


    The seasonal variation of the North/South Equatorial Current (NEC/SEC) bifurcation off the Philippine/Madagascar/Australian coast is investigated. It is shown that the seasonal cycles of the NEC/SEC bifurcation are generally analogous to each other, all of which shift synchronously back and forth seasonally and arrive at their southernmost positions in boreal late spring and early summer. It is demonstrated that the linear, reduced gravity, long Rossby model, which works well for the NEC bifurcation, is insufficient to reproduce the seasonal cycles of the SEC bifurcation off the Madagascar/Australian coast particularly in their south-north migrations. This can be attributed to the existence of the isolated island in the Madagascar case and the seasonally-varying wind forcing around the Australian coast, while they are almost absent in the NEC bifurcation case. Without considering the existence of an island and the alongshore winds, we propose a simple bifurcation model under the framework of linear Rossby wave dynamics. It is found that the seasonal bifurcation latitude is predominantly determined by the spatial pattern of the wind and baroclinic Rossby wave propagation. This model explains the roles of local/remote wind forcing and baroclinic adjustment in the south-north migration and peak seasons of the bifurcation latitude.

  14. Alternative method to validate the seasonal land cover regions of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Zhiliang Zhu; Donald O. Ohlen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Robert E. Burgan


    An accuracy assessment method involving double sampling and the multivariate composite estimator has been used to validate the prototype seasonal land cover characteristics database of the conterminous United States. The database consists of 159 land cover classes, classified using time series of 1990 1-km satellite data and augmented with ancillary data including...

  15. Spatial Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in Bhutan and Links to Vegetation and Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugyen Dorji


    Full Text Available Bhutan, located in the Himalayas in the South Asian monsoon region, has extremely high variation in elevation, climatic conditions, and land cover despite its small geographical area, as well as great biodiversity. This paper provides the first comprehensive description of climatic conditions in Bhutan. It assesses the spatial variation of temperature and precipitation across the country and evaluates the causes for this variation based on daily data from 70 meteorological stations that have been recording data for time spans ranging from 3 to 21 years. Temperature and precipitation show contrasting spatial variation, with temperature primarily affected by elevation and precipitation by latitude. Models were developed using mixed linear regression models to predict seasonal and annual mean temperature and precipitation based on geographical location. Using linear regression we found that temperatures changed by about 0.5°C for every 100 m of change in elevation, with lapse rates being highest in February, March, and November and lowest from June to August. The lapse rate was highest for minimum temperatures and lowest for maximum temperatures, with the greatest difference during winter. The spatial distribution of precipitation was mainly controlled by latitude, having a quadratic relationship, with the highest rates in the southern foothills of the Himalayan range and the lowest at midlatitudes. The land cover is affected by topography and local climate, with variations in temperature being a main deciding factor for vegetation types; most human settlements and associated land uses are concentrated at lower elevations.

  16. Seasonal variations in fouling diatom communities on the Yantai coast (United States)

    Yang, Cuiyun; Wang, Jianhua; Yu, Yang; Liu, Sujing; Xia, Chuanhai


    Fouling diatoms are a main component of biofilm, and play an important role in marine biofouling formation. We investigated seasonal variations in fouling diatom communities that developed on glass slides immersed in seawater, on the Yantai coast, northern Yellow Sea, China, using microscopy and molecular techniques. Studies were conducted during 2012 and 2013 over 3, 7, 14, and 21 days in each season. The abundance of attached diatoms and extracellular polymeric substances increased with exposure time of the slides to seawater. The lowest diatom density appeared in winter and the highest species richness and diversity were found in summer and autumn. Seasonal variation was observed in the structure of fouling diatom communities. Pennate diatoms Cylindrotheca, Nitzschia, Navicula, Amphora, Gomphonema, and Licmophora were the main fouling groups. Cylindrotheca sp. dominated in the spring. Under laboratory culture conditions, we found that Cylindrotheca grew very fast, which might account for the highest density of this diatom in spring. The lower densities in summer and autumn might result from the emergence of fouling animals and environmental factors. The Cylindrotheca sp. was identified as Cylindrotheca closterium using18S rDNA sequencing. The colonization process of fouling diatoms and significant seasonal variation in this study depended on environmental and biological factors. Understanding the basis of fouling diatoms is essential and important for developing new antifouling techniques.

  17. Modeling seasonal variation of hip fracture in Montreal, Canada. (United States)

    Modarres, Reza; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Gosselin, Pierre


    The investigation of the association of the climate variables with hip fracture incidences is important in social health issues. This study examined and modeled the seasonal variation of monthly population based hip fracture rate (HFr) time series. The seasonal ARIMA time series modeling approach is used to model monthly HFr incidences time series of female and male patients of the ages 40-74 and 75+ of Montreal, Québec province, Canada, in the period of 1993-2004. The correlation coefficients between meteorological variables such as temperature, snow depth, rainfall depth and day length and HFr are significant. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for trend assessment and the nonparametric Levene's test and Wilcoxon's test for checking the difference of HFr before and after change point are also used. The seasonality in HFr indicated sharp difference between winter and summer time. The trend assessment showed decreasing trends in HFr of female and male groups. The nonparametric test also indicated a significant change of the mean HFr. A seasonal ARIMA model was applied for HFr time series without trend and a time trend ARIMA model (TT-ARIMA) was developed and fitted to HFr time series with a significant trend. The multi criteria evaluation showed the adequacy of SARIMA and TT-ARIMA models for modeling seasonal hip fracture time series with and without significant trend. In the time series analysis of HFr of the Montreal region, the effects of the seasonal variation of climate variables on hip fracture are clear. The Seasonal ARIMA model is useful for modeling HFr time series without trend. However, for time series with significant trend, the TT-ARIMA model should be applied for modeling HFr time series. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis (United States)

    Hill, K.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.


    Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating

  19. Global patterns of seasonal variation in gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Fares


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study reviewed previous studies to explore the global patterns of seasonal variation in gastrointestinal diseases. Study Design and Methods: A series of systematic literature reviews were undertaken to identify studies reporting seasonal and monthly data on clinical onset or relapse of gastrointestinal diseases (Acute pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Peptic ulcer diseases (PUD, gastroesophageal reflux disease, colon cancer and colonic diverticulitis. Thirty-two primary studies (published 1970-2012 from 17 countries were identified. Results: Upon review of the evidence, it appears that the seasonal peaks of PUD are most prominent in colder months while the peak of incidence rate of Crohn diseases in most of the countries subjects were found during the spring and summer seasons. Seasonal trend in the onset of acute pancreatitis exhibits a summer peak in some countries. There were no clearly seasonal peaks noted for the ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Future experimental and observational studies should consider how the environmental factors (infection, cold, air pollution etc. or other triggers (dietary habit, alcohol consumption promotes or hinders such diseases.

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Land Cover Composition on Intra-Urban Air Temperature Variations at a Mid-Latitude City (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Fan, Shuxin; Guo, Chenxiao; Hu, Jie; Dong, Li


    The effects of land cover on urban-rural and intra-urban temperature differences have been extensively documented. However, few studies have quantitatively related air temperature to land cover composition at a local scale which may be useful to guide landscape planning and design. In this study, the quantitative relationships between air temperature and land cover composition at a neighborhood scale in Beijing were investigated through a field measurement campaign and statistical analysis. The results showed that the air temperature had a significant positive correlation with the coverage of man-made surfaces, but the degree of correlation varied among different times and seasons. The different land cover types had different effects on air temperature, and also had very different spatial extent dependence: with increasing buffer zone size (from 20 to 300 m in radius), the correlation coefficient of different land cover types varied differently, and their relative impacts also varied among different times and seasons. At noon in summer, ∼37% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage tree cover, while ∼87% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage of building area and the percentage tree cover on summer night. The results emphasize the key role of tree cover in attenuating urban air temperature during daytime and nighttime in summer, further highlighting that increasing vegetation cover could be one effective way to ameliorate the urban thermal environment. PMID:25010134

  1. The Effect of Seasonal Variability of Atlantic Water on the Arctic Sea Ice Cover (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Repina, I. A.


    Under the influence of global warming, the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean (AO) is expected to reduce with a transition toward a seasonal ice cover by the end of this century. A comparison of climate-model predictions with measurements shows that the actual rate of ice cover decay in the AO is higher than the predicted one. This paper argues that the rapid shrinking of the Arctic summer ice cover is due to its increased seasonality, while seasonal oscillations of the Atlantic origin water temperature create favorable conditions for the formation of negative anomalies in the ice-cover area in winter. The basis for this hypothesis is the fundamental possibility of the activation of positive feedback provided by a specific feature of the seasonal cycle of the inflowing Atlantic origin water and the peaking of temperature in the Nansen Basin in midwinter. The recently accelerated reduction in the summer ice cover in the AO leads to an increased accumulation of heat in the upper ocean layer during the summer season. The extra heat content of the upper ocean layer favors prerequisite conditions for winter thermohaline convection and the transfer of heat from the Atlantic water (AW) layer to the ice cover. This, in turn, contributes to further ice thinning and a decrease in ice concentration, accelerated melting in summer, and a greater accumulation of heat in the ocean by the end of the following summer. An important role is played by the seasonal variability of the temperature of AW, which forms on the border between the North European and Arctic basins. The phase of seasonal oscillation changes while the AW is moving through the Nansen Basin. As a result, the timing of temperature peak shifts from summer to winter, additionally contributing to enhanced ice melting in winter. The formulated theoretical concept is substantiated by a simplified mathematical model and comparison with observations.

  2. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests (United States)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo


    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  3. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja

    composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled......Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... both in close proximity to a blue mussel and fish farm (IMTA) and at a reference/control site (REF), both outside Horsens fjord in Denmark. Sugar kelp biomass was measured (n=3) at 2 m depth in 2013-2014, and freeze dried and stored frozen for further analyses. In relation to the extraction, two...

  4. Estimating Evapotranspiration Demands of Different Land Cover Using Diurnal Signals in Dry Season Stream Discharge (United States)

    Bhalla, R. S.; K, K.; Srinivas, V.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Chappell, N. A.; Jones, T.


    We use a paired catchment approach to compare the dry season flows between natural grasslands and introduced plantations of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) in the Nilgiri South range forest which lies in the southern parts of the Western Ghat mountain range in Sothern India, a global biodiversity hot-spot. Discharges were measured using a portable flume and a weir fitted with capacitance probes logging water levels every five minutes in two adjacent catchments. Sensor artefacts in the data were filtered out before analysis. Diurnal variations in dry season flows from March 1st to April 15th, 2014 were used to estimate the daily ET based on Boronina et al. 2005 (Hyd. Proc. 19, 20, pp. 4055-4068.) using the equation 1. : E T daily = ∑ i=1 24 ( Q max - Q i ) Δ t , where E T daily is the daily loss of water from the catchment through ET, Q max is the daily maximum flow rate in the river, Q i is the average flow rate for every hour of the day and Δ t is one hour. Our results show that land use conversion from grasslands to wattle has increased ET by 40.97mm which is to the order of 60% during the period of the study (table 1). This has immediate relevance for dry season flows in the region. Nilgiris provide 40% of the total hydro-power generation for the state of Tamil Nadu and these streams sustain biodiversity and are tributaries of the Cauvery river, the largest the state. They also highlight the potential consequences of programmes such as the National Mission for Greening India which explicitly targets conversions of 10m ha of degraded forests, scrub and grasslands to tree cover and forest. Grassland Wattle Difference 1st Qu. 1.14 1.36 -1.33 Median 1.94 2.04 0.28 Mean 2.06 2.97 0.91 3rd Qu. 2.66 3.51 2.43 Sum 92.63 133.60 40.97 Table 1: Summary statistics for daily dry season ET for catchment under grassland, wattle and the daily differences between the two in mm per day.

  5. Seasonal Variation in Emergency Department Visits Among Pediatric Headache Patients. (United States)

    Pakalnis, A; Heyer, G L


    To ascertain whether seasonal variation occurs in emergency department (ED) visits for headache among children and adolescents. A retrospective review was conducted using the electronic medical records of ED visits for headache at a tertiary children's hospital through calendar years 2010-2014. Using ICD-9 diagnostic codes for headache and migraine, the numbers of headache visits were determined and compared by season and during school months vs summer months. A total of 6572 headache visits occurred. Headache visits increased during the fall season (133 ± 27 visits per month) compared with other seasons (101 ± 19 visits per month), P ≤ .002, but did not differ when comparing school months (113 ± 25 visits per month) and summer months (100 ± 24 visits per month), P = .1. The corresponding increase in ED visits during the fall season coincides with the start of the school year. Academic stressors and the change in daily schedule may lead to more headaches and more ED headache visits among school-aged youth. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  6. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan


    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas

  7. Methane Fluxes from the Pantanal Floodplain in Brazil. Seasonal Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvala, P.C.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, S. Paulo (Brazil)


    A total of 15 campaigns were performed during 1997 and 1998 in a lake inside the Pantanal region, near the Miranda River using the static chamber technique to determine methane fluxes. Air samples were collected in stainless steel canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography, with a FID detector. A distinct seasonal variation has been found, with much higher emissions during the wet season, and comparatively lower emissions during the dry season, but with large variability. Individual fluxes had variations from less than 1 to 1,389 mgCH4m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. The average for the period of high fluxes, from October to April was 238 {+-}238 mgCH4m{sup -2}d{sup -1}, and for the period of lower fluxes, from May to September, the average was 7 {+-}14mgCH4m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Methane fluxes were correlated with the precipitation in the region, but with a poor statistics. 8 refs.

  8. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.K.; Rolle, R.; Winkler, R.; Steinhaeusler, F.


    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  9. Seasonal variations in vertical migration of glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind


    The seasonal variations in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) were studied by use of a bottom-mounted upward-facing 38 kHz echo sounder deployed at 392 m depth and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~6052?N, ~524?E), Norway. Acoustic data from July 2007-October 2008 were analyzed, and scattering layers below ~220 m during daytime were attributed to glacier lanternfish based on net sampling in this, and previous studies, as well as from analysis of the acoustic data. At these depths, three different diel behavioral strategies were apparent: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM), and no DVM (NoDVM). NoDVM was present all year, while IDVM was present in autumn and winter, and NDVM was present during spring and summer. The seasonal differences in DVM behavior seem to correlate with previously established seasonal distribution of prey. We hypothesize that in regions with seasonally migrating zooplankton, such as where calanoid copepods overwinter at depth, similar plasticity in DVM behavior might occur in other populations of lanternfishes. 2012 The Author(s).

  10. Seasonal Variations of Nitrate Concentrations In Agricultural Catchments (United States)

    Martin, C.; Aquilina, L.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Molénat, J.; Ruiz, L.

    Nitrate concentrations in streams of agricultural catchments with impervious bedrock often present an interannual variability (due to landuse changes) and a seasonal one. Usually seasonal variations are characterised by high concentrations in winter and low in summer. Some catchments may present intermediate or inverse cycles (high con- centrations in summer). Two hypothesis to explain classical variations of nitrate con- centrations in streams exist: (i) the availibility of nitrate in the soil for leaching and (ii) the temporal variations of the nitrate-rich shallow groundwater. The aim of this study is to explain the occurence of classical or inverse scheme of seasonal variations by testing these two existing hypothesis and proposing an alternative one for inverse cycles. Two catchments with different seasonal variations (KERRIEN catchment : normal cycle, and KERBERNEZ catchment : inverse cycle), located in the South Western French Brittany, were instrumented in 2001 with a set of 22 piezometers in- stalled at different depths and located along the hillslope. The water table dynamic and chemestry (nitrate, chloride, carbon, Rare Earth Elements,...) had been measured weekly during one year. The shallow groundwater of the Kerrien catchment is char- acterised by two lateral domains with a temporal stability of concentrations : the bot- tom land, constantly denitrified, and the upper domain with nitrate concentrations around 60 mg.L(-1) . The Kerbernez catchment is characterised by two vertical domains with a temporal rise of concentrations : the upper domain with nitrate concen- trations around 60 mg.L(-1) , as the Kerrien catchment, and a deeper compartment, with concentrations excedeed 100 to 120 mg.L(-1) of nitrate. On the Kerrien catchment, the classical cycle is due to the most important contribution of the shal- low groundwater in winter. The inverse cycle of the Kerbernez catchment may be due to the most important contribution of the deep compartment in

  11. Differentiated seasonal vegetation cover dynamics of degraded grasslands in Inner Mongolia recorded by continuous photography technique. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaotian; Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Xu; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Shuang


    Influence of climate change on the grassland phenology has attracted more and more attentions of ecologists. Although dozens of studies have been conducted, there have been few records examining the phenology differences of grasslands with different plant species compositions. Using continuous photography and image processing methods, this study examined seasonal vegetation cover dynamics of grasslands along a degradation gradient to clarify the influence of vegetation composition on the dynamics of vegetation cover during growing season. Our results revealed that phenological patterns of grasslands differentiated with their degradation status. Abandoned farmland (AF) and severely degraded grassland (SD) with most annuals and least climax species had the earliest start of growing season, while AF and extremely degraded grassland (ED) dominated by grasses had the earliest end of growing season. The start and end of growing season were strongly related to the relative cover of climax species and grasses. The results presented in this study support the possibility of using digital photography to capture the role of plant species composition on vegetation phenology in grasslands.

  12. Snow Cover and Precipitation Impacts on Dry Season Streamflow in the Lower Mekong Basin (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Bell, A. R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Buckley, B. M.


    Climate change impacts on dry season streamflow in the Mekong River are relatively understudied, despite the fact that water availability during this time is critically important for agricultural and ecological systems. Analyses of two gauging stations (Vientiane and Kratie) in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) show significant positive correlations between dry season (March through May, MAM) discharge and upper basin snow cover and local precipitation. Using snow cover, precipitation, and upstream discharge as predictors, we develop skillful regression models for MAM streamflow at Vientiane and Kratie, and force these models with output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) experiments for the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The GCM simulations predict divergent trends in snow cover (decreasing) and precipitation (increasing) over the twenty-first century, driving overall negligible long-term trends in dry season streamflow. Our study demonstrates how future changes in dry season streamflow in the LMB will depend on changes in snow cover and precipitation, factors that will need to be considered when assessing the full basin response to other climatic and non-climatic drivers.

  13. The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice and surface albedo (United States)

    Robock, A.


    The paper examines satellite data used to construct mean snow cover caps for the Northern Hemisphere. The zonally averaged snow cover from these maps is used to calculate the seasonal cycle of zonally averaged surface albedo. The effects of meltwater on the surface, solar zenith angle, and cloudiness are parameterized and included in the calculations of snow and ice albedo. The data allows a calculation of surface albedo for any land or ocean 10 deg latitude band as a function of surface temperature ice and snow cover; the correct determination of the ice boundary is more important than the snow boundary for accurately simulating the ice and snow albedo feedback.

  14. Seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan. (United States)

    Ali, A A; Adam, G K; Abdallah, T M


    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan, in the period between January 2008 and December 2010. The medical files of women attending at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan with hypertension, with or without proteinuria were retrospectively retrieved. The data of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were compared with a similar number of controls that were normotensive and non-proteinuric. During the study period, there were 9,578 deliveries; 153 patients had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, yielding an incidence rate of 1.6%. Of all cases and controls (306), there were 183 (59.8%) deliveries in winter, 84 (27.5%) in summer and 39 (12.7%) in autumn. The highest rate of pre-eclampsia was in winter (1.1%) (CI = 1.1-2.7, OR = 1.7, p = 0.004) and the lowest rate was in autumn (0.2%) (CI = 0.4-1.8, OR = 0.8, p = 0.758.). Our study revealed significant association between the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the winter season (103 (67.3%) vs 80 (52.3%), p = 0.001). Thus, more attention in the winter season might reduce the morbidity and mortality of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  15. Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.


    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memanbetsu in mid-latitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1-h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. In this analysis, we defined the quiet day when the maximum value of the Kp index is less than 3 for that day. In this analysis, we used the monthly average of the adjusted daily F10.7 corresponding to geomagnetically quiet days. For identification of the monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y), we first determined the baseline of the X and Y components from the average value from 22 to 2 h (LT: local time) for each quiet day. Next, we calculated a deviation from the baseline of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic field for each quiet day, and computed the monthly mean value of the deviation for each local time. As a result, Sq-X and Sq-Y shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities, and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and Sq-X and Sq-Y shows almost the linear relationship, but the slope and intercept of the linear fitted line varies as function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The local time dependence of the offset value of Sq-Y at Guam and its seasonal variation suggest a magnetic field produced by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs). From the sign of the offset value of Sq-Y, it is infer that the inter-hemispheric FACs flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in

  16. Seasonal Variations of Nutritional Status in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients. (United States)

    Ilić Begović, Tanja; Radić, Josipa; Radić, Mislav; Kovačić, Vedran; Šain, Milenka; Ljutić, Dragan


    Nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by a multitude of factors and it strongly correlates with morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of seasonal changes on nutritional status in maintenance HD patients. A selected population of 84 adult (40 females and 44 males, aged 68.98 ± 13.45 years) HD (5.94 ± 6.44 years) patients were investigated. Clinical, biochemical and nutritional parameters (BMI, creatinine, urea, serum albumin, total cholesterol and Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) were measured in cold (January and December) and mild (June and September) months, altogether in 336 HD sessions. Statistically significant differences between cold and mild months were found in BMI (P = 0.046), creatinine before HD (P = 0.011), urea before HD (P ≤ 0.001), urea after HD (P ≤ 0.001) and glucose (P =  0.001). Differences between male and female patients in DMS, serum albumin and creatinine level in cold and mild months were found; where females altogether had higher DMS score and lower serum albumin and creatinine levels. These results suggest that seasonal variations of clinical and laboratory variables that reflect nutritional status occur commonly among maintenance HD patients and might lead to biases in the interpretation of results in clinical studies in which measurement schedules vary during the year. Also, results suggested that female HD patients may constitute an especially vulnerable population for seasonal oscillations of nutritional status. The reasons for most of these variations are not apparent and require further investigation. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  17. Monitoring the variations of evapotranspiration due to land use/cover change in a semiarid shrubland (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Lei, Huimin; Yang, Dawen; Jiao, Yang; Yang, Hanbo


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important process in the hydrological cycle, and vegetation change is a primary factor that affects ET. In this study, we analyzed the annual and inter-annual characteristics of ET using continuous observation data from eddy covariance (EC) measurement over 4 years (1 July 2011 to 30 June 2015) in a semiarid shrubland of Mu Us Sandy Land, China. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was demonstrated as the predominant factor that influences the seasonal variations in ET. Additionally, during the land degradation and vegetation rehabilitation processes, ET and normalized ET both increased due to the integrated effects of the changes in vegetation type, topography, and soil surface characteristics. This study could improve our understanding of the effects of land use/cover change on ET in the fragile ecosystem of semiarid regions and provide a scientific reference for the sustainable management of regional land and water resources.

  18. Effects of plant cover on soil N mineralization during the growing season in a sandy soil (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Shao, M.; Wei, X.; Fu, X.


    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and its availability plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem productivity and C cycling, particularly in semiarid and desertified ecosystems. To determine the effect of plant cover on N turnover in a sandy soil ecosystem, we measured soil N mineralization and inorganic N pools in soil solution during growing season in a sandy soil covered with various plant species (Artemisia desertorum, Salix psammophila, and Caragana korshinskii). A bare sandy soil without any plant was selected as control. Inorganic N pools and N mineralization rates decreased overtime during the growing season, and were not affected by soil depth in bare land soils, but were significantly higher at the 0-10 cm layer than those at the 10-20 cm soil layer under any plant species. Soil inorganic N pool was dominated by ammonium, and N mineralization was dominated by nitrification regardless of soil depth and plant cover. Soils under C. korshinskii have significant higher inorganic N pools and N mineralization rate than soils under bare land and A. desertorum and S. psammophila, and the effects of plant cover were greater at the 0-10 cm soil layer than at the 10-20 cm layer. The effects of C. korshinskii on soil inorganic N pools and mineralization rate varied with the stage of growing season, with greater effects on N pools in the middle growing season, and greater effects on mineralization rate at the last half of the growing season. The results from this study indicate that introduction of C. korshinskii has the potential to increase soil N turnover and availability in sandy soils, and thus to decrease N limitation. Caragana korshinskii is therefore recommend for the remediation of the desertified land.

  19. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuony, H.A.M.


    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the

  20. Seasonal Gravity Field Variations from GRACE and Hydrological Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.


    . Four global hydrological models covering the same period in 2002–2003 as the GRACE observations were investigated to for their mutual consistency in estimates of annual variation in terrestrial water storage and related temporal changes in gravity field. The hydrological models differ by a maximum of 2...... µGal or nearly 5 cm equivalent water storage in selected regions. Integrated over all land masses the standard deviation among the annual signal from the four hydrological models are 0.6 µGal equivalent to around 1.4 cm in equivalent water layer thickness. The estimated accuracy of the annual...

  1. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan


    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  2. Seasonal variation among tuberculosis suspects in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, Biggie; Naranbat, Nymadawa; Katamba, Achilles


    The objective of the study was to analyze monthly trends across a calendar year in tuberculosis suspects and sputum smear-positive cases based on nationally representative samples of tuberculosis laboratory registers from Moldova, Mongolia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Out of the 47 140 suspects registered...... in the tuberculosis laboratory registers, 13.4% (6312) were cases. The proportion varied from country to country, Moldova having the lowest (9%) and Uganda the highest (21%). From the monthly proportion of suspects and cases among total suspects and cases, seasonal variations were most marked in Mongolia which, among...... attendance to diagnostic laboratory services, evidenced by the contrasting findings of Mongolia (extreme continental northern climate) compared to Uganda (equatorial climate). A combination of external and possibly endogenous factors seems to determine whether tuberculosis suspects and cases present...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan


    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  4. Seasonal variation of air pollution in Warsaw conurbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rozbicka


    Full Text Available Long term research shows many substances in the atmosphere are in concentration dangerous for human health and welfare and even for human life. The work presents time and spatial variation of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Analysis was carried out on the base of hourly values of mentioned pollutants (O3 and NO2 concentrations. Data used in the analysis comes from atmospheric monitoring stations situated in various parts of Warsaw and concerns the period 2008–2011. The influence of meteorological elements on concentration of analyzed pollutants was stated by the use of correlation and multiple regression analysis for months and seasonal periods. On this base results of statistical analysis strong correlation between tropospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide concentration and meteorological elements is stated. In case of ozone and nitrogen dioxide the relationships with air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation are most significant.

  5. Periodic seasonal variation of magnets level of the STB ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shigenobu


    The Stretcher-Booster (STB) ring, a 1.2 GeV electron synchrotron, was completed in December, 1997 at the Laboratory of Nuclear Sciences (LNS), Tohoku University. The total weight more than 400 tons were placed near the STB ring, such as concrete blocks for radiation shielding and a spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments after the completion of the STB ring. Re-surveying of magnets alignment was started after 2000. Very recently a new building of an experimental hall was constructed close to the building of the STB ring for use of high energy γ-ray from the electron beam. The building will give rise the changes of magnet levels due to its seasonal distortion. The measurements of the magnet level after construction are continued as well as an expected change of the closed orbit distortion (COD) in the STB ring. The serious influence of the variation of the magnet level may be a change of the beam orbit of extracted beam in the stretcher operation. Difference of the orbit distortion reaches more than 5 mm. Correlation between the COD and the seasonal change of the magnet position is not clear at the moment. However, the machine operation and the beam diagnostics are getting better recently. Continuous surveying of the magnet level will be a useful data for a feed forward correction of the beam orbit. Future subjects and prospects are discussed on surveying. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblages in mangrove creek systems in Zanzibar (Tanzania) (United States)

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Andersson, Mathias H.; Öhman, Marcus C.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Bryceson, Ian


    Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblage composition were studied in three non-estuarine mangrove creeks of Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish were collected monthly for one year at three sites (lower, intermediate and upper reaches) in each creek using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2). Density, species number and diversity of fish were all higher at sites with dense cover of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) than over unvegetated sandy sites. In general, fish assemblages mainly comprised juveniles of a few abundant taxa, e.g. Mugil cephalus, Mugilidae spp. and Leiognathus equulus at sites with mud substratum and Gerres oyena, Lethrinus harak and Sillago sihama at sites dominated by macrophytes. Multivariate analyses revealed significant separations in fish assemblage composition within the two creeks where the bottom substratum differed among sites. Overall, season seemed to have little effect on density, species number, diversity index ( H') and assemblage structure of fish. Water condition variables were also relatively stable across the season, although a short-term fluctuation primarily induced by decreased salinity, occurred during the heavy rains in April and May. Fish assemblage structure was not significantly affected by any of the abiotic factors tested. However, significant regressions were found between the other fish variables and environmental variables, but since these associations were mostly species-specific and generally inconsistent, we suggest that the overall distribution patterns of fish were mainly an effect of particular substrate preferences of fish species rather than contemporary water conditions.

  7. Seasonal variation of BVOC emissions from Norway spruce (United States)

    Wang, Min; Schurgers, Guy; Ekberg, Anna; Arneth, Almut; Holst, Thomas


    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known as a source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) due to their high reactivity in the atmosphere [1, 2]. Dominant boreal forest species (pine, spruce and birch) have been considered to be high monoterpene (MT) emitters [3, 4], and BVOC emissions and compound composition vary considerably under different temperature and light conditions through growing season [5, 6]. We characterize the canopy BVOC emissions variation from a Norway spruce dominated boreal forest in Central Sweden (Norunda, 60°05'N, 17°29'E). Air samples were taken during growing season (June to September 2013) from transparent dynamic branch chambers set up on Norway spruce at 20m agl. using a scaffolding tower. Air samples were collected every hour from the chamber with Tenax-TA adsorbent tubes and a pocket pump, and analyzed later by gas chromatography and a mass selective detector (GC-MS) to quantify trapped terpenoid compounds. Total terpenoids emission rates in August were found to be highest even though the highest average air temperature was observed in July. Isoprene could not be detected in any sample in June and in most samples from September, but during peak season. Emissions of Isoprene, MT and sesquiterpenes (SQT) showed a clear diurnal pattern in July and August with highest emissions at noon time, however, the composition of terpenoids was slightly changing among different months. The most complex chemical composition with 13 different MT species occurred in late July, while 9 SQT species occurred in the middle of August. However, the fraction of dominant MT species (Limonene, α-Pinene, β-Pinene and Camphene) of the total terpenoids emission was almost constant throughout the whole season from June to September except for β-Pinene which showed a higher fraction in August. References [1]M.Ehn et al., 2014, Nature, 506(7489), 476-479. [2]M.Kulmala et al., 2004, Atmos. Environ., 4, 557-562. [3]J.Rinne et al., 2005, Boreal Environ

  8. Seasonal Variations in the Composition and Distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adult forms zooplankton recorded in the rainy season were mainly Crustaceans, Chaetognathans and Rotifers while those collected during dry season belonged to Crustacean, Cnidaria and Chordata. Crustaceans dominate both adult zooplankton and planktonic juvenile fauna in the two seasons. The rainy season ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Ibitolu


    Full Text Available This study employs Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery to access the inter-seasonal variations of Surface Temperature and Vegetation cover in Ondo State in 2013. Also, air temperature data for year 2013 acquired from 3 synoptic meteorological stations across the state were analyzed. The Single-channel Algorithm was used to extract the surface temperature maps from the digital number embedded within the individual pixel. To understand the spatio-temporal distribution of LST and vegetation across the various landuse types, 200 sample points were randomly chosen, so that each land-use covers 40 points. Imagery for the raining season where unavailable because of the intense cloud cover. Result showed that the lowest air temperature of 20.9°C was in January, while the highest air temperature of 34°C occurred in January and March. There was a significant shift in the vegetation greenness over Ondo State, as average NDVI tend to increase from a weak positive value (0.189 to a moderate value (0.419. The LULC map revealed that vegetation cover occupied the largest area (65% followed by Built-up (26%, Swampy land (4%, Rock outcrop (3% and water bodies (2%. The surface temperature maps revealed that January has the lowest temperature of 10°C experienced in the coastal riverine areas of Ilaje and Igbokoda, while the highest temperature of 39°C observed in September is experienced on the rocky grounds. The study also showed the existence of pockets of Urban Heat Islands (UHI that are well scattered all over the state. This finding proves the capability and reliability of Satellite remote sensing for environmental studies.

  10. Detecting Land Cover Change by Trend and Seasonality of Remote Sensing Time Series (United States)

    Oliveira, J. C.; Epiphanio, J. N.; Mello, M. P.


    Natural resource managers demand knowledge of information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use and land cover change, and detection and characteristics change over time is an initial step for the understanding of the mechanism of change. The propose of this research is the use the approach BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) for detects trend and seasonal changes within Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. BFAST integrates the decomposition of time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components with methods for detecting change within time series without the need to select a reference period, set a threshold, or define a change trajectory. BFAST iteratively estimates the time and number of changes, and characterizes change by its magnitude and direction. The general model is of the form Yt = Tt + St + et (t= 1,2,3,…, n) where Yt is the observed data at time t, Tt is the trend component, St is the seasonal component, and et is the remainder component. In this study was used MODIS NDVI time series datasets (MOD13Q1) over 11 years (2000 - 2010) on an intensive agricultural area in Mato Grosso - Brazil. At first it was applied a filter for noise reduction (4253H twice) over spectral curve of each MODIS pixel, and subsequently each time series was decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder components by BFAST. Were detected one abrupt change from a single pixel of forest and two abrupt changes on trend component to a pixel of the agricultural area. Figure 1 shows the number of phonological change with base in seasonal component for study area. This paper demonstrated the ability of the BFAST to detect long-term phenological change by analyzing time series while accounting for abrupt and gradual changes. The algorithm iteratively estimates the dates and number of changes occurring within seasonal and trend components, and characterizes changes by extracting the magnitude and direction of change. Changes occurring in the

  11. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  12. Seasonal variations of agar extracted from different life stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonality in yield, physical and chemical properties of the native agar from different life stages of Gracilaria cliftonii was investigated over a period of six seasons (autumn 2008–winter 2009). Agar yield and its properties varied as a function of seasons and life stages but there was no significant correlation between ...

  13. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal ...

  14. Seasonal variation of spread-F observed in Hainan (United States)

    Wang, G. J.; Shi, J. K.; Wang, X.; Shang, S. P.

    Using the spread-F (SF) data observed by DPS-4 digisonde at Hainan ionospheric observatory station from March 2002 to February 2005, occurrence features of four types of SF, i.e., frequency SF (FSF), range SF (RSF), mixed SF (MSF), and strong range SF (SSF), are studied. The results show a variation in the occurrence of the four types of the SF as a function of season, Kp and SunSpot Number (SSN). During equinoxes and summer, the occurrence frequency of all types of spread-F shows a little increase when Kp varies from 0 to 1 and then a decrease when Kp varies from 1 to 8. During winter, the occurrence frequency in days of each type of spread-F is small, however, it also shows an increase with smaller values of Kp and then shows a decrease with higher values of Kp. The RSF and SSF occurrence maximum at Hainan station are most frequent during the equinoctial months in 2002 and 2004. However, the FSF and MSF occurrence maximum are most frequent during the summer months in 2003 and 2004. The RSF and SSF occurrence rates are increasing with SSN during equinoctial and summer months. The FSF and MSF occurrence rates are decreasing with SSN during summer months. It seems that all spread-F occurrence rates are nearly independent with SSN during winter months. In this paper, we also make a comparative study on these results with the published statistics for Brazilian (Cachoeira Paulista) and Indian (Ahmedabad) sectors.

  15. Seasonal genetic variation associated with population dynamics of a poecilogonous polychaete worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonig, Anne; Banta, Gary Thomas; Hansen, Benni Winding


    Poecilogonous species show variation in developmental mode, with larvae that differ both morphologically and ecologically. The spionid polychaete Pygospio elegans shows variation in developmental mode not only between populations, but also seasonally within populations. We investigated the conseq...

  16. Satellite-observed snow cover variations over the Tibetan Plateau for the period 2001-2014 (United States)

    Long, D.; Chen, X.


    Snow is an integral component of the global climate system. Owing to its high albedo and thermal and water storage properties, snow has important linkages and feedbacks through its influence on surface energy and moisture fluxes, clouds, precipitation, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation. As the "Roof of the World" and the "Third Pole" with the highest mountains in middle latitudes, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is one of the most hot spots in climate change and hydrological studies, in which seasonal snow cover is a critical aspect. Unlike large-scale snow cover and regional-scale glaciers over other cryospheric regions, changes in snow cover over the TP has been largely unknown due mostly to the quality of observations. Based on improved MODIS daily snow cover products, this study aims to quantify the distribution and changes in snow cover over the TP for the period 2001 to 2014. Results show that the spatial distribution of changes in snow cover fraction (SCF) over the 14-year study period exhibited a general negative trend over the TP driven primarily by increasing land surface temperature (LST), except some areas of the upper Golden-Sanded River and upper Brahmaputra River basins. However, decreased LST and increased precipitation in the accumulation season (September to the following February) resulted in increased SCF in the accumulation season, coinciding with large-scale cold snaps and heavy snowfall events at middle latitudes. Detailed analyses of the intra-annual variability of SCF in the TP regions show an increase in SCF in the accumulation season but a decrease in SCF in the melting season (March to August), indicating that the intra-annual amplitude of SCF increased during the study period and more snow cover was released as snowmelt in the spring season.

  17. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter


    Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...... and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal...... effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (

  18. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau. (United States)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent


    In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (<1 month, 1-11 months, 12-59 months). Verbal autopsies were interpreted using InterVa-4 software. From 1990 to 2013, overall mortality was declined by almost two-thirds among 81 292 children (10 588 deaths). Mortality was 51% (95% ci: 45-58%) higher in the rainy season than in the dry season throughout the study period. The seasonal difference increased significantly with age, the r/d-mrr being 0.94 (0.86-1.03) among neonates, 1.57 (1.46-1.69) in post-neonatal infants and 1.83 (1.72-1.95) in under-five children (P for same effect <0.001). According to the InterVa, malaria deaths were the main reason for the seasonal mortality difference, causing 50% of all deaths in the rainy season, but only if the InterVa included season of death, making the argument self-confirmatory. The mortality declined throughout the study, yet rainy season continued to be associated with 51% higher overall mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Land Cover Influence on Wet Season Storm Runoff Generation and Hydrologic Flowpaths in Central Panama (United States)

    Birch, A. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Barnard, H. R.


    While relationships between land use/land cover and hydrology are well studied and understood in temperate parts of the world, little research exists in the humid tropics, where hydrologic research is often decades behind. Specifically, quantitative information on how physical and biological differences across varying land covers influence runoff generation and hydrologic flowpaths in the humid tropics is scarce; frequently leading to poorly informed hydrologic modelling and water policy decision making. This research effort seeks to quantify how tropical land cover change may alter physical hydrologic processes in the economically important Panama Canal Watershed (Republic of Panama) by separating streamflow into its different runoff components using end member mixing analysis. The samples collected for this project come from small headwater catchments of four varying land covers (mature tropical forest, young secondary forest, active pasture, recently clear-cut tropical forest) within the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Agua Salud Project. During the past three years, samples have been collected at the four study catchments from streamflow and from a number of water sources within hillslope transects, and have been analyzed for stable water isotopes, major cations, and major anions. Major ion analysis of these samples has shown distinct geochemical differences for the potential runoff generating end members sampled (soil moisture/ preferential flow, groundwater, overland flow, throughfall, and precipitation). Based on this finding, an effort was made from May-August 2017 to intensively sample streamflow during wet season storm events, yielding a total of 5 events of varying intensity in each land cover/catchment, with sampling intensity ranging from sub-hourly to sub-daily. The focus of this poster presentation will be to present the result of hydrograph separation's done using end member mixing analysis from this May-August 2017 storm dataset. Expected

  20. Seasonal variations in terpene emission factors of dominant species in four ecosystems in NE Spain (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep; Guenther, Alex; Rapparini, Francesca


    We studied the daily patterns in the rates of foliar terpene emissions by four typical species from the Mediterranean region in two days of early spring and two days of summer in 4 localities of increasing biomass cover in Northern Spain. The species studied were Thymelaea tinctoria (in Monegros), Quercus coccifera (in Garraf), Quercus ilex (in Prades) and Fagus sylvatica (in Montseny). Of the total 43 VOCs detected, 23 were monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 15 were not terpenes. Sesquiterpenes were the main terpenes emitted from T. tinctoria. Total VOC emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring. The maximum rates of emission were recorded around midday. Emissions nearly stopped in the dark. No significant differences were found for nocturnal total terpene emission rates between places and seasons. The seasonal variations in the rate of terpene emissions and in their chemical composition can be explained mainly by dramatic changes in emission factors (emission capacity) associated in some cases, such as for beech trees, with very different foliar ontogenical characteristics between spring and summer. The results show that temperature and light-standardised emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring, which, corroborating other works, calls to attention when applying the same emission factor in modelling throughout the different seasons of the year.

  1. Hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in Great Lakes tributaries (United States)

    Lenaker, Peter L.; Corsi, Steven; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Lutz, Michelle A.


    Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120–1630 L) sampling. Human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria were detected by real-time qPCR in 16%, 14%, and 1.4% of 290 samples collected while protozoa were never detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were: bovine polyomavirus (11%), and human adenovirus C, D, F (9%). Human and bovine viruses were present in 16.9% and 14.8% of runoff-event samples (n = 189) resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 13.9% and 12.9% of low-flow samples (n = 101), respectively, indicating multiple delivery mechanisms could be influential. Data indicated human and bovine virus prevalence was different depending on land cover within the watershed. Occurrence, concentration, and flux of human viruses were greatest in samples from the three sampling locations with greater than 25% urban influence than those with less than 25% urban influence. Similarly, occurrence, concentration, and flux of bovine viruses were greatest in samples from the two sampling locations with greater than 50 cattle/km2 than those with less than 50 cattle/km2. In seasonal analysis, human and bovine viruses occurred more frequently in spring and winter seasons than during the fall and summer. Concentration, occurrence, and flux in the context of hydrologic condition, seasonality, and land use must be considered for each watershed individually to develop effective watershed management

  2. Seasonal variation of cancer mortality in Hungary between 1984 and 2013. (United States)

    Virág, Katalin; Nyári, Tibor András


    Despite decreasing trends, Hungary is the leader in cancer mortality among European countries. We examined the seasonal variation of cancer mortality in Hungary between 1984 and 2013. Hungarian monthly cancer mortality and population data were used in the analysis. The Walter-Elwood method was used to determine seasonal variation in both mortality rates and proportionate mortality. Significant winter-peak seasonality was found in all-cancer mortality. A similar seasonal trend with a peak from November to January was observed in death rates from colorectal, lung, female breast, prostate, bladder, brain, lymphoid and hematopoietic cancers. However, no more cyclical variation was identified in the mortality rates from other cancers. In addition, significant seasonal variation in proportionate mortality was shown for all cancer sites examined, with a peak in August or September. This study presents the seasonality pattern of different types of cancer mortality which might be related to environmental factors (e.g. infections).

  3. A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Oderbolz


    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2 with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to −27% with

  4. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes. (United States)

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita


    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  5. Investigation of Seasonal Variation of groundwater Quality in Jimeta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES VOL, 10, NO.1, 2012 15-36 ... chloride exceeded the recommended standards of drinking water quality in the rainy season from the shallow and ... chloride, and decrease in ammonium ion and coliform with water depth in shallow aquifer in the dry season, and COD, nitrate ...

  6. Seasonal and annual variations in body weight and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...

  7. Seasonal Variations of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The.

  8. Geographical distribution and seasonal variation of the vectors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement, and river water level. S. damnosum and S. squamosum were recorded from all the bioclimatic zones although they were more frequently observed in the dry season samples than in the wet. S. yahense was found breeding in the ...

  9. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon. (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta


    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  10. Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics (United States)

    Ilstedt, U.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Bazié, H. R.; Bayala, J.; Verbeeten, E.; Nyberg, G.; Sanou, J.; Benegas, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Laudon, H.; Sheil, D.; Malmer, A.


    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world’s people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people. PMID:26908158

  11. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management. (United States)

    Beck, Scott M; McHale, Melissa R; Hess, George R


    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m(2)) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  12. Investigating the patterns and determinants of seasonal variation in vitamin D status in Australian adults: the Seasonal D Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura King


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D status generally varies seasonally with changing solar UVB radiation, time in the sun, amount of skin exposed, and, possibly, diet. The Seasonal D Study was designed to quantify the amplitude and phase of seasonal variation in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25OHD and identify the determinants of the amplitude and phase and those of inter-individual variability in seasonal pattern. Methods The Seasonal D Study collected data 2-monthly for 12 months, including demographics, personal sun exposure using a diary and polysulphone dosimeters over 7 days, and blood for serum 25(OHD concentration. The study recruited 333 adults aged 18–79 years living in Canberra (35°S, n = 168 and Brisbane (27°South, n = 165, Australia. Discussion We report the study design and cohort description for the Seasonal D Study. The study has collected a wealth of data to examine inter- and intra-individual seasonal variation in vitamin D status and serum 25(OHD levels in Australian adults.

  13. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui


    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  14. Seasonal variation of imipramine binding in the blood platelets of normal controls and depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.


    Imipramine binding (IB) was studied in the blood platelets from normal controls and depressed patients over a 4-year period (1981-1984) to determine if seasonal variation was present in Bmax or KD. Bimonthly variation in the Bmax of IB was found in normal controls studied longitudinally. No such variation was found when individual values from normal controls were examined on a monthly or seasonal basis. Bmax in depressed patients showed a significant seasonal, but not monthly, variation. KD of IB varied in normal controls using monthly or seasonal data, but not in the probably more reliable bimonthly data. These results suggest that IB studies comparing groups of subjects should match groups for season of the year or, for greater accuracy, month of the year

  15. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Orby, P.V.; Skjoth, C. A.


    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  16. [Seasonal variation of hospital morbidity from asthma in Poland]. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Justyna; Pac, Agnieszka; Goryński, Paweł; Jedrychowski, Wiesław


    The aim of the paper was to describe and compare the seasonal hospital admissions among different subgroups of patients due to bronchial asthma with a special focus on demographic characteristic. Data were collected during the calendar year 2003. Data were gathered for 32,933 patients from 522 hospitals across Poland with confirmed diagnosis of bronchial asthma or status asthmaticus. We noticed a distinct seasonal patterns in the number of hospitalizations due to asthma. Most cases clustered in the beginning and the end of the calendar year. Beside these hospitalization peaks, we observed a less pronounced increase of hospital admissions in spring and through summer months. It was most distinctly pronounced in children. It was also shown that gender of patients did not affect seasonal variability in our study. Emergency admissions to hospitals were less frequent in summer months, whereas elective admissions presented no such distinct pattern. The data revealed differences in seasonality in asthma hospital admissions in various age groups.

  17. Seasonal Variations of the Surface Urban Heat Island in a Semi-Arid City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Haashemi


    Full Text Available The process of the surface urban heat island (SUHI varies with latitude, climate, topography and meteorological conditions. This study investigated the seasonal variability of SUHI in the Tehran metropolitan area, Iran, with respect to selected surface biophysical variables. Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST was retrieved as nighttime LST data, while daytime LST was retrieved from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS using the split-window algorithm. Both data covered the time period from September 2013 to September 2015. To assess SUHI intensity, we employed three SUHI indicators, i.e., the LST difference of urban-rural, that of urban-agriculture and that of urban-water. Physical and biophysical surface variables, including land use and land cover (LULC, elevation, impervious surface (IS, fractional vegetation cover (FVC and albedo, were selected to estimate the relationship between LST seasonal variability and the surface properties. Results show that an inversion of the SUHI phenomenon (i.e., surface urban cool island existed at daytime with the maximal value of urban-rural LST difference of −4 K in March; whereas the maximal value of SUHI at nighttime yielded 3.9 K in May. When using the indicators of urban-agriculture and urban-water LST differences, the maximal value of SUHI was found to be 8.2 K and 15.5 K, respectively. Both results were observed at daytime, suggesting the role of bare soils in the inversion of the SUHI phenomenon with the urban-rural indicator. Maximal correlation was observed in the relationship between night LST and elevation in spring (coefficient: −0.76, night LST and IS in spring (0.60, night LST and albedo in winter (−0.53 and day LST with fractional vegetation cover in summer (−0.41. The relationship between all surface properties with LST possessed large seasonal variations, and thus, using these relationships for SUHI modeling may not be

  18. Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907) (United States)

    Clotten, Caroline; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; De Schepper, Stijn


    Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50-3.00 Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer sea surface temperatures. As evidenced from brassicasterol and dinosterol, primary productivity was low between 3.50 and 3.00 Ma and the site experienced generally oligotrophic conditions. The East Greenland Current (and East Icelandic Current) may have transported sea ice into the Iceland Sea and/or brought cooler and fresher waters favoring local sea ice formation. Between 3.00 and 2.40 Ma, the Iceland Sea is mainly sea ice-free, but seasonal sea ice occurred between 2.81 and 2.74 Ma. Sea ice extending into the Iceland Sea at this time may have acted as a positive feedback for the build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which underwent a major expansion ∼2.75 Ma. Thereafter, most likely a stable sea ice edge developed close to Greenland, possibly changing together with the expansion and retreat of the GIS and affecting the productivity in the Iceland Sea.

  19. Seasonal variation of ground spiders in a Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Farcic Mineo


    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna Ecoregion (Cerrado is one of the richest biomes in the world, with a characteristic highly seasonal climate a dry season between May and September and a rainy season from October through April. Ground-dwelling spiders from three Cerrado phytophysiognomies, "campo cerrado", "cerrado" and "cerrad��o", were sampled using pitfall traps during two years, totaling 111 species and 3,529 individuals. The abundance of individuals and species richness was higher during the wet season. Fifty-eight species were captured exclusively during that period, whereas only nineteen were restricted to the dry season. Only two species were found in all samples. The number of juveniles was higher than the number of adults in all phytophysiognomies and in all species during both seasons. The highest abundance was registered in October and the lowest in April. Overall sex ratio was male-biased in all vegetation types sampled. Distinct climate variables affected the abundance of spiders depending on sex, age and vegetal physiognomy where they were sampled. This study involved the longest sampling of spider abundance and diversity on the ground of a Brazilian Savanna.

  20. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Variations of Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission, 1994-2011 (United States)

    Orton, G.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Greathouse, T.; Fisher, B.; Greco, J.; Wakefield, L.; Snead, E.; Boydstun, K.; Simon-Miller, A.; hide


    We analyzed mid-infrared images of Jupiter's thermal emission, covering approx.1.5 Jovian years, acquired in discrete filters between 7.8 and 24.5 microns. The behavior of stratospheric (approx.10-mbar) and tropospheric (approx.100-400 mbar) temperatures is generally consistent with predictions of seasonal variability, with differences between 100-mbar temperatures +/-50-60deg from the equator on the order of +/-2. Removing this effect, there appear to be long-term quasi-periodic variability of tropospheric temperatures, whose amplitude, phase and period depend on latitude. The behavior of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone (EZ) suggests a approx.4-6-year period with amplitude of about +/-1-1.5 K in temperature. At mid-latitudes, the periodicity is more distinct with amplitudes around +/-1.5-2.5 K and 4-8 year periods. The 4.2-year variation of stratospheric temperatures known as the quasiquadrennial oscillation or "QQO" (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380) continued during this period. There were no variations of zonal mean temperatures associated with any of the "global upheaval" events that have produced dramatic changes of jupiter's visible appearance and cloud cover, although there are colder discrete regions associated with updrafts, e.g. the early stages of the re-darkening ("revival") of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) in late 2010. On the other hand increases in the visible albedos ("fades") of belts are accompanied by increases in the thickness of a 700-mbar cloud layer (most likely NH3 ice) and clouds at higher pressures, together with the mixing ratio of NH3 gas near 400 mbar (above its condensation level). These quantities decrease during re-darkening ("revival") episodes, during which we note discrete features that are exceptions to the general correlation between dark albedos and minimal cloudiness. In contrast to all these changes, the meridional distribution of the 240-mbar para-H2 fraction appears to be invariant in time.

  1. The causes and consequences of seasonal variation in COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson GC


    Full Text Available Gavin C Donaldson, Jadwiga A Wedzicha Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: The time of year when patients experience exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a much-overlooked feature of the disease. The higher incidence of exacerbations in winter has important consequences for patients in terms of increased morbidity and mortality. The seasonality also imposes a considerable burden on already-overloaded health care services, with both primary care consultations and hospital admissions increasing in number. The seasonality of exacerbations varies with latitude, and is greater in more temperate climates, where there may be less protection from outdoor and indoor cold exposure. The precise causes of the seasonality are unknown, but thought to be partly due to the increased prevalence of respiratory viral infections circulating in cold, damp conditions. Increased susceptibility to viral infection may also be a mechanism mediated through increased airway inflammation or possibly reduced vitamin D levels. The seasonality of exacerbations informs us about the triggers of exacerbations and suggests possible strategies to reduce their number. Keywords: exacerbations of COPD, seasonality, winter mortality, winter morbidity

  2. Design of Seasonal Adjustment Filter Robust to Variations in the Seasonal Behaviour of Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martelotte Marcela Cohen


    Full Text Available Considering that many macroeconomic time series present changing seasonal behaviour, there is a need for filters that are robust to such changes. This article proposes a method to design seasonal filters that address this problem. The design was made in the frequency domain to estimate seasonal fluctuations that are spread around specific bands of frequencies. We assessed the generated filters by applying them to artificial data with known seasonal behaviour based on the ones of the real macroeconomic series, and we compared their performance with the one of X-13A-S. The results have shown that the designed filters have superior performance for series with pronounced moving seasonality, being a good alternative in these cases.

  3. Regional sensitivities of seasonal snowpack to elevation, aspect, and vegetation cover in western North America (United States)

    Tennant, Christopher J.; Harpold, Adrian A.; Lohse, Kathleen Ann; Godsey, Sarah E.; Crosby, Benjamin T.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Brooks, Paul D.; Van Kirk, Robert W.; Glenn, Nancy F.


    In mountains with seasonal snow cover, the effects of climate change on snowpack will be constrained by landscape-vegetation interactions with the atmosphere. Airborne lidar surveys used to estimate snow depth, topography, and vegetation were coupled with reanalysis climate products to quantify these interactions and to highlight potential snowpack sensitivities to climate and vegetation change across the western U.S. at Rocky Mountain (RM), Northern Basin and Range (NBR), and Sierra Nevada (SNV) sites. In forest and shrub areas, elevation captured the greatest amount of variability in snow depth (16-79%) but aspect explained more variability (11-40%) in alpine areas. Aspect was most important at RM sites where incoming shortwave to incoming net radiation (SW:NetR↓) was highest (˜0.5), capturing 17-37% of snow depth variability in forests and 32-37% in shrub areas. Forest vegetation height exhibited negative relationships with snow depth and explained 3-6% of its variability at sites with greater longwave inputs (NBR and SNV). Variability in the importance of physiography suggests differential sensitivities of snowpack to climate and vegetation change. The high SW:NetR↓ and importance of aspect suggests RM sites may be more responsive to decreases in SW:NetR↓ driven by warming or increases in humidity or cloud cover. Reduced canopy-cover could increase snow depths at SNV sites, and NBR and SNV sites are currently more sensitive to shifts from snow to rain. The consistent importance of aspect and elevation indicates that changes in SW:NetR↓ and the elevation of the rain/snow transition zone could have widespread and varied effects on western U.S. snowpacks.

  4. Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of Urmia Salt Lake, Iran. (United States)

    Alipour, Samad


    average of the middle and surface samples. Ignoring the small difference between the averages of the three sample depths, the distribution of K is highly homogeneous in the lake water due to the mixing process. Therefore causeway construction has not yet strongly affected K distribution, or it may be at the starting point. Magnesium concentration ranged from 4.6 to 5-g/lit, and was elevated in the south. This differs somewhat compared to calcium. Lithium, with an average of 12-13 ppm, is slightly higher in the south, and has not shown any significant variation in all three seasons. Iodine was below the detection limit in the lake. Urmia Lake, geochemically, is highly uniform both to the south and north of the causeway, in both the surface and deep brines. K and Mg, which average 1.48 and 6.6 g/lit in order, could be elements worth production in addition to the NaCl currently being produced from the lake. Br, F, Li and B in the limit of <50 ppm don't look to be in the economical range.

  5. Seasonal and Sexual Variation in Metabolism, Thermoregulation, and Hormones in the Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus). (United States)

    Richardson, Christopher S; Heeren, Tim; Kunz, Thomas H

    In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase). We hypothesized that all three hormones are seasonally primarily metabolic hormones and secondarily thermogenic hormones. In males, only BMR significantly changed seasonally. In females, all five variables significantly changed seasonally. The seasonal pattern of plasma leptin and cortisol levels correlated with the seasonal pattern of BMR, with an initial increase followed by a decrease, suggesting that leptin and cortisol are primarily metabolic hormones. The seasonal pattern of plasma T 3 levels generally paralleled the basic seasonal pattern of RNST, with both increasing at the second half of the season, suggesting that T 3 is primarily a thermogenic hormone. The observed decrease in plasma leptin levels may be necessary to allow for the observed seasonal decrease in BMR, with the similar cortisol pattern important for leptin regulation. While T 3 is needed to maintain BMR, it may play a more critical role in the seasonal regulation of RNST than of BMR.

  6. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity ...

  7. Seasonal variation in plants consumption pattern by foraging Olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that seven plants species ((Andropogon gayanus, Strychnos spinosa, Nuclear latifiora, Vitelaria paradoxa, Ficus sycomorus, Annona senegalensis and Tamarindus indica ) were consumed in the wet season with 303 feeding events while ten plants species (Detarium macrocarpum, Gardenia sotoemsis, ...

  8. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astaxanthin content of the seaweed species was greater in pre-monsoon than monsoon and post-monsoon in all the selected stations.Compared with the three seasons, samples of red seaweed collected in pre-monsoon has high carbohydrate –astaxanthin in contrast to protein –lipid which showed high values during ...

  9. Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals Concentration in Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples (0–15cm) collected during the 2007/2008 rainy and dry seasons were treated and digested using microwave acid digestion methods. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean levels range of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were 13.2 ...

  10. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen


    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  11. Seasonal variation of the salinity in the Zuari estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Murty, C.S.

    the first two months of the season. About 2/3 of this loss is recovered in the next two months when the run off decreases. Because the estuary is partially stratified during June - October, gravitational circulation is expected to play a role in addition...

  12. Seasonal variation in chemical composition, aroma volatiles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate compositional changes and antioxidant capacities of pomegranate fruit ('Bhagwa' and 'Ruby') at five distinct stages of maturity over two growing seasons. Total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity and aroma volatile ...

  13. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial and temporal variability of pigments was studied from the CZCS satellite data and from in situ chlorophyll and transparency for the period 1979-1985. The three Adriatic sites, Northern, Middle, and Southern Adriatic are differently in oceanographic parameters. The differences between seasonal in situ chlorophyll and ...

  14. Study of seasonal sexual activity variations in Algerian rams: Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the determination of seasonal effect on two main andrological sexual activity parameters within young and adults rams of Rembi breed from Algeria for a period of one year. The experiment involved a weekly evaluation of males' sexual behaviour and a monthly measurement of serum testosterone ...

  15. seasonal variation of biomass and secondary production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Key words/phrases: Biomass, Brachionus calyciflorus, Lake Kuriftu, secondary production, .... glass rod to enhance extraction of pigments and ..... by Cyanobacteria. Moreover, the seasonal peak in cyclopoid biomass in Lake Hawassa was during the rainy months and in Lake Kuriftu, during the post-rainy months, mainly ...

  16. Study of seasonal sexual activity variations in Algerian rams: Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 9, 2013 ... This study focuses on the determination of seasonal effect on two main andrological sexual activity parameters within young and adults rams of Rembi breed from Algeria for a period of one year. The experiment involved a weekly evaluation of males' sexual behaviour and a monthly measurement of.

  17. seasonal variation and prevalence of tuberculosis among health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 11, 2006 ... Hippocrates once said. “Whoever wishes to investigate medicine properly should proceed thus: in the first place to consider the seasons of the year, and what effects each of them produces” (10). With this in mind, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of TB in the Fako Health District of the ...

  18. Compositional analysis of seasonal variation in Danish residual household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    . To assess differences between seasons and within individual households, we collected residual household waste from the same 101 households in summer, autumn and winter. The waste bags were sorted individually, and residual household waste data (mass and composition) were generated for each household...

  19. Investigation of seasonal variation of groundwater quality in Jimeta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contaminants in all the aquifers revealed strong positive correlations in both seasons which are an indication of common source. Factor analysis indicates that groundwater chemistry is controlled by anthropogenic activities, salinity, ammonification and natural mineralization. It is recommended that safe waste disposal ...

  20. Seasonal variation in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Florets, leaves, and stems of twelve commercial broccoli cultivars grown in the spring and fall seasons at the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Suwon, South Korea were evaluated for glucosinolates, vitamin C, total phenol, and total flavonoid contents ...

  1. Rutting season in domestic reindeer - weight development and androgen variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Inga


    Full Text Available In order to describe weight development and androgen variation in reindeer bulls of the forest type during the rutting season data were collected on carcass weight, weight of m sterno cepbalicus and omentum majus. Blood samples were taken for analysis of testosterone. Sampling and material collection was carried out during 22/8 - 4/11, 1983 (N=100 in the area around Arvidsjaure (65,5° N lat in Sweden. The concentration of testosterone during the pre-rut (22/8 - 22/9 was an average of ~10 - 25 ng/ml plasma for the oldest creatures, while 2 1/2 - 3 1/2 year olds was ~5 - 10 ng/ml plasma. During the most active rutting period (27/9 - 7/10 the testosterone concentration was at highest level, which is shown by two bulls (one 5 1/2 years old and one older who each had ~170 ng/ml plasma. After the rutting period the testosterone concentration for all age groups lay at ~1 ng/ml plasma. The weight of m sterno cepbalicus demonstrated the clearest correlation with testosterone. This correlation was particulary evident in the older bulls (3 1/2 years and older while it was completely missing in the youngest. The muscle showed an regular weight increase, both in absolute and relative figures. In the oldest bulls the muscle weight doubled from the pre-rut to the most active rutting period.Brunstperioden hos tamren - viktutveckling och androgen variation.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: For att beskriva viktutveckling och androgenvariation hos sarvar av skogsren under brunstperioden insamlades uppgifter om slaktvikt, vikt hos m stemo cephalicus och omentum majus. Blodprover togs for analys av testoteron. Materialinsamlingen skedde under tiden 22/8 - 4/11 1983 (N= 100 runt Arvidsjaure (65,5°N lat Sverige. Testosteronkoncentrationen under forbrunsten (22/8 - 22/9 var hos de aldsta i medeltal ~10-25 ng/ml plasma, medan 2 1/2 - 31/2 åringars halt var ~5 - 10 ng/ml plasma. Under stimtiden (27/9 - 7/10 var testosteronkoncentrationen hogst, vilket framgår av

  2. Seasonal variation of secondary cosmic rays in the low polar atmosphere (United States)

    Germanenko, Alexey; Balabin, Yury

    Monitoring of different kind of secondary cosmic rays in the low atmosphere is carried out for some years in the Polar Geophysical Institute. At the present moment two monitoring stations (Apatity, Murmansk region and Barentsburg, Spitzbergen) are in operation. Additionally to conventional 18-NM-64 neutron monitor (NM) there are leadless 4-NM-64 section (LLNM), thermal neutron detector (TND) and scintillation detector of gamma-ray (SDG) of 20-400 keV energy range. SDG has 5 cm lead shield at bottom and sides, accepts radiation only from the atmosphere. In a row of neutron detectors from NM to TND seasonal variation grows up from 0 to ˜ 10 %. The distinct and big seasonal variation (˜ 30 %) is on SDG detector. Low energy gamma-rays are caused of pion and muon decay, first of all low energy muons. It was suggested muon seasonal variation, depending on atmosphere temperature and seasonal condition, determines the SDG-variation.

  3. Interannual and seasonal variations in nearshore wave characteristics off Honnavar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanjiv, P.C.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Vinayaraj, P.

    Interannual and seasonal variations in nearshore surface wave parameters over a period of three years (March 2008 - March 2011) were examined based on the measured wave data at 9 m water depth off Honnavar, west coast of India. Significant wave...

  4. Variation of respiratory syncytial virus and the relation with meteorological factors in different winter seasons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T.J.; Paget, W.J.; Kimpen, J.L.; Schellevis, F.


    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent causing severe respiratory disease in infants and children. In temperate climates, RSV activity typically peaks during winter. We have described the seasonal variation in RSV activity and investigated which

  5. Seasonal variation of wind direction fluctuations vs Pasquill stabilities in complex terrain

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murthy, K.P.R.V.

    The authors have studied the seasonal variation of sigma theta (the standard deviation of wind direction fluctuations) vs Pasquill stabilities over complex terrain. It is found that the values of sigma theta are quite high in the month of April...

  6. Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported malaria in Accra, Ghana: Evidence from facility data and a community survey. ... Conclusions: Understanding these seasonal and geographic patterns have implications for both prevention and treatment of malaria-like morbidity in both children and adults ...

  7. Seasonal and biological variation of urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Skovgaard, L T


    There is a significant circadian and seasonal periodicity in various endocrine functions. The present study describes the within-day and seasonal fluctuation for urinary catecholamines and cortisol and estimates the within- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) coefficients of variation for healthy...

  8. Seasonal variation of ice melting on varying layers of debris of Lirung Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Chand


    Full Text Available Glaciers in the Himalayan region are often covered by extensive debris cover in ablation areas, hence it is essential to assess the effect of debris on glacier ice melt. Seasonal melting of ice beneath different thicknesses of debris on Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal, was studied during three seasons of 2013–14. The melting rates of ice under 5 cm debris thickness are 3.52, 0.09, and 0.85 cm d−1 during the monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. Maximum melting is observed in dirty ice (0.3 cm debris thickness and the rate decreases with the increase of debris thickness. The energy balance calculations on dirty ice and at 40 cm debris thickness show that the main energy source of ablation is net radiation. The major finding from this study is that the maximum melting occurs during the monsoon season than rest of the seasons.

  9. Inter-Seasonal Variations of Surface Temperature in the Urbanized Environment of Delhi Using Landsat Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Babu Singh


    Full Text Available Complex land use/cover patterns in urban areas significantly influence their prevailing surface temperature conditions. As a result of differential cooling and heating of various land use/cover, large temperature ranges are associated with bare land, built-up land, etc. and low ranges are found in vegetation cover and water bodies. Extremely high and low temperature conditions in built-up land have direct and negative impacts on health conditions, and therefore are imperative to study. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to analyze seasonal variations in surface temperature in city of Delhi. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM 5 satellite images for the four seasons, viz., 16 January (winter, 5 March (spring, 8 May (summer and 29 September (autumn 2011 have been used to interpret the distribution and changes in surface temperature. A total of 80 samples from all land use/cover categories were taken to generalize the patterns along with north-south and west-east profiles. The extracted surface temperature patterns reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature over different land use/cover. The north-south and west-east gradient of temperature demonstrates that the core of Delhi has a much lower temperature and weak urban heat island (UHI phenomenon.

  10. Wildlife Habitat Quality (Sward Structure and Ground Cover Response of Mixed Native Warm-Season Grasses to Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalis W. Temu


    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification in America has replaced native warm-season grasses (NWSG with introduced forages causing wildlife habitat loss and population declines for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus and similar ground-nesting birds. Reintroducing NWSGs onto managed grasslands to reverse grassland bird population declines lacks information about appropriate multi-purpose management. Post-season nesting habitat quality of mixed NWSGs (indiangrass (IG, Sorghastrum nutans, big bluestem (BB, Andropogon gerardii and little bluestem (LB, Schizachyrium scoparium responding to previous-year(s harvest intervals (treatments, 30-, 40-, 60-, 90 or 120-d and duration (years in production, were assessed on late-spring-early-summer re-growths. Yearly phased harvestings were initiated in May on sets of randomized plots, ≥90-cm apart, in five replications (blocks to produce one-, two-, and three-year old stands by the third year. Sward heights and canopy closure were recorded a day before harvest, followed a week after by visual estimates of ground cover of plant species and litter. Harvesting increased post-season grass cover and reduced forbs following a high rainfall year. Harvested plot swards showed no treatment differences, but were shorter and intercepted more sunlight. Similarly, harvest duration increased grass cover with no year effect but reduced forbs following a high rainfall year. One- or two-year full-season harvesting of similar stands may not compromise subsequent bobwhite nesting-cover provided post-season harvesting starts after the breeding cycle is completed.

  11. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.


    Despite ample water supply, vegetation dynamics are subject to seasonal water stress in large fraction of tropical forests. These seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) account for over 40% of tropical forests, harbor high biodiversity, have large potential carbon sink due to forest recovery from human disturbance and also play a critical role in global carbon budget and inter-annual variations. Plants in this biome display notably diverse responses to seasonal and inter-annual variations of water availability, especially inter-specific variations in canopy seasonality and biomass growth. Current process-based dynamic vegetation models cannot represent these diversities and are shown to perform poorly on simulating drought responses of tropical forests, calling into question of their ability to accurately simulate future changes in SDTFs. Accumulated field observations, suggest that hydrological niche separation driven by coordinated plant functional traits is associated with plants' performance under drought. Yet, it remains not clear whether the physiology-level hydrological niche separation can explain the ecosystem-level diversity observed in SDTFs. Here, we test the theory with a model-data fusion approach. We implemented a new plant hydrodynamic module that is able to track leaf water potential at sub-daily scale in ED2 model. We further incorporated a hydrological niche separation scheme based on a meta-data analysis of key functional traits in SDTFs. Simulated ecological patterns with and without hydrological niche separation were then compared with remote-sensing and long-term field observations from an SDTF site in Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Using several numerical experiments, we specifically examine the following questions: (i) Whether hydrological niche separation can explain the diversity in canopy seasonality and biomass growth? (ii) How important are the yet uncertain belowground functional traits, especially root profile in determining canopy

  12. Seasonal variation in phytotoxicity of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum L. Kuhn). (United States)

    Dolling, A; Zackrisson, O; Nilsson, M C


    Laboratory bioassays were used to test for the phytotoxicity of volatile compounds, fresh plant material as a seed bed, and water extracts from bracken [Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn] pinnules to germination and seedling growth of aspen (Populus tremula L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Fronds were sampled from two bracken populations, one in the south and one in the north of Sweden. All three bioassays showed inhibitory effects, and these varied seasonally with the most inhibitory effects occurring in May, June, and September. The peak of inhibition in May and June coincides with the start of the growing season when bracken still is immature and vulnerable to interference from other species. The increase in inhibitory effects in September appears to be due to transformation of natural products or an accumulation of inhibitory compounds that are released during decomposition following frond death. Addition of activated carbon did not remove the inhibitory effects.

  13. Latitudinal and Seasonal Investigations of Storm-Time TEC Variation (United States)

    Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Adebiyi, S. J.


    The ionosphere responds markedly and unpredictably to varying magnetospheric energy inputs caused by solar disturbances on the geospace. Knowledge of the impact of the space weather events on the ionosphere is important to assess the environmental effect on the operations of ground- and space-based technologies. Thus, global positioning system (GPS) measurements from the international GNSS service (IGS) database were used to investigate the ionospheric response to 56 geomagnetic storm events at six different latitudes comprising the northern and southern hemispheres in the Afro-European sector. Statistical distributions of total electron content (TEC) response show that during the main phase of the storms, enhancement of TEC is more pronounced in most of the seasons, regardless of the latitude and hemisphere. However, a strong seasonal dependence appears in the TEC response during the recovery phase. Depletion of TEC is majorly observed at the high latitude stations, and its appearance at lower latitudes is seasonally dependent. In summer hemisphere, the depletion of TEC is more pronounced in nearly all the latitudinal bands. In winter hemisphere, enhancement as well as depletion of TEC is observed over the high latitude, while enhancement is majorly observed over the mid and low latitudes. In equinoxes, the storm-time TEC distribution shows a fairly consistent characteristic with the summer distribution, particularly in the northern hemisphere.

  14. Trace metal seasonal variations in Texas marine sediments (United States)

    Holmes, C.W.


    Trace elements in coastal environments are derived from three major sources: (1) the bordering watershed; (2) the offshore marine environment; and (3) industrial and/or urban effluent. The site of deposition, however, is controlled by physical and chemical processes in the coastal zone. In many cases, these processes are controlled by climate and can vary seasonally. In the harbor at Corpus Christi, Texas, the summer climate creates an oxygen-poor environment in the water column near the sediment-water interface. This causes chalcophilic metals to precipitate from the water, resulting in high concentrations in the sediments near the source. During the winter, turbulence created by strong winds causes the entire water mass to become aerated and oxidizing, and remobilization of some metals results. In addition, this turbulence accelerates circulation which transports the metal-enriched waters from the harbor. On the outer continental shelf of south Texas, the infaunal activity varies seasonally with bottom water temperatures. As this infaunal activity has an effect on the chemical environment within the sediment near the sediment-water interface, the observed trace metal content at the interface also appears to change with the seasons. ?? 1986.

  15. Within-season variation in sexual selection in a fish with dynamic sex roles. (United States)

    Wacker, Sebastian; Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet; Mobley, Kenyon B


    The strength of sexual selection may vary between species, among populations and within populations over time. While there is growing evidence that sexual selection may vary between years, less is known about variation in sexual selection within a season. Here, we investigate within-season variation in sexual selection in male two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). This marine fish experiences a seasonal change in the operational sex ratio from male- to female-biased, resulting in a dramatic decrease in male mating competition over the breeding season. We therefore expected stronger sexual selection on males early in the season. We sampled nests and nest-holding males early and late in the breeding season and used microsatellite markers to determine male mating and reproductive success. We first analysed sexual selection associated with the acquisition of nests by comparing nest-holding males to population samples. Among nest-holders, we calculated the potential strength of sexual selection and selection on phenotypic traits. We found remarkable within-season variation in sexual selection. Selection on male body size related to nest acquisition changed from positive to negative over the season. The opportunity for sexual selection among nest-holders was significantly greater early in the season rather than late in the season, partly due to more unmated males. Overall, our study documents a within-season change in sexual selection that corresponds with a predictable change in the operational sex ratio. We suggest that many species may experience within-season changes in sexual selection and that such dynamics are important for understanding how sexual selection operates in the wild. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Seasonal variation in metabolic rate, flight activity and body size of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel. (United States)

    Huestis, Diana L; Yaro, Alpha S; Traoré, Adama I; Dieter, Kathryne L; Nwagbara, Juliette I; Bowie, Aleah C; Adamou, Abdoulaye; Kassogué, Yaya; Diallo, Moussa; Timbiné, Seydou; Dao, Adama; Lehmann, Tovi


    Malaria in Africa is vectored primarily by the Anopheles gambiae complex. Although the mechanisms of population persistence during the dry season are not yet known, targeting dry season mosquitoes could provide opportunities for vector control. In the Sahel, it appears likely that M-form A. gambiae survive by aestivation (entering a dormant state). To assess the role of eco-physiological changes associated with dry season survival, we measured body size, flight activity and metabolic rate of wild-caught mosquitoes throughout 1 year in a Sahelian locality, far from permanent water sources, and at a riparian location adjacent to the Niger River. We found significant seasonal variation in body size at both the Sahelian and riparian sites, although the magnitude of the variation was greater in the Sahel. For flight activity, significant seasonality was only observed in the Sahel, with increased flight activity in the wet season when compared with that just prior to and throughout the dry season. Whole-organism metabolic rate was affected by numerous biotic and abiotic factors, and a significant seasonal component was found at both locations. However, assay temperature accounted completely for seasonality at the riparian location, while significant seasonal variation remained after accounting for all measured variables in the Sahel. Interestingly, we did not find that mean metabolic rate was lowest during the dry season at either location, contrary to our expectation that mosquitoes would conserve energy and increase longevity by reducing metabolism during this time. These results indicate that mosquitoes may use mechanisms besides reduced metabolic rate to enable survival during the Sahelian dry season.

  17. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 24, 2013 ... sources peculiar to emerging African cities. Key words: Shallow well, pollution, water level, ... groundwater contamination within the region of interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study area ... were covered with cork to prevent spillage and contamination and were kept in the laboratory at 4°C before the ...

  18. Seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes at two Arctic terrestrial sites (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Uttal, Taneil; Akish, Elena A.; Cox, Christopher J.; Morris, Sara M.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Stone, Robert S.; Lesins, Glen; Makshtas, Alexander P.; Repina, Irina A.


    This observational study compares seasonal variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil heat) and other ancillary atmospheric/surface/permafrost data based on in-situ measurements made at terrestrial research observatories located near the coast of the Arctic Ocean. Hourly-averaged multiyear data sets collected at Eureka (Nunavut, Canada) and Tiksi (East Siberia, Russia) are analyzed in more detail to elucidate similarities and differences in the seasonal cycles at these two Arctic stations, which are situated at significantly different latitudes (80.0°N and 71.6°N, respectively). While significant gross similarities exist in the annual cycles of various meteorological parameters and fluxes, the differences in latitude, local topography, cloud cover, snowfall, and soil characteristics produce noticeable differences in fluxes and in the structures of the atmospheric boundary layer and upper soil temperature profiles. An important factor is that even though higher latitude sites (in this case Eureka) generally receive less annual incoming solar radiation but more total daily incoming solar radiation throughout the summer months than lower latitude sites (in this case Tiksi). This leads to a counter-intuitive state where the average active layer (or thaw line) is deeper and the topsoil temperature in midsummer are higher in Eureka which is located almost 10° north of Tiksi. The study further highlights the differences in the seasonal and latitudinal variations of the incoming shortwave and net radiation as well as the moderating cloudiness effects that lead to temporal and spatial differences in the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and the uppermost ground layer. Specifically the warm season (Arctic summer) is shorter and mid-summer amplitude of the surface fluxes near solar noon is generally less in Eureka than in Tiksi. During the dark Polar night and cold seasons (Arctic winter) when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures

  19. Mapping fractional woody cover in semi-arid savannahs using multi-seasonal composites from Landsat data (United States)

    Higginbottom, Thomas P.; Symeonakis, Elias; Meyer, Hanna; van der Linden, Sebastian


    Increasing attention is being directed at mapping the fractional woody cover of savannahs using Earth-observation data. In this study, we test the utility of Landsat TM/ ETM-based spectral-temporal variability metrics for mapping regional-scale woody cover in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, for 2010. We employ a machine learning framework to compare the accuracies of Random Forest models derived using metrics calculated from different seasons. We compare these results to those from fused Landsat-PALSAR data to establish if seasonal metrics can compensate for structural information from the PALSAR signal. Furthermore, we test the applicability of a statistical variable selection method, the recursive feature elimination (RFE), in the automation of the model building process in order to reduce model complexity and processing time. All of our tests were repeated at four scales (30, 60, 90, and 120 m-pixels) to investigate the role of spatial resolution on modelled accuracies. Our results show that multi-seasonal composites combining imagery from both the dry and wet seasons produced the highest accuracies (R2 = 0.77, RMSE = 9.4, at the 120 m scale). When using a single season of observations, dry season imagery performed best (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 9.9, at the 120 m resolution). Combining Landsat and radar imagery was only marginally beneficial, offering a mean relative improvement of 1% in accuracy at the 120 m scale. However, this improvement was concentrated in areas with lower densities of woody coverage (continue to exploit the Landsat archive, but should aim to use multi-seasonal derived information. When the coarser 120 m pixel scale is adequate, integration of Landsat and SAR data should be considered, especially in areas with lower woody cover densities. The use of multiple seasonal compositing periods offers promise for large-area mapping of savannahs, even in regions with a limited historical Landsat coverage.

  20. Predictor model for seasonal variations in skid resistance. Volume 2: Comprehensive report (United States)

    Henry, J. J.; Saito, K.; Blackburn, R.


    Two models, utilizing data collected in 1979 and 1980, were developed to predict variations in skid resistance due to rainfall conditions, temperature effects, and time of the year. A generalized predictor model was developed from purely statistical considerations and a mechanistic model was developed from hypothesized mechanisms. This model may be utilized to estimate the skid resistance at any time in the season from a measurement made during the same season, or to adjust skid-resistance measurement made at any time during the season to the end-of-season level.

  1. Seasonal and locational variations in children's play: implications for wellbeing. (United States)

    Ergler, Christina R; Kearns, Robin A; Witten, Karen


    Physical activity, through independent outdoor play, has come to the fore as a way to improve children's health through it fostering healthy mental and social as well as physiological development. However, in many high-income countries children's autonomous play opportunities have diminished due to urban intensification and declining parental license. Regardless of this trend, children's play varies across countries, cities, cultures and seasons. This paper offers new insights into the complexities of play as a vital aspect of children's wellbeing. Within the context of New Zealand - whose citizens generally regard themselves as outdoor people - this paper explores why 'play' might resonate differently across localities and seasons. We contrast the play affordances provided by Auckland's central city (dominated by apartment living) with Beach Haven, a suburban area. We employed a multi-method approach and included 20 children and their parents who were recruited through school and summer holiday programs embracing different gender and ethnicities to reflect the general cultural mix of the respective neighbourhoods. We advance two arguments. First, we suggest that the rarity of children playing outdoors unsupervised normalises supervised indoor play and reduces children's opportunities to see outdoor play as an alternative to interior or supervised pastimes. Second, we follow Bourdieu's theory of practice to argue that the regard parents and children have towards outdoor play reflects locally constituted beliefs about what is seasonally 'appropriate' children's activity. We found that extra-curricular activities and supervised excursions are undertaken in the central city all year around and only vary between social groups by the type of destination. In the suburb, independent outdoor play in summer represents children's main business after school in ways that enhance their environmental literacy and potential future health gain. For others these symbolic values

  2. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok


    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  3. Species composition and seasonal variation of butterflies in Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Verma


    Full Text Available Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary is located 10km from Jamshedpur in Jharkhand, India. The species composition and seasonal variation of butterflies was analyzed in this sanctuary over the course of 2 years. A total of 39 species belonging to 31 genera and 4 families were identified. Of these, Nymphalidae and Pieridae were found to be the dominant families, in comparison to Lycaenidae and Papilionidae. The monthly diversity was calculated by using the Shannon-Weiner diversity index. The highest diversity was found during late winter and spring while a comparatively low diversity was observed during the rainy season and summer. Nymphalidae showed the greatest variation with respect to distribution of species richness throughout the year. Nymphalidae and Lycaenidae showed greatest species richness and relative abundance during the rainy season. Little seasonal variation in species richness was observed in case of families Pieridae and Papilionidae

  4. Seasonal variation and food deprivation in common vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.

  5. Seasonal variation in concentration of radon and thoron at non-uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Hongxing; Wu Yunyun; Zhang Qingzhao; Shang Bing


    Objective: To study the seasonal variation in concentrations of radon and thoron in non-uranium mine. Methods: Eight kinds of mineral types from 9 non-uranium mines were selected, including copper, gold, aluminium, manganese, antimonium, tungsten, copper-nickel and coal mines in 6 provinces, such as Yunnan, Shandong, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hunan and Guizhou. LD-P R-T discriminative detectors were used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in underground mines during four seasons in one year. Results: Radon concentrations in underground mines showed a significantly seasonal variation. Radon concentration ranged from 35.5 to 4841 Bq/m 3 in summer, and the average value in four mines exceeded 1000 Bq/m 3 of the control limit for workplace (GB 18871-2002) . In winter, radon concentration ranged from 5 to 1917 Bq/m 3 , only one of them exceeded the control limit. The ratio of radon from summer to winter ranged from 2 to 12. Ventilation was one of the main factors which influenced the seasonal variation of radon. While the thoron concentration in underground mines showed a tendency that it was higher in summer and lower in winter. It was difficult to attain representative values for thoron, due to the influence of location of detectors. The seasonal variation of thoron should be further studied. Conclusions: Seasonal variation for radon and thoron should be taken into account to estimate the effective dose to miners. The values of radon concentration during the short term should be corrected. (authors)

  6. Seasonal variation in Internet searches for vitamin D. (United States)

    Moon, Rebecca J; Curtis, Elizabeth M; Davies, Justin H; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C


    Internet search rates for "vitamin D" were explored using Google Trends. Search rates increased from 2004 until 2010 and thereafter displayed a seasonal pattern peaking in late winter. This knowledge could help guide the timing of public health interventions aimed at managing vitamin D deficiency. The Internet is an important source of health information. Analysis of Internet search activity rates can provide information on disease epidemiology, health related behaviors and public interest. We explored Internet search rates for vitamin D to determine whether this reflects the increasing scientific interest in this topic. Google Trends is a publically available tool that provides data on Internet searches using Google. Search activity for the term "vitamin D" from 1st January 2004 until 31st October 2016 was obtained. Comparison was made to other bone and nutrition related terms. Worldwide, searches for "vitamin D" increased from 2004 until 2010 and thereafter a statistically significant (p Internet search activity, did increase from 2004 to 2010, likely reflecting the growing scientific interest, but now displays a seasonal pattern with peak interest during late winter. This information could be used to guide public health approaches to managing vitamin D deficiency.

  7. Seasonal Variation of the Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait (United States)


    2006 is underestimated by the model. Also, the variation below 600 m in the model is not similar to ob- servations. A weak northward current below...The dynamics of the East Australian Current system: The Tasman Front, the East Auckland Current, and the East Cape Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31

  8. Seasonal Variation in the Abundance and Distribution of Ixodid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the variation, abundance and distribution of ticks on 300 Mongrels, Mixed and Alsatian breeds of dogs (Canis familiaris) in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The population of ticks was higher during the rainy months than the dry months. A total of 1,146 ticks of three species, belonging to the ...

  9. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.


    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  10. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils (United States)

    We quantified the seasonal variability of CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions from fresh refuse and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at two California landfills. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m-2 d-1) averaged CH4 0.053[+/-0.03], CO2 135[+/-117], and N2O 0.063[+/-0.059]. Average CH4 emissions across ...

  11. Seasonal variation in the essential oil of Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The essential oils of the leaves and fine stems of Pilocarpus microphyllus, collected on iron mineralized soil of the Serra de Carajás, Southeast of Pará State, Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main identified compounds were 2-tridecanone, beta-caryophyllene, 2-pentadecanone, caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D. Their percentage contents varied with the season, the greater values having been detected mainly in the rainy season. For 2-tridecanone and beta-caryophyllene the higher values were observed in the fine stem oils for the former, and in the leaf oils for the latter. For 2-pentadecanone, caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D they were also in the leaf oils. In general, the leaf oils were very distinguishable from those of fine stem oils, even in the same specimen.Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Pilocarpus microphyllus, coletado em solo mineralizado com ferro, na Serra de Carajás, Sudeste do Pará, Brasil, durante as estações chuvosa e seca, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por GC-MS. Os principais compostos identificados foram 2-tridecanona, beta-cariofileno, 2-pentadecanona, óxido de cariofileno e germacreno D. Seus teores percentuais variam com a estação, embora os maiores valores tenham sido detectados principalmente na estação chuvosa. Para 2-tridecanona e beta-cariofileno os valores mais expressivos foram observados nos óleos de galhos finos, para o primeiro, e nos óleos das folhas, para o útimo. Para 2-pentadecanona, óxido de cariofileno e germacreno D, os valores mais altos foram, também, nos óleos das folhas. Em geral, os óleos das folhas se apresentaram muito distintos em relação aos galhos finos, assim como também no mesmo espécime.

  12. Longitudinal and Seasonal Variation of Lunar tide strength (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Pacheco, E. E.; Valladares, C. E.


    It has been known since many decades that lunar tide, which manifests itself as a semi-diurnal wave that precesses through all local times within one lunar month, has been identified as a significant force that can produce a notable influence on the longitudinal equatorial density distribution and equatorial electrojet (EEJ). However, there has never been a comprehensive study, except some statistical analysis using the satellite based in-situ observations, of the lunar tide effect on a global scale. This left several questions, like the longitudinal and solar flux dependence of the lunar tide, the tidal wave strength difference between new and full moon phases, remained unanswered. The proximity of the Earth/Moon system to the Sun, proximity of a New/Full Moon to one of the nodes of the lunar orbit, and the proximity of a New/Full Moon to the perigee of the lunar orbit are among the main factors that can affect the seasonal variability of lunar tide strength. With the indications of lunar tide influence on the strength of dayside EEJ, enhancing EEJ's strength shortly after new and full moon, we utilize the ground-based magnetometer fourteen years (1998 - 2012) data and investigate the various aspects of lunar tide effects on the EEJ at three different longitudinal sectors. The equatorial magnetometers located at Jicamarca for American sector, Addis Ababa for African sector, and Tirunelveli for Indian sector are used for this comprehensive study. Simultaneously, using the GPS TEC data, we examined the lunar tide impacts on the equatorial density irregularities and bubble formations at different longitudinal sectors. We found surprising strong longitudinal dependence in the lunar tide strength and its influence on EEJ and density bubble formation. Significant solar flux and seasonal dependences in lunar tide strength have also been observed at all longitudinal sectors. Finally, we investigated the lunar tide strength difference between new moon and full moon phases.

  13. The current impact flux on Mars and its seasonal variation


    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu


    We calculate the present-day impact flux on Mars and its variation over the Martian year, using the current data on the orbital distribution of known Mars-crossing minor planets. We adapt the {\\"O}pik-Wetherill formulation for calculating collision probabilities, paying careful attention to the non-uniform distribution of the perihelion longitude and the argument of perihelion owed to secular planetary perturbations. We find that these previously neglected non-uniformities have a significant ...

  14. A further contribution to the seasonal variation of weighted mean temperature (United States)

    Ding, Maohua; Hu, Wusheng


    The weighted mean temperature Tm is a variable parameter in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology and the Askne-Nordius zenith wet delay (ZWD) model. Some parameters about the Tm seasonal variation (e.g. the annual mean value, the annual range, the annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and the long-term trend) were discussed before. In this study, some additional results about the Tm seasonal variation on a global scale were found by using the Tm time series at 309 global radiosonde sites. Periodic signals of the annual and semi-annual variations were detected in these Tm time series by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The annual variation is the main component of the periodic Tm in non-tropical regions, while the annual variation or the semiannual variation can be the main component of the periodic Tm in tropics. The mean annual Tm almost keeps constant with the increasing latitude in tropics, while it decreases with the increasing latitude in non-tropical regions. From a global perspective, Tm has an increasing trend of 0.22 K/decade on average, which may be caused by the global warming effects. The annual phase is almost found in about January for the non-tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in about July for the non-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it has no clear symmetry in tropics. Unlike the annual phase, the geographical distributions of semi-annual phase do not follow obvious rules. In non-tropical regions, the maximum and minimum Tm of the seasonal model are usually found in respective summer and winter days while the maximum and minimum Tm are distributed over a whole year but not in any fixed seasons for tropical regions. The seasonal model errors increase with the increasing value of annual amplitude. A primary reason for the irregular seasonal variation in tropics is that Tm has rather small variations in this region.

  15. Seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community in a tropical oligotrophic environment (Ilha Solteira reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mansano

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community (ciliates and testate amoebae was studied in a tropical oligotrophic reservoir in Brazil, which was under the influence of two contrasting climatic seasons (rainy/warm and dry/cold. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these climatic changes on physical, chemical and biological variables in the dynamic of this community. The highest mean density of total protozoans occurred in the rainy/warm season (5683.2 ind L−1, while the lowest was in the dry/cold (2016.0 ind L−1. Considering the seasonal variations, the protozoan groups that are truly planktonic, such as the oligotrichs (Spirotrichea, predominated in the dry season, whereas during the rainy season, due to the material input and resuspension of sediment, sessile protozoans of the Peritrichia group were the most important ones. The dominant protozoans were Urotricha globosa, Cothurnia annulata, Pseudodifflugia sp. and Halteria grandinella. The highest densities of H. grandinella were associated with more oxygenated and transparent water conditions, while the highest densities of C. annulata occurred in sites with high turbidity, pH and trophic state index (TSI. The study demonstrated that density and composition of protozooplanktonic species and groups of the reservoir suffered seasonal variation due to the environmental variables (mainly temperature, turbidity, water transparency, dissolved oxygen and TSI and the biological variables (e.g. morphological characteristics, eating habits and escape strategies from predation of the species.

  16. Seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community in a tropical oligotrophic environment (Ilha Solteira reservoir, Brazil). (United States)

    Mansano, A S; Hisatugo, K F; Leite, M A; Luzia, A P; Regali-Seleghim, M H


    The seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community (ciliates and testate amoebae) was studied in a tropical oligotrophic reservoir in Brazil, which was under the influence of two contrasting climatic seasons (rainy/warm and dry/cold). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these climatic changes on physical, chemical and biological variables in the dynamic of this community. The highest mean density of total protozoans occurred in the rainy/warm season (5683.2 ind L-1), while the lowest was in the dry/cold (2016.0 ind L-1). Considering the seasonal variations, the protozoan groups that are truly planktonic, such as the oligotrichs (Spirotrichea), predominated in the dry season, whereas during the rainy season, due to the material input and resuspension of sediment, sessile protozoans of the Peritrichia group were the most important ones. The dominant protozoans were Urotricha globosa, Cothurnia annulata, Pseudodifflugia sp. and Halteria grandinella. The highest densities of H. grandinella were associated with more oxygenated and transparent water conditions, while the highest densities of C. annulata occurred in sites with high turbidity, pH and trophic state index (TSI). The study demonstrated that density and composition of protozooplanktonic species and groups of the reservoir suffered seasonal variation due to the environmental variables (mainly temperature, turbidity, water transparency, dissolved oxygen and TSI) and the biological variables (e.g. morphological characteristics, eating habits and escape strategies from predation of the species).

  17. Seasonal variations of stratospheric age spectra in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) (United States)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.; Strahan, Susan E.; Nielsen, J. Eric


    The stratospheric age spectrum is the probability distribution function of the transit times since a stratospheric air parcel had last contact with a tropospheric boundary region. Previous age spectrum studies have focused on its annual mean properties. Knowledge of the age spectrum's seasonal variability is very limited. In this study, we investigate the seasonal variations of the stratospheric age spectra using the pulse tracer method in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). The relationships between the age spectrum and the boundary impulse response (BIR) are reviewed, and a simplified method to reconstruct seasonally varying age spectra is introduced. The age spectra in GEOSCCM have strong seasonal cycles, especially in the lowermost and lower stratosphere and in the subtropical overworld. These changes reflect the seasonal evolution of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, isentropic mixing, and transport barriers. We also investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of the BIRs. Our results clearly show that computing an ensemble of seasonally dependent BIRs is necessary in order to capture the seasonal and annual mean properties of the stratospheric age spectrum.

  18. Fruit development, not GPP, drives seasonal variation in NPP in a tropical palm plantation. (United States)

    Navarro, M N V; Jourdan, C; Sileye, T; Braconnier, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Saint-Andre, L; Dauzat, J; Nouvellon, Y; Epron, D; Bonnefond, J M; Berbigier, P; Rouziere, A; Bouillet, J P; Roupsard, O


    We monitored seasonal variations in net primary production (NPP), estimated by allometric equations from organ dimensions, gross primary production (GPP), estimated by the eddy covariance method, autotrophic respiration (R(a)), estimated by a model, and fruit production in a coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plantation located in the sub-tropical South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. Net primary production of the vegetative compartments of the trees accumulated steadily throughout the year. Fruits accounted for 46% of tree NPP and showed large seasonal variations. On an annual basis, the sum of estimated NPP (16.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) and R(a) (24.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) for the ecosystem (coconut trees and herbaceous understory) closely matched GPP (39.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)), suggesting adequate cross-validation of annual C budget methods. However, seasonal variations in NPP + R(a) were smaller than the seasonal variations in GPP, and maximum tree NPP occurred 6 months after the midsummer peak in GPP and solar radiation. We propose that this discrepancy reflects seasonal variation in the allocation of dry mass to carbon reserves and new plant tissue, thus affecting the allometric relationships used for estimating NPP.

  19. Seasonal variation of tropical precipitation chemistry: La Selva, Costa Rica (United States)

    Eklund, Tamara J.; McDowell, William H.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    The chemistry of wet precipitation was measured from February 1992 to February 1995 at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Sea salt aerosols were the primary contributors to Na +, Cl -, and Mg 2+; however, K +, Ca 2+, and SO 42- were derived primarily from non-sea-salt sources. Seasonal patterns, with concentrations inversely proportional to rainfall, were found for marine salts and aerosols (Na +, Cl -, and Mg 2+) and inorganic nitrogenous compounds (NO 3- and NH 4+). DON accounted for a significant fraction (30%) of total dissolved nitrogen deposition. Terrigenous dust from local agricultural or natural aeolian processes appeared to be the primary influence on concentrations of non-sea-salt cations. High concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfate (SO 4∗) were correlated with both non-sea-salt chloride (Cl *) and high H + concentrations as well as a shift in wind direction from the northeast to the southwest, which may indicate a strong volcanic influence on precipitation chemistry during a few weeks of the year. Annual fluctuations in distribution and amount of rainfall contributed to differences in precipitation chemistry over the course of the study.

  20. Coexistence of microalgal sedimentation and water column recycling in a seasonally ice-covered ecosystem (Saroma-ko Lagoon, Sea of Okhotsk, Japan) (United States)

    Michel, C.; Legendre, L.; Taguchi, S.


    Seasonal variations in under-ice microalgal sedimentation and plankton dynamics in Saroma-ko, a shallow seasonally ice-covered lagoon (Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan), were followed during a 4-week period at the end of winter. At 3-4 day intervals, sediment traps were deployed at three depths from the undersurface of the ice and water column samples were collected. Sampled variables included chlorophyll a (chl a) and pheopigments, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON), cell identification and enumeration, biogenic silica and dissolved inorganic nutrients. POC/PON, POC/chl a and Si/chl a ratios for suspended biomass as well as cell counts showed the presence of a diversified phytoplankton assemblage with a high microheterotrophic biomass. A major peak in algal sedimentation occurred at the end of the sampling season (chl a flux ca. 5 mg m -2 d -1); the sedimented algae included both ice algae and phytoplankton species. Ice algae did not remain suspended in the plankton biomass, but sedimented rapidly upon release from the ice matrix. Results show that Saroma-ko had a rather special food web structure at the end of winter, when both high microalgal export and water column recycling simultaneously occurred under the ice cover.

  1. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.


    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  2. Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric CO2 over Fire Affected Regions Based on GOSAT Observations (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Matsunaga, T.


    Abstract: The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from biomass burning significantly affect the temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Based on a long-term (July 2009-June 2015) retrieved datasets by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), the seasonal cycle and interannual variations of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) in four fire affected continental regions were investigated. The results showed Northern Africa had the largest seasonal variations after removing its regional long-term trend of XCO2 with peak-to-peak amplitude of 6.2 ppm within the year, higher than central South America (2.4 ppm), Southern Africa (3.8 ppm) and Australia (1.7 ppm). The detrended regional XCO2 was found to be positively correlated with the fire CO2 emissions during fire activity period and negatively correlated with vegetation photosynthesis activity with different seasonal variabilities. Northern Africa recorded the largest change of seasonal variations of detrended XCO2 with a total of 12.8 ppm during fire seasons, higher than central South America, Southern Africa and Australia with 5.4 ppm, 6.7 ppm and 2.2 ppm, respectively. During fire episode, the positive detrended XCO2 was noticed during June-November in central South America, December-June in Northern Africa, May-November in Southern Africa. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the variations of detrended XCO2 and fire CO2 emissions from GFED4 (Global Fire Emissions Database v4) achieved best correlations in Southern Africa (R=0.77, p<0.05). Meanwhile, Southern Africa also experienced a significant negative relationship between the variations of detrended XCO2 and vegetation activity (R=-0.84, p<0.05). This study revealed that fire CO2 emissions and vegetation activity contributed greatly to the seasonal variations of GOSAT XCO2 dataset.

  3. Speciation of selenium in groundwater: Seasonal variations and redox transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A. Ramesh; Riyazuddin, P.


    Highlights: → Selenium(VI) was the predominant species of Se present in groundwater. → Groundwater recharge increased Se mobilization. → Dissolved oxygen and redox potential control the mobilization of soil selenium. → Shallow groundwater is susceptible for more selenium enrichment than deeper ones. - Abstract: Speciation of selenium in groundwater is essential from the viewpoint of toxicity to organisms and biogeochemical cycling. Selenium speciation in groundwater is controlled by aquifer redox conditions, microbial transformations, dissolved oxygen (DO) and other redox couples. A suburban area of Chennai city in India, where improper waste disposal measures have been practiced is selected for this study. Se(IV), Se(VI) and other hydrochemical parameters were monitored in shallow ground water during pre- and post-monsoon seasons for a period of three years. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of groundwater recharge on selenium speciation. The concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-0.43 μg L -1 and 0.16-4.73 μg L -1 , respectively. During post-monsoon period the concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-1.25 μg L -1 and 0.58-10.37 μg L -1 , respectively. Se(VI) was the dominant species of selenium during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. During the post-monsoon periods, leaching of selenium from soil was more effective due to the increased oxidizing nature of the groundwater as indicated by the DO and redox potential (Eh) measurements. This finding has important implications on the behavior of selenium in groundwater, and also on the health of people consuming groundwater from seleniferous areas.

  4. Interannual Variation of Seasonal Changes of Precipitation and Moisture Transport in the Western North Pacific


    Miki, HATTORI; Kazuhisa, TSUBOKI; Takao, TAKEDA; Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University; Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University; Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University


    Interannual variation of seasonal changes of precipitation and moisture transport in the western North Pacific from June to August is studied using global monthly precipitation data, and NCEP-NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis for 20 years from 1979 to 1998. According to the meridional shift of the intense precipitation area and precipitation amounts in June and August to the east of the Philippines, the seasonal changes of ...

  5. Effects of Seasonal Variations on the Outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Nemati


    Full Text Available Background: For all the reports on the association between seasons and coronary artery disease, there is a paucity of information on the possible effects of seasonal variations on the outcome of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term outcome of post-CABG patients in the four different seasons to find any correlation between seasonal variations and the outcome of such patients. Methods: Data on patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. In-hospital mortality, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay, and length of hospital stay in the four different seasons were considered as outcome measures. The EuroSCORE was calculated for all the patients, and the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Student t, and chi square tests were used as appropriate. Results: Of a total of 402 patients, who underwent CABG during the mentioned period, 292 patients were male (M/F ratio=2.65. There were no differences in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and mean EuroSCORE of the patients between the seasons. The mean length of ICU stay was significantly more in the spring than that of the other seasons (P<0.001, while the difference between the four seasons regarding the mean length of hospital stay did not constitute statistical significance (P=0.22. No effect of seasonal variations was found for the lengths of ICU and hospital stay in the presence of the EuroSCORE after multiple logistic regression analysis (P=0.278, 0.431.Conclusion: Psychological mood changes caused by regional cultural differences rather than environmental factors should be considered in the optimal management of patients after CABG.

  6. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review. (United States)

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie


    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (purban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal variation in internet keyword searches: a proxy assessment of sex mating behaviors. (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N


    The current study investigated seasonal variation in internet searches regarding sex and mating behaviors. Harmonic analyses were used to examine the seasonal trends of Google keyword searches during the past 5 years for topics related to pornography, prostitution, and mate-seeking. Results indicated a consistent 6-month harmonic cycle with the peaks of keyword searches related to sex and mating behaviors occurring most frequently during winter and early summer. Such results compliment past research that has found similar seasonal trends of births, sexually transmitted infections, condom sales, and abortions.

  8. Lidar observed seasonal variation of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon evergreen forests (United States)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.


    Both light and water are important environmental factors governing tree growth. Responses of tropical forests to their changes are complicated and can vary substantially across different spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest is the dry-season greening-up of Amazon forests, a phenomenon undergoing considerable debates whether it is real or a "light illusion" caused by artifacts of passive optical remote sensing techniques. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon forests using lidar observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We found that the net greening of canopy layer coincides with the wet-to-dry transition period, and its net browning occurs mostly at the late dry season. The understory also shows a seasonal cycle, but with an opposite variation to canopy and minimal correlation to seasonal variations in rainfall or radiation. Our results further suggest a potential interaction between canopy layers in the light regime that can optimize the growth of Amazon forests during the dry season. This light regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the dry-season greening-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

  9. Sensitivity of the French Alps snow cover to the variation of climatic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martin

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of snow cover to changes in meteorological variables at a regional scale, a numerical snow model and an analysis system of the meteorological conditions adapted to relief were used. This approach has been successfully tested by comparing simulated and measured snow depth at 37 sites in the French Alps during a ten year data period. Then, the sensitivity of the snow cover to a variation in climatic conditions was tested by two different methods, which led to very similar results. To assess the impact of a particular "doubled CO2" scenario, coherent perturbations were introduced in the input data of the snow model. It was found that although the impact would be very pronounced, it would also be extremely differentiated, dependent on the internal state of the snow cover. The most sensitive areas are the elevations below 2400 m, especially in the southern part of the French Alps.

  10. Seasonal variation in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of bats reflect environmental baselines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G Popa-Lisseanu

    Full Text Available The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of animal tissues is commonly used to trace wildlife diets and analyze food chains. Changes in an animal's isotopic values over time are generally assumed to indicate diet shifts or, less frequently, physiological changes. Although plant isotopic values are known to correlate with climatic seasonality, only a few studies restricted to aquatic environments have investigated whether temporal isotopic variation in consumers may also reflect environmental baselines through trophic propagation. We modeled the monthly variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values in whole blood of four insectivorous bat species occupying different foraging niches in southern Spain. We found a common pattern of isotopic variation independent of feeding habits, with an overall change as large as or larger than one trophic step. Physiological changes related to reproduction or to fat deposition prior to hibernation had no effect on isotopic variation, but juvenile bats had higher δ13C and δ15N values than adults. Aridity was the factor that best explained isotopic variation: bat blood became enriched in both 13C and 15N after hotter and/or drier periods. Our study is the first to show that consumers in terrestrial ecosystems reflect seasonal environmental dynamics in their isotope values. We highlight the danger of misinterpreting stable isotope data when not accounting for seasonal isotopic baselines in food web studies. Understanding how environmental seasonality is integrated in animals' isotope values will be crucial for developing reliable methods to use stable isotopes as dietary tracers.

  11. Hydrologic response to and recovery from differing silvicultural systems in a deciduous forest landscape with seasonal snow cover (United States)

    Buttle, J. M.; Beall, F. D.; Webster, K. L.; Hazlett, P. W.; Creed, I. F.; Semkin, R. G.; Jeffries, D. S.


    Hydrological consequences of alternative harvesting strategies in deciduous forest landscapes with seasonal snow cover have received relatively little attention. Most forest harvesting experiments in landscapes with seasonal snow cover have focused on clearcutting in coniferous forests. Few have examined alternative strategies such as selection or shelterwood cutting in deciduous stands whose hydrologic responses to harvesting may differ from those of conifers. This study presents results from a 31-year examination of hydrological response to and recovery from alternative harvesting strategies in a deciduous forest landscape with seasonal snow cover in central Ontario, Canada. A quantitative means of assessing hydrologic recovery to harvesting is also developed. Clearcutting resulted in increased water year (WY) runoff. This was accompanied by increased runoff in all seasons, with greatest relative increases in Summer. Direct runoff and baseflow from treatment catchments generally increased following harvesting, although annual peak streamflow did not. Largest increases in WY runoff and seasonal runoff as well as direct runoff and baseflow generally occurred in the selection harvest catchment, likely as a result of interception of hillslope runoff by a forest access road and redirection to the stream channel. Hydrologic recovery appeared to begin towards the end of the experimental period for several streamflow metrics but was incomplete for all harvesting strategies 15 years after harvesting. Geochemical tracing indicated that harvesting enhanced the relative importance of surface and near-surface water pathways on catchment slopes for all treatments, with the clearcut catchment showing the most pronounced and prolonged response. Such insights into water partitioning between flow pathways may assist assessments of the ecological and biogeochemical consequences of forest disturbance.

  12. Seasonal variations in glycemic control of type 2 diabetes in Korean women. (United States)

    Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Sungwha; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Moon-Gi


    Seasonal variations in lifestyle, such as food intake and physical activity, have been reported. Glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be affected by such changes. We investigated seasonal variations in glycemic control, food intake, and physical activity in type 2 diabetic patients. This prospective observational study included 37 Korean female patients who had food intake (kcal/day), HbA1c, and anthropometry every 3 months (August, November, February, May, and August in the Northern Hemisphere) over 1 year. When anti-diabetic drugs were changed, we analyzed the data just before the changes. The mean HbA1c levels (%) of August and November in 2008, and February, May, and August in 2009 were 7.0 ± 0.1, 6.9 ± 0.1, 7.2 ± 0.2, 7.4 ± 0.2, and 7.2 ± 0.2, respectively (P = 0.018). The change of HbA1c was nearly 0.5 % for the 1-year period. From August to May of the following year, there were also seasonal variations in food intake (1,872 ± 143, 1,739 ± 97, 1,673 ± 86, 1,561 ± 132, respectively; P = 0.013), and total physical activity [7.7 (3.7-14.6), 6.3 (2.8-10.4), 5.1 (2.7-12.6), and 11.2 (4.7-20.5), respectively; P = 0.048]. However, the seasonal variations of HbA1c and total physical activity became non-significant when farmers were excluded. These data suggested that glycemic control, total physical activity, and food intake varied seasonally in Korean T2DM patients. These seasonal variations should be considered in education for glycemic control.

  13. Latitudinal range influences the seasonal variation in the foraging behavior of marine top predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Non-migratory resident species should be capable of modifying their foraging behavior to accommodate changes in prey abundance and availability associated with a changing environment. Populations that are better adapted to change will have higher foraging success and greater potential for survival in the face of climate change. We studied two species of resident central place foragers from temperate and equatorial regions with differing population trends and prey availability associated to season, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus (CSL whose population is increasing and the endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki (GSL whose population is declining. To determine their response to environmental change, we studied and compared their diving behavior using time-depth recorders and satellite location tags and their diet by measuring C and N isotope ratios during a warm and a cold season. Based on latitudinal differences in oceanographic productivity, we hypothesized that the seasonal variation in foraging behavior would differ for these two species. CSL exhibited greater seasonal variability in their foraging behavior as seen in changes to their diving behavior, foraging areas and diet between seasons. Conversely, GSL did not change their diving behavior between seasons, presenting three foraging strategies (shallow, deep and bottom divers during both. GSL exhibited greater dive and foraging effort than CSL. We suggest that during the warm and less productive season a greater range of foraging behaviors in CSL was associated with greater competition for prey, which relaxed during the cold season when resource availability was greater. GSL foraging specialization suggests that resources are limited throughout the year due to lower primary production and lower seasonal variation in productivity compared to CSL. These latitudinal differences influence their foraging success, pup survival and population growth reflected in

  14. Seasonal variations of the high-latitude geomagnetic field intensity in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivin, Yu.R.; Chkhaidze, Z.Sh.


    Seasonal variation of the geomagnetic field three components is investigated using the data of the USA observatories chain separately for polar region, auroral zone and middle latitudes beginning from 1950. The variation consists of an annual and half-yearly waves. main attention is paid to time variability of the annual wave phase in the auroral zone, that is connected with superposition of waves of western and eastern jets

  15. Comparison of seasonal variation between anthropogenic and natural emission inventory and Satellite observation in Southeast Asia (United States)

    Kurata, G.; Lalitaporn, P.


    Since the economic growth of the countries in Southeast Asia is significantly rapid, the emission of air pollutant from the anthropogenic activity, such as industry, power generation and transportation is rapidly increasing. Moreover, biomass burning due to unsuitable agricultural management, deforestation and expansion of farmland are discharging large amount of pollutants, such as Carbon monoxide, volatile organic compound and particulate matter. Especially, the particulate matter from biomass burning causes the serious haze pollution in surrounding area in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the biomass fuel used for cooking at residential sector discharges harmful pollutants including a particulate matter, and causes the adverse health impact to people on indoor and outdoor. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of emission inventory for Southeast Asia region by comparing with satellite observation data in order to improve the accuracy of the impact assessment of air pollution by regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF and CMAQ). As an emission inventory data, we used our original regional emission inventory for Southeast Asia region developed from detail transportation and industry data sets as well as a several existing emission inventories. As satellite observation data, the vertical column density of NO2, Particulate matter and Carbon monoxide obtained by various satellite, such as GOME, GOME2, SCIAMACY, OMI and so on. As a result of comparisons between satellite observation and emission inventories from 1996 to 2011, in the case of anthropogenic emission, seasonal variation was comparatively well in agreement with the seasonal variation of satellite data. However, the uncertainty of the seasonal variation was large on several large cities. In the case of emission from biomass burning, the seasonal variation was clear, but inter-annual variation was also large due to large scale climate condition.

  16. Seasonal variations and sources of sedimentary organic carbon in Tokyo Bay. (United States)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota


    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents, their stable C and N isotope ratio (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), and chlorophyll a ([Chl a] sed ) of surface sediments were investigated monthly to identify the seasonal variations and sources of organic matter in Tokyo Bay. The sedimentary TOC (TOC sed ) and TN (TN sed ) contents, and the sedimentary δ 13 C and δ 15 N (δ 13 C sed and δ 15 N sed ) values were higher in summer than other seasons. The seasonal variations were controlled by high primary production in the water column and hypoxic water in the bottom water during summer. The fraction of terrestrial and marine derived organic matter was estimated by Bayesian mixing model using stable isotope data and TOC/TN ratio. Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay are dominated by marine derived organic matter, which accounts for about 69±5% of TOC sed . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal variation of deep-sea bioluminescence in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jessica, E-mail: [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom); Jamieson, Alan J.; Bagley, Philip M.; Priede, Imants G. [University of Aberdeen, Oceanlab, Main Street, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, AB41 6AA (United Kingdom)


    The ICDeep (Image Intensified Charge Coupled Device for Deep sea research) profiler was used to measure the density of deep bioluminescent animals (BL) through the water column in the east, west and mid-Ionian Sea and in the Algerian Basin. A west to east decrease in BL density was found. Generalized additive modelling was used to investigate seasonal variation in the east and west Ionian Sea (NESTOR and NEMO neutrino telescope sites, respectively) from BL measurements in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. A significant seasonal effect was found in the west Ionian Sea (p<0.001), where a deep autumnal peak in BL density occurred between 500 and 2400 m. No significant seasonal variation in BL density was found in the east Ionian Sea (p=0.07). In both spring and autumn, significant differences in BL density were found through the water column between the east and west Ionian Sea (p<0.001).

  18. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.


    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought

  19. Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, X.L.; Macias, Felipe


    Soil colonization by plants affected spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals. - The composition of interstitial water collected from a salt marsh in NW Spain showed clear seasonal and spatial variations associated with redox cycles of Fe and S. In the summer, salinity increased in all soils as a consequence of the increase in evapotranspiration. The pH and concentrations of heavy metals also differed with season, but not all environments showed the same variations. Soils not colonized by plants had the highest pH and lowest heavy metal concentrations in the summer. These results support the idea that higher temperatures lead to an increase in the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which in turn leads to an increase in alkalinity and concentration of sulfides in the water. Trace metals tend to precipitate with sulfides under these conditions and are removed from the interstitial water. In contrast, in the soils colonized by Spartina maritima, the oxidation of metal sulfides during the summer led to a decrease in pH and an increase in the metal concentrations in the interstitial water. The results obtained concur with those found for seasonal variations in metal sulfides in soils from the same salt marsh.

  20. Seasonal variation in the diet of spoonbill chicks in the Wadden Sea : A stable isotopes approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Hacen, El-Hacen Mohamed; Piersma, Theunis; Jouta, Jeltje; Overdijk, Otto; Lok, Tamar

    We used stable isotope tracers in the growing primary feathers of Eurasian Spoonbill chicks (Platalea leucorodia leucorodia) to study seasonal variation in their diet on one of the Frisian islands, Schiermonnikoog, The Netherlands. Using growing individual primaries as natural samplers over time,

  1. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.


    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  2. Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. Testicular recrudescence commenced in autumn (April), reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn ...

  3. Seasonal variations of sexual activity of local bucks in western Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 18, 2010 ... summer and during autumn accompanied with augment- tation of weight and scrotal circumference, intensity of sexual odor, increase of testosterone blood concentration and decrease of the ingested quantity of food. Seasonal variations of testicular weight and sperm production have been noticed among ...

  4. Inter-Market and Seasonal Variation in Price: An Appraisal of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated inter-market and seasonal variation in prices of maize in Kwara State. Secondary time series data on average monthly retail price of maize in urban and rural markets between 1998 and 2003 were used for the study. Primary data on the average storage cost of maize and the average selling price of ...

  5. Periodic solution of a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with seasonal variation. (United States)

    Jin, Manli; Lin, Yuguo


    In this paper, we consider a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with seasonal variation and saturated incidence. Firstly, we obtain the threshold of stochastic system which determines whether the epidemic occurs or not. Secondly, we prove that there is a non-trivial positive periodic solution if [Formula: see text].

  6. Seasonal Variation of Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb in Catfish, Sediment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variation of some heavy metals Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb was conducted on sediment, cat fish and water samples from four stations in Ipo stream in dry and wet seasons. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry model 3700 was used to analyzed the samples The result revealed that the average metal concentrations in sediment ...

  7. Chemical variation in Jacobaea vulgaris is influenced by the interaction of season and vegetation successional stage. (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Mulder, Patrick P J; Skidmore, Andrew; van der Putten, Wim H


    Knowledge on spatio-temporal dynamics of plant primary and secondary chemistry under natural conditions is important to assess how plant defence varies in real field conditions. Plant primary and secondary chemistry is known to vary with both season and vegetation successional stage, however, in few studies these two sources of variation have been examined in combination. Here we examine variations in primary and secondary chemistry of Jacobaea vulgaris (Asteraceae) throughout the growing season in early, mid, and late stages of secondary succession following land abandonment using a well-established chronosequence in The Netherlands. We investigated primary and secondary chemistry of both leaves and flowers, in order to determine if patterns during seasonal (phenological) development may differ among successional stages. The chemical concentration of primary and secondary chemistry compounds in J. vulgaris varied throughout the season and was affected by vegetation succession stage. Concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) tertiary-amines were highest in flowers during early Summer and in fields that had been abandoned ten to twenty years ago. PA N-oxide concentrations of both leaves and flowers, on the other hand increased with the progression of both season and succession. In Spring and early Summer chlorophyll concentrations were highest, especially in the oldest fields of the chronosequence. During phenological development, nitrogen concentration increased in flowers and decreased in leaves revealing allocation of nutrients from vegetative to reproductive plant parts throughout the growing season. The highest concentrations of N-oxides and chlorophylls were detected in older fields. Thus, our results suggest that variations in plant patterns of nutritional and defence compounds throughout the growing season are depending on successional context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of Mars’ Northern Polar Seasonal CO2 deposits: variations in surface brightness and bulk density (United States)

    Mount, Christopher P.; Titus, Timothy N.


    Small scale variations of seasonal ice are explored at different geomorphic units on the Northern Polar Seasonal Cap (NPSC). We use seasonal rock shadow measurements, combined with visible and thermal observations, to calculate density over time. The coupling of volume density and albedo allows us to determine the microphysical state of the seasonal CO2 ice. We find two distinct endmembers across the NPSC: 1) Snow deposits may anneal to form an overlying slab layer that fractures. These low density deposits maintain relatively constant densities over springtime. 2) Porous slab deposits likely anneal rapidly in early spring and fracture in late spring. These high density deposits dramatically increase in density over time. The endmembers appear to be correlated with latitude.

  9. Is there "seasonal" variation in height velocity in children treated with growth hormone? Data from the National Cooperative Growth Study. (United States)

    Shulman, Dorothy I; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara


    rate appears to be equal in children among latitudes covered by the US consistent with exposure to an equal number of daylight hours over the year. The physiologic mechanism behind this seasonal variation is not yet understood.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Children’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Time (United States)



    ABSTRACT Purpose Understanding seasonal variation in physical activity is important for informing public health surveillance and intervention design. The aim of the current study was to describe seasonal variation in children’s objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Methods Data are from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Participants were invited to wear an accelerometer for 7 d on five occasions between November 2008 and January 2010. Outcome variables were sedentary time (2241 counts per minute, min·d−1). The season was characterized using a categorical variable (spring, summer, autumn, or winter) and a continuous function of day of the year. Cross-classified linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each of these constructs with the outcome variables. Modification of the seasonal variation by sex, weight status, urban/rural location, parental income, and day of the week (weekday/weekend) was examined using interaction terms in regression models. Results At least one wave of valid accelerometer data was obtained from 704 participants (47% male; baseline age, 7.6 (0.3) yr). MVPA was lower in autumn and winter relative to spring, with the magnitude of this difference varying by weekday/weekend, sex, weight status, urban/rural location, and family income (P for interaction <0.05 in all cases). Total sedentary time was greater in autumn and winter compared with spring; the seasonal effect was stronger during the weekend than during the weekday (P for interaction <0.01). Conclusions Lower levels of MVPA and elevated sedentary time support the implementation of intervention programs during autumn and winter. Evidence of greater seasonal variation in weekend behavior and among certain sociodemographic subgroups highlights targets for tailored intervention programs. PMID:26429733

  11. Sexual dimorphism and seasonal variation in submandibular gland histology of Bolomys lasiurus (Rodentia, Muridae). (United States)

    Cangussu, S D; Vieira, F G; Rossoni, R B


    Wild rodents (Bolomys lasiurus) of both sexes were caught in a cerrado grassland area during the dry (July-September) and rainy (January-March) seasons of Brazil. Fasted animals were perfused with Karnovsky fixative through the left ventricle, under ether anesthesia, and the submandibular gland was processed for embedding in historesin. Histological and histometric data show sexual dimorphism at both seasons. In the volume percentage of the granular convoluted tubules (GCT) and their secretory granules, the males exhibited higher values. The absolute volume occupied by these structures, however, was dimorphic only in the rainy season. The diameter of the GCT, the height of its epithelium, and its total length were also greater in males during the rainy season. The absolute volumes of the acini and of the ductal tree were identical in both sexes in the dry and rainy seasons but the acinar diameter increased in the males and females during the rainy season. The sexual dimorphism and the seasonal variations now described in the B. lasiurus submandibular glands could be explained by the augmented reproductive activity of the males in the rainy period. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Seasonal variations and shared latrine cleaning practices in the slums of Kampala city, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japheth Kwiringira


    by seasonal variations related to weather conditions and human activity. The wet seasons made the already bad sanitation situation worse. The seasonal fluctuations in the state of shared slum sanitation relate to a wider malaise in the population and an implied capacity deficit among urban authorities. Poor sanitation in slums is part of a broader urban mismanagement conundrum pointing towards the urgent need for multiple interventions aimed at improving the general urban living conditions well beyond sanitation.

  13. Effects of Cover Crop Species and Season on Population Dynamics of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in Soil (United States)

    Reed-Jones, Neiunna L.; Marine, Sasha Cahn; Everts, Kathryne L.


    Cover crops provide several ecosystem services, but their impact on enteric bacterial survival remains unexplored. The influence of cover cropping on foodborne pathogen indicator bacteria was assessed in five cover crop/green manure systems: cereal rye, hairy vetch, crimson clover, hairy vetch-rye and crimson clover-rye mixtures, and bare ground. Cover crop plots were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in the fall of 2013 and 2014 and tilled into the soil in the spring to form green manure. Soil samples were collected and the bacteria enumerated. Time was a factor for all bacterial populations studied in all fields (P innocua diminished somewhat but persisted, independently of season. In an organic field, the cover crop was a factor for E. coli in year 1 (P = 0.004) and for L. innocua in year 2 (P = 0.011). In year 1, E. coli levels were highest in the rye and hairy vetch-rye plots. In year 2, L. innocua levels were higher in hairy vetch-rye (P = 0.01) and hairy vetch (P = 0.03) plots than in the rye plot. Bacterial populations grew (P innocua numbers were observed after tilling (P innocua abundance in a transitional field (P < 0.05). Overall, the impacts of cover crops/green manures on bacterial population dynamics in soil varied, being influenced by bacterial species, time from inoculation, soil temperature, rainfall, and tillage; this reveals the need for long-term studies. PMID:26729724


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. M. Kathyayani


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Existence of particular chronobiological pattern in onset of acute cerebrovascular diseases characterised by circannual rhythms has been detected. India is a subtropical country with clear seasonal variations in weather conditions. Stroke causes death and disability worldwide. Seasons may influence stroke occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these seasonal variations of stroke are not fully understood, but a possible reason may include seasonal variation of biological factors such as arterial blood pressure, serum lipid levels and other blood components. Better understanding and controlling of risk factors associated with onset of stroke will improve the disease prevention. The objective of the present study is to examine the role of possible precipitating or triggering factors. This study reviews records of patients with stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke attending the Department of Medicine, KGH, Visakhapatnam, were selected. Computed tomographic types of stroke, both ischaemic and haemorrhagic and risk factors associated were considered with tropical seasonal variation. RESULTS A total of 150 stroke patients were included in the study of which 93 (62% were males, 57 (38% were females and 46% in 50-65 years age group, 4% in 20-35 years, 28% in 35-50 years, 22% in 65-80 years and above age groups. Of the total, 93.33% presented with 1st attack and only 6.66% presented with recurrent stroke. The prevalence of types of stroke was: ischaemic stroke 54.66%, haemorrhagic stroke 45.33%. The prevalence of risk factors associated with stroke was - male gender 62%, smoking 56.66%, hypertension 56%, age >50 years 46%, alcohol consumption 43%, hyperlipidaemia 16.66%, consumption of alcohol and smoking together 13.33%, valvular heart diseases 6.66%. A high seasonal prevalence was observed in winter season (50.66%. CONCLUSION This study revealed that male

  15. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves. (United States)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B D


    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination.

  16. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram (United States)

    Mayengbam, P.; Tolenkhomba, T. C.


    Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05) and lower MCH concentration (MCHC) during summer season (p<0.05). Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05). Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na) and lower potassium (K) in rainy season (p<0.05). Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05). Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets. PMID:27065639

  17. Influence of seasonal variation on the phenology and liriodenine content of Annona lutescens (Annonaceae). (United States)

    Castro-Moreno, Marisol; Tinoco-Ojangurén, Clara Leonor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa


    Annona lutescens Saff. (Annonaceae) grows as a native tree in Chiapas, Mexico in Tropical Dry Forest habitat. Like most Annonaceae, it biosynthesizes benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, mostly liriodenine. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in the accumulation of liriodenine, the monthly variation of liriodenine content in roots, stems and leaves of mature and young trees was observed. These parts of young and mature A. lutescens trees were collected monthly over a 1 year period and the alkaloids were extracted; the liriodenine was quantified by high-resolution liquid chromatography. The phenological stages of the species were also assessed (leaf development, flowering and fruiting) using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The analysis of both young and mature trees showed a significant increase in the liriodenine concentration occurs within roots during the dry season, which coincides with leaf fall. A significant decrease also occurred at the beginning of the rainy season (the period of leaf growth); the liriodenine content for the next rainy season did not reach the levels of the previous dry season. The climatic variation induced phenological and physiological changes in this species.

  18. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia


    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  19. Seasonal Variations of the Antioxidant Composition in Ground Bamboo Sasa argenteastriatus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzuo Zhang


    Full Text Available Sasa argenteastriatus, with abundant active compounds and high antioxidant activity in leaves, is a new leafy bamboo grove suitable for exploitation. To utilize it more effectively and scientifically, we investigate the seasonal variations of antioxidant composition in its leaves and antioxidant activity. The leaves of Sasa argenteastriatus were collected on the 5th day of each month in three same-sized sample plots from May 2009 to May 2011. The total flavonoids (TF: phenolics (TP and triterpenoid (TT of bamboo leaves were extracted and the contents analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer. Our data showed that all exhibited variations with the changing seasons, with the highest levels appearing in November to March. Antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and FRAP methods. The highest antioxidant activity appeared in December with the lowest in May. Correlation analyses demonstrated that TP and TF exhibited high correlation with bamboo antioxidant activity. Eight bamboo characteristic compounds (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, homovitexin and p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid were determined by RP-HPLC synchronously. We found that chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and vitexin are the main compounds in Sasa argenteastriatus leaves and the content of isovitexin and chlorogenic acid showed a similar seasonal variation with the TF, TP and TT. Our results suggested that the optimum season for harvesting Sasa argenteastriatus leaves is between autumn and winter.

  20. Seasonal variation of the global mixed layer depth: comparison between Argo data and FIO-ESM (United States)

    Zhang, Yutong; Xu, Haiming; Qiao, Fangli; Dong, Changming


    The present study evaluates a simulation of the global ocean mixed layer depth (MLD) using the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIOESM). The seasonal variation of the global MLD from the FIO-ESM simulation is compared to Argo observational data. The Argo data show that the global ocean MLD has a strong seasonal variation with a deep MLD in winter and a shallow MLD in summer, while the spring and fall seasons act as transitional periods. Overall, the FIO-ESM simulation accurately captures the seasonal variation in MLD in most areas. It exhibits a better performance during summer and fall than during winter and spring. The simulated MLD in the Southern Hemisphere is much closer to observations than that in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the simulated MLD over the South Atlantic Ocean matches the observation best among the six areas. Additionally, the model slightly underestimates the MLD in parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, and slightly overestimates the MLD over the other ocean basins.

  1. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal with female university students living in Osaka (Japan, Poznan (Poland and Chiang Mai (Thailand. Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement. Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were

  2. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat (United States)


    Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal

  3. Seasonal variation of columnar aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over Beijing, China (United States)

    Yu, Xingna; Lü, Rui; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Liang; Shao, Yixing; Zhu, Bin; Lei, Lu


    Long-term seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing at Beijing (during March 2001-March 2015) were investigated using a combination of ground-based Sun/sky radiometer retrievals from the AERONET and a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with higher values in spring and summer, and relatively lower values in fall and winter. Average Angstrom exponent (AE) in spring was lower than other seasons, implying the significant impact of dust episodes on aerosol size distribution. AE mainly distributed between 1.0 and 1.4 with an obvious uni-peak pattern in each season. The observation data showed that high AODs (>1.0) were clustered in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode. Compared to AOD, seasonal variation in single scattering albedo (SSA) showed an opposite pattern with larger values in summer and spring, and smaller ones in winter and fall. The highest volume size distribution and median radius of fine mode particles occurred in summer, while those of coarse mode particles in spring. The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in spring, summer, fall and winter were -33 ± 22 W m-2, -35 ± 22 W m-2, -28 ± 20 W m-2, and -24 ± 23 W m-2 respectively, and these differences were mainly due to the SSA seasonal variation. The largest positive ARF within atmosphere occurred in spring, implying strong warming in the atmosphere. The low heating ratio in summer was caused by the increase in water vapor content, which enhanced light scattering capacity (i.e., increased SSA).

  4. Seasonal variation of food security among the Batwa of Kanungu, Uganda. (United States)

    Patterson, Kaitlin; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didacus B; Ford, James; Twebaze, Fortunate; Clark, Sierra; Donnelly, Blánaid; Harper, Sherilee L


    Climate change is projected to increase the burden of food insecurity (FI) globally, particularly among populations that depend on subsistence agriculture. The impacts of climate change will have disproportionate effects on populations with higher existing vulnerability. Indigenous people consistently experience higher levels of FI than their non-Indigenous counterparts and are more likely to be dependent upon land-based resources. The present study aimed to understand the sensitivity of the food system of an Indigenous African population, the Batwa of Kanungu District, Uganda, to seasonal variation. A concurrent, mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) design was used. Six cross-sectional retrospective surveys, conducted between January 2013 and April 2014, provided quantitative data to examine the seasonal variation of self-reported household FI. This was complemented by qualitative data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews collected between June and August 2014. Ten rural Indigenous communities in Kanungu District, Uganda. FI data were collected from 130 Indigenous Batwa Pygmy households. Qualitative methods involved Batwa community members, local key informants, health workers and governmental representatives. The dry season was associated with increased FI among the Batwa in the quantitative surveys and in the qualitative interviews. During the dry season, the majority of Batwa households reported greater difficulty in acquiring sufficient quantities and quality of food. However, the qualitative data indicated that the effect of seasonal variation on FI was modified by employment, wealth and community location. These findings highlight the role social factors play in mediating seasonal impacts on FI and support calls to treat climate associations with health outcomes as non-stationary and mediated by social sensitivity.

  5. [Seasonal variations in estrus behavior and ovulatory activity in Chios and Serres ewes in Greece]. (United States)

    Avdi, M; Driancourt, M A; Chemineau, P


    Sheep are seasonal breeders, but a lower seasonality has been reported for sheep breeds from the Mediterranean countries enabling spring matings. To further substantiate this, the present study compared seasonal variation in oestrus behaviour and ovulation in two Greek breeds (Chios and Serres) maintained in the same environment. In 27 adult ewes of each breed, oestrus behaviour, the occurrence of ovulation and ovulation rate were monitored during 2 successive years by daily inspection by rams, weekly progesterone assay in circulating blood plasma and monthly ovarian laparoscopy. The periods of anoestrus (109 +/- 8 (wk) vs 178 +/- 5 d) and anovulation (63 +/- 8 vs 149 +/- 6 d) were significantly shorter (P duration of oestrus was also longer in Chios ewes (1.8 +/- 0.05 vs 1.5 +/- 0.06 d; P = 0.002). There were significant correlations between the duration of anovulatory periods of the 2 successive years in Chios (r = 0.43) but not Serres ewes. Ovulation rate was positively related to the onset of the sexual season in Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of spring mating in these breeds is suboptimal since it is a period when the percentage of ewes exhibiting oestrus and ovulation as well as ovulation rate are limited, ii) owing to the large variation in seasonality within Chios ewes and to the good between year correlation in features of seasonality, selection against seasonality in Chios ewes could be worthwhile.

  6. Seasonal variation in hormonal responses of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) to reproductive and environmental stressors. (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, William I; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T; Reinert, Howard K


    Data addressing adrenocortical modulation across taxonomic groups are limited, especially with regard to how female reproductive condition influences the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated seasonal and reproductive variation in basal and stress-induced hormone profiles in a population of free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in north-central Pennsylvania during spring (i.e., May), summer (i.e., July), and early fall (i.e., September). Baseline corticosterone concentrations varied seasonally and were significantly lower during the summer sampling period in July. We observed a significant negative relationship between baseline corticosterone and testosterone in male snakes, while baseline corticosterone and estradiol tended to be positively correlated in females. Treatment of snakes with 1 h of capture stress significantly increased corticosterone across all seasons. However, there was a significant interaction between corticosterone responses to capture stress and season, suggesting that adrenocortical function is modulated seasonally. Because elevated corticosterone may be associated with reproduction, we asked whether hormonal stress responses vary with female reproductive condition. Although sample sizes are low, reproductive snakes had significantly higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations than non-reproductive or post-parturient females. Further, despite similar baseline corticosterone concentrations between non-reproductive and post-parturient rattlesnakes, post-parturient females responded to capture stress with a significantly higher increase in corticosterone. Collectively, these data suggest that the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis varies both seasonally and with changing reproductive states.

  7. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.


    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  8. A study on seasonal variations of indoor gamma dose in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish


    Monthly variation of gamma dose rate measured in indoor air of buildings of Bangladesh was found to vary cosinusoidally through a period of 1 year. Significant seasonal variations were observed. Maximum dose rate, however, was observed in January and a minimum in July. Dose rate in January was 32% higher than the annual average, whereas dose rate in July was 50% lower. Seasonally varied ventilation and air exchange rates of the houses might play an important role in the observed variation. The average reduction with respect to winter dose was 59% in summer. Because of lower ventilation and air exchange rates between indoor and outdoor atmosphere, it is expected that the indoor dose rate would be higher in basements than that of upper floors. Monthly dose rate was also found to be influenced by the meteorological conditions. Correlations between dose rate and temperature (r 2 =0.85), rainfall (r=-0.83) and atmospheric pressure (r=0.92) were obtained, but no significant correlation (r=-0.45) was seen between dose rate and humidity. The results show that the seasonal variations of indoor dose rates should be taken into account to estimate annual effective dose equivalent. (author)

  9. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B.D.


    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier

  10. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar [Pollution Ecology Research Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Tripathi, B.D. [Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail:


    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier.

  11. Seasonal Variations in Physical Fitness and Performance Indices of Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Meckel


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate seasonal variations in fitness and performance indices of professional male soccer players. Eighteen professional male soccer players (age range 22–32 years completed three similar sets of tests at three stages of the season: before preseason; after preseason and the middle of the competitive in-season. A significant decrease in body mass and percent fat was found during the preseason. A significant improvement (p < 0.05 was found in the vertical jump (preseason: 37.0 ± 5.3, post-preseason: 39.0 ± 4.8, mid-season: 40.3 ± 5.5 cm, the 4 × 10-m agility test (preseason: 8.1 ± 0.2, post-preseason: 7.9 ± 0.2, mid-season: 8.1 ± 0.3 s, flexibility (preseason: 45.2 ± 8.8, post-preseason: 48.2 ± 7.0, mid-season: 49.9 ± 6.9 cm and aerobic capacity (preseason: 52.7 ± 6.6, post-preseason: 56.4 ± 6.0, mid-season: 57.4 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min during preseason, with no further change during mid-season. Repeated sprint test (RST (6 × 30-m performance indices showed significant deterioration (p < 0.05 in ideal sprint time (IS; preseason: 21.8 ± 1.0, post-preseason: 23.0 ± 0.8, mid-season: 23.2 ± 0.8 s and total sprint time (TS; preseason: 22.5 ± 0.7, post-preseason: 23.5 ± 0.6, mid-season: 23.8 ± 0.6 s during preseason, with no further changes during mid-season. However, performance decrement (PD significantly decreased during the preseason with no change during mid-season. The findings suggest that while power training was probably responsible for the anaerobic fitness improvement, the high-volume training led to improvement in aerobic fitness during the preseason. However, the low-intensity aerobic-type training, coupled with the high total training load, may have led to fatigue and decreases in IS and TS during the preseason.

  12. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei


    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations show a winter (November-February) high (413.2ngm -3 ) and spring (March-June) low (139.1ngm -3 ) at Ranwu, but in contrast a winter low and spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6ngm -3 , respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that the monthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. The winter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwu sampling site showed a significant diurnal cycle with a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei


    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations showawinter (November–February) high (413.2 ng m$-$3) and spring (March–June) low(139.1 ng m$-$3) at Ranwu, but in contrast awinter lowand spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6 ng m$-$3, respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that themonthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. Thewinter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwusampling site showed a significant diurnal cyclewith a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct.

  14. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir. (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain


    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu


    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI, that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10–day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC method. We compared these values with 10–day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively. The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

  16. Experimental Characterization of Seasonal Variations of Infrasonic Travel Times on the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Che, I.; Stump, B.


    Long-term infrasonic ground-truth events were collected at an active open-pit mine in Korea for 2 years and included more than one thousand blasts. Infrasonic arrivals from these blasts were recorded at two regional arrays, CHNAR in NW direction from the mine and continental path, ULDAR in east direction and open ocean path. The analysis of the ground-truth dataset indicates that travel times of infrasound strongly depend on seasons as well as path environments. Infrasonic waves toward CHNAR propagated as guided waves between the ground and stratosphere with characteristic celerity range of 260-289 m/s and showed seasonal cyclical variations in travel times. Infrasonic waves to ULDAR also propagated as guided waves, but observed celerities indicate that wave ducts were formed at relatively lower heights in the troposphere with correspondingly fast celerity ranging from 322 to 361 m/s, even though propagation distances to both arrays are similar. ULDAR showed more diurnal variation in travel time than seasonal variation. The observations at ULDAR support the existing of an ephemeral ‘SOFAR’ layer in the atmosphere [Herrin et al., 2006] throughout years in open ocean propagation environment. Statistically, CHNAR and ULDAR detected 35.3% and 61.7% of infrasonic signals generated from the entire blasts, respectively. As explained by ray tracing, higher detectability in ocean environment was possible as a result of duct conditions in lower atmosphere. Detectability in summer is higher than spring-winter-autumn seasons in the direction to CHNAR with ULDAR showing the opposite relationship consistent with known seasonal wind variations. To verify the improvement in infrasound location when these seasonal path effects are taken into account, we performed infrasonic locations for selected ground truth events whose infrasonic signals were detected by both arrays. The optimum location was calculated by least-square method using azimuth and arrival time estimates. One set

  17. Seasonal variation in hospitalization outcomes in patients admitted for heart failure in the United States. (United States)

    Akintoye, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Egbe, Alexander; Adegbala, Oluwole; Alliu, Samson; Sheikh, Muhammad; Singh, Manmohan; Ahmed, Abdelrahman; Mallikethi-Reddy, Sagar; Levine, Diane


    There is lack of evidence of the impact of varying season on heart failure (HF) hospitalization outcomes in the U.S. HF hospitalization outcomes exhibit significant seasonal variation in the U.S. Using data from the National Inpatient Sample (2011-2013), seasonal variation was classified based on meteorological classification of Northern Hemisphere-Spring, Summer, Fall, & Winter-and analysis was conducted via multivariable-adjusted mixed-effect model. An estimated 2.8 million adults were hospitalized for HF in the U.S. from 2011 to 2013. Of all hospitalizations, admissions were highest in Winter (27%), followed by Spring (26%), Fall (24%), and Summer (23%). The overall mortality rate was 3.1%. Compared with Spring, there was significantly lower mortality in Summer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99) and Fall (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98), but the highest mortality was in Winter (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.11). In addition, mean length of stay and median cost of hospitalization were highest in Winter (5.3 days, USD7459, respectively) and lowest in Summer (5.1 days, USD7181, respectively). However, age and sex differences existed (e.g. seasonal variation in inpatient mortality was only significant for patients age ≥65 years, and, compared with the Spring season, males had higher risk of inpatient mortality in Winter (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17) and females had lower risk of inpatient mortality in Summer (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-1.00) and Fall (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.98). Among HF patients in the U.S., hospitalization outcomes were worse in Winter but better in Summer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)


    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  19. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.


    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ 15 N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ 15 N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ 15 N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  20. Seasonal variation in the mating system of a selfing annual with large floral displays. (United States)

    Yin, Ge; Barrett, Spencer C H; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning


    Flowering plants display considerable variation in mating system, specifically the relative frequency of cross- and self-fertilization. The majority of estimates of outcrossing rate do not account for temporal variation, particularly during the flowering season. Here, we investigated seasonal variation in mating and fertility in Incarvillea sinensis (Bignoniaceae), an annual with showy, insect-pollinated, 'one-day' flowers capable of delayed selfing. We examined the influence of several biotic and abiotic environmental factors on day-to-day variation in fruit set, seed set and patterns of mating. We recorded daily flower number and pollinator abundance in nine 3 × 3-m patches in a population at Mu Us Sand land, Inner Mongolia, China. From marked flowers we collected data on daily fruit and seed set and estimated outcrossing rate and biparental inbreeding using six microsatellite loci and 172 open-pollinated families throughout the flowering period. Flower density increased significantly over most of the 50-d flowering season, but was associated with a decline in levels of pollinator service by bees, particularly on windy days. Fruit and seed set declined over time, especially during the latter third of the flowering period. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were obtained using two methods (the programs MLTR and BORICE) and both indicated high selfing rates of ∼80 %. There was evidence for a significant increase in levels of selfing as the flowering season progressed and pollinator visitation declined. Biparental inbreeding also declined significantly as the flowering season progressed. Temporal variation in outcrossing rates may be a common feature of the mating biology of annual, insect-pollinated plants of harsh environments but our study is the first to examine seasonal mating-system dynamics in this context. Despite having large flowers and showy floral displays, I. sinensis attracted relatively few pollinators. Delayed selfing by corolla dragging

  1. Seasonal variations in the lightning diurnal cycle and implications for the global electric circuit (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte G.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.


    Data obtained from the Optical Transient Detector and the Lightning Imaging Sensor satellites (70° and 35° inclination low earth orbits, respectively) are used to statistically determine the number of flashes in the seasonal diurnal cycle as a function of local and universal time. These data include corrections for detection efficiency and instrument view time. They are further subdivided by season, land versus ocean, and other spatial (e.g., continents) and temporal (e.g., time of peak diurnal amplitude) categories. These statistics are then combined with analyses of high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds to produce the seasonal diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Continental results display strong diurnal variation, with a lightning peak in the late afternoon and a minimum in late morning. In geographical regions dominated by large mesoscale convective systems, the peak in the diurnal curve shifts toward late evening or early morning hours. The maximum seasonal diurnal flash rate occurs in June-August, corresponding to the Northern Hemisphere summer, while the minimum occurs in December-February. Summer lightning dominates over winter activity and springtime lightning dominates over fall activity at most continental locations. Oceanic lightning exhibits minimal diurnal variation, but morning hours are slightly enhanced over afternoon. As was found earlier, for the annual diurnal variation, using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location (i.e., land/ocean), our seasonal estimates of the current in the global electric circuit provide an excellent match with independent measurements of the seasonal Carnegie curve diurnal variations. The maximum (minimum) total mean current of 2.4 kA (1.7 kA) is found during Northern Hemisphere summer (winter). Land thunderstorms supply about one half (52%) of the total global current. Ocean thunderstorms contribute about one third (31%) and the non

  2. Seasonal greenness variations in Amazon transitional forests in response to light, moisture, and land use (United States)

    Ratana, P.; Huete, A. R.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.


    The Amazon basin consists of structurally diverse tropical forest ecosystems resulting from unique functional responses to seasonal rainfall and radiation drivers, as well as fire and land use pressures. Dry season intensity and duration increase from the tropical wet rainforests at the equator to cerrado at the south, with transitional forests (dry forest, semi-deciduous forests, and cerradão) and the arc of deforestation between the two large biomes. Little known of this distinctive transitional forest composition and functional types, yet this zone is disappearing rapidly due to anthropological pressure and warming events. We hypothesize that these gradients in light, moisture, land use pressures, and forest functional types should be expressed in distinct canopy-level seasonal responses observable in satellite time series data. Yet, recent studies have raised concerns of concurrent seasonal sun geometry influences that confound the interpretation of satellite-derived greenness and suggest that observed tropical forest seasonality are optical artifacts of shifting sun- sensor view geometries. In this study we investigated forest seasonal variations and greenness dynamics across the transition zone, with 10+ years (2003-2013) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from the MCD43A1 product, for a fixed sun angle and fully corrected for sun- sensor view geometries. EVI values were extracted across two latitudinal transects across the Amazon transition zone sampling the eastern and central regions of the basin. We found a clear pattern of shifting forest greenness seasonality resulting from earlier onsets of the dry season from south to the north, irrespective of, and asynchronous with the solstice to equinox sun-earth geometry. From this seasonal profiles dry season greening in the wet forests and browning in the southern tropical dry forests could be observed. In many of the transitional forests, a

  3. Comparative Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Wagner, Thomas; Jamil, Mohsin


    In this study, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during the time period of 2004-2015 are discussed. Data products from the satellite instrument OMI are used. The results show a large NO2 growth over major cities of both countries, particularly the areas with rapid urbanization. Different seasonal cycles were observed over both countries. Especially, seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over Pakistan is largely impacted by the photolysis rate, OH radical and monsoon rains in addition to soil emissions, agriculture fires and other anthropogenic activities. While in the case of Saudi Arabia, the seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 is completely driven by thermal power generation. Furthermore, different regions of Pakistan exhibited different seasonal trends. In the provinces of Punjab (north-east), Khyber Paktunkhwa (north-west) and Sindh (south-east), NO2 columns are maximum in winter and minimum in summer months while a reversed seasonality was observed in the province of Baluchistan (south-west). We compared the observed Spatio-temporal patterns to existing emission inventories and found that for the most populated provinces the NOx emissions are clearly dominated by anthropogenic sources. In these areas also the strongest positive trends were observed. NOx released from soils and produced by lightning both together contribute about 20% for the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its contribution in Baluchistan is much stronger (~50%). NOx emissions from biomass burning are negligible. This finding can also explain the observed summer maximum in Baluchistan since the highest lightning activity occurs during the Monsoon season. Our comparison also indicates that the inventories of anthropogenic NOx emissions over Pakistan seem to underestimate the true emissions by about a factor of two.

  4. Seasonal variation in hemodialysis initiation: A single-center retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiro Maeoka

    Full Text Available The number of new dialysis patients has been increasing worldwide, particularly among elderly individuals. However, information on seasonal variation in hemodialysis initiation in recent decades is lacking, and the seasonal distribution of patients' conditions immediately prior to starting dialysis remains unclear. Having this information could help in developing a modifiable approach to improving pre-dialysis care. We retrospectively investigated the records of 297 patients who initiated hemodialysis at Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2013. Seasonal differences were assessed by χ2 or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multiple comparison analysis was performed with the Steel test. The overall number of patients starting dialysis was greatest in winter (n = 85, 28.6%, followed by spring (n = 74, 24.9%, summer (n = 70, 23.6%, and autumn (n = 68, 22.9%, though the differences were not significant. However, there was a significant winter peak in dialysis initiation among patients aged ≥65 years, but not in those aged <65 years. Fluid overload assessed by clinicians was the most common uremic symptom among all patients, but a winter peak was only detected in patients aged ≥65 years. The body weight gain ratio showed a similar trend to fluid overload assessed by clinicians. Pulmonary edema was most pronounced in winter among patients aged ≥65 years compared with other seasons. The incidences of infection were modestly increased in summer and winter, but not statistically significant. Cardiac complications were similar in all seasons. This study demonstrated the existence of seasonal variation in dialysis initiation, with a winter peak among patients aged ≥65 years. The winter increment in dialysis initiation was mainly attributable to increased fluid overload. These findings suggest that elderly individuals should be monitored particularly closely during the winter.

  5. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.


    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  6. Satellites reveals the biophysical effects of forest cover change on climate at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual time scales (United States)

    Duveiller, Gregory; Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro


    Changing the planet's forest cover can have a profound impact of the climate system by altering its role as a carbon sink. However, deforestation and afforestation also changes the biophysical properties of the surface such as albedo, roughness and root depth, thus altering the energy balance and the resulting surface and air temperature. The result of these competing biophysical processes varies spatially and seasonally, and can lead to either warming or cooling depending on which process dominates. The main tools to characterize such plant-climate interactions for both the past and future are land surface models embedded in larger Earth System models, yet their capacity to model biophysical effects accurately across the globe remains unclear due to the complexity of the phenomena. Alternatively, with appropriate methodologies, the climate impacts of the biophysical effects of forest cover change can be derived from space by satellite measurements of surface temperature and energy fluxes. Here we present the confrontation of two dedicated assessments that have been specifically generated for this scope with contrasting methodologies. The first is based on identifying an actual change in the local climate following an observed forest cover transition. Although it directly measures the desired effect, this method can only be applied to the places where vegetation change has effectively occurred. The second method relies on a 'space-for-time' approximation that identifies the potential impact of a plant cover transition from differences in climate amongst neighboring areas with contrasting vegetation. We show how both approaches reinforce and complement each other to provide a consolidated result across diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual time scales. We anticipate that these evidences derived from satellite records may support the benchmarking and development of Earth system models and support the inclusion of vegetation-driven biophysical processes in climate

  7. Seasonal dynamics of insecticide resistance, multiple resistance, and morphometric variation in field populations of Culex pipiens. (United States)

    Taskin, Belgin Gocmen; Dogaroglu, Taylan; Kilic, Sercan; Dogac, Ersin; Taskin, Vatan


    Resistance to insecticides that impairs nervous transmission has been widely investigated in mosquito populations as insecticides are crucial to effective insect control. The development of insecticide resistance is also of special interest to evolutionary biologists since it represents the opportunity to observe the genetic consequences of a well-characterized alteration in the environment. Although the frequencies of resistance alleles in Culex pipiens populations against different groups of insecticides have been reported, no detailed information is available on the relative change in these allele frequencies over time. In this study, we collected mosquitoes of the Cx. pipiens complex from six locations in three seasons in the Aegean region of Turkey and examined the i) seasonal variations in resistance to four different chemical classes of insecticides, ii) seasonal fluctuations in frequencies of resistance-associated target-site mutations of the three genes (ace-1, kdr, and Rdl), and iii) potential seasonal variations in wing morphometric characters that may be modified in resistant mosquitoes. Our bioassay results indicated the presence of different levels of resistance to all tested insecticides for all three seasons in all locations. The results of the PCR-based molecular analysis revealed low frequencies of mutations in ace-1 and Rdl that are associated with resistance to malathion, bendiocarb, and dieldrin and no obvious seasonal changes. In contrast, we detected high frequencies and striking seasonal changes for two kdr mutations associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. In addition, the evaluation of the field populations from all seasons in terms of the combinations of polymorphisms at four resistance-associated mutations did not reveal the presence of insects that are resistant to all pesticides. Results from the morphological analysis displayed a similar pattern for both wings and did not show a clear separation among the samples from the

  8. Spatiotemporal variations of live coral cover in the northern Mesoamerican Reef System, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Barranco


    Full Text Available Evaluating the response of coral assemblages to different disturbances is important because variations in species composition may have consequences for ecosystem functioning due to their different functional roles in coral reefs. This study evaluates changes in diversity, structure and composition of coral assemblages of the coral reefs of two national parks in the northern sector of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System spanning the period from 2006 to 2012, just after the impact of two hurricanes in the area. Coral assemblages in the Cancún National Park included fewer species and lower live coral coverage ( < 15% than those recorded in Cozumel. In the Cancún National Park, the species with the highest coral cover was Porites astreoides (more than 40% relative cover, and no significant temporal changes were observed in live coral cover and species composition. On the other hand, in the Cozumel National Park the dominant species were Agaricia agaricites, Siderastrea siderea and Porites astreoides, and the coral reefs showed an increase in live coral cover from 16% in 2006 to 29% in 2012. The dynamics of coral assemblages differed between the two parks: while there is an apparent stability in the current composition of the Cancún reefs, the Cozumel reefs show an increase in the abundance of the aforementioned dominant species. However, it is possible that the population characteristics of the species that dominate the coral assemblages in both national parks, such as those of fast population growth and of small colony size, do not entirely fulfill the main function of accretion and habitat heterogeneity, and more research is therefore needed to test this hypothesis.

  9. Preliminary analysis of measured sound propagation over various seasonal snow covers (United States)

    Albert, Donald G.


    Measurements of acoustic pulse propagation in the 5 to 500-Hz frequency band were conducted under various snow cover conditions during the 1989 to 1990 winter in New Hampshire. The objective was to determine the effect of snow cover thickness and other snow properties on the absorption of acoustic pulses. Blank pistol shots were used as the source of the acoustic waves, and geophones and microphones in an 80 m-long linear array served as receivers. Snow thicknesses ranged from 0.05 to 0.35 m, and densities varied from 100 to 350 kg m(sup -3) during the 10 separate measurement days. Preliminary analysis indicates that the peak pulse amplitude decayed in proportion to approx. gamma (sup -1.7) for most conditions and that the acoustic-to-seismic ratios varied from about 4 to 15 x 10(exp -6) m s(sup -1) Pa(sup -1). Theoretical waveforms were calculated for propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere using Attenborough's model of ground impedance. An automatic fitting procedure for the normalized experimental and theoretical waveforms was used to determine the effective flow resistivity of the snow covers, and gave values of 10 to 35 kN s m(sup -4), in agreement with earlier results.

  10. Seasonal variation of technetium-99 in Fucus vesiculosus and its application as an oceanographic tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per


    The concentration of 99Tc was determined in archived time series seaweed samples collected at Klint (Denmark). The results demonstrate a significantly seasonal variation of 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus with maximum values in winter and minimum values in summer. The mechanism driving t...... of (1.9 0.5) 105 L/kg, were obtained. This indicates that F. vesiculosus can be used as a reliable bioindicator to monitor 99Tc concentration in seawater....

  11. Seasonal variation in bioaerosol exposure during biowaste collection and measurements of leaked percolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Herbert; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Breum, Niels O.


    The seasonal variation in waste collectors' exposure to microorganisms, endotoxin and dust was measured with personal sampling equipment. The measurement was carried out in three different combinations of storage and collection system for biowaste: container/compactor truck (CIC), paper sack/comp...... of percolate generated in biowaste may constitute a potential health hazard to waste collectors on account of the high concentrations of microorganisms and the risk of splashing during collection....

  12. Global and regional seasonal variations of the geoid detected by GRACE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, J.; Bezděk, Aleš; Klokočník, Jaroslav


    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2013), s. 285-291 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-36843S Grant - others:EU(XE) NTIS CZ1.05/1.1.00/02.0090 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : GRACE mission * seasonal variations * geoid Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013

  13. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in snow algal communities on an Alaskan glacier (Gulkana glacier in the Alaska range)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu


    Snow and ice algae are cold tolerant algae growing on the surface of snow and ice, and they play an important role in the carbon cycles for glaciers and snowfields in the world. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in seven major taxa of algae (green algae and cyanobacteria) were investigated on the Gulkana glacier in Alaska at six different elevations from May to September in 2001. The snow algal communities and their biomasses changed over time and elevation. Snow algae were rarely observed on the glacier in May although air temperature had been above 0 ° C since the middle of the month and surface snow had melted. In June, algae appeared in the lower areas of the glacier, where the ablation ice surface was exposed. In August, the distribution of algae was extended to the upper parts of the glacier as the snow line was elevated. In September, the glacier surface was finally covered with new winter snow, which terminated algal growth in the season. Mean algal biomass of the study sites continuously increased and reached 6.3 × 10 μl m −2 in cell volume or 13 mg carbon m −2 in September. The algal community was dominated by Chlamydomonas nivalis on the snow surface, and by Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and Mesotaenium berggrenii on the ice surface throughout the melting season. Other algae were less abundant and appeared in only a limited area of the glacier. Results in this study suggest that algae on both snow and ice surfaces significantly contribute to the net production of organic carbon on the glacier and substantially affect surface albedo of the snow and ice during the melting season. (letter)

  14. Impact of seasonal variation on soil bacterial diversity and ecosystem functioning (United States)

    Amoo, Adenike Eunice; Oluranti Babalola, Olubukola


    Soil biodiversity boosts the functioning of the ecosystem thereby contributing to the provision of various ecosystem services. Understanding the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and their reaction to environmental heterogeneity can maximize the contribution of soil microbes to ecosystem services. The diversity, abundance and function of microorganisms can be altered by seasonal variation. There is a dearth of information on how soil biodiversity respond to environmental changes. The impact of seasonal variation on bacterial communities and its effects on soil functioning in four South African forests was investigated. The samples were analysed for pH, moisture content, total carbon and nitrogen, soil nitrate and extractable phosphate. High-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR were used to determine the diversity and abundance of bacteria. Community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) were measured using the MicroResp™ method. Enzyme activities were additionally used as proxy for ecosystem functions. The functional genes for nitrification and phosphate solubilisation were also measured. Seasonal variation has strong effects on bacterial communities and consequently soil processes. A reduction in biodiversity has direct results on soil ecosystem functioning.

  15. Seasonal variation in glucocorticoid receptor binding characteristics in human mononuclear leucocytes. (United States)

    Blackhurst, G; McElroy, P K; Fraser, R; Swan, R L; Connell, J M


    Glucocorticoid sensitivity varies between individuals and between tissues in the same individual. Although some of this variation is explained by the activity of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, the possibility that glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity is modulated remains unexplored. This study examined glucocorticoid receptor binding in leucocytes and assessed the effects of seasonal hormonal variation on receptor binding. Two populations were studied. In the first, 318 healthy subjects were studied over 2 years with a single measurement of receptor binding made on each. In the second study nine healthy male subjects each had receptor binding measurements made at 3-week intervals over 1 year. In both populations there was significant seasonal variation in receptor binding. In the first population Kd for dexamethasone was highest in November and lowest in July (8.37 +/- 0.5 nmol/l vs. 1.58 +/- 0.7, mean +/- SEM P vs. 4969 +/- 302, P melatonin raised Kd without affecting receptor number. Co-incubation with forskolin lowered Kd suggesting that melatonin might act through the ML1 receptor class by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase. No correlations were found with 0900 h plasma cortisol. The results suggest that the glucocorticoid receptor might be modulated by season. Melatonin might mediate part of these effects. The lack of correlation with cortisol suggests that it is not an important determinant of receptor binding and that leucocyte receptors are regulated differently from central receptors.

  16. Hybrid model for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and salendar variation patterns (United States)

    Suhartono; Rahayu, S. P.; Prastyo, D. D.; Wijayanti, D. G. P.; Juliyanto


    Most of the monthly time series data in economics and business in Indonesia and other Moslem countries not only contain trend and seasonal, but also affected by two types of calendar variation effects, i.e. the effect of the number of working days or trading and holiday effects. The purpose of this research is to develop a hybrid model or a combination of several forecasting models to predict time series that contain trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. This hybrid model is a combination of classical models (namely time series regression and ARIMA model) and/or modern methods (artificial intelligence method, i.e. Artificial Neural Networks). A simulation study was used to show that the proposed procedure for building the hybrid model could work well for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid model is applied for forecasting real data, i.e. monthly data about inflow and outflow of currency at Bank Indonesia. The results show that the hybrid model tend to provide more accurate forecasts than individual forecasting models. Moreover, this result is also in line with the third results of the M3 competition, i.e. the hybrid model on average provides a more accurate forecast than the individual model.

  17. Histological and morphometric analyses of seasonal testicular variations in the Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Nazrul; Zhu, Xiao Bo; Zhu, Ziao Bo; Aoyama, Masato; Sugita, Shoei


    A histological and morphometric study was conducted to examine the seasonal testicular variations in the Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) of the Kanto area, Japan, from January to July. The paired testes mass, diameter and number of germ cells of the seminiferous tubules, and proportion of seminiferous tubule area and interstitium were examined. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained testis sections and ImageJ Software were used. Paired testes weight was found to increase by 55-fold from January to late March-early May, thereafter declining by 18-fold by June-July. Seminiferous tubule diameter increased fivefold from January to late March-early May, followed a fourfold decrease in June-July. The increase in testes weight correlated well with the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubule. In January, the seminiferous tubules constituted 56% of the testicular tissue and the interstitium 44%. During late March-early May, there was very little testicular interstitium (7.9%), and the seminiferous tubules were significantly enlarged (P Jungle Crow has a non-breeding season in January, a pre-breeding season during February-mid March, a main breeding season during late March-early May, a transition period during mid May-late May, and a post-breeding season beginning in June.

  18. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality. (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A


    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents.

  19. A vegetation control on seasonal variations in global atmospheric mercury concentrations (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Obrist, Daniel; Bieser, Johannes; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Wängberg, Ingvar; Kyllönen, Katriina; Worthy, Doug; Martin, Lynwill G.; Labuschagne, Casper; Mkololo, Thumeka; Ramonet, Michel; Magand, Olivier; Dommergue, Aurélien


    Anthropogenic mercury emissions are transported through the atmosphere as gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) before they are deposited to Earth's surface. Strong seasonality in atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere has been explained by two factors: anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions are thought to peak in winter due to higher energy consumption, and atmospheric oxidation rates of Hg(0) are faster in summer. Oxidation-driven Hg(0) seasonality should be equally pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere, which is inconsistent with observations of constant year-round Hg(0) levels. Here, we assess the role of Hg(0) uptake by vegetation as an alternative mechanism for driving Hg(0) seasonality. We find that at terrestrial sites in the Northern Hemisphere, Hg(0) co-varies with CO2, which is known to exhibit a minimum in summer when CO2 is assimilated by vegetation. The amplitude of seasonal oscillations in the atmospheric Hg(0) concentration increases with latitude and is larger at inland terrestrial sites than coastal sites. Using satellite data, we find that the photosynthetic activity of vegetation correlates with Hg(0) levels at individual sites and across continents. We suggest that terrestrial vegetation acts as a global Hg(0) pump, which can contribute to seasonal variations of atmospheric Hg(0), and that decreasing Hg(0) levels in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 20 years can be partly attributed to increased terrestrial net primary production.

  20. Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Variations of Global Fractional Vegetation Cover Based on GIMMS NDVI Data from 1982 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Wu


    Full Text Available Fractional vegetation cover (FVC is an important biophysical parameter of terrestrial ecosystems. Variation of FVC is a major problem in research fields related to remote sensing applications. In this study, the global FVC from 1982 to 2011 was estimated by GIMMS NDVI data, USGS global land cover characteristics data and HWSD soil type data with a modified dimidiate pixel model, which considered vegetation and soil types and mixed pixels decomposition. The evaluation of the robustness and accuracy of the GIMMS FVC with MODIS FVC and Validation of Land European Remote sensing Instruments (VALERI FVC show high reliability. Trends of the annual FVCmax and FVCmean datasets in the last 30 years were reported by the Mann–Kendall method and Sen’s slope estimator. The results indicated that global FVC change was 0.20 and 0.60 in a year with obvious seasonal variability. All of the continents in the world experience a change in the annual FVCmax and FVCmean, which represents biomass production, except for Oceania, which exhibited a significant increase based on a significance level of p = 0.001 with the Student’s t-test. Global annual maximum and mean FVC growth rates are 0.14%/y and 0.12%/y, respectively. The trends of the annual FVCmax and FVCmean based on pixels also illustrated that the global vegetation had turned green in the last 30 years. A significant trend on the p = 0.05 level was found for 15.36% of the GIMMS FVCmax pixels on a global scale (excluding permanent snow and ice, in which 1.8% exhibited negative trends and 13.56% exhibited positive trends. The GIMMS FVCmean similarly produced a total of 16.64% significant pixels with 2.28% with a negative trend and 14.36% with a positive trend. The North Frigid Zone represented the highest annual FVCmax significant increase (p = 0.05 of 25.17%, which may be caused mainly by global warming, Arctic sea-ice loss and an advance in growing seasons. Better FVC predictions at large regional scales

  1. Seasonal Variation in Fluoride Content in Groundwaters of Langtang Area, Northcentral Nigeria (United States)

    Dibal, H. U.; Dajilak, W. N.; Lekmang, I. C.; Nimze, L. W.; Yenne, E. Y.


    Thirty groundwater samples were collected at the peak of the rainy season and analysed for fluoride and other cations and anions in drinking water sources of Langtang area. For comparative purposes, thirty seven groundwater samples were collected in the dry season. The aim of the study was to determine variation in fluoride content with respect to the seasons. Fluoride in water was determined by the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) and the cations by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The anion (sulphate) was determined by Multi - Ion Colorimeter, bicarbonate and chloride by titration method. In addition fluorine content in aquifer materials from a borehole section were determined by Fusion method. The two seasons show variation in content of fluoride in groundwater. Fluoride content in groundwater is higher in the dry season ranging from 0.13 - 10.3 mg/l compared to the 0.06 - 4.60 mg/l values in the rainy season. Content of fluorine (0.01 wt %) in the aquifer materials (sands) is low from depth of 0 to 7.95 m. However, fluorine content increases with depth, from 7.95 to 10.60 m with concentration of 0.04 wt %, 0.05 wt % from 10.60 to 13.25m, and 0.07 wt % from 13.25 to 15.70 m, the content of fluorine however, decreased at depth 15.70 to18.55m with concentration of 0.02 wt % even with fluorite mineral in the aquifer material at this depth. Dilution of fluoride ion as a result of rain input which recharges the aquifer may be the main reason for lower values recorded in the rainy season. Over fifty and sixty percent of waters in both dry and rainy season have fluoride concentration above the WHO upper limit of 1.5 mg/l. Consumption of these elevated values of fluoride in groundwater of the study area, clearly manifests as symptoms of dental fluorosis.

  2. Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, D


    Understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate the carbon flux over grassland is critical for large-scale modeling research, since grasslands comprise almost one-third of the earth's natural vegetation. To address this issue, fluxes of CO{sub 2} (F{sub c}, flux toward the surface is negative) were measured over a Mediterranean, annual grassland in California, USA for 2 years with the eddy covariance method. To interpret the biotic and abiotic factors that modulate F{sub c} over the course of a year we decomposed net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange into its constituent components, ecosystem respiration (R{sub eco}) and gross primary production (GPP). Daytime R{sub eco} was extrapolated from the relationship between temperature and nighttime F{sub c} under high turbulent conditions. Then, GPP was estimated by subtracting daytime values of F{sub c} from daytime estimates of R{sub eco}. Results show that most of carbon exchange, both photosynthesis and respiration, was limited to the wet season (typically from October to mid-May). Seasonal variations in GPP followed closely to changes in leaf area index, which in turn was governed by soil moisture, available sunlight and the timing of the last frost. In general, R{sub eco} was an exponential function of soil temperature, but with season-dependent values of Q{sub 10}. The temperature-dependent respiration model failed immediately after rain events, when large pulses of R{sub eco} were observed. Respiration pulses were especially notable during the dry season when the grass was dead and were the consequence of quickly stimulated microbial activity. Integrated values of GPP, R{sub eco}, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were 867, 735, and -132g C m{sup -2}, respectively, for the 2000-2001 season, and 729, 758, and 29g C m{sup -2} for the 2001-2002 season. Thus, the grassland was a moderate carbon sink during the first season and a weak carbon source during the second season. In contrast to a

  3. Predicting seasonal variations in coastal seabird habitats in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay (United States)

    Virgili, A.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Dorémus, G.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.


    Seabirds, like all animals, have to live in suitable habitats to fulfil their energetic needs for both somatic and reproductive growth and maintenance. Apart from migration trips, all coastal seabirds are linked to the coast, because they need to return daily to land for resting or breeding. Their use of marine habitats strongly depends on their biology, but also on environmental conditions, and can be described using habitat models. This study aimed to: (1) identify the processes that mostly influence seabird distributions along the coasts of the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay; (2) determine seasonal variations of these processes, (3) provide prediction maps that describe the species distributions. We collected data of coastal seabird sightings from aerial surveys carried out in the English Channel and the eastern North Atlantic in the winter 2011-2012 and summer 2012. We classified seabirds into morphological groups and described their habitats using physiographic and oceanographic variables in Generalised Additive Models (GAMs). Finally, we produced maps of predicted distributions by season for each group. The distributions of coastal seabirds were essentially determined by the distance to the nearest coast, with a weaker influence of oceanographic variables. The nature of the substrate, sand or rock, combined with the timing of reproduction, also contributed to determine seasonal at-sea distributions for some species. The highest densities were predicted near the coast, particularly in bays and estuaries for strictly coastal species with possible variations depending on the season. From this study, we were able to predict the seasonal distribution of the studied species according to varying environmental parameters that changed over time, allowing us to understand better their behaviour and ecology.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.


    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  5. Seasonal variations in gravity wave activity at three locations in Brazil (United States)

    Clemesha, B. R.; Batista, P. P.; Buriti da Costa, R. A.; Schuch, N.


    Using the variance in meteor radar winds as a measure of gravity wave activity, we investigate the temporal variations in gravity waves at three locations in Brazil: São João do Cariri (7.3° S, 36.4° W), Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W) and Santa Maria (29.7° S, 53.7° W). The technique used is that of Hocking (2005) which makes it possible to separate the zonal and meridional components of the fluctuating wind velocity. We find that the seasonal variation of the fluctuating wind is similar to that of the amplitude of the diurnal tide, showing a predominantly semi-annual variation, stronger at Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria than at the quasi-equatorial station, Cariri. Both with respect to the seasonal trend and shorter term variations, strong coupling between gravity wave activity and tides is indicated by a remarkably close correlation between the fluctuating velocity and the vertical shear in the tidal winds. It is not clear as to whether this is caused by gravity wave forcing of the tides or whether it results from in situ generation of gravity waves by tidal wind shear.

  6. Seasonal variations in gravity wave activity at three locations in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemesha, B.R.; Batista, P.P. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Buriti da Costa, R.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Schuch, N. [Centro Regional Sul de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)


    Using the variance in meteor radar winds as a measure of gravity wave activity, we investigate the temporal variations in gravity waves at three locations in Brazil: Sao Joao do Cariri (7.3 S,36.4 W), Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 S,45.0 W) and Santa Maria (29.7 S,53.7 W). The technique used is that of Hocking (2005) which makes it possible to separate the zonal and meridional components of the fluctuating wind velocity. We find that the seasonal variation of the fluctuating wind is similar to that of the amplitude of the diurnal tide, showing a predominantly semi-annual variation, stronger at Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria than at the quasi-equatorial station, Cariri. Both with respect to the seasonal trend and shorter term variations, strong coupling between gravity wave activity and tides is indicated by a remarkably close correlation between the fluctuating velocity and the vertical shear in the tidal winds. It is not clear as to whether this is caused by gravity wave forcing of the tides or whether it results from in situ generation of gravity waves by tidal wind shear. (orig.)

  7. Seasonal variations in gravity wave activity at three locations in Brazil

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    B. R. Clemesha


    Full Text Available Using the variance in meteor radar winds as a measure of gravity wave activity, we investigate the temporal variations in gravity waves at three locations in Brazil: São João do Cariri (7.3° S, 36.4° W, Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W and Santa Maria (29.7° S, 53.7° W. The technique used is that of Hocking (2005 which makes it possible to separate the zonal and meridional components of the fluctuating wind velocity. We find that the seasonal variation of the fluctuating wind is similar to that of the amplitude of the diurnal tide, showing a predominantly semi-annual variation, stronger at Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria than at the quasi-equatorial station, Cariri. Both with respect to the seasonal trend and shorter term variations, strong coupling between gravity wave activity and tides is indicated by a remarkably close correlation between the fluctuating velocity and the vertical shear in the tidal winds. It is not clear as to whether this is caused by gravity wave forcing of the tides or whether it results from in situ generation of gravity waves by tidal wind shear.

  8. Seasonal variation in nutritional characteristics of the diet of greater white-fronted geese (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.


    We studied diet and habitat use of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from autumn through spring on their primary staging and wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway, 1979–1982. There have been few previous studies of resource use and forage quality of wintering greater white-fronted geese in North America, and as a consequence there has been little empirical support for management practices pertaining to habitat conservation of this broadly distributed species. Observations of >2,500 flocks of geese and collections of foraging birds revealed seasonal and geographic variation in resource use reflective of changes in habitat availability, selection, and fluctuating physiological demands. Autumn migrants from Alaska arrived first in the Klamath Basin of California and southern Oregon, where they fed on barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Geese migrated from the Klamath Basin into the Central Valley of California in late autumn where they exploited agricultural crops rich in soluble carbohydrates, with geese in the Sacramento Valley feeding almost exclusively on rice and birds on the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta primarily utilizing corn. White-fronted geese began their northward migration in late winter, and by early spring most had returned to the Klamath Basin where 37% of flocks were found in fields of new growth cultivated and wild grasses. Cereal grains and potatoes ingested by geese were low in protein (7–14%) and high in soluble nutrients (17–47% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]), whereas grasses were low in available energy (47–49% NDF) but high in protein (26–42%). Greater white-fronted geese are generalist herbivores and can exploit a variety of carbohydrate-rich cultivated crops, likely making these geese less susceptible to winter food shortages than prior to the agriculturalization of the North American landscape. However, agricultural landscapes can be extremely dynamic and may be less predictable in the long-term than the historic

  9. Urban climate modifications in hot desert cities: The role of land cover, local climate, and seasonality (United States)

    Lazzarini, Michele; Molini, Annalisa; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Ghedira, Hosni


    Urban climate modifications like the urban heat island (UHI) have been extensively investigated in temperate regions. In contrast, the understanding of how urbanization relates to climate in hot, hyperarid environments is still extremely limited, despite the growing socioeconomic relevance of arid lands and their fast urbanization rate. We explore here the relationship between land cover and temperature regime in hot desert cities (HDCs) based on estimates of land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, and impervious surface areas inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat satellite products. Our analysis shows that HDCs display common climatic patterns, with downtown areas on average cooler than suburbs during the daytime (urban cool island) and warmer at night (classical UHI). The observed diurnal cool island effect can be largely explained by relative vegetation abundance, percentage of bare soil, and local climatic conditions and calls for a more in deep investigation of the physical processes regulating boundary layer dynamics in arid regions.

  10. Strengthening seasonal marine CO2 variations due to increasing atmospheric CO2 (United States)

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Stemmler, Irene; Six, Katharina D.


    The increase of atmospheric CO2 (ref. 1) has been predicted to impact the seasonal cycle of inorganic carbon in the global ocean2,3, yet the observational evidence to verify this prediction has been missing. Here, using an observation-based product of the oceanic partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) covering the past 34 years, we find that the winter-to-summer difference of the pCO2 has increased on average by 2.2 ± 0.4 μatm per decade from 1982 to 2015 poleward of 10° latitude. This is largely in agreement with the trend expected from thermodynamic considerations. Most of the increase stems from the seasonality of the drivers acting on an increasing oceanic pCO2 caused by the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. In the high latitudes, the concurrent ocean-acidification-induced changes in the buffer capacity of the ocean enhance this effect. This strengthening of the seasonal winter-to-summer difference pushes the global ocean towards critical thresholds earlier, inducing stress to ocean ecosystems and fisheries4. Our study provides observational evidence for this strengthening seasonal difference in the oceanic carbon cycle on a global scale, illustrating the inevitable consequences of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  11. Determinants, reproducibility, and seasonal variation of ergosterol levels in house dust. (United States)

    Leppänen, H K; Nevalainen, A; Vepsäläinen, A; Roponen, M; Täubel, M; Laine, O; Rantakokko, P; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J; Hyvärinen, A


    This study aimed to clarify the determinants that affect the concentrations of ergosterol and viable fungi in house dust and to examine the seasonal variation and reproducibility of ergosterol concentrations indoors. In studying the determinants, dust samples from living room floors and vacuum cleaner dust bags were collected from 107 farming and 105 non-farming homes. Ergosterol levels were determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,and the dust bag dust was cultivated for enumeration of fungal genera. Lifestyle and environmental factors, for example using of the fireplace, and visible mold observations in homes, explained 20–26% of the variation of fungal concentrations. For the reproducibility study, samples were collected from five urban homes in four different seasons. The reproducibility of ergosterol determinations within a sample was excellent (ICC = 89.8) for floor dust and moderate (ICC = 63.8) for dust bag dust, but poor when sampling the same home throughout a year (ICC = 31.3 and 12.6, respectively) due to large temporal variation in ergosterol concentrations. In conclusion, environmental characteristics only partially predicted the variation of fungal concentrations. Based on these studies, we recommend repeated sampling of dust over time if one seeks to adequately describe overall fungal levels and exposure in a home. This study shows that levels of ergosterol and viable fungi in house dust are related to visible mold observations. Only 20% of the variation in fungal levels can be explained with questionnaires, and therefore, environmental samples need to be taken in addition. Reproducibility of ergosterol determination was excellent for floor dust, and thus, ergosterol measurements from floor dust samples could be suitable for assessing the fungal load in building investigations. The temporal variation needs to be taken into account when describing the ergosterol concentration of urban homes.

  12. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

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    Junga Hwang


    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  13. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Over the Indian Peninsula (United States)

    Muhsin, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Parameswaran, K.


    Seasonal and diurnal variations in the thermal structure of the troposphere and lower stratosphere with special reference to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are studied using data from 3 h interval radiosonde launches carried out simultaneously from Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E) and Gadanki (13.5°N,79°E) during December 2010 to March 2014. TTL is defined as the region extending from the level of minimum stability (LMinS) to the level of maximum stability (LMaxS). Above the cold point tropopause (CPT), temperature showed warm anomaly (4-5 K) during summer monsoon (June-September) and cold anomaly (up to -4 K) during winter (December-February). The temperature in the troposphere showed a clear diurnal variation (±0.5 K) with a cold anomaly during early morning and warm anomaly during the day in all the seasons. At Gadanki, the diurnal temperature anomaly in the lower stratosphere showed its phase propagating downward with time, whereas at Trivandrum such variations are not clearly evident. At diurnal timescales, the TTL showed significant variations at LMinS (0.5-1.5 km/5-7 K) and smaller variations at CPT (0.2-0.5 km/2-3 K). In general, the amplitude of the diurnal component is greater than the semidiurnal component for all the TTL parameters, and these amplitudes are relatively larger at Trivandrum than at Gadanki. The observed diurnal variations could be the manifestation of tidal oscillations and/or due to the influence of local convection. Correlation analysis between different TTL parameters indicated a slow transition from a governing adiabatic process in the TTL base to a diabatic process at the TTL top.

  14. Seasonal variation in standardized litter decomposition and effects of elevation and land use at Mount Kilimanjaro (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Decomposition is one of most important ecological steps in organic matter and nutrient cycles, but studies and reliable data from tropical regions in Africa are still scarce. At the global scale, litter decomposition and recycling is controlled by climatic factors and land-use intensity. These factors can be linked to specific ecosystem characteristics along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Our objectives were to assess the effects of climatic conditions (i.e. elevation) and land-use intensity on C turnover and stabilization and investigated the seasonal variations. Tea-bag Index (see was used to measure decomposition of a standardized litter substrate by microorganisms and mesofauna warm-dry (December-March), long-rainy (March-July) and cold-dry season (July-September) respectively. Decomposition rates increased from k=0.007 in savanna, up to a maximum of k=0.022 in cloud forest (i.e. mid elevation). The increase was followed by a decrease of 50% in (sub-) alpine ecosystems. Stabilization factors decreased from savanna (S=0.33) to coffee plantations or cloud forest (S=0.11) respectively and strongly increased again to a maximum of S=0.41 in the alpine helichrysum ecosystem. During all seasons, we found the highest decomposition rates at mid elevation. However, during both warm seasons the peak is shifted upslope. Savanna experienced the strongest seasonal variation, with 23 times higher S-values in dry- compared to rainy season. Mean annual k-values increased for about 30% with increasing land-use intensity. C stabilization in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems is strongly dependent on seasonal moisture limitation (lower slope) and perennial temperature limitation (alpine zone). Ecosystems at mid elevation (around 1920 & 2120m) represent the interception zone of optimal moisture and temperature conditions. High input and fast turnover drive the C sequestration in these ecosystems, while restrains on decomposition control the C

  15. Seasonal mortality variations of cardiovascular, respiratory and malignant diseases in the City of Belgrade

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    Stanišić-Stojić Svetlana


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine seasonal variations in mortality resulting from cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancer, as well as to provide a review of environmental factors underlying such phenomenon. The herein presented study was conducted on the territory of Belgrade based on the data on daily mortality rates obtained from the Institute of Public Health in Belgrade for the period 2009-2014, as well as the data on annual mortality rates provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia for the period 2000-2014. The analysis of mortality variations was performed by the use of Theil-Sen method, smooth trend method and cubic spline interpolation, whereas desriptive tools, such as winter/summer ratio and dissimilarity index, were used to examine the seasonal pattern. According to the Institute of Public Health, over 113430 deaths were registered in Belgrade area for the period 2009-2014, out of which 53.25% is attributed to cardiovascular diseases, 4.01% to respiratory diseases and 27.50% to cancer. The annual mortality rates caused by cardiovascular diseases and cancer on the territory of Belgrade are among the highest ranking in Europe. The leading causes of death in the observed period included: cardiomyopathy, heart attack and stroke with accompanying complications, breast cancer in women, prostate and colorectal cancer in men, lung and bronchus cancer for both genders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular and respiratory mortality rates are significantly higher among people aged 65 and over, whereas more than one third of deaths caused by cancer is observed among younger people aged between 45 and 64 years. Research results show that seasonal variations were most pronounced in mortality resulting from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, with highest mortality rates recorded in February and March and lowest during the summer season. Also, the number of deaths due to

  16. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast. (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir


    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal variation of 222Rn in seawater samples from Ubatuba embayments, SP, Brazil, for the assessment of submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Patricia da Costa


    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate SGD in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S and longitudes between 45 deg 02'W e 45 deg 11'W. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 24 vertical profiles established from March/03 to July/05 varied from 345 ±±24 to 18,700 ± 4,900 dpm/m 2 . The highest inventories of excess 222 Rn were observed both in Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, during summer campaigns (rainy season). The estimated total fluxes required to support inventories measured varied from 62 ± 4 to 3,385 +- 880 dpm/m 2 d. Considering these results, the SGD advective rates necessary to balance the fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.1 x 10 -1 to 1.9 cm/d. Taking into account all SGD fluxes obtained, the percentual variability was 89% (seasonal variation in 3 years period, n = 24 measurements). Although, if we consider each year of study separately, the respective percentual variabilities estimated are 72% in 2003 (n = 10 measurements), 127% in 2004 (n = 6 measurements) and 97% in 2005 (n = 8 measurements). (author)

  18. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Total Gaseous Mercury in Urban Houston, TX, USA

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    Xin Lan


    Full Text Available Total gaseous mercury (THg observations in urban Houston, over the period from August 2011 to October 2012, were analyzed for their seasonal and diurnal characteristics. Our continuous measurements found that the median level of THg was 172 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv, consistent with the current global background level. The seasonal variation showed that the highest median THg mixing ratios occurred in summer and the lowest ones in winter. This seasonal pattern was closely related to the frequency of THg episodes, energy production/consumption and precipitation in the area. The diurnal variations of THg exhibited a pattern where THg accumulated overnight and reached its maximum level right before sunrise, followed by a rapid decrease after sunrise. This pattern was clearly influenced by planetary boundary layer (PBL height and horizontal winds, including the complex sea breeze system in the Houston area. A predominant feature of THg in the Houston area was the frequent occurrence of large THg spikes. Highly concentrated pollution plumes revealed that mixing ratios of THg were related to not only the combustion tracers CO, CO2, and NO, but also CH4 which is presumably released from oil and natural gas operations, landfills and waste treatment. Many THg episodes occurred simultaneously with peaks in CO, CO2, CH4, NOx, and/or SO2, suggesting possible contributions from similar sources with multi-source types. Our measurements revealed that the mixing ratios and variability of THg were primarily controlled by nearby mercury sources.

  19. Analysis of trends and seasonal variation in primary cutaneous melanoma: an Irish study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R


    A seasonal variation in the presentation of cutaneous melanoma has been documented in several studies. We performed a retrospective review of primary cutaneous melanomas (n = 263) from our institution to examine whether the seasonal patterns of presentation noted in the literature would be similar in Ireland, a climate with low ambient sunshine. A summer : winter ratio was determined for age, gender, subtype, location and Breslow thickness. We found an increase in total numbers of melanomas, particularly in men. The summer : winter ratio was 2.39 for all patients (95% CI 1.60-3.57, P < 0.001), with seasonal variations noted for location, thickness and subtype (excluding lentigo). Melanomas presenting over the summer tended towards a greater Breslow thickness than did those presenting in winter. This subclassification of primary cutaneous melanoma with summer : winter ratios based on patient and tumour characteristics gave remarkably similar results to previously published reports, notwithstanding the low levels of annual ambient sunshine in Ireland.

  20. Seasonal variation of coarse aerosol particle concentration at Syowa Station, Antarctica

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    Kazuo Osada


    Full Text Available Number-size distributions (D_p>0.3 μm of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica, from February 2004 to January 2006. Volume concentrations of coarse particles (D_p 1.0-5.0 μm were low in December to January and high in the rest of the year. To identify factors controlling the seasonal variation of coarse particle concentrations at Syowa Station, seasonal variations of wind speed distribution over the Southern Ocean, sea ice extent, wind speed at the edge of sea ice and at Syowa Station, and seasonal patterns of backward air trajectories were compared with the volume concentrations of coarse particles. Patterns of backward air trajectories and changes in size distributions of coarse particles associated with sea ice extent suggest changes in major source areas of sea salt particles observed at Syowa Station: coastal areas near Syowa in February and March, but far north of the sea ice edge, around 60゜ south, in October.

  1. Diversity and seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in the Santragachi Lake, West Bengal, India

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    Subhabrata Ghosh


    Full Text Available The study of phytoplankton diversity and its seasonal variation was carried out by sampling water taken from the Santragachi Lake, of West Bengal between November 2009 and July 2010. Various physico-chemical variables were recorded and the correlation of this with phytoplankton density was established using Canonical Correspondence Analysis. This showed that the density of phytoplankton was higher when temperature and nutrients were increased. A total of 29 phytoplankton taxa belonging to Chlorophyta (10, Cyanobacteria (8, Charophyta (5, Bacillariophyta (4, and Euglenozoa (2 were recorded from nine samples taken within the study period. Chlorophyta species dominated mostly in variety and percentage composition while Euglenozoa species representatives had the least expression. Bio-indication showed a low diverse community in the monsoon period with better water quality than in pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Various diversity indices (Shannon–Wiener diversity index, Gleason species richness index, Pielou evenness index, and Naughton dominance index were used to establish the seasonal variation of phytoplankton. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index was most useful in indicating the trophic status of the water as well as the pollution status, which in this case, depicted a moderate level of pollution of this lake.

  2. Man biting rate seasonal variation of malaria vectors in Roraima, Brazil

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    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros


    Full Text Available Malaria control has been directed towards regional actions where more detailed knowledge of local determinants of transmission is of primary importance. This is a short report on range distribution and biting indices for Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis during the dry and rainy season that follows river level variation in a savanna/alluvial forest malaria system area in the Northern Amazon Basin. Distribution range and adult biting indices were at their highest during the rainy season for both An. darlingi and An. albitarsis. During the rainy season the neighboring alluvial forest was extensively flooded. This coincided with highest rates in malaria transmission with case clustering near the river. As the river receded, anopheline distribution range and density decreased. This decrease in distribution and density corresponded to a malaria decrease in the near area. An exponential regression function was derived to permit estimations of An. darlingi distribution over specified distances. Anopheline spatio-temporal variations lead to uneven malaria case distribution and are of important implications for control strategies.

  3. Seasonal Variation of Harbor Seal's Diet from the Wadden Sea in Relation to Prey Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille de la Vega

    Full Text Available The Wadden Sea has an important role for marine mammals in terms of resting, nursing and foraging. Harbor seal is the most abundant marine mammal species in this area. The use of the food resources of the Wadden Sea by seals is not clear, and previous studies showed that this species can travel kilometers away from their haul-outs to forage in the North Sea. In this study, we analyzed the stable isotopes of vibrissae from 23 dead harbor seals found on the island of Sylt to investigate their diet. The predator´s carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were compared to the compositions of different potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight and from the North Sea in order to study seasonal pattern in the diet and in the foraging location. In parallel, seasonal variation of abundance and biomass of the potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight were studied and compare to their contribution to the seal´s diet. The results revealed a change in the seal´s diet from pelagic sources in spring to a benthic based diet in summer, and an increasing use of the North Sea resources in fall and winter in accordance with the seasonal variation of the availability of prey in the Sylt-Rømø Bight.

  4. Microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols on warm clouds during the Amazon biomass burning season as observed by MODIS: impacts of water vapor and land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Ten Hoeve


    Full Text Available Aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and temperature profile data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are utilized to examine the impact of aerosols on clouds during the Amazonian biomass burning season in Rondônia, Brazil. It is found that increasing background column water vapor (CWV throughout this transition season between the Amazon dry and wet seasons likely exerts a strong effect on cloud properties. As a result, proper analysis of aerosol-cloud relationships requires that data be stratified by CWV to account better for the influence of background meteorological variation. Many previous studies of aerosol-cloud interactions over Amazonia have ignored the systematic changes to meteorological factors during the transition season, leading to possible misinterpretation of their results. Cloud fraction (CF is shown to increase or remain constant with aerosol optical depth (AOD, depending on the value of CWV, whereas the relationship between cloud optical depth (COD and AOD is quite different. COD increases with AOD until AOD ~ 0.3, which is assumed to be due to the first indirect (microphysical effect. At higher values of AOD, COD is found to decrease with increasing AOD, which may be due to: (1 the inhibition of cloud development by absorbing aerosols (radiative effect/semi-direct effect and/or (2 a possible retrieval artifact in which the measured reflectance in the visible is less than expected from a cloud top either from the darkening of clouds through the addition of carbonaceous biomass burning aerosols within or above clouds or subpixel dark surface contamination in the measured cloud reflectance. If (1 is a contributing mechanism, as we suspect, then an empirically-derived increasing function between cloud drop number and aerosol concentration, assumed in a majority of global climate models, is inaccurate since these models do not include treatment of aerosol absorption in and around clouds. The relationship between

  5. Diel and seasonal variation in food habits of Atlantic salmon parr in a small stream (United States)

    Grader, M.; Letcher, B.H.


    The diel and seasonal food habits of young-of-year (YOY) and post-young-of-year (PYOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were assayed over the course of 11 months in the West Brook, Massachusetts USA. Gut fullness of YOY salmon did not vary significantly among months. PYOY salmon exhibited significant seasonal differences in gut fullness, with peak fullness occurring in the spring and late fall. Significant diel differences in PYOY gut fullness occurred in June and April, with peak fullness always occurring at dawn. Prey composition varied substantially among months. Dominant prey items of PYOY salmon were baetid mayflies in June, July, and August, limnephilid caddisflies in October and November, and ephemerellid mayflies in February and April. Few differences in prey composition between PYOY and YOY salmon were observed. Fish growth was unrelated to prey availability, but gut fullness explained up to 97% of growth variation across seasons. Results suggest that spring and fall are critical periods of feeding for PYOY salmon and that diel feeding intensity shifts seasonally.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Balakrishnan


    Full Text Available This study deals with seasonal variation of heavy metals in sediments of Muthupet lagoon, Southeast coast of India from September 2011 to August 2012. The bulk sediments were association with sand, silt and clay. Geo-accumulation index (lgeo was used to quantitatively assess the influences of heavy metal pollution. Heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES and the results were compared to permissible limits of WHO/USEPA. The minimum concentration of heavy metals in all the stations were found during the post monsoon and summer seasons and the maximum concentration of heavy metals in all the stations were found during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. The reason for the pollution was land drainage, irrigation through channels and municipal wastes and also the peak agricultural activities due to the release of fresh water from reservoirs. Among all the metals iron was found to be maximum in all the stations in post-monsoon and summer season followed by magnesium and manganese. Apart from these three metal, all other six metals are recorded in moderate range. The reason for the high concentration of these metals are anthropogenic activity, agriculture, aquaculture and the rivers regular in and out flow throughout the study duration in the lagoon area.

  7. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima


    Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

  8. Assessment of seasonal variation for air pollutant accumulation by Zizyphus tree under washing treatment. (United States)

    Shaheen, Mohamed Abdulraheem; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy Saad; Almehmadi, Fahd Mosallam; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Al-Shareef, Abdulmohsin Rajeh


    A field study was carried out near Jeddah Industrial Zone to estimate the leaf impairment, physiological disorders, and air pollutant accumulation potential of Ziziphus tree. The experiment was triplicated in RCBD design with factorial arrangement having seasonality as the main plot and washing as subplot treatments along with the control. Accumulation of heavy metals and micronutrients in plant foliage varied significantly under the influence of seasons and washing treatments. The maximum accumulation of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were perceived in summer season while the minimum was observed in winter. Contrarily, a greater acquisition of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was observed in autumn. Washing significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb by 58, 90, 80, and 96 %, while Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn by 89, 37, 60, and 93 %, respectively. Leaf protein and nitrogen content illustrated a greater adjustment for pollutants by presenting a minimum variation (14-18 % and 2-3 %) to seasonality. In contrast, leaf area and stomatal aperture were significantly disturbed and resulted in minimum recovery under washing. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger negative interaction of heavy metal accumulation to leaf features while non-significant interaction was perceived for microelements. In conclusion, planting of Ziziphus trees along industrial areas may impede potential threats of toxic pollutants to human and ecosystem.

  9. Prevalence of antibiotic residues in commercial milk and its variation by season and thermal processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Aalipour


    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the prevalence of antibiotic residues in pasteurized and sterilized commercial milk available in Shahre-kourd, Iran, was investigated. In addition, the influence of seasonal temperature changes on the prevalence of contamination was studied. Materials and Methods: Commercial milk samples of 187, including 154 pasteurized and 33 sterilized, milk samples were collected from the market between early January 2012 and late July of the same year. The presence of antibiotic residues was detected using the microbiological detection test kit, Eclipse 100, as a semi-quantitative method. Results: The results showed that 37 of the samples (19.8% have contained antibiotic residues above the European Union Maximum Residues Limits (EU-MRLs, of which 28 samples (14.97% were found to be contaminated but at the concentrations below the EU-MRLs. There was no significant difference between the contamination rate of pasteurized and Ultra High Temperature (UHT-sterilized samples. Similarly, variation of weather temperature with seasons had no effect on the contamination prevalence of milk samples ( P > 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, antibiotics residues were present in the majority of milk samples. Neither the season nor the type of thermal processing of the commercial milks had noticeable impact on the prevalence level of the milk samples. However, an increasing trend of prevalence level for antibiotic residues was observed with increasing the temperature through the warm season.

  10. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests. (United States)

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu


    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao


    Full Text Available Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05. The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account.

  12. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei; Xia, Bisheng


    Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. PMID:25407421

  13. Streambed temperature dynamics and corresponding heat fluxes in small streams experiencing seasonal ice cover (United States)

    Caissie, Daniel; Kurylyk, Barret L.; St-Hilaire, André; El-Jabi, Nassir; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.


    Streambed temperature and heat fluxes are important for aquatic habitats as well as in the development and improvement of water temperature models. In the present study, measured streambed temperatures at different depths were used as a tracer to predict the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow using an advection-conduction heat transport model. This analysis was carried out under different conditions, namely under natural surface water temperature conditions (i.e., as measured in the field), under steady-state conditions (e.g. under stream ice cover) and for conditions where the surface water temperatures followed a sinusoidal function. In Catamaran Brook, results from the advection-conduction numerical model showed good agreement between predicted and observed streambed temperatures with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) ranging between 0.07 °C to 0.6 °C. A comparison of streambed fluxes showed that the heat flux by conduction was more important during the summer period for upwelling conditions (mean value 96 W m-2 at 25 °C), but was also present in winter (-20 W m-2). Variability in heat flux by conduction was also greater when the diel surface water temperature variability was high (e.g. range of 6 °C). The heat flux by advection varied between -120 and 145 W m-2 (for typical water temperatures and vertical flow conditions within Catamaran Brook, 0-25 °C and ±0.005 m h-1). Short-term heat exchange (diel) occurred within the thermally active depth, typically <0.7 m. The long-term annual streambed heat flux by conduction was also calculated and daily mean was generally less than ±11 W m-2. Winter conditions provided a unique opportunity to analyse streambed heat fluxes under steady-state conditions when both conduction and advection fluxes were present.

  14. Seasonal variation in mercury and food web biomagnification in Lake Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liang; Campbell, Linda M.; Johnson, Timothy B.


    Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ontogenetic shifts in diet and Hg, although such patterns were not evident for other species. Food web structure, as indicated by stable isotope values (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) was not static. Log-transformed Hg data were strongly and consistently correlated with δ 15 N values for the whole food web in each of the three seasons (slopes, 0.17–0.24) and across the entire year (slope, 0.2). While significantly different between seasons, the regression slope values are still consistent with published global Hg biomagnification rates. Our results indicate that the assessment of Hg trends in Great Lakes must take into account seasonal patterns and time of sampling. - Graphical abstract: Total mercury concentrations and trophic level (δ 15 N) regressions for organisms from the littoral Lake Ontario food web of Waupoos in 2009. Filled circles represent invertebrates while open circles represent fish. Dashed lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “whole” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the upper left hand corner in each plot), and solid lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “fish-only” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the lower right hand corner of each plot). Note that the y-axis is untransformed Hg concentrations plotted along a logarithmic scale, while the equations are based on log-transformed Hg values. Highlights: ► Most fish in littoral Lake Ontario had higher Hg concentrations in spring and lower Hg in summer. ► Log Hg consistently biomagnified throughout the food web in each season and for the year. ► Biomagnification rates (e.g., log Hg-δ 15 N slopes) vary

  15. Seasonal Variation of Eutrophication in Some Lakes of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. (United States)

    Török, Liliana; Török, Zsolt; Carstea, Elfrida M; Savastru, Dan


      To understand the trophic state of lakes, this study aims to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages and the main factors that influence their seasonal variation. Sampling campaigns were carried out in three lakes from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Spectral analysis of specific phytoplankton pigments was applied as a diagnostic marker to establish the distribution and composition of phytoplankton taxonomic groups. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to quantify changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The relative contribution of the main phytoplankton groups to the total phytoplankton biomass and the trend of development during succession of the seasons showed that cyanobacteria could raise potential ecological or human health problems. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that Cryptophyta and cyanobacteria were the main contributors to the protein-like components of DOM. It was concluded that fluorescence could be used to provide a qualitative evaluation of the eutrophication degree in Danube Delta lakes.

  16. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Inst. for Scientific Research; Carter, Brett A. [RMIT Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). SPACE Research Centre


    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K{sub p}>3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  17. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke; Carter, Brett A.


    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K p >3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  18. Seasonal variations of Manning's coefficient depending on vegetation conditions in Tärnsjö, Sweden (United States)

    Plakane, Rūta; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Okoli, Kenechukwu


    Hydrological modelling and water resources management require observations of high and low river flows. To estimate them, rating curves based on the characteristics of the river channel and floodplain are often used. Yet, multiple factors can cause uncertainties in rating curves, one of them being the variability of the Manning's roughness coefficient due to seasonal changes of vegetation. Determining this uncertainty has been a challenge, and depending on vegetation conditions on a stream, values can temporarily show an important deviation from the calibrated rating curve, enhancing the importance to understand changes in Manning's roughness coefficient. Examining the aquatic vegetation on the site throughout different seasonal conditions allows one to observe changes within the channel. By depending on cyclical changes in Manning's roughness coefficient values, different discharges may correspond to the same stage conditions. In this context, we present a combination of field work and modelling exercise to the variation of the rating curve due to vegetation changes in a Swedish stream.

  19. Seasonal variation of the lipoidal matters and hypolipidaemic activity of the red alga Corallina officinalis L. (United States)

    Awad, N E; Selim, M A; Saleh, M M; Matloub, A A


    The lipoidal matters of Corallina officinalis L. showed a seasonal nonsignificant quantitative variation. However, the fatty acids revealed a relative increase in the summer and winter, while unsaponifiable matter exhibited a slight increase in the spring. The GC/MS analysis of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter of the algal samples collected in different seasons revealed that samples collected in the spring contained a low cholesterol content and high steroidal compounds as well as high polyunsaturated fatty acids. The alcohol extract, hexane extract and fatty acid fraction of this algal sample exhibited a significant hypolipidaemic activity. Also, two biologically active fractions of hydrocarbons were isolated by CC technique from the hexane fraction of C. officinalis L. and identified by GC/MS. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw


    Full Text Available It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998–2014 of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (Kp>3 have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Iftikhar Haider


    Full Text Available Acid peptic disease (APD is a worldwide health problem. It includes a variety of inflammatory and ulcerative lesions involving esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The disease condition may persist with multiple symptoms, one of them being dyspepsia. The object of the present study was to determine the frequency and seasonal variations of APD in patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms. This observational study was carried out at the endoscopy unit in Baqai Medical University from December 2003 to December 2010, over a period of seven years. The evolution of APD frequency remained equivocal throughout the study period. However, a decline was noted in the frequency of peptic ulcer disease (PUD especially for gastric and duodenal ulcer cases but a rise during autumn and winter seasons was also noted in duodenal ulcer cases.

  2. Meridional distribution and seasonal variation of stable oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nakamura


    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope ratio(δ^O in precipitation is known to have important meridional and seasonal variations, but there are almost no measurements of δ^O in precipitation over polar oceans. The present research took advantage of 4 opportunities for in situ observations in summer and winter at high latitudes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, we analyzed samples of precipitation at Syowa Station in 2008 to obtain year-round data. Based on these data, we consider the meridional and seasonal variations of δ^O in precipitation over the Southern Ocean. In general, δ^O decreases with increasing latitude, and is lower in winter than in summer. The latitude gradient is stronger in winter. At 60°S, δ^O is -5.4‰ and -11.3‰ in summer and winter, respectively, while the corresponding figures at 66°S are -10.5‰ and -20.8‰. These results will help us understand the mechanisms of the salinity distribution and its variation in the Antarctic Ocean.

  3. Annual dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton: seasonal variability superimposes short-term variation. (United States)

    Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Teeling, Hanno; Chafee, Meghan; Scharfe, Mirco; Gerdts, Gunnar


    The dynamics of coastal marine microbial communities are driven by seasonally changing abiotic and biotic factors as well as by rapidly occurring short-term changes such as river fresh water influxes or phytoplankton blooms. We examined the variability of the free-living bacterioplankton at Helgoland Roads (German Bight, North Sea) over a period of one year with high temporal and taxonomic resolution to reveal variation patterns and main influencing factors. 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing of the bacterioplankton community hints at annual recurrence and resilience of few main taxa belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Acidimicrobiia and Thermoplasmata. Multiple regression analyses with various environmental factors revealed changes in water current patterns and resulting phytoplankton blooms as the main driving factors for short-term variation and temperature as the overlying factor for seasonal variation. Comparison of bacterioplankton successions during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms revealed the same dominating Flavobacteriia operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but shifts in Roseobacter related OTUs (Alphaproteobacteria) and SAR92 clade members (Gammaproteobacteria). Network analysis suggests that during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms temperature-dependent guilds are formed. In conclusion, our data imply that short-term bacterioplankton successions in response to phytoplankton blooms are indirectly affected by temperature, which is a major niche-defining factor in the German Bight. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Seasonal Variation in Flocculation Potential of River Water: Roles of the Organic Matter Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Joon Lee


    Full Text Available Organic matter in the water environment can enhance either flocculation or stabilization and, thus, controls the fate and transportation of cohesive sediments and causes seasonal variation in the turbidity of river water, determining floc morphology and settling velocity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the way that biological factors change the organic matter composition and enhances either flocculation or stabilization in different seasons. Jar test experiments were performed using a mixture of standard kaolinite and the filtered river water samples collected (bi-weekly or monthly from April to December 2015 upstream a constructed weir in Nakdong River, to estimate the flocculation potential of the seasonal river water samples. Chlorophyll-a concentration, algae number concentration, and the fluorescence characteristics of organic matter were used to represent the biological factors. Our results revealed that flocculation potential depended not only on the algal population dynamics, but also the origins (or chemical composition of organic matter in the river water. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, as algal organic matter, enhanced flocculation, while humic substances (HS, as terrestrial organic matter, enhanced stabilization, rather than flocculation. Since flocculation potential reached its maximum around the peaks of algal population, algae-produced EPS likely enhanced flocculation by binding sediment particles in the flocs. This observation supports previous findings of seasonal variation in EPS production and EPS-mediated flocculation. However, when HS was transported from the surrounding basin by a heavy rainfall event, cohesive sediments tended to be rather stabilized. Supplementary flocculation potential tests, which were performed with artificial water containing refined EPS and HS, also showed the opposing effects of EPS and HS.

  5. Seasonal variations in halides in marine brown algae from Porbandar and Okha coasts (NW coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Singbal, S.Y

    Seasonal variation of halides and their ratios were estimated in three brown algae, namely Cystoseira indica, Sargassum tenerrimum) and S. johnstonii from Porbandar and Okha Coasts. Halides were found to be higher in early stages of growth. The Br...

  6. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6-12 followed prospectively over 2.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia


    The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity...... injuries in children....

  7. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland. (United States)

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A


    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Study of Seasonal Variation in Groundwater Quality of Sagar City (India by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Pathak


    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.

  9. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Canete, S.; Perez, M.; Gordo, E.


    222 Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3 o 52'35''W 36 o 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The 222 Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of 222 Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m -3 for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m -3 for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m -3 for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of 222 Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of 222 Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: → The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentrations. → 222 Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. → The 222 Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. → The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  10. Levels, seasonal variations and sources of organochlorine pesticides in ambient air of Guangzhou, China (United States)

    Yang, Yunyun; Li, Deliang; Mu, Dehai

    Air samples were collected at an urban site and a suburban site of Guangzhou city, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations and sources. The average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane and ∑DDTs in the air were 93, 287 and 351 pg m -3 at the urban site, and 94, 2258 and 399 pg m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. OCPs in the air were predominantly in gas phase in this study but their concentrations in particle phase were still not neglectable. The air concentrations and seasonal variations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs at the urban and suburban sites were similar without obvious difference. The seasonal variations of ∑chlordane concentrations were extremely different at the two sampling sites and the air concentrations were unusually high at suburban site, especially in April and May 2005. The potential sources of HCHs in the air of Guangzhou might come from lindane due to the relative low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios. Technical chlordane was likely used, especially at or near the suburban site, because the t-chlordane/ c-chlordane ratios were >1.2 and the air concentrations of chlordane were extremely high. Present usage of dicofol at or near Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was implied by the much higher ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) and o, p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT. The air concentrations of aldrich were low, and dieldrin and endrin were detected in none of the samples.

  11. Seasonal variations in PM composition from Beijing, China drive liver oxidative stress (United States)

    Pardo, M.; Rudich, Y.


    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not completely understood. In order to understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated the oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to extracts (water and DCM) from urban PM collected in Beijing (China). Higher levels of pollution components were detected in the heating season (HS, winter) than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer). Higher concentrations of PM were measured in the heating season, mostly from coal and wood burning used for domestic heating. This was accompanied by increased levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the DCM extracts. An increased inflammatory response was detected in the lung and liver with DCM extracts compared to the water extracts, and mostly in the winter aerosol. Reduced antioxidant response was observed in the lung, whereas it was activated in the liver. Gene expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor (A master regulator of stress response that controls the basal oxidative capacity and induces the expression of antioxidant response) and its related genes were induced. In the liver, higher levels of lipid peroxidation adducts were measured, correlated with histologic analysis that revealed morphologic features of damage/proliferation in the liver, indicating oxidative and toxic damage. Altogether, our study suggests that the acute effects of PM can vary by the season with the largest effect observed in winter than summer in Beijing, and that some secondary organs may be susceptible for exposure damage. This suggests that the liver is a potential organ to be influenced from PM especially by PAHs

  12. Geospatial approach for assessment of biophysical vulnerability to agricultural drought and its intra-seasonal variations. (United States)

    Sehgal, Vinay Kumar; Dhakar, Rajkumar


    The study presents a methodology to assess and map agricultural drought vulnerability during main kharif crop season at local scale and compare its intra-seasonal variations. A conceptual model of vulnerability based on variables of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was adopted, and spatial datasets of key biophysical factors contributing to vulnerability were generated using remote sensing and GIS for Rajasthan State of India. Hazard exposure was based on frequency and intensity of gridded standardized precipitation index (SPI). Agricultural sensitivity was based on soil water holding capacity as well as on frequency and intensity of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-derived trend adjusted vegetation condition index (VCITadj). Percent irrigated area was used as a measure of adaptive capacity. Agricultural drought vulnerability was derived separately for early, mid, late, and whole kharif seasons by composting rating of factors using linear weighting scheme and pairwise comparison of multi-criteria evaluation. The regions showing very low to extreme rating of hazard exposure, drought sensitivity, and agricultural vulnerability were identified at all four time scales. The results indicate that high to extreme vulnerability occurs in more than 50% of net sown area in the state and such areas mostly occur in western, central, and southern parts. The higher vulnerability is on account of non-irrigated croplands, moderate to low water holding capacity of sandy soils, resulting in higher sensitivity, and located in regions with high probability of rainfall deficiency. The mid and late season vulnerability has been found to be much higher than that during early and whole season. Significant correlation of vulnerability rating with food grain productivity, drought recurrence period, crop area damaged in year 2009 and socioeconomic indicator of human development index (HDI) proves the general soundness of methodology. Replication of this methodology

  13. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a mediterranean sinkhole - spring (Causse d’Aumelas, SE France)


    Batiot-Guilhe Christelle; Seidel Jean-Luc; Jourde Hervé; Hébrard Olivier; Bailly-Comte Vincent


    Carbon dioxide and 222Rn monitoring of the atmosphere of a Mediterranean sink hole - spring (SE France) during two hydrological cycles (from September 2004 to September 2006) showed seasonal variations with very high concentrations during summer (greater than 6% and 20 000 Bq/m3, respectively). Gas dynamics in caves often show seasonal variations.Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure and temperature mainly), cave geometry and fracture networks control exchanges between the cavity and...

  14. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt


    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Shafay, Shimaa M.


    Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta),Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet(Rhodophyta) were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied pa...

  15. Spatial and seasonal variations in the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane in stream sediments of eastern Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro Sousa Moura, Jose; Zacharias Moreira, Marcelo (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, Sao Dimas, Piracicaba, SP (BR)). e-mail:; Martens, Christopher S.; Mendlovitz, Howard P. (Dept. of Marine Sciences, CB-3300, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (US)); Leal Lima, Risonaldo; Goncalves Sampaio, Irene Cibelle (Projeto LBA-ECO, Rua Vera Paz, S/N, Sale, 68040-260, Santarem, PA (BR)); Menton, Mary C. (Center for Latin American Studies, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US))


    The stable carbon isotopic composition of methane (delta13C-CH{sub 4}) gas bubbles formed in the sediments of three Amazonian streams was determined over a 5-yr period. The study sites were two 'varzea' floodplain (Acu and Maica) and one 'terra-firme' (Jamaraqua) streams. The delta13C of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) from the surrounding vegetation and bottom sediments were also determined. The mean delta13C value of SOM was lower in the terra-firme (-2.96%) than in the varzea stream (-2.38%) as a result of less C{sub 4} plant deposition in the former. The delta13C-CH{sub 4} values varied systematically both seasonally and spatially among the sites during all 5 yr of the study, in association with changes during hydrologic cycle. Overall, the variation in values of delta13C-CH{sub 4} during the high water phase covered a narrower range of values, -6.3 to -5.6%. Contrastively, during the low water phase the delta13C-CH{sub 4} values for varzea and terra-firme streams are different and are in direct opposition. At this phase, the delta13C-CH{sub 4} at terra-firme stream is at least 2.0% depleted of 13C compared to varzea streams. Changes in organic matter sources, water levels and associated microbial degradation processes control the observed seasonal and spatial variations in net stable carbon isotopic composition of methane

  16. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.


    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  17. Seasonal variations of bisphenol A in the Danube River by the municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Maja


    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of bisphenol A (BPA were investigated in the Danube along the Novi Sad bank, Serbia using solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method. The obtained results confirmed the presence of BPA above the limit of quantification (6 ng/L in 22 out of 32 water samples at all eight sampling sites. Тhe BPA concentration varied from 1 for autumn, spring and summer. The high potential risk which is attributed to the elevated summer concentrations is probably the result of the increased human activates and weather conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  18. Seasonal and spatial variations in settling manganese fluxes in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Shankar, R.; Ittekkot, V.

    *Corresponding author. Fax: 0091-832-223340. E-mail address: (T.M. Balakrishnan Nair) Deep-Sea Research I 46 (1999) 1827}1839 Seasonal and spatial variations in settling manganese #uxes in the Northern Arabian Sea T.M. Balakrishnan Nair... undergoes bacterially mediated oxidative scavenging throughout the water column, aided by settling particles (Klinkhammer and Bender, 1980; Cowen and Li, 1991; Mo!ett, 1997). The vertical #uxes of particulate Mn are important in the marine environment, as Mn...

  19. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  20. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of aerosol optical properties during 2005-2010 over Red Mountain Pass and Impact on the Snow Cover of the San Juan Mountains (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Gautam, R.; Painter, T. H.


    Growing body of evidence suggests the significant role of aerosol solar absorption in accelerated seasonal snowmelt in the cryosphere and elevated mountain regions via snow contamination and radiative warming processes. Characterization of aerosol optical properties over seasonal snow cover and snowpacks is therefore important towards the better understanding of aerosol radiative effects and associated impact on snow albedo. In this study, we present seasonal variations in column-integrated aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sunphotometer measurements (2005-2010) at Red Mountain Pass (37.90° N, 107.72° W, 3368 msl) in the San Juan Mountains, in the vicinity of the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured at 500nm is generally low (pollutant transport. In addition, the possibility of the observed increased coarse-mode influence associated with mineral dust influx cannot be ruled out, due to westerly-airmass driven transport from arid/desert regions as suggested by backward trajectory simulations. A meteorological coupling is also found in the summer season between AOD and column water vapor retrieved from AERONET with co-occurring enhanced water vapor and AOD. Based on column measurements, it is difficult to ascertain the aerosol composition, however, the summer-time enhanced aerosol loading as presented here is consistent with the increased dust deposition in the San Juan mountain snow cover as reported in recent studies. In summary, this study is expected to better understand the seasonal and inter-annual aerosol column variations and is an attempt to provide an insight into the effects of aerosol solar absorption on accelerated seasonal snowmelt in the San Juan mountains.

  1. Seasonal variation and speciation of dissolved iron in an artificial surface water body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birghila Semaghiul


    Full Text Available The aquatic chemistry of iron is an important issue since iron is a micronutrient for the growth of phytoplankton. Its concentration in surface waters involves many environmental aspects, from the quality of a particular water to the control of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Dissolved iron can exist in water as ferrous and ferric iron, and the equilibrium between these two forms, as well as the precipitation and solubilization of iron, depends on many natural and anthropic factors. We studied the variation for an year of Fe(II and total iron concentration into Poarta Alba - Midia Navodari Canal, an artificial surface water which connects Danube River with Black Sea. The results indicate a high iron concentration in surface water and a seasonal variation of iron concentration and speciation, which can be correlated with the oxidable matter content.

  2. Severity of infection and seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonelle occurence in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schønheyder, H.C.


    Non-typhoid Salmonella infections may present as severe gastroenteritis necessitatinghospitalization and some patients become septic with bacteraemia. We hypothesized that theseasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella occurrence in humans diminishes with increasedseverity of infection. We...... examined the seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella infections inthree patient groups with differing severity of infection: outpatients treated for gastroenteritis(n=1490); in-patients treated for gastroenteritis (n=492); and in-patients treated for bacteraemia(n=113). The study was population......-based and included all non-typhoid Salmonella patients ina Danish county from 1994 to 2003. A periodic regression model was used to compute thepeak-to-trough ratio for the three patient groups. The peak-to-trough ratios were 4·3 [95%confidence interval (CI) 3·6–5.0] for outpatients with gastroenteritis, 3·2 (95% CI...

  3. Boreal snow cover variations induced by aerosol emissions in the middle of the 21st century (United States)

    Ménégoz, M.; Krinner, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Boucher, O.; Ciais, P.


    considering such aerosol ship emissions. These changes are generally not statistically significant in boreal continents, except in the Quebec and in the West Siberian plains, where they range between -5 and -10 days. They are induced both by radiative forcings of the aerosols when they are in the atmosphere, and by all the atmospheric feedbacks. Climate change by the mid 21st century could also cause biomass burning activity (forest fires) to become more intense and occur earlier in the season. In an idealized scenario in which forest fires are 50% stronger and occur 2 weeks earlier than at present, we simulated an increase in spring BC deposition of 21 Gg BC month-1 over continents located north of 30° N. This BC deposition does not impact directly the snow cover through snow darkening effects. However, in an experiment considering all the aerosol forcings and atmospheric feedbacks, enhanced fire activity induces a significant decrease of the MNDWS reaching a dozen of days in Quebec and in Eastern Siberia.

  4. Understanding the Response of Photosynthetic Metabolism in Tropical Forests to Seasonal Climate Variations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, Dennis [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ivanov, Valeriy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Huete, Alfredo [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Univ. of Technology, Sydney NSW (Australia)


    This U.S-Brazil collaboration for GOAmazon has investigated a deceptively simple question: what controls the response of photosynthesis in Amazon tropical forests to seasonal variations in climate? In the past this question has been difficult to answer with modern earth system process models. We hypothesized that observed dry season increases in photosynthetic capacity are controlled by the phenology of leaf flush and litter fall, from which the seasonal pattern of LAI emerges. Our results confirm this hypothesis (Wu et al., 2016). Synthesis of data collected throughout the 3-year project period continues through December 31, 2017 under no-cost extensions granted to the project teams at University of Michigan and University of Arizona (Award 2). The USGS component (Award 1) ceased on the final date of the project performance period, December 31, 2016. This report summarizes the overall activities and achievements of the project, and constitutes the final project report for the USGS component. The University of Michigan will submit a separate final report that includes additional results and deliverables achieved during the period of their and the University of Arizona’s no-cost extension, which will end on December 31, 2017.

  5. Seasonal variation of Brazilian red propolis: Antibacterial activity, synergistic effect and phytochemical screening. (United States)

    Regueira, M S; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Costa, Maria do Socorro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Matias, Edinardo F F; de Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Menezes, Irwin R A; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dry and rainy season on the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the Brazilian red propolis. The samples were collected in rainy (RP-PER) and dry (RP-PED) seasons and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The extracts were tested alone and in association with antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The HPLC analysis identified luteolin and quercetin as the main compounds. Seasonal variation was observed according to concentrations of the compounds. The MIC values against E. coli ranged from 128 μg/mL to 512 μg/mL (EC 06 and EC ATCC). The red propolis showed MIC values of 512 μg/mL against both strains of P. aeruginosa used in our study (PA03 and PA24) and against strains of Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus the MICs ranged from 64 μg/mL to ≥1024 μg/mL (SA10). A synergistic effect was observed when we combined the RP-PED with gentamicin against all the strains tested. When we combined the RP-PED with Imipenem, we only observed synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa. According to our synergistic activity results, the utilization of red propolis collected in the drier periods can be used as an adjuvant against multiresistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. H. Janssen


    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An uncertainty analysis of the cloud model is included to reveal the main sensitivities of the cloud model. We compared the seasonal cycle in NCD, obtained using 9 yr of satellite data, to surface concentrations of potential cloud activating aerosols, measured at the SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä in Finland. The results show that NCD and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations have no clear correlation at seasonal time scale. The fraction of aerosols that actually activate as cloud droplet decreases sharply with increasing aerosol concentrations. Furthermore, information on the stability of the atmosphere shows that low NCD is linked to stable atmospheric conditions. Combining these findings leads to the conclusion that cloud droplet activation for the studied clouds over the boreal forest is limited by convection. Our results suggest that it is important to take the strength of convection into account when studying the influence of aerosols from the boreal forest on cloud formation, although they do not rule out the possibility that aerosols from the boreal forest affect other types of clouds with a closer coupling to the surface.

  7. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography (United States)

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.


    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  8. Seasonal variation in fetal growth: accounting for sociodemographic, biological, and environmental exposures. (United States)

    Pereira, Gavin; Cook, Angus; Haggar, Fatima; Bower, Carol; Nassar, Natasha


    We sought to investigate seasonal variation in fetal growth, accounting for important sociodemographic, biological, and environmental exposures. Records of births 1998 through 2006 in Perth, Western Australia were obtained (N = 147,357). We investigated small for gestational age and sex and the proportion of optimal birthweight (POBW) in relation to seasonal exposures (season, temperature, sunlight) by trimester of pregnancy. Adjustment was made for a wide range of risk factors. The POBW for neonates with third trimesters predominantly in summer was 0.18% (0.00-0.36%) lower than for those in winter. POBW decreased by 0.14% (0.01-0.27%) per interquartile range increase in third-trimester temperature (9.15°C). An interquartile range increase in temperature over pregnancy (0.73°C) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.05) for small for gestational age and sex. Reduced fetal growth was associated with elevated ambient temperatures throughout and late in pregnancy, independently of air pollution and other risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal variations in soil water in two woodland savannas of central Brazil with different fire history. (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Hodnett, Martin G; Breyer, Lacê M; Santos, Alexandre J B; Andrade, Sérgio; Miranda, Heloisa S; Miranda, Antonio Carlos; Lloyd, Jon


    Changes in soil water content were determined in two cerrado (sensu stricto) areas with contrasting fire history and woody vegetation density. The study was undertaken near Brasília, Brazil, from 1999 to 2001. Soil water content was measured with a neutron probe in three access tubes per site to a depth of 4.7 m. One site has been protected from fire for more than 30 years and, as a consequence, has a high density of woody plants. The other site had been frequently burned, and has a high herbaceous vegetation density and less woody vegetation. Soil water uptake patterns were strongly seasonal, and despite similarities in hydrological processes, the protected area systematically used more water than the burned area. Three temporarily contiguous patterns of water absorption were differentiated, characterized by variation in the soil depth from which water was extracted. In the early dry season, vegetation used water from throughout the soil profile but with a slight preference for water in the upper soil layers. Toward the peak of the dry season, vegetation had used most or all available water from the surface to a depth of 1.7 m, but continued to extract water from greater depths. Following the first rains, all water used was from the recently wetted upper soil layers only. Evaporation rates were a linear function of soil water availability, indicating a strong coupling of atmospheric water demand and the physiological response of the vegetation.

  10. Seasonal and altitudinal variation in roe deer (Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus diet on Jeju Island, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Adhikari


    Full Text Available In order to understand the feeding ecology and dietary differences of roe deer (Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus in different seasons and altitudes, this study was carried out at three altitudinal sites (Songdang 250–270 m above sea level (ASL, Aradong 330–370 m ASL, Mt. Hallasan 1100 m ASL on Jeju Island, South Korea. Altogether, 205 plants taxa of six categories of foods (forbs-climbers, graminoids, trees, shrubs, conifers, and ferns were identified using morphological and molecular analyses. The highest number of dietary plants was found in summer (93 taxa and at Aradong (124 taxa and lowest at Songdang (71 taxa and in winter (51 taxa. Food categories were significantly different among the seasons (F = 15.646, p < 0.05 and altitudinal sites (F = 3.941, p < 0.05. This study revealed that dietary selectivity of roe deer shifted with seasonal and altitudinal variations and preferred to the nutritive and low fibers food.

  11. Network analysis reveals seasonal variation of co-occurrence correlations between Cyanobacteria and other bacterioplankton. (United States)

    Zhao, Dayong; Shen, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Huang, Rui; Yu, Zhongbo; Wu, Qinglong L


    Association network approaches have recently been proposed as a means for exploring the associations between bacterial communities. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the seasonal variations in the composition of bacterioplankton communities in six eutrophic urban lakes of Nanjing City, China. Over 150,000 16S rRNA sequences were derived from 52 water samples, and correlation-based network analyses were conducted. Our results demonstrated that the architecture of the co-occurrence networks varied in different seasons. Cyanobacteria played various roles in the ecological networks during different seasons. Co-occurrence patterns revealed that members of Cyanobacteria shared a very similar niche and they had weak positive correlations with other phyla in summer. To explore the effect of environmental factors on species-species co-occurrence networks and to determine the most influential environmental factors, the original positive network was simplified by module partitioning and by calculating module eigengenes. Module eigengene analysis indicated that temperature only affected some Cyanobacteria; the rest were mainly affected by nitrogen associated factors throughout the year. Cyanobacteria were dominant in summer which may result from strong co-occurrence patterns and suitable living conditions. Overall, this study has improved our understanding of the roles of Cyanobacteria and other bacterioplankton in ecological networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Park


    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rainfall, and inland contaminants, however, within the regulation limit of various countries for shellfish. The highest concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a in seawaters were shown in the surface layer during August with high rainfall, whereas the lowest for dissolved oxygen (DO in the bottom layer of the same month. Therefore, it indicates that the concentrations of FC, COD, DO, and chlorophyll-a of seawaters were closely related to season and rainfall.

  13. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana. (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana


    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  14. Seasonal variations in terrestrial gamma radiation along river Ganges and implications to public health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Meher, P.K.; Mishra, K.P.


    Measurement of exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation dose and determination of associated health hazard at river bank is of major importance due to the increasing tourism, bathing festivals and mythological beliefs. Present study was focused on measurement of absorbed dose rates as function of seasonal variation at designated locations along Ganges river in India. Portable dosimeter (plastic scintillation counter) was used for the measurement of absorbed dose rates. Subsequently, annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated by the standard procedure. Results showed absorbed dose rates for Pre-monsoon ranged from 89.7 ± 4.03 to 115.0 ± 7.81 nSv/h with an average of 105.54 nSv/h. Post-monsoon measurements yielded values from 81.0 ± 7.00 to 105.6 ± 5.75 nSv/h with an average value of 90.8 nSv/h. Calculated average AED for Pre-monsoon period was found to be 0.13 mSv/y. Whereas, 0.11 mSv/y was the AED for the post-monsoon period. Furthermore, the calculated average ELCR values for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon were found to be 0.488 × 10 -3 and 0.418 × 10 -3 , respectively. This study reports significant seasonal variations in the terrestrial gamma radiation doses along the long stretch of Ganges river. (author)

  15. The Effect of Seasonal Weather Variation on the Dynamics of the Plague Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigobert C. Ngeleja


    Full Text Available Plague is a historic disease which is also known to be the most devastating disease that ever occurred in human history, caused by gram-negative bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The disease is mostly affected by variations of weather conditions as it disturbs the normal behavior of main plague disease transmission agents, namely, human beings, rodents, fleas, and pathogens, in the environment. This in turn changes the way they interact with each other and ultimately leads to a periodic transmission of plague disease. In this paper, we formulate a periodic epidemic model system by incorporating seasonal transmission rate in order to study the effect of seasonal weather variation on the dynamics of plague disease. We compute the basic reproduction number of a proposed model. We then use numerical simulation to illustrate the effect of different weather dependent parameters on the basic reproduction number. We are able to deduce that infection rate, progression rates from primary forms of plague disease to more severe forms of plague disease, and the infectious flea abundance affect, to a large extent, the number of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague infective agents. We recommend that it is more reasonable to consider these factors that have been shown to have a significant effect on RT for effective control strategies.

  16. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

  17. Adjustment of metabolite composition in the haemolymph to seasonal variations in the land snail Helix pomatia. (United States)

    Nicolai, Annegret; Filser, Juliane; Lenz, Roman; Bertrand, Carole; Charrier, Maryvonne


    In temperate regions, land snails are subjected to subzero temperatures in winter and hot temperatures often associated to drought in summer. The response to these environmental factors is usually a state of inactivity, hibernation and aestivation, respectively, in a temperature and humidity buffered refuge, accompanied by physiological adjustments to resist cold or heat stress. We investigated how environmental factors in the microhabitat and body condition influence the metabolite composition of haemolymph of the endangered species Helix pomatia. We used UPLC and GC-MS techniques and analyzed annual biochemical variations in a multivariate model. Hibernation and activity months differed in metabolite composition. Snails used photoperiod as cue for seasonal climatic variations to initiate a physiological state and were also highly sensitive to temperature variations, therefore constantly adjusting their physiological processes. Galactose levels gave evidence for the persistence of metabolic activity with energy expenditure during hibernation and for high reproductive activity in June. Triglycerides accumulated prior to hibernation might act as cryoprotectants or energy reserves. During the last month of hibernation snails activated physiological processes related to arousal. During activity, protein metabolism was reflected by high amino acid level. An exceptional aestivation period was observed in April giving evidence for heat stress responses, like the protection of cells from dehydration by polyols and saccharides, the membrane stabilization by cholesterol and enhanced metabolism using the anaerobic succinic acid pathway to sustain costly stress responses. In conclusion, physiological adjustments to environmental variations in Helix pomatia involve water loss regulation, cryoprotectant or heatprotectant accumulation.

  18. Natural variation in germination responses of Arabidopsis to seasonal cues and their associated physiological mechanisms (United States)

    Barua, Deepak; Butler, Colleen; Tisdale, Tracy E.; Donohue, Kathleen


    Background and Aims Despite the intense interest in phenological adaptation to environmental change, the fundamental character of natural variation in germination is almost entirely unknown. Specifically, it is not known whether different genotypes within a species are germination specialists to particular conditions, nor is it known what physiological mechanisms of germination regulation vary in natural populations and how they are associated with responses to particular environmental factors. Methods We used a set of recombinant inbred genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which linkage disequilibrium has been disrupted over seven generations, to test for genetic variation and covariation in germination responses to distinct environmental factors. We then examined physiological mechanisms associated with those responses, including seed-coat permeability and sensitivity to the phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Key Results Genetic variation for germination was environment-dependent, but no evidence for specialization of germination to different conditions was found. Hormonal sensitivities also exhibited significant genetic variation, but seed-coat properties did not. GA sensitivity was associated with germination responses to multiple environmental factors, but seed-coat permeability and ABA sensitivity were associated with specific germination responses, suggesting that an evolutionary change in GA sensitivity could affect germination in multiple environments, but that of ABA sensitivity may affect germination under more restricted conditions. Conclusions The physiological mechanisms of germination responses to specific environmental factors therefore can influence the ability to adapt to diverse seasonal environments encountered during colonization of new habitats or with future predicted climate change. PMID:22012958

  19. Physiological and Molecular Response of Ostrich to the Seasonal and Diurnal Variations in Egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.H.; Khalifa, H.H; Elaroussi, M.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.


    Twelve immature ostrich›s birds, 7 months old were used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature variation and diurnal effect on response changes of some physiological and chemical parameters. All birds were reared out doors and exposed to daily ambient temperatures fluctuations during summer and winter. Blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 Am and once in the afternoon at 3 Pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (summer) (40±2ºC) and the 7 cold days of January (winter) (18±2ºC). Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid concentrations and aldosterone level were determined. The amount of total body water (TBW) and serum heat shock proteins (HSP) were estimated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations in ostrich were significantly decreased, while uric acid concentration and aldosterone hormone level were significantly increased in summer as compared in winter during both at morning and at afternoon periods. Concerning the diurnal variation, serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations and aldosterone hormone level in ostrich were significantly increased, while uric acid concentration was significantly decreased at morning as compared at afternoon during both summer and winter seasons. TBW was significantly higher in summer season by 15.04% than winter season. It is concluded from the present study that heat or cold stress has a negative effect on most of the parameters studied and we recommend must be supplement diet with some nutrients like vitamins C, and E, sodium bicarbonate or yeast to overcome the negative effect and to better perform under such conditions

  20. Predicting large wildfires across western North America by modeling seasonal variation in soil water balance. (United States)

    Waring, Richard H; Coops, Nicholas C

    A lengthening of the fire season, coupled with higher temperatures, increases the probability of fires throughout much of western North America. Although regional variation in the frequency of fires is well established, attempts to predict the occurrence of fire at a spatial resolution soil water reserves were coupled more directly to maximum leaf area index (LAI max ) and stomatal behavior. In an earlier publication, we used LAI max and a process-based forest growth model to derive and map the maximum available soil water storage capacity (ASW max ) of forested lands in western North America at l km resolution. To map large fires, we used data products acquired from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) over the period 2000-2009. To establish general relationships that incorporate the major biophysical processes that control evaporation and transpiration as well as the flammability of live and dead trees, we constructed a decision tree model (DT). We analyzed seasonal variation in the relative availability of soil water ( fASW ) for the years 2001, 2004, and 2007, representing respectively, low, moderate, and high rankings of areas burned. For these selected years, the DT predicted where forest fires >1 km occurred and did not occur at ~100,000 randomly located pixels with an average accuracy of 69 %. Extended over the decade, the area predicted burnt varied by as much as 50 %. The DT identified four seasonal combinations, most of which included exhaustion of ASW during the summer as critical; two combinations involving antecedent conditions the previous spring or fall accounted for 86 % of the predicted fires. The approach introduced in this paper can help identify forested areas where management efforts to reduce fire hazards might prove most beneficial.

  1. Seasonal temperature variations controlling cave ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Vieten


    Full Text Available Two years of cave monitoring investigate ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico. The cave is 1,440 m long with a large main passage (about 120,000 m3. Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varies seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1,800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 permits the estimation of a cave air exchange time of 36 ± 5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,300 ± 1,000 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature indicate that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while cave ventilation is at a minimum during summer. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly, cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  2. Seasonal variation of activity patterns in roe deer in a temperate forested area. (United States)

    Pagon, Nives; Grignolio, Stefano; Pipia, Anna; Bongi, Paolo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Apollonio, Marco


    We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of 31 radio-collared roe deer were assessed through sessions of radio tracking for a total period of 18 consecutive months. Roe deer showed bimodal activity patterns throughout the year, with the two highest peaks of activity recorded at dawn and dusk. Activity patterns of males and females differed during the territorial period (from early spring to late summer), whereas they did not during the nonterritorial period. Most likely, behavioral thermoregulation can be held responsible for variation of daily activity patterns in different seasons. In winter, for instance, activity during the dawn period was significantly higher than in other seasons and daylight activity was significantly higher than at night. Nocturnal activity was highest in summer and lowest in winter. During the hunting season, moreover, roe deer showed lower activity levels than during the rest of the year. The prediction that roe deer would show lower activity levels during full moon nights, when the predation risk was assumed to be higher, was not confirmed by our data. Activity rhythms in roe deer were thus subjected to both endogenous and environmental factors, the latter working as exogenous synchronization cues. Accordingly, in changing environmental and ecological conditions, a circadian cycle of activity could be seen as the result of complex interactions among daily behavioral rhythm, digestive physiology, and external modifying factors.

  3. Seasonal variation of macromedusae (Cnidaria at North Bay, Florianópolis, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior


    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of large medusae abundance and biomass was studied in the North Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (27°30'S, 48° 32'W, from February to December 2005. Collecting was conducted seasonally with the help of fishing bottom trawl in 30-minute sections (12 in summer, 18 in each of the remaining seasons in six stations, totaling 66 samples. Eight species were found: the hydrozoans Aequorea sp., Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861, and Rhacostoma atlantica L. Agassiz, 1850; the cubozoans Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 and Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859, and the scyphozoans Aurelia sp., Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 and Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880. Capture rates were low, up to 38 indiv. ha-1, and only ~47% of the samples were positive for jellyfish, comprising 206 individuals. Medusae abundance and species richness clearly changed from one season to another, but did not vary between the sites. Higher species richness (7 out of 8 and greater abundances were recorded during the fall (~60% and 72% of all medusae individuals and biomass respectively. Specific frequency of capture varied from 1.5 to 29% and C. lactea was the only species found in more than 25% of the samples. The three most common species dominated in different periods of the year: C. lactea during fall (78% of individuals and 60% of biomass, R. atlantica during winter (90% of individuals and 17% of biomass, and O. sambaquiensis in spring (78% of individuals and 40% of biomass. Only two individuals were caught during summer, one C. lactea and one R. atlantica. The results offer a general picture of the distribution of the macromedusae in the North Bay, but a continuous monitoring is desirable for a more detailed knowledge on the jellyfish dynamics in the Brazilian coastal waters.

  4. season.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean plays a role of replacing exported salt via mixing. ..... The human impact on the.

  5. Spatial and seasonal variations in the composition of dissolved organic matter in a tropical catchment: the Lower Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. (United States)

    Harun, Sahana; Baker, Andy; Bradley, Chris; Pinay, Gilles


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was characterised in water samples sampled in the Lower Kinabatangan River Catchment, Sabah, Malaysia between October 2009 and May 2010. This study aims at: (i) distinguishing between the quality of DOM in waters draining palm oil plantations (OP), secondary forests (SF) and coastal swamps (CS) and, (ii) identifying the seasonal variability of DOM quantity and quality. Surface waters were sampled during fieldwork campaigns that spanned the wet and dry seasons. DOM was characterised optically by using the fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM), the absorption coefficient at 340 nm and the spectral slope coefficient (S). Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was undertaken to assess the DOM composition from EEM spectra and five terrestrial derived components were identified: (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5). Components C1 and C4 contributed the most to DOM fluorescence in all study areas during both the wet and dry seasons. The results suggest that component C4 could be a significant (and common) PARAFAC signal found in similar catchments. Peak M (C2 and C3) was dominant in all samples collected during wet and dry seasons, which could be anthropogenic in origin given the active land use change in the study area. In conclusion, there were significant seasonal and spatial variations in DOM which demonstrated the effects of land use cover and precipitation amounts in the Kinabatangan catchment.

  6. Cyclic variation in seasonal recruitment and the evolution of the seasonal decline in Ural owl clutch size. (United States)

    Brommer, Jon E; Pietiäinen, Hannu; Kokko, Hanna


    Plastic life-history traits can be viewed as adaptive responses to environmental conditions, described by a reaction norm. In birds, the decline in clutch size with advancing laying date has been viewed as a reaction norm in response to the parent's own (somatic or local environmental) condition and the seasonal decline in its offspring's reproductive value. Theory predicts that differences in the seasonal recruitment are mirrored in the seasonal decrease in clutch size. We tested this prediction in the Ural owl. The owl's main prey, voles, show a cycle of low, increase and peak phases. Recruitment probability had a humped distribution in both increase and peak phases. Average recruitment probability was two to three times higher in the increase phase and declined faster in the latter part of the season when compared with the peak phase. Clutch size decreased twice as steep in the peak (0.1 eggs day-1) as in the increase phase (0.05 eggs day-1). This result appears to refute theoretical predictions of seasonal clutch size declines. However, a re-examination of current theory shows that the predictions of modelling are less robust to details of seasonal condition accumulation in birds than originally thought. The observed pattern can be predicted, assuming specifically shaped seasonal increases in condition across individuals. PMID:11916482

  7. Seasonal variation of serotonin turnover in human cerebrospinal fluid, depressive symptoms and the role of the 5-HTTLPR. (United States)

    Luykx, J J; Bakker, S C; van Geloven, N; Eijkemans, M J C; Horvath, S; Lentjes, E; Boks, M P M; Strengman, E; DeYoung, J; Buizer-Voskamp, J E; Cantor, R M; Lu, A; van Dongen, E P A; Borgdorff, P; Bruins, P; Kahn, R S; Ophoff, R A


    Studying monoaminergic seasonality is likely to improve our understanding of neurobiological mechanisms underlying season-associated physiological and pathophysiological behavior. Studies of monoaminergic seasonality and the influence of the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) on serotonin seasonality have yielded conflicting results, possibly due to lack of power and absence of multi-year analyses. We aimed to assess the extent of seasonal monoamine turnover and examined the possible involvement of the 5-HTTLPR. To determine the influence of seasonality on monoamine turnover, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of 479 human subjects collected during a 3-year period. Cosine and non-parametric seasonal modeling were applied to both metabolites. We computed serotonin (5-HT) seasonality values and performed an association analysis with the s/l alleles of the 5-HTTLPR. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Circannual variation in 5-HIAA fitted a spring-peak cosine model that was significantly associated with sampling month (P=0.0074). Season of sampling explained 5.4% (P=1.57 × 10(-7)) of the variance in 5-HIAA concentrations. The 5-HTTLPR s-allele was associated with increased 5-HIAA seasonality (standardized regression coefficient=0.12, P=0.020, N=393). 5-HIAA seasonality correlated with depressive symptoms (Spearman's rho=0.13, P=0.018, N=345). In conclusion, we highlight a dose-dependent association of the 5-HTTLPR with 5-HIAA seasonality and a positive correlation between 5-HIAA seasonality and depressive symptomatology. The presented data set the stage for follow-up in clinical populations with a role for seasonality, such as affective disorders.

  8. Seasonal variation in mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta in an acidic aluminium-rich lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B.S. POLÉO


    Full Text Available We have studied the seasonal variation in aluminium toxicity in caged brown trout (Salmo trutta, during one year (October 1994 to September 1995 in a small acidic aluminium rich lake, Lake Nepptjern (ANC -22.6 μeq l-1, pH 5.2, total Al 400 μg l-1. Trout from two and three different year classes were exposed each month to the lake water for 48 h. Fish were placed in keepnets located in the middle of the lake, at 2 m depth. Fish mortality and water physico-chemistry were monitored during the exposures. The concentration of inorganic monomeric aluminium in the water was approximately 300 μg l-1 in average, and the water was acutely toxic to the fish. The observed mortality varied throughout the year, and was highest during spring and summer. During spring, the small fish were more sensitive to the toxic water than larger fish, while the opposite was the case during summer. Water temperature and fish length could explain most of the seasonal variation in mortality. Statistical analyses indicated that water acid neutralising capacity (ANC and the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC and silicon in the water also could explain some of the variation in mortality. Variation in other physico-chemical parameters, however, such as silicon, TOC and ANC could only explain the variation in mortality to a limited extent. The mechanism for the temperature dependent mortality is discussed, and we suggest that the dependence of water O2-solubility and fish metabolism upon temperature is of importance. The difference in mortality between small and large fish is discussed in terms of the gill area/body weight ratio, and it seems to be that small fish suffer more from diffusive ion loss having a larger relative gill area than larger fish. Large fish, on the other hand, have a lower relative maximum oxygen uptake than small fish and will suffer more under conditions where aluminium is accumulated on the gill surface.

  9. Seasonal variation in the input of atmospheric selenium to northwestern Greenland snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hong, Sang-Bum; Lee, Jeonghoon; Chung, Jiwoong; Hur, Soon-Do; Hong, Sungmin


    Oxygen isotope ratio (δ 18 O) and concentrations of Al, Na + , methanesulfonic acid (MSA), SO 4 2− , and selenium (Se) in a continuous series of 70 snow samples from a 3.2-m snow pit at a site in northwestern Greenland were determined using ultraclean procedures. Well-defined depth profiles of δ 18 O, Al, and sea-salt-Na + allowed the determination of chronology of the snow pit that spanned approximately 6 years from spring 2003 to summer 2009. Se concentrations were at a low pg/g level, ranging from 7.2 to 45 pg/g, and exhibited high variability with generally higher values during winter and spring and lower values during summer and fall. Very high crustal enrichment factors (EF c ) of Se averaging approximately 26,600 for the entire time period indicate a small contribution from crust dust. High Se/MSA ratios are generally observed in the winter and spring snow layers, in which the Se concentrations were relatively high (> 20 pg/g). This suggests that a significant component of the Se present in the snow layers is of anthropogenic origin. During the summer season, however, high EF c values are accompanied with low Se/MSA, indicating an increased contribution of marine biogenic sources. Significant correlations between Se, Al, and non-sea-salt SO 4 2− highlight that significant inputs of Se to the snow are likely controlled by the seasonality in the transport efficiency of anthropogenic Se from the source regions to the site. Based on the seasonal changes in Se concentrations, Se/MSA, and Se/S ratios observed in the samples, the input of anthropogenic Se to the site appears to be governed by the long-range transportation of Se emitted from coal combustion in East Asian countries, especially in China. - Highlights: • The first comprehensive seasonal variation of Se in Greenland snow is presented. • Data exhibit pronounced seasonality in the fallout of Se to Greenland. • High Se/MSA ratios indicate a significant contribution from anthropogenic sources.

  10. Seasonal variation in the input of atmospheric selenium to northwestern Greenland snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hong, Sang-Bum [Korea Polar Research Institute, 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406–840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeonghoon [Department of Science Education, Ewha womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jiwoong; Hur, Soon-Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406–840 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)


    Oxygen isotope ratio (δ{sup 18}O) and concentrations of Al, Na{sup +}, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and selenium (Se) in a continuous series of 70 snow samples from a 3.2-m snow pit at a site in northwestern Greenland were determined using ultraclean procedures. Well-defined depth profiles of δ{sup 18}O, Al, and sea-salt-Na{sup +} allowed the determination of chronology of the snow pit that spanned approximately 6 years from spring 2003 to summer 2009. Se concentrations were at a low pg/g level, ranging from 7.2 to 45 pg/g, and exhibited high variability with generally higher values during winter and spring and lower values during summer and fall. Very high crustal enrichment factors (EF{sub c}) of Se averaging approximately 26,600 for the entire time period indicate a small contribution from crust dust. High Se/MSA ratios are generally observed in the winter and spring snow layers, in which the Se concentrations were relatively high (> 20 pg/g). This suggests that a significant component of the Se present in the snow layers is of anthropogenic origin. During the summer season, however, high EF{sub c} values are accompanied with low Se/MSA, indicating an increased contribution of marine biogenic sources. Significant correlations between Se, Al, and non-sea-salt SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} highlight that significant inputs of Se to the snow are likely controlled by the seasonality in the transport efficiency of anthropogenic Se from the source regions to the site. Based on the seasonal changes in Se concentrations, Se/MSA, and Se/S ratios observed in the samples, the input of anthropogenic Se to the site appears to be governed by the long-range transportation of Se emitted from coal combustion in East Asian countries, especially in China. - Highlights: • The first comprehensive seasonal variation of Se in Greenland snow is presented. • Data exhibit pronounced seasonality in the fallout of Se to Greenland. • High Se/MSA ratios indicate a

  11. Seasonality and circadian variation of microfilaremia in dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. (United States)

    Lovis, Léonore; Grandjean, Mélanie; Overney, Laurence; Seewald, Wolfgang; Sager, Heinz


    Periodicity, the cyclical rise and fall in microfilaria (mff) numbers in the peripheral blood over time, is observed in many filarial infections. It is correlated with the necessity for these larval stages to be ingested by the blood feeding vector before they can be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Microfilariae of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis have been described to show periodicity, but the circadian pattern does not seem to be consistent. Most publications describe the lowest mff-concentrations in the peripheral blood in the early morning, while the highest counts occurred either in the afternoon, in the late evening or shortly after midnight. Sixteen dogs were experimentally infected with D. immitis isolates originating from Italy (one isolate, 14 dogs), and the USA (two isolates, one dog each). The dogs were housed indoors with a natural light source (windows) and heating that prevented temperature-drops below 20°C during winter. When patency was reached, blood samples were collected at weekly and monthly intervals over a period of up to 3 years, and at given hours of the day (morning, noon, evening) for the duration of one year in order to determine seasonal, as well as daily variations of microfilaremia. Despite the fact that the dogs were kept indoors, there was an apparent seasonality of the D. immitis-microfilaremia, with peaks in summer and 5-49-times lower counts in winter. This difference was statistically significant and the ratio remained constant over the years, regardless of the fact that the mff-counts increased from the first to the second year of patency. Since the temperature was kept constantly in a range between 20 to 26°C (with some single outliners in both directions) the climatic conditions may not explain this observation. Therefore, day length may be the most obvious reason for the seasonality in the given study set-up. Interestingly, the Italian D. immitis-isolate lost seasonality after three passages of experimental

  12. Seasonal and spatial variations of source and drinking water quality in small municipal systems of two Canadian regions. (United States)

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, M J; Sadiq, R


    A one-year sampling program covering twenty-five small municipal systems was carried out in two Canadian regions to improve our understanding of the variability of water quality in small systems from water source to the end of the distribution system (DS). The database obtained was used to develop a global portrait of physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters. More precisely, the temporal and the spatial variability of these parameters were investigated. We observed that the levels of natural organic matter (NOM) were variable during different seasons, with maxima in the fall for both provinces. In the regions under study, the highest trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) levels were achieved in warmer seasons (summer, fall), as observed in previous studies involving large systems. Observed THM and HAA levels were three times higher in systems in the province of Newfoundland & Labrador than in the province of Quebec. Taste and odor indicators were detected during the summer and fall, and higher heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels were associated with lower free chlorine levels. To determine spatial variations, stepwise statistical analysis was used to identify parameters and locations in the DS that act as indicators of drinking water quality. As observed for medium and large systems, free chlorine consumption, THM and HAA levels were dependent on their location in the DS. We also observed that the degradation of HAAs is more important in small systems than in medium or large DS reported in the literature, and this degradation can occur from the beginning of the DS. The results of this research may contribute to providing precious information on drinking water quality to small system operators and pave the way for several opportunities to improve water quality management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimates of eddy turbulence consistent with seasonal variations of atomic oxygen and its possible role in the seasonal cycle of mesopause temperature

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    M. N. Vlasov


    Full Text Available According to current understanding, adiabatic cooling and heating induced by the meridional circulation driven by gravity waves is the major process for the cold summer and warm winter polar upper mesosphere. However, our calculations show that the upward/downward motion needed for adiabatic cooling/heating of the summer/winter polar mesopause simultaneously induces a seasonal variation in both the O maximum density and the altitude of the [O] peak that is opposite to the observed variables generalized by the MSISE-90 model. It is usually accepted that eddy turbulence can produce the [O] seasonal variations. Using this approach, we can infer the eddy diffusion coefficient for the different seasons. Taking these results and experimental data on the eddy diffusion coefficient, we consider in detail and estimate the heating and cooling caused by eddy turbulence in the summer and winter polar upper mesosphere. The seasonal variations of these processes are similar to the seasonal variations of the temperature and mesopause. These results lead to the conclusion that heating/cooling by eddy turbulence is an important component in the energy budget and that adiabatic cooling/heating induced by upward/downward motion cannot dominate in the mesopause region. Our study shows that the impact of the dynamic process, induced by gravity waves, on [O] distributions must be included in models of thermal balance in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT for a consistent description because (a the [O] distribution is very sensitive to dynamic processes, and (b atomic oxygen plays a very important role in chemical heating and infrared cooling in the MLT. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to consider this aspect of the problem.

  14. Spatial and seasonal variations of the air pollution index and a driving factors analysis in china. (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Yue; Li, Hai-Rong; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Wu-Yi; Yan, Ya-Chen


    In this study, the daily air pollution index (API) of 110 cities based on ground monitoring was conducted on the 2011 data set from the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China. The pollutant concentrations, seasonal variations, and spatial autocorrelations were evaluated. The results show that the major principal pollutants in China are inhalable particles. In addition, the total number of clean days (API ≤ 50) is apparently smaller in the northern cities than in the southern cities as a result of fuel utilization and large-scale organized central heating. Seasonally, air pollution is most severe in winter and is caused by low-frequency rainfall, strong northwest winds, dry climate, and high energy consumption; this is followed by spring, which is a season of frequent sandstorms. According to spatial autocorrelation analysis, clusters with high API value agglomeration (High-High clusters) are mainly concentrated in the middle and northern parts of China, whereas clusters with low API agglomeration (Low-Low clusters) are principally concentrated in the southern parts of China due to a favorable climate and abundant rainfall. Meteorological data, including wind speed and temperature, have great impacts on API. The air quality effects of industrial structure, energy use, urban greening, and traffic congestion were also analyzed. With the ecological function of purifying the air, industries that use natural resources and urban greening could help to reduce API, whereas secondary industry and gas use, which have a positive coefficient, increase the API value. The risk of exposure to poor air quality is largest in the winter, smallest in the summer, and remains relatively unchanged in the spring and autumn. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Seasonal variations of anhydrosugars in PM2.5 in the Pearl River Delta Region, China

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    Kin Fai Ho


    Full Text Available Anhydrosugars including levoglucosan and mannosan are the most effective organic tracers for biomass burning aerosol in the atmosphere. In this study, to investigate the contribution of biomass burning emissions to the aerosol burden in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, 24-hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at four locations, (i Guangzhou (GZ, (ii Zhaoqing (ZQ in Guangdong province, (iii Hok Tsui (HT and (iv Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PU in Hong Kong, in four seasons between 2006 and 2007. Levoglucosan and mannosan, together with water-soluble inorganic ions and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, were determined to elucidate the seasonal and spatial variations in biomass burning contributions. The concentrations of levoglucosan and mannosan were on average 82.4±123 and 5.8±8.6 ng m−3, respectively. The WSOC concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 9.4 µg m−3, with an average of 2.1±1.6 µg m−3. The relative contributions of biomass burning emissions to OC were 33% in QZ, 12% in GZ, 4% at PU and 5% at HT, respectively, estimated by the measured levoglucosan to organic carbon ratio (LG/OC relative to literature-derived LG/OC values. The contributions from biomass burning emissions were in general 1.7–2.8 times higher in winter than those in other seasons. Further, it was inferred from diagnostic tracer ratios that a significant fraction of biomass burning emissions was derived from burning of hard wood and likely also from field burning of agricultural residues, such as rice straw, in the PRD region. Our results highlight the contributions from biomass/biofuel burning activities on the regional aerosol budget in South China.

  16. Seasonal variations of Laurus nobilis L. leaves volatile oil components in Isfahan, Iran

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    Y. Shokoohinia


    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. (sweet laurel is one of the volatile oil bearing plants of Lauraceae family. It is cultivated in different parts of Iran and its leaves and fruits have been used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. There are a few reports about the effects of some environmental conditions on the quality and quantity of laurel volatiles. The goal of our work was to search the seasonal variations on the L. nobilis leaves volatile composition. The volatiles of four samples of the dried leaves of L. nobilis collected in March, June, September and December 2009 in Isfahan, Iran were prepared by using a Clevenger type apparatus for 3 hours and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty-nine, thirty-one, thirty-three and thirty-four components consisting 96.91%, 97.66%, 97.46% and 95.44% of the total compounds were identified of the volatiles obtained with yields of 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.4% and 0.8% (w/w, subsequently. The main compound was found to be 1,8-cineole (30.80-40.25%. Although twenty-seven out of thirty-six volatile components were similar in different seasons, there were some differences between other compounds of our four samples. While the essential oil composition of the March and June plant samples were characterized by presence of 1,8-cineole, δ-3-carene and camphor, the volatiles of September and December plant samples contained 1,8-cineole, camphene and sabinene. Some compounds like eugenol, methyl eugenol and α-terpenyl acetate were not affected apparently by seasonal changes.

  17. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Chengdu, China

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    Ju Yang


    Full Text Available The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Chengdu, a southwest city of China, were determined from March 2015 to February 2016. Here, two diagnostic ratios (DR were determined and a principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR analysis was performed to identify the sources of PAHs during the four seasons. The gaseous and particle phase samples were analyzed separately. The sampled air had a gas-to particle ratio of 4.21, and between 18.7% and 31.3% of the total detected PAHs were found in the particulate phase. The total concentration of all 16-PAHs combined (gas + particles varied from 176.94 in summer to 458.95 ng·m−3 in winter, with a mean of 300.35 ± 176.6 ng·m−3. In the gas phase, phenanthrene(Phe was found at the highest concentrations in all four seasons, while benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF and (in winter chrysene(Chr were the highest in the particle phase. The DR of Fluroanthene (Flua/(Flua + Pyrene (Pyr was higher in the gas phase than in the particle phase, while the Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP/(IcdP + Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP ratio was more variable in the gas than that in the particle phase. The main sources for both phases were a mixture of liquid fossil fuel combustion and the burning of biomass and coal, with clear seasonal variation. Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR analysis identified the main PAH sources as coal burning (52% with motor vehicle exhaust and coke (48% in spring; coal (52%, coke (21%, and motor vehicle exhaust (27% in summer; coal (47%, vehicle exhaust (34%, and coke (19% in autumn; and coal (58% and vehicle exhaust (42% in winter.

  18. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

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    Gísli A Víkingsson


    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  19. Seasonal variation in the acute presentation of urinary calculi over 8 years in Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Lo, Sum Sum; Johnston, Richard; Al Sameraaii, Ahmed; Metcalf, Patricia A; Rice, Michael L; Masters, Jonathan G


    Symptom prevalence (retrospective cohort) Level of Evidence 2b. To determine the incidence of acute presentation of urinary calculi (UC) in Auckland, New Zealand, during the period 1999-2007, and whether there was any significant seasonal variation. The details of all UC within the population presenting acutely to public hospitals in Auckland between 1999 and 2007 were collected using clinical coding searches International Classification of Disease 10th revision (Australian Modification) N132 and N20. Climatic variables for the Auckland region were obtained from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand. The mean atmospheric temperature, hours of sunshine and humidity data were calculated monthly for this period. During the study there were 7668 acute presentations of UC in the Auckland region. A Poisson regression model showed that the number of presentations was significantly related to temperature (P Auckland, New Zealand, varies significantly with temperature and hours of sunshine. Humidity was not a significant factor.

  20. Seasonal variations in chromium concentration in urban atmospheric aerosol in the city of Radom

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    Molik Artur


    Full Text Available This paper presents seasonal variations in the occurrence of chromium in urban particulate matter (PM. Radom is an interesting area for this type of research due to its typical antiquated heating infrastructure. PM samples of two particulate fractions PM2.5 (particulates ≤ 2.5 µm and PM10 (particulates ≤ 10 µm were collected using a Copley cascade impactor Hi-Flow MOUDI Model 130. Chromium was determined in the samples using the GF-AAS technique. The concentration of chromium in PM2.5 was in the range of 0.38 to 3.2 ng/m3, whereas in PM10 it ranged from 0.43 to 4.1 ng/m3.

  1. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and biomethane production from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D


    Ascophyllum nodosum, an abundant Irish brown seaweed, shows significant seasonal variation in chemical composition and biogas production. The polyphenol content is shown to be a more important factor in biogas production than ash content. High polyphenol content in summer months adversely affected biogas production; suggesting two potential harvest dates, March and October. A. nodosum harvested in October showed a relatively low level of polyphenols (2% of TS) and ash (23% of volatile solids), and exhibited a specific methane yield of 215LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 44% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per wet weight of 47m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in October, which is 2.9 times higher than the lowest value (16m(3)CH4t(-1)), obtained in December. The gross energy yield of A. nodosum based on the optimal biogas production can achieve 116GJha(-1)yr(-1) in October. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of black carbon in the ambient air of Agra, India: Seasonal variation and meteorological influence (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Singh, Shalendra Pratap; Jangid, Ashok; Kumar, Ranjit


    This study characterizes the black carbon in Agra, India home to the Taj Mahal—and situated in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The mean black carbon concentration is 9.5 μg m-3 and, owing to excessive biomass/fossil fuel combustion and automobile emissions, the concentration varies considerably. Seasonally, the black carbon mass concentration is highest in winter, probably due to the increased fossil fuel consumption for heating and cooking, apart from a low boundary layer. The nocturnal peak rises prominently in winter, when the use of domestic heating is excessive. Meanwhile, the concentration is lowest during the monsoon season because of the turbulent atmospheric conditions and the process of washout by precipitation. The ratio of black carbon to brown carbon is less than unity during the entire study period, except in winter (December). This may be because that biomass combustion and diesel exhaust are major black carbon contributors in this region, while a higher ratio in winter may be due to the increased consumption of fossil fuel and wood for heating purposes. ANOVA reveals significant monthly variation in the concentration of black carbon; plus, it is negatively correlated with wind speed and temperature. A high black carbon mass concentration is observed at moderate (1-2 m s-1) wind speed, as compared to calm or turbulent atmospheric conditions.

  3. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass in the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea

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    Neda Fazeli


    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass were examined on the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. The Chabahar Bay, a subtropical and semi-enclosed bay, provides an ideal breeding ground for many fish and shellfish. Five stations were investigated along the Bay. This area is under the influence of the Indian Ocean seasonal monsoons. Zooplankton was collected with vertical plankton tows using 100 µm mesh nets. Copepods dominated the zooplankton community followed by larvacea, cladocera and chaetognatha. Fifteen taxa of zooplankton were identified. Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons were dominated in the whole year and Larvacea showed a bloom in Northeast Monsoon. A Two-way ANOVA indicated that there were differences in abundance and biomass between sampling periods and between stations were significant. The peak zooplankton abundance in NE Monsoon could be due to winter cooling, with entrainment of nutrients into the upper layer producing phytoplankton blooms. The decline of zooplankton abundance and biomass in South West Monsoon and post-monsoon could be explained by decrease in chlorophyll a concentrations. The present result showed the composition and distribution of zooplankton differed between the monsoon seasons, resulted from changes in hydrographic conditions.

  4. Chromosomal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila mediopunctata: seasonal, altitudinal, and latitudinal variation

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    Ananina Galina


    Full Text Available The most polymorphic chromosome for inversions in Drosophila mediopunctata is the chromosome II, where 17 inversions have been found, eight of which occurring in the distal region and nine in the proximal region. We present an analysis of the chromosome II inversion polymorphism with respect to seasonal, altitudinal and latitudinal variation. In D. mediopunctata from the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (southeastern Brazil, the frequencies of three of the distal inversions (namely DA, DS, and DP vary seasonally. These inversions also show altitudinal clines in their frequencies. This microgeographic pattern was not observed on a macrogeographic scale. D. mediopunctata from Porto Alegre are less polymorphic for inversions than other populations, the most remarkable reduction occurring in the proximal region of chromosome II. There is a considerable difference between D. mediopunctata from Campinas and specimens from Serra do Japi, which are separated by only 50 km. In contrast, D. mediopunctata from Serra do Japi are much more similar to specimens from the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, which is 200 km far.

  5. Seasonal, diel, and tidal CO2 variation in the Bay of Fundy (United States)

    Horwitz, Rachel; Burt, William J.; Hay, Alex; Thomas, Helmuth


    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions acidify the oceans and have potentially adverse effects for ecosystems, living marine resources, and the fisheries and mariculture industries that depend on them. Assessing the vulnerability of these resources to ocean acidification requires a detailed understanding of both the system's natural variability and its response to the ocean's uptake of anthropogenic CO2. A cabled-to-shore observatory was installed in Grand Passage, a tidal channel in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia. Measurements from a CO2 sensor, CTD, and ADCP provide year-long time series of pCO2, temperature, salinity, and currents. The dominant seasonal cycle of pCO2 indicates a spring bloom in April and May, and net respiration from November through March. This seasonal cycle is modulated by a large diel cycle in summertime, and by equal contributions from diel and tidal variation in winter. The oceanic CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) is higher than the atmospheric pCO2 for most of the year, indicating an annual average balance between respiration and outgassing at this site. Further analysis aims to link observations in this tidal channel to the larger Bay of Fundy - Gulf of Maine carbon system.

  6. Identification of a potential toxic hot spot associated with AVS spatial and seasonal variation. (United States)

    Campana, O; Rodríguez, A; Blasco, J


    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the difference between acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) as indicators of metal availability. Ten representative sampling sites were selected along the estuary of the Guadalete River. Surficial sediments were sampled in winter and summer to better understand SEM and AVS spatial and seasonal distributions and to establish priority risk areas. Total SEM concentration (SigmaSEM) ranged from 0.3 to 4.7 micromol g(-1). It was not significantly different between seasons, however, it showed a significant difference between sampling stations. AVS concentrations were much more variable, showing significant spatial and temporal variations. The values ranged from 0.8 to 22.4 micromol g(-1). The SEM/AVS ratio was found to be <1 at all except one station located near the mouth of the estuary. The results provided information on a potential pollution source near the mouth of the estuary, probably associated with vessel-related activities carried out in a local harbor area located near the station.

  7. Spatial and Seasonal Variation in Rain Use Efficiency in Semiarid Grasslands of Inner Mongolia

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    Jyoti Bhandari


    Full Text Available Rain use efficiency (RUE is an important indicator for identifying the response of plant production to variation in precipitation patterns, especially in semiarid ecosystem grasslands of Inner Mongolia. We have investigated the response and spatial patterns of RUE to precipitation patterns based on five years (2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, and 2013 of records from semiarid ecosystem sites across Inner Mongolia. Our results showed that RUEADM was lowest in the wettest year (2012 and highest in the year following the driest year (2008. There was no significant correlation between RUEADM and RUETDM in typical and desert steppe. RUETDM was strongly correlated with both annual precipitation (AP and growing season precipitation (GSP compared to RUEADM. RUEADM, therefore, cannot be used in place of RUETDM. RUEADM increased with species richness. The relationship between RUEADM and species richness was significantly correlated in meadow steppe, typical steppe, and desert steppe. Our findings can shed light on the spatial utilization pattern of seasonal rainfall in semiarid grassland ecosystems.

  8. Localization and seasonal variation of blue pigment (sandercyanin) in walleye (Sander vitreus) (United States)

    Schaefer, Wayne; Schmitz, Mark; Blazer, Vicki S.; Ehlinger, Tim; Berges, John


    Several fish species, including the walleye (Sander vitreus), have “yellow” and “blue” color morphs. In S. vitreus, one source of the blue color has been identified as a bili-binding protein pigment (sandercyanin), found in surface mucus of the fish. Little is known about the production of the pigment or about its functions. We examined the anatomical localization and seasonal variation of sandercyanin in S. vitreus from a population in McKim Lake, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Skin sections were collected from 20 fish and examined histologically. Mucus was collected from 306 fish over 6 years, and the amount of sandercyanin was quantified spectrophotometrically. Sandercyanin was found solely on dorsal surfaces of the fish and was localized to novel cells in the epidermis, similar in appearance to secretory sacciform cells. Sandercyanin concentrations were significantly higher in fish collected in summer versus other seasons. Yellow and blue morphs did not differ in amounts of sandercyanin, suggesting that the observed blue color, in fact, arises from lack of yellow pigmentation in blue morphs. The function of the sandercyanin remains unclear, but roles in photoprotection and countershading are consistent with available data.

  9. Possible role of climate changes in variations in pollen seasons and allergic sensitizations during 27 years. (United States)

    Ariano, Renato; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni


    Climate changes may affect the quality and amount of airborne allergenic pollens. The direct assessment of such an effect requires long observation periods and a restricted geographic area. To assess variations in pollens and allergic sensitizations across 27 years in relation to climate change in a specific region. We recorded pollen counts, season durations, and prevalences of sensitizations for 5 major pollens (birch, cypress, olive, grass, and Parietaria) in western Liguria between 1981 and 2007. Pollen counts were performed using a Hirst-type trap, and sensitizations were assessed by means of skin prick testing. Meteorologic data for the same period included average temperatures, direct radiation, humidity, number of sunny days, and rainfall. There was a progressive increase in the duration of the pollen seasons for Parietaria (+85 days), olive (+18 days), and cypress (+18 days), with an overall advance of their start dates. For Parietaria, there was an advance of 2 months in 2006 vs 1981. Also, the total pollen load progressively increased for the considered species (approximately 25% on average) except for grasses. Percentages of patients sensitized to the pollens increased throughout the years, whereas the percentage of individuals sensitized to house dust mite remained stable. These behaviors paralleled the constant increase in direct radiation, temperature, and number of days with a temperature greater than 30 degrees C. The progressive climate changes, with increased temperatures, may modify the global pollen load and affect the rate of allergic sensitization across long periods.

  10. Variation in fecal testosterone hormone concentration with season and harem size in Misaki feral horses. (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf M; Nakahara, Keiko; Tokuriki, Mikihiko; Kaseda, Yujiro; Murakami, Noboru


    On Misaki peninsula, Japan, fecal samples were collected from 14 Misaki stallions at monthly intervals for 12 consecutive months. The fecal testosterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. We examined monthly fecal testosterone hormone patterns and the relationship between fecal testosterone concentration and breeding season and later harem size. Marked monthly variations in fecal testosterone concentration were observed. The fecal testosterone concentration began rising in March; the highest mean monthly concentration, 2.87 +/- 0.18 ng/g, was found in April, and the level remained elevated until the end of August and thereafter decreased. A significant correlation was found between the fecal testosterone concentrations and harem size in both the breeding and non-breeding season among the 14 stallions. It is therefore possible that the testosterone levels in feces, instead of blood, correlate very well with harem size in Misaki stallions. Our findings emphasized that the fecal testosterone concentration can be a powerful indicator for monitoring of endocrine status in wild stallions.

  11. Seasonal variation of allochthonous and autochthonous energy inputs in an alpine stream

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    Stefano Fenoglio


    Full Text Available Despite the enormous importance of alpine streams, information about many aspects of their ecology is still insufficient. Alpine lotic systems differ in many environmental characteristics from those lower down, for example because above tree line streams drain catchments where terrestrial vegetation is scarce and allochthonous organic input is expected to be small. The main objectives of this study were to examine seasonal variation of autochthonous and allochthonous energetic inputs and their relationship with macroinvertebrate communities in the Po river, an alpine non-glacial stream (NW Italy. For one year, samplings were monthly performed in a homogeneous 100 m stream reach for discharge, autochthonous energy input (benthic chlorophyll a, allochthonous energy input (coarse particulate organic matter, abundance and structure of benthic macroinvertebrate community. Chlorophyll a concentrations were in the range of what reported for other alpine streams, but presented a time-lag with respect to what has been reported for glacial-fed mountain rivers. CPOM amounts were lower than those in lowland, forested streams of the same area but exhibited an intriguing, different seasonal variability, probably reported for the first time, with a maximum in spring and a minimum in winter. We collected 29,950 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 families and 10 orders. Benthic communities were essentially dominated by Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Diptera. Scrapers was the most important FFG, but also Shredders were well represented. Relationships between chlorophyll a concentrations, CPOM availability and macroinvertebrate community characteristics were analysed and discussed considering the existence of different top-down or bottom-up regulation mechanisms. This study confirms that benthic algae constitute an essential resource for macroinvertebrates in alpine streams above the tree line but also underlines the importance of terrestrial organic input, a

  12. Seasonal Greenland Ice Sheet ice flow variations in regions of differing bed and surface topography (United States)

    Sole, A. J.; Livingstone, S. J.; Rippin, D. M.; Hill, J.; McMillan, M.; Quincey, D. J.


    The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to future sea-level rise is uncertain. Observations reveal the important role of basal water in controlling ice-flow to the ice sheet margin. In Greenland, drainage of large volumes of surface meltwater to the ice sheet bed through moulins and hydrofracture beneath surface lakes dominates the subglacial hydrological system and provides an efficient means of moving mass and heat through the ice sheet. Ice surface and bed topography influence where meltwater can access the bed, and the nature of its subsequent flow beneath the ice. However, no systematic investigation into the influence of topographic variability on Greenland hydrology and dynamics exists. Thus, physical processes controlling storage and drainage of surface and basal meltwater, and the way these affect ice flow are not comprehensively understood. This presents a critical obstacle in efforts to predict the future evolution of the GrIS. Here we present high-resolution satellite mapping of the ice-surface drainage network (e.g. lakes, channels and moulins) and measurements of seasonal variations in ice flow in south west Greenland. The region is comprised of three distinct subglacial terrains which vary in terms of the amplitude and wavelength and thus the degree to which basal topography is reflected in the ice sheet surface. We find that the distribution of surface hydrological features is related to the transfer of bed topography to the ice sheet surface. For example, in areas of thinner ice and high bed relief, moulins occur more frequently and are more uniformly dispersed, indicating a more distributed influx of surface-derived meltwater to the ice sheet bed. We investigate the implications of such spatial variations in surface hydrology on seasonal ice flow rates.

  13. Seasonal Variation in Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Photoreactivity within a Small Sub-arctic Stream. (United States)

    Guerard, J.; Osborne, R.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex heterogeneous mixture, ubiquitous to all natural surface waters, uniquely composed of source inputs specific to spatial, temporal, and ecological circumstances. In arctic and sub-arctic regions, elucidating DOM composition and reactivity is complicated by seasonal variations. These include changes in productivity and source inputs to the water column, as well as winter overflow events that may contribute allochthonous organic material. DOM from a small boreal stream in a watershed of discontinuous permafrost in the Goldstream Valley of interior Alaska was isolated by solid-phase extraction (PPL) at multiple points during the year - late spring, late summer, and in the winter during an active overflow event. Compositional characteristics of each of the isolates were characterized by SPR-W5-WATERGATE 1H NMR spectroscopy, specific UV-Vis absorbance, and excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and compared against end-member reference DOM isolates. Kinetics of photobleaching experiments reveal the influence of compositional differences among the isolated DOMs on their chemical reactivity, and offer insight into potential differences in their source materials and ecological function throughout the year. Photobleaching studies were conducted using a variety of reactive species quenchers or sensitizers in order to assess susceptibility of oxidative transformation mechanisms on the different DOM isolates, which were then analyzed by 1H NMR, UV-Vis degradation kinetics, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of fluorescence EEMs. Better understanding of the seasonal variations of boreal DOM character and function on a molecular level is critical to assessing alterations in its ecological role and cycling in the face of current and future ecosystem perturbations in arctic and sub-arctic regions.

  14. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

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    X. Lan


    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  15. Seasonal Variation of Terrestrial Water Storage in Yunnan Province Inferred from GPS Vertical Observations

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    HE Siyuan


    Full Text Available In response to the mass redistribution on the surface of the earth,crustal vertical displacements are deformed in solid elastic earth,which can be recorded by continuous GPS.With GPS vertical observations at 47 stations from crustal movement observation network of China (CMONOC in and around Yunnan province,we explore the feasibility analysis of using the data to infer the variation of water storage.Simulation experiments are conducted by using GLDAS (global land data assimilation system Noah hydrological model,whose annual amplitude is referred as real signals.We used the GLDAS annual amplitude to calculate the vertical displacements,and combined the displacements with random errors to constitute simulated vertical displacements.The simulated vertical displacements are then converted to variation of water storage,which is compared with the original GLDAS water storage.We performed 1000 simulated experiments to evaluate robustness of the method,and it is evident that the variation of water storage could be effectively obtained by means of the vertical observations at the 47 CMONOC stations.Therefore,we investigated the variation of water storage over a period from 2010 to 2014.Results inferred from GPS data show obvious spatial and temporal distribution:the seasonal water in the southwestern mountain is much larger than that in eastern plain;the water storage reaches the maximum in October (after summer and the minimum in April (after winter;a rate of 20 mm/a in total water storage in Yunnan province is presented during 2010-2014.The comparison between GPS-inferred water storage and GRACE,GLDAS and TRMM results showed good consistency in spatial and temporal distribution,indicating that CMONNOC GPS stations could be used as independent measurement to estimate terrestrial water storage changes during the gap between GRACE and future GRACE Follow-on missions.

  16. Characterization of road runoff with regard to seasonal variations, particle size distribution and the correlation of fine particles and pollutants. (United States)

    Hilliges, R; Endres, M; Tiffert, A; Brenner, E; Marks, T


    Urban runoff is known to transport a significant pollutant load consisting of e.g. heavy metals, salts and hydrocarbons. Interactions between solid and dissolved compounds, proper understanding of particle size distribution, dissolved pollutant fractions and seasonal variations is crucial for the selection and development of appropriate road runoff treatment devices. Road runoff at an arterial road in Augsburg, Germany, has been studied for 3.5 years. A strong seasonal variation was observed, with increased heavy metal concentrations with doubled and tripled median concentrations for heavy metals during the cold season. Correlation analysis showed that de-icing salt is not the only factor responsible for increased pollutant concentrations in winter. During the cold period, the fraction of dissolved metals was lower compared to the warm season. In road dust, the highest metal concentrations were measured for fine particles. Metals in road runoff were found to show a significant correlation to fine particles SS63 (removal rates.

  17. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Magalhães


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200µm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 ± 0.1 to 39.2 ± 1.8 (mean ± standard deviation and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters.O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a variação sazonal na estrutura da comunidade dos copépodos durante os meses de julho, setembro e novembro de 2003 (período seco e janeiro, março e maio de 2004 (período chuvoso no estuário do Curuçá, Norte do Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas nas marés de quadratura com auxílio de uma rede deplâncton com 200µm de abertura de malha, rebocada por meio de uma pequena embarcação a motor. As medidas de condutividade da água foram realizadas in situ utilizando-se um condutivímetro eletrônico e a salinidade foi posteriormente obtida através da transformação dos valores de condutividade. Os valores de salinidade variaram sazonalmente de 7, 2 ± 0, 1a 39, 2 ± 1, 8 (média ± desvio padr

  18. Arctic and Antarctic diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo from multiyear Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements


    Wang, Xianwei; Zender, Charles S


    This study analyzes diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo at four Baseline Surface Radiation Network stations in the Arctic and Antarctica from 2003 to 2008 to elucidate similarities and differences in snow albedo diurnal cycles across geographic zones and to assess how diurnal changes in snow albedo affect the surface energy budget. At the seasonal scale, the daily albedo for the perennial snow at stations South Pole and Georg von Neumayer in Antarctica has a similar symmetric varia...

  19. The activity of glutathione S-transferase in hepatopancreas of Procambarus clarkii: seasonal variations and the influence of environmental pollutants. (United States)

    Nies, E; Almar, M M; Hermenegildo, C; Monsalve, E; Romero, F J


    1. The glutathione S-transferase activity in hepatopancreas of the American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii after 15 days' acclimatization in tap water aquaria was measured in specimens collected monthly for a whole year, and shows seasonal variation. 2. Previous data on the environmental pollution of Lake Albufera suggest a possible correlation with the activity tested in the different seasons of the year considering the results of non-acclimatized animals.

  20. Seasonal variation, sources and gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Guo, Pengran; Zhang, Qian; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lan; Mu, Dehai


    Air samples were collected weekly at an urban site and a suburban site in Guangzhou City, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning, origins and sources. The concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs (particle + gas) were 129.9 ± 73.1 ng m -3 at the urban site and 120.4 ± 48.5 ng m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the urban and suburban sites. Seasonal variations of PAH concentrations at the two sampling sites were similar, with higher levels in the winter that gradually decreased to the lowest levels in the summer. The average concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs in the winter samples were approximately three times higher than those of the summer samples because in the summer local emissions dominated, and in the winter the contribution from outside sources or transported PAHs is increased. The plot of logK p versus logP L 0 for the data sets of summer and winter season samples had significantly different slopes at both sampling sites. The slopes for the winter samples were steeper than those for the summer samples. It was also observed that gas/particle partitioning of PAHs showed different characteristics depending on air parcel trajectories. Steeper slopes were obtained for an air parcel that traveled across the continent to the sampling site from the northern or northeastern sector, whereas shallower slopes were obtained for air masses that traveled across the sea from the southern or eastern sector. Diagnostic ratio analytical results imply that the origins of PAHs were mainly from petroleum combustion and coal/biomass burning. The anthracene/phenanthrene and benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios in the winter were significantly lower than those in the summer, which indicate that there might be long-range transported PAH input to Guangzhou in

  1. Seasonal Variation in Blood Pressure in 162,135 Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Hermann, Julia M; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Dost, Axel; Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Kiess, Wieland; Schöfl, Christof; Holl, Reinhard W


    Seasonal variation in blood pressure (BP) has been observed in different populations. However, only few studies have focused on BP seasonality in diabetic patients. This study examined the seasonal patterns in BP in 62,589 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in 99,546 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the German/Austrian Diabetes Follow-up Registry. Adjusted mean BP values revealed seasonal cycles of 12 months, with higher BP in colder months. Using harmonic regression models, the estimated systolic BP difference throughout the year was 2.28/2.48 mm Hg in T1DM/T2DM (both Ptypes of diabetes. Correlations between BP and potentially related factors such as outdoor temperature indicated that reasons underlying BP seasonality are likely to be complex and vary by subgroup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Multiscale analysis of rainfall over France in a climate scenario: Importance of seasonal variations (United States)

    Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice; Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia


    As a preliminary attempt to apply multifractal techniques to climate model simulations, Royer et al (2008) have analyzed the temporal scaling of daily rainfall time series over France simulated by the CNRM-CM3 coupled climate model in an IPCC scenario (SRES) A2 over the period 1860-2100. The scaling variability of the simulated daily rainfall, quantified with the "universal multifractal" formalism by means of a few relevant multifractal exponents characterizing the intermittency and multifractality of the field as determined by the Double Trace Moment (DTM), have shown a scaling range extending from one day to more than 16 days. Though opposite trends found in the evolution of the intermittency and multifractality exponents tend to have compensating effects on the evolution of rainfall extremes, the dominant effect of the increasing intermittency leads to expect an effective enhancement of rainfall extremes for the next hundred years. In this presentation, the analysis is extended by taking into consideration the seasonal effects. Comparison of the different periods shows that in winter there is rather little change in the two parameters, except in the southern part of France. In summer however, though the geographical patterns remain rather stable, a large and systematic evolution can be seen between the successive time spans, with an increase of multifractality and a decrease of intermittency over the 21st century. This new analysis shows that the overall trends found previously in analyzing the precipitation series over the whole year are mainly produced by the variations during the summer season. The very differentiated seasonal evolution in the response of precipitation to climate change, highligh that it is necessary to take into account a seasonal evolution of the multifractal parameters for characterizing the scaling properties of the rainfall fields. In particular the changes in the scaling properties of precipitation seem to be more prominent during

  3. Chlorophyll fluorescence tracks seasonal variations of photosynthesis from leaf to canopy in a temperate forest. (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Yongguang; Heskel, Mary A; Lu, Xiaoliang; Munger, J William; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu


    Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R 2  = 0.73, 0.77, and 0.86 at leaf, canopy, and satellite scales, respectively; P < 0.0001). We developed a model to estimate GPP from the tower-based measurement of SIF and leaf-level ChlF parameters. The estimation of GPP from this model agreed well with flux tower observations of GPP (R 2  = 0.68; P < 0.0001), demonstrating the potential of SIF for modeling GPP. At the leaf scale, we found that leaf F q '/F m ', the fraction of absorbed photons that are used for photochemistry for a light-adapted measurement from a pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer, was the best leaf fluorescence parameter to correlate with canopy SIF yield (SIF/APAR, R 2  = 0.79; P < 0.0001). We also found that canopy SIF and SIF-derived GPP (GPP SIF ) were strongly correlated to leaf-level biochemistry and canopy structure, including chlorophyll content (R 2  = 0.65 for canopy GPP SIF and chlorophyll content; P < 0.0001), leaf area index (LAI) (R 2  = 0.35 for canopy GPP SIF and LAI; P < 0.0001), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R 2  = 0.36 for

  4. Seasonal variation in chemistry, but not morphology, in roots of Quercus robur growing in different soil types. (United States)

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Rawlik, Katarzyna; Jagodziński, Andrzej M


    Patterns of root traits among different root orders and their variation across seasons are of considerable importance for soil resource acquisition and partitioning in forest ecosystems. We evaluated whether morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits varied among root orders of Quercus robur (L.) sampled across spring, summer and fall seasons and growing in two different soil types with contrasting site fertility. We found no consistent differences in root diameter and specific root length in relation to soil type or growing season. There was, however, a strong seasonal variation in patterns of nitrogen (N) concentration among root orders. During spring and summer, N concentration was highest in the most distal, absorptive portion of the root system. At the end of the growing season, we observed a sharp decline in the N concentration of these lower-order, absorptive roots and an increase in N concentration of the higher-order, transport roots. The specific mechanisms driving the seasonally changing N concentration remain unclear but are likely related to different functions of lower-order roots for absorption and higher-order roots for structure and storage. Future work should identify how common the observed seasonal changes in N concentration are across species and determine what specific environmental cues plants or roots use to trigger shifts in resource allocation within the root branching hierarchy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Seasonal variation in adult hip disease secondary to osteoarthritis and developmental dysplasia of the hip. (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Ritter, Merrill A; Davis, Kenneth E; Loder, Randall T


    To determine if there was a seasonal variation in adults undergoing total hip arthroplasty for end stage hip disease due to osteoarthritis (OA) or sequelae of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The total hip registry from the author's institution for the years 1969 to 2013 was reviewed. The month of birth, age, gender, and ethnicity was recorded. Differences between number of births observed and expected in the winter months (October through February) and non-winter mo (March through September) were analyzed with the χ 2 test. Detailed temporal variation was mathematically assessed using cosinor analysis. There were 7792 OA patients and 60 DDH patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. There were more births than expected in the winter months for both the DDH ( P < 0.0001) and OA ( P = 0.0052) groups. Cosinor analyses demonstrated a peak date of birth on 1 st October. These data demonstrate an increased prevalence of DDH and OA in those patients born in winter.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Solar Ultra Violet Radiation and Early Mortality in Extremely Preterm Infants. (United States)

    Salas, Ariel A; Smith, Kelly A; Rodgers, Mackenzie D; Phillips, Vivien; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam


    Vitamin D production during pregnancy promotes fetal lung development, a major determinant of infant survival after preterm birth. Because vitamin D synthesis in humans is regulated by solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, we hypothesized that seasonal variation in solar UVB doses during fetal development would be associated with variation in neonatal mortality rates. This cohort study included infants born alive with gestational age (GA) between 23 and 28 weeks gestation admitted to a neonatal unit between 1996 and 2010. Three infant cohort groups were defined according to increasing intensities of solar UVB doses at 17 and 22 weeks gestation. The primary outcome was death during the first 28 days after birth. Outcome data of 2,319 infants were analyzed. Mean birth weight was 830 ± 230 g and median gestational age was 26 weeks. Mortality rates were significantly different across groups (p = 0.04). High-intensity solar UVB doses were associated with lower mortality when compared with normal intensity solar UVB doses (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91; p = 0.01). High-intensity solar UVB doses during fetal development seem to be associated with risk reduction of early mortality in preterm infants. Prospective studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Seasonal variation in aragonite saturation in surface waters of Puget Sound – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Pelletier


    Full Text Available A pilot study of sampling, using monthly marine flights over spatially distributed stations, was conducted with the aim to characterize the carbonate system in Puget Sound over a full year-long period. Surface waters of Puget Sound were found to be under-saturated with respect to aragonite during October–March, and super-saturated during April–September. Highest pCO2 and lowest pH occurred during the corrosive October–March period. Lowest pCO2 and highest pH occurred during the super-saturated April–September period. The monthly variations in pCO2 , pH, and aragonite saturation state closely followed the variations in monthly average chlorophyll a. Super-saturated conditions during April–September are likely strongly influenced by photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during the phytoplankton growing season. The relationship between phytoplankton production, the carbonate system, and aragonite saturation state suggests that long-term trends in eutrophication processes may contribute to trends in ocean acidification in Puget Sound

  8. Seasonal variations in the growth of anchovy larvae (Engraulis anchoita on the Argentine coastal shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Leonarduzzi


    Full Text Available Age and growth rates of the anchovy larvae (Engraulis anchoita in Argentine waters were estimated by analysing daily growth increments in sagittal otoliths under light microscope. The samples were collected during 2000 on the Argentine coastal shelf using a Bongo net. A total of 251 larvae were analysed (size range 3.5 to 12.2 mm standard length. Length-at-age and standard length-otolith radius relationships were best described by linear models. We put forward the hypothesis of differential larval growth in anchovy in relation to seasonality. Mean growth rates at four days before capture were determined by back-calculation and analysed in relation to temperature. The growth rate values obtained from the linear growth models were 0.51 mm day-1 (spring, 0.41 mm day-1 (summer and 0.42 mm day-1 (autumn. Significant variations were detected between spring and summer and between spring and autumn. These variations do not seem to be associated with a thermal influence.

  9. Seasonal variations of Saanen goat milk composition and the impact of climatic conditions. (United States)

    Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Tomasevic, Igor B; Miloradovic, Zorana N; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Miocinovic, Jelena B; Jovanovic, Snezana T


    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of climatic conditions and their impact on seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk produced over a period of 4 years. Lactation period (early, mid and late) and year were considered as factors that influence physico-chemical composition of milk. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was calculated between the physico-chemical characteristics of milk (fat, proteins, lactose, non-fat dry matter, density, freezing point, pH, titrable acidity) and climatic condition parameters (air temperature, temperature humidity index-THI, solar radiation duration, relative humidity). Results showed that all physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk varied significantly throughout the lactation period and years. The decrease of fat, protein, non-fat dry matter and lactose content in goat milk during the mid-lactation period was more pronounced than was previously reported in the literature. The highest values for these characteristics were recorded in the late lactation period. Observed variations were explained by negative correlation between THI and the physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk. This indicated that Saanen goats were very prone to heat stress, which implied the decrease of physico-chemical characteristics during hot summers.

  10. Seasonal Variation and Sources of Dissolved Nutrients in the Yellow River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Gong


    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the economy in China has caused dramatic growth in the industrial and agricultural development in the Yellow River (YR watershed. The hydrology of the YR has changed dramatically due to the climate changes and water management practices, which have resulted in a great variation in the fluxes of riverine nutrients carried by the YR. To study these changes dissolved nutrients in the YR were measured monthly at Lijin station in the downstream region of the YR from 2002 to 2004. This study provides detailed information on the nutrient status for the relevant studies in the lower YR and the Bohai Sea. The YR was enriched in nitrate (average 314 μmol·L−1 with a lower concentration of dissolved silicate (average 131 μmol·L−1 and relatively low dissolved phosphate (average 0.35 μmol·L−1. Nutrient concentrations exhibited substantial seasonal and yearly variations. The annual fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, and silicate in 2004 were 5.3, 2.5, and 4.2 times those in 2002, respectively, primarily due to the increase in river discharge. The relative contributions of nutrient inputs to nitrogen in the YR were: wastewater > fertilizer > atmospheric deposition > soil; while to phosphorus were: wastewater > fertilizer > soil > atmospheric deposition. The ratios of N, P and Si suggest that the YR at Lijin is strongly P-limited with respect to potential phytoplankton growth.

  11. Seasonal variations in the equatorial thermospheric wind measured at Arequipa, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, M.A.; Merriwether, J.W.; Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A.


    Studies have been carried out Arequipa, Peru, of the seasonal variations in the thermospheric winds at moderate solar flux levels and geomagnetic activity. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the doppler shifts in the 630.0 nm nightglow emission line from March to August 1983 and from April to October 1988 have yielded monthly-average meridional winds that are nearly zero (<50 m/s) and possible fluctuating in direction through much of the night but develop a southward flow at 50 - 100 m/s in the early and the late night from May onward. The average zonal winds are eastward throughout the night, reaching peak velocities before local midnight and then decreasing. The peak velocities increase to a maximum around the June solstice. The winds are generally stronger in 1988 than in 1983, even thought the solar EUV fluxes are comparable fro both years. Comparison of the present results with earlier satellite measurements, as embodied in the Horizontal Wind Model of Hedin et al., reveals generally satisfactory agreement at the equinox and June solstice, except for the June 1988 period. NCAR Therospheric General Circulation Model, calculated for similar solar flux levels, yields meridional and zonal wind variations which exhibit the same temporal behaviors but generally smaller values than the present measurements.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variation of lightning activity over southern Africa and correlation with European whistler observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Collier


    Full Text Available Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS data have been analysed to ascertain the statistical pattern of lightning occurrence over southern Africa. The diurnal and seasonal variations are mapped in detail. The highest flash rates (107.2 km-2 y-1 occur close to the equator but maxima are also found over Madagascar (32.1 km-2 y-1 and South Africa (26.4 km-2 y-1. A feature of the statistics is a relatively steady contribution from over the ocean off the east coast of South Africa that appears to be associated with the Agulhas current. Lightning statistics are of intrinsic meteorological interest but they also relate to the occurrence of whistlers in the conjugate region. Whistler observations are made at Tihany, Hungary. Statistics reveal that the period of most frequent whistler occurrence does not correspond to the maximum in lightning activity in the conjugate region but is strongly influenced by ionospheric illumination and other factors. The whistler/flash ratio, R, shows remarkable variations during the year and has a peak that is narrowly confined to February and March.

  13. Seasonal variation in nutrient utilization shapes gut microbiome structure and function in wild giant pandas. (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Wang, Xiao; Ding, Yun; Hu, Yibo; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Ma, Shuai; Yan, Li; Zhu, Lifeng; Wei, Fuwen


    Wild giant pandas use different parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and stems) and different bamboo species at different times of the year. Their usage of bamboo can be classified temporally into a distinct leaf stage, shoot stage and transition stage. An association between this usage pattern and variation in the giant panda gut microbiome remains unknown. Here, we found associations using a gut metagenomic approach and nutritional analyses whereby diversity of the gut microbial community in the leaf and shoot stages was significantly different. Functional metagenomic analysis showed that in the leaf stage, bacteria species over-represented genes involved in raw fibre utilization and cell cycle control. Thus, raw fibre utilization by the gut microbiome was guaranteed during the nutrient-deficient leaf stage by reinforcing gut microbiome robustness. During the protein-abundant shoot stage, the functional capacity of the gut microbiome expanded to include prokaryotic secretion and signal transduction activity, suggesting active interactions between the gut microbiome and host. These results illustrate that seasonal nutrient variation in wild giant pandas substantially influences gut microbiome composition and function. Nutritional interactions between gut microbiomes and hosts appear to be complex and further work is needed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Seasonal variation in the distribution and isotopic composition of phytoplankton in an amazon floodplain lake, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G


    To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalao, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ 1 3C and δ 1 5N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 μm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant. The fraction <10 μm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ3 13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1% -34.0%), whereas the δ 1 5N values showed strong variability (15.6% 2.4%), which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level.

  15. Seasonal variations of the upper ocean salinity stratification in the Tropics (United States)

    Maes, Christophe; O'Kane, Terence J.


    In comparison to the deep ocean, the upper mixed layer is a region typically characterized by substantial vertical gradients in water properties. Within the Tropics, the rich variability in the vertical shapes and forms that these structures can assume through variation in the atmospheric forcing results in a differential effect in terms of the temperature and salinity stratification. Rather than focusing on the strong halocline above the thermocline, commonly referred to as the salinity barrier layer, the present study takes into account the respective thermal and saline dependencies in the Brunt-Väisälä frequency (N2) in order to isolate the specific role of the salinity stratification in the layers above the main pycnocline. We examine daily vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from an ocean reanalysis over the period 2001-2007. We find significant seasonal variations in the Brunt-Väisälä frequency profiles are limited to the upper 300 m depth. Based on this, we determine the ocean salinity stratification (OSS) to be defined as the stabilizing effect (positive values) due to the haline part of N2 averaged over the upper 300 m. In many regions of the tropics, the OSS contributes 40-50% to N2 as compared to the thermal stratification and, in some specific regions, exceeds it for a few months of the seasonal cycle. Away from the tropics, for example, near the centers of action of the subtropical gyres, there are regions characterized by the permanent absence of OSS. In other regions previously characterized with salinity barrier layers, the OSS obviously shares some common variations; however, we show that where temperature and salinity are mixed over the same depth, the salinity stratification can be significant. In addition, relationships between the OSS and the sea surface salinity are shown to be well defined and quasilinear in the tropics, providing some indication that in the future, analyses that consider both satellite surface salinity

  16. Seasonal variation of the wildlife fauna run over on the road MG 354, Southern Minas Gerais – Brazil


    Alex Bager; Clarissa Alves da Rosa; André Luis Pracucci Gomes dos Santos


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the seasonal variation of wildlife animals run over on 13km of the road MG 354, Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Thirty-six monitorings were carried out for one year using a bicycle (20km/h) to sample amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals run over. We categorized individuals with more and less than 500g to estimate the impacts of running over with regard to the size of the animals and evaluated the seasonal variation in the running over rates (individuals...

  17. Long-term and seasonal variations in CO 2 : linkages to catchment alkalinity generation (United States)

    Norton, Stephen A.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Kahl, Jeffrey S.; Robbins Church, M.

    As atmospheric emissions of S have declined in the Northern Hemisphere, there has been an expectation of increased pH and alkalinity in streams believed to have been acidified by excess S and N. Many streams and lakes have not recovered. Evidence from East Bear Brook in Maine, USA and modelling with the groundwater acid-base model MAGIC (Cosby et al. 1985a,b) indicate that seasonal and yearly variations in soil PCO2 are adequate to enhance or even reverse acid-base (alkalinity) changes anticipated from modest decreases of SO4 in surface waters. Alkalinity is generated in the soil by exchange of H+ from dissociation of H2CO3, which in turn is derived from the dissolving of soil CO2. The variation in soil PCO2 produces an alkalinity variation of up to 15 meq L-1 in stream water. Detecting and relating increases in alkalinity to decreases in stream SO4 are significantly more difficult in the short term because of this effect. For example, modelled alkalinity recovery at Bear Brook due to a decline of 20 meq SO4 L-1 in soil solution is compensated by a decline from 0.4 to 0.2% for soil air PCO2. This compensation ability decays over time as base saturation declines. Variable PCO2 has less effect in more acidic soils. Short-term decreases of PCO2 below the long-term average value produce short-term decreases in alkalinity, whereas short-term increases in PCO2 produce short-term alkalization. Trend analysis for detecting recovery of streams and lakes from acidification after reduced atmospheric emissions will require a longer monitoring period for statistical significance than previously appreciated.

  18. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang


    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  19. Life under ice: Investigating microbial-related biogeochemical cycles in the seasonally-covered Great Lake Onego, Russia (United States)

    Thomas, Camille; Ariztegui, Daniel; Victor, Frossard; Emilie, Lyautey; Marie-Elodie, Perga; Life Under Ice Scientific Team


    The Great European lakes Ladoga and Onego are important resources for Russia in terms of drinking water, energy, fishing and leisure. Because their northern location (North of Saint Petersburgh), these lakes are usually ice-covered during winter. Due to logistical reasons, their study has thus been limited to the ice-free periods, and very few data are available for the winter season. As a matter of fact, comprehension of large lakes behaviour in winter is very limited as compared to the knowledge available from small subpolar lakes or perennially ice-covered polar lakes. To tackle this issue, an international consortium of scientists has gathered around the « life under ice » project to investigate physical, chemical and biogeochemical changes during winter in Lake Onego. Our team has mainly focused on the characterization and quantification of biological processes, from the water column to the sediment, with a special focus on methane cycling and trophic interactions. A first « on-ice » campaign in March 2015 allowed the sampling of a 120 cm sedimentary core and the collection of water samples at multiple depths. The data resulting from this expedition will be correlated to physical and chemical parameters collected simultaneously. A rapid biological activity test was applied immediately after coring in order to test for microbial activity in the sediments. In situ adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) measurements were carried out in the core and taken as an indication of living organisms within the sediments. The presence of ATP is a marker molecule for metabolically active cells, since it is not known to form abiotically. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) were extracted from these samples, and quantified. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed on archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes used to reconstruct phylogenies, as well as on their transcripts. Moreover, functional genes involved in the methane and nitrogen cycles

  20. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation. (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella


    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  1. Latitudinal variation in seasonal activity and mortality in ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta). (United States)

    Sperry, Jinelle H; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Weatherhead, Patrick J


    The ecology of ectotherms should be particularly affected by latitude because so much of their biology is temperature dependent. Current latitudinal patterns should also be informative about how ectotherms will have to modify their behavior in response to climate change. We used data from a total of 175 adult black ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) radio-tracked in Ontario, Illinois, and Texas, a latitudinal distance of >1500 km, to test predictions about how seasonal patterns of activity and mortality should vary with latitude. Despite pronounced differences in temperatures among study locations, and despite ratsnakes in Texas not hibernating and switching from diurnal to nocturnal activity in the summer, seasonal patterns of snake activity were remarkably similar during the months that snakes in all populations were active. Rather than being a function of temperature, activity may be driven by the timing of reproduction, which appears similar among populations. Contrary to the prediction that mortality should be highest in the most active population, overall mortality did not follow a clinal pattern. Winter mortality did increase with latitude, however, consistent with temperature limiting the northern distribution of ratsnakes. This result was opposite that found in the only previous study of latitudinal variation in winter mortality in reptiles, which may be a consequence of whether or not the animals exhibit true hibernation. Collectively, these results suggest that, at least in the northern part of their range, ratsnakes should be able to adjust easily to, and may benefit from, a warmer climate, although climate-based changes to the snakes' prey or habitat, for example, could alter that prediction.

  2. Seasonal variation of fatty acids from drip water in Heshang Cave, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiuli; Wang Canfa; Huang Junhua; Hu Chaoyong; Xie Shucheng


    Research highlights: → A 2-year monitoring to investigate the seasonal variation of fatty acids in cave drip water. → Microbes are the dominant source for fatty acids in drip water. → The relative abundance of mono-unsaturated responds negatively with external air temperature. - Abstract: In order to investigate how lipids in cave water respond to seasonal climate change, drip water samples were collected from 2006 to 2008 in Heshang Cave, central China for fatty acid analysis. These lipids are abundant in the drip water. Their compositions are dominated by lower-molecular-weight nC16:0, nC18:0 and nC14:0 acids, together with mono-unsaturated nC18:1, nC16:1 and nC14:1. Analysis of one water sample revealed marked differences between the dissolved and particulate fractions. The dissolved fraction contains total fatty acids one order of magnitude higher than that of the particulate fraction. The distributional patterns of the fatty acids suggest that microbes living in the overlying soils and/or groundwater system contribute most fatty acids to the drip water. This 2-a monitoring experiment reveals that the abundance of mono-unsaturated fatty acids relative to the saturated homologues (nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0) relate inversely to the changes of synchronous external air temperature. Higher values occur under cold conditions (winter/spring), while lower values appear in warm intervals (summer). Further studies are needed to elucidate the dynamic processes by which the external temperature affects fatty acids in drip water and to confirm the potential application of fatty acid ratios such as nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0 in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  3. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton dynamics in Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions (United States)

    Simo-Matchim, Armelle-Galine; Gosselin, Michel; Blais, Marjolaine; Gratton, Yves; Tremblay, Jean-Éric


    We assessed phytoplankton dynamics and its environmental control in four Labrador fjords (Nachvak, Saglek, Okak, and Anaktalak) during summer, early fall and late fall. Primary production and chlorophyll a (chl a) biomass were measured at seven optical depths, including the depth of subsurface chl a maximum (SCM). Phytoplankton abundance, size structure and taxonomy were determined at the SCM. Principal component analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were used to analyze relationships between production, biomass and community composition in relation to environmental variables. We observed a marked seasonal variability, with significant differences in phytoplankton structure and function between summer and fall. Surprisingly, primary production and chl a biomass were not significantly different from one fjord to another. The highest values of primary production (1730 mg C m- 2 day- 1) and chl a biomass (96 mg chl a m- 2) were measured during the summer bloom, and those high values indicate that Labrador fjords are highly productive ecosystems. The summer community showed relatively high abundance of nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm) while the fall community was characterized by low primary production and chl a biomass as well as relatively high abundance of picophytoplankton (< 2 μm). The low value of carbon potentially exported out of the euphotic zone throughout the study (≤ 31% of total primary production) suggests that phytoplankton production was mainly grazed by microzooplankton rather than being exported to greater depths. We observed a mixed assemblage of diatoms and flagellates in summer, whereas the fall community was largely dominated by flagellates. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics were mainly controlled by the strength of the vertical stratification and by the large differences in day length due to the northerly location of Labrador fjords. This study documents for the very first time phytoplankton structure and function in

  4. Seasonal variations in composite riverbank stability in the Lower Jingjiang Reach, China (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Zong, Quanli; Deng, Shanshan; Xu, Quanxi; Lu, Jinyou


    Bank erosion is a key process in a fluvial system in the context of river dynamics and geomorphology. Since the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), the Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR) below the dam has experienced continuous channel degradation, with the phenomenon of bank erosion occurring frequently in local reaches. Therefore it is necessary to quantitatively investigate seasonal variations in the stability of composite riverbanks along the reach in order to better understand the fluvial processes in the reach. Laboratory tests were conducted for the sampled soils at six riverbanks during a field survey, with various bank soil properties being presented for the first time. These test results show that: the cohesive bank soils are relatively loose due to the high water contents of 28.5-40.0% and the low dry densities of 1.31-1.47 tonnes/m3; and the cohesion or angle of internal friction generally decreases with an increase in water content of the cohesive soil. Based on the measured cross-sectional profiles and interpolated hydrological data, the near-bank hydrodynamic conditions and soil parameters of two typical composite riverbanks were then determined during the 2007 hydrological year. An improved method was proposed for calculating the stability at the mode of cantilever failure for the overhanging block of a composite riverbank, and the stability degrees of these two riverbanks were calculated at different stages. These results reveal that: (i) the incipient velocity of the non-cohesive lower bank had a magnitude of 0.4 m/s, less than the mean near-bank velocity of about 1.0 m/s, which led to intensive basal erosion especially during the flood season; (ii) the cohesive upper bank before failure had sufficient strength to resist direct fluvial erosion, but the failed soil mass deposited in the near-bank zone was disintegrated easily with the submerged immersion and was then transported downstream by fluvial entrainment; (iii) the degree of bank

  5. Seasonal variation in grass water content estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS time series in a Mediterranean Fluxnet site (United States)

    Mendiguren, G.; Martín, M. Pilar; Nieto, H.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Jurdao, S.


    for EWT (RRMSE = 24.6 %). Differences in the viewing geometry of the platforms can explain these differences as the portion of vegetation observed by MODIS is larger than when using proximal sensing including the spectral response from scattered trees and its shadows. CWC was better predicted than the other two water content metrics, probably because CWC depends on LAI, that shows a notable seasonal variation in this ecosystem. Strong statistical relationship was found between empirical models using indices sensible to chlorophyll activity (NDVI or EVI which are not directly related to water content) due to the close relationship between LAI, water content and chlorophyll activity in grassland cover, which is not true for other types of vegetation such as forest or shrubs. The empirical methods tested outperformed FMC and CWC products based on radiative transfer model inversion.

  6. Snow Precipitation and Snow Cover Climatic Variability for the Period 1971–2009 in the Southwestern Italian Alps: The 2008–2009 Snow Season Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Fratianni


    Full Text Available Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and homogeneous time series. After a historical research aiming to recover continuous records, three high quality time series of snow precipitation and snow depth recorded in the southwestern Italian Alps were analyzed. The comparison between the climatological indices over the 30 years reference period 1971–2000 and the decade 2000–2009 outlined a general decrease in the amount of snow precipitation, and a shift in the seasonal distribution of the snow precipitation in the most recent period. In the analysis of the last decade snow seasons characteristics, the attention was focused on the heavy snowfalls that occurred in Piedmont during the 2008–2009 snow season: MODerate resolution Imager Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover products were used to evaluate snow cover extension at different times during the snow season, and the results were set in relation to the temperatures.

  7. Decay Functions of Soil Moisture: Implications for Land Cover Controls on Actual Evapotranspiration During the Wet Season of a West-African Savanna (United States)

    Bassiouni, M.; Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.


    The West-African savanna experiences extreme seasonal climate. The role of vegetation and the impact of agriculture on the regional hydrology of these areas are not well understood. A better understanding of such phenomena is crucial, as water resources are becoming unstable and populations dependent on rain-fed agriculture are more vulnerable. This study examines soil moisture dynamics during the 2010 rainy season in the Singou River Basin, Burkina Faso. Volumetric soil water content and meteorological data are collected from seven stations of a wireless sensor network. This network covers representative types of land cover in the watershed including riverbank, wetland, open savanna, agricultural parkland, and forested upland savanna. Vegetation was also surveyed throughout the season. Here, we present parameterizations and exploratory analysis of soil moisture decay functions at each station considered. Results are compared to the seasonal evolution of soil moisture storage, potential evapotranspiration and vegetation density. Preliminary results suggest these soil moisture measurements may be essential to understanding actual evapotranspiration and the hydrological influence of the types of land cover in the watershed over time. These findings contribute to improved modeling of the ecohydrological behavior of the Singou River Basin and up-scaling of the sensor network data for regional water management purposes as part of an integrated research and development project, Info4Dourou.

  8. C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Prabhat, E-mail:; Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail:


    Combination of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues are preferably applied in rice paddy soils to increase the rate of organic matter mineralization and to improve plant growth. However, organic matter addition facilitates methane (CH{sub 4}) emission from rice paddy soil. Mineralization of organic nitrogen (N) increases NO{sub 3}–N concentrations in soil, which are precursors for the formation of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). However, N{sub 2}O is a minor greenhouse gas emitted from submerged rice field and hence is not often considered during calculation of total global warming potential (GWP) during rice cultivation. The hypothesis of this study was that fluxes of N{sub 2}O emissions might be changed after removal of flooded water from rice field and the effect of cover crops on N{sub 2}O emissions in the fallow season might be interesting. However, the effects of N-rich plant residues on N{sub 2}O emission rates in the fallow season and its effect on annual GWP were not studied before. In this experiment, combination of barley (non-leguminous) and hairy vetch (leguminous) biomasses were applied at 9 Mg ha{sup −1} and 27 Mg ha{sup −1} rates in rice paddy soil. Cover crop application significantly increased CH{sub 4} emission flux while decreased N{sub 2}O emissions during rice cultivation. The lowest N{sub 2}O emission was observed in 27 Mg ha{sup −1} cover crop treated plots. Cover crop applications increased N contents in soil aggregates especially in smaller aggregates (< 250 μm), and that proportionately increased the N{sub 2}O emission potentials of these soil aggregates. Fluxes of N{sub 2}O emissions in the fallow season were influenced by the N{sub 2}O emission potentials of soil aggregates and followed opposite trends as those observed during rice cultivation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the doses of cover crop applications for rice cultivation should not be optimized considering only CH{sub 4}, but N{sub 2}O should also be

  9. Seasonal and interannual variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical plantation in China (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Greenberg, James


    Measurements of BVOC emissions, ozone concentration and environmental parameters were carried out from May 2013 to January 2016 in a subtropical Pinus plantation in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system and a gradient technique on an above-canopy tower. In 2013, isoprene comprised 21.2% of total terpenoid emissions, while α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and limonene constituting 51.5%, 2.4%, 9.1%, and 13.0% of total emissions, respectively. Monoterpenes together were the dominant VOCs measured contributing 71.6%. α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and limonene constituted 67.7%, 3.2%, 11.9%, 17.2% of total monoterpene emissions. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions displayed strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions varied with season and were the highest in summer, contributing more than half of the total annual emission, and the lowest emissions were in winter. Evident interannual variations of isoprene, monoterpenes and total BVOCs were observed. Compared to 2013, annual BVOC emissions decreased in 2015, associated with decreases of PAR, Temperature, water vapor, and an increase of all substances in gas, liquid and solid phases in the atmospheric column (e.g., S/Q, the ratio of solar scattered radiation to global radiation). Ozone concentration showed clear diurnal variation with PAR, higher around noon and lower in the early morning and late evening. Generally, there were no evident correlations between ozone concentrations and BVOC emissions, or the vertical gradients of ozone concentrations and BVOC concentrations. Under all sky conditions (including cloudy skies), no strong correlations at a high confidence level or very similar variation patterns were observed between any two following parameters, BVOC emissions

  10. Albedo, Land Cover, and Daytime Surface Temperature Variation Across an Urbanized Landscape (United States)

    Trlica, A.; Hutyra, L. R.; Schaaf, C. L.; Erb, A.; Wang, J. A.


    Land surface albedo is a key parameter controlling the local energy budget, and altering the albedo of built surfaces has been proposed as a tool to mitigate high near-surface temperatures in the urban heat island. However, most research on albedo in urban landscapes has used coarse-resolution data, and few studies have attempted to relate albedo to other urban land cover characteristics. This study provides an empirical description of urban summertime albedo using 30 m remote sensing measurements in the metropolitan area around Boston, Massachusetts, relating albedo to metrics of impervious cover fraction, tree canopy coverage, population density, and land surface temperature (LST). At 30 m spatial resolution, median albedo over the study area (excluding open water) was 0.152 (0.112-0.187). Trends of lower albedo with increasing urbanization metrics and temperature emerged only after aggregating data to 500 m or the boundaries of individual towns, at which scale a -0.01 change in albedo was associated with a 29 (25-35)% decrease in canopy cover, a 27 (24-30)% increase in impervious cover, and an increase in population from 11 to 386 km-2. The most intensively urbanized towns in the region showed albedo up to 0.035 lower than the least urbanized towns, and mean mid-morning LST 12.6°C higher. Trends in albedo derived from 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements were comparable, but indicated a strong contribution of open water at this coarser resolution. These results reveal linkages between albedo and urban land cover character, and offer empirical context for climate resilient planning and future landscape functional changes with urbanization.

  11. Seasonal variations of cadmium and zinc in Arrhenatherum elatius, a perennial grass species from highly contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deram, Annabelle [Institut Lillois d' Ingenierie de la Sante, Universite Droit et Sante de Lille, EA 2690, 42 rue Ambroise Pare, 59120 Loos (France)]. E-mail:; Denayer, Franck-Olivier [Institut Lillois d' Ingenierie de la Sante, Universite Droit et Sante de Lille, EA 2690, 42 rue Ambroise Pare, 59120 Loos (France); Petit, Daniel [Laboratoire de Genetique et Evolution des Populations Vegetales, UPRESA-CNRS 8016, Bat SN2, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq, F59655 France (France); Van Haluwyn, Chantal [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Departement de Botanique, Universite Droit et Sante de Lille, EA 2690, B.P. 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France)


    There is interest in studying bioaccumulation in plants because they form the base of the food chain as well as their potential use in phytoextraction. From this viewpoint, our study deals with the seasonal variation, from January to July, of Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in three metallicolous populations of Arrhenatherum elatius, a perennial grass with a high biomass production. In heavily polluted soils, while Zn bioaccumulation is weak, A. elatius accumulates more Cd than reported gramineous plants, with concentration of up to 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Our results also showed seasonal variations of bioaccumulation, underlying the necessity for in situ studies to specify the date of sampling and also the phenology of the collected plant sample. In our experimental conditions, accumulation is lower in June, leading us to the hypothesis of restriction in heavy metals translocation from roots to aerial parts during seed production. - Cd and Zn bioaccumulation varies seasonally in a perennial grass.

  12. Seasonal variations in the aragonite saturation state in the upper open-ocean waters of the North Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Geun-Ha; Kim, Dongseon; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.


    Seasonal variability of the aragonite saturation state (ΩAR) in the upper (50 m and 100 m depths) North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR algorithm derived from a high-quality carbon data set accurately predicted the ΩAR of evaluation data sets (three time series stations and P02 section) with acceptable uncertainty (<0.1 ΩAR). The algorithm was combined with seasonal climatology data, and the estimated ΩAR varied in the range of 0.4-0.6 in the midlatitude western NPO, with the largest variation found for the tropical eastern NPO. These marked variations were largely controlled by seasonal changes in vertical mixing and thermocline depth, both of which determine the degree of entrainment of CO2-rich corrosive waters from deeper depths. Our MLR-based subsurface ΩAR climatology is complementary to surface climatology based on pCO2 measurements.

  13. Observed Variation in Carbon and Water Exchange Across Crop Types, Seasons, and Years in Un-irrigated Land of the Southern Great Plains (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.; Billesbach, D. P.; Riley, W. J.; Berry, J. A.; Torn, M. S.


    Accurate prediction of the regional responses of carbon and water fluxes to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are parameterized and tested against measurements made in multiple land cover types and over seasonal and inter-annual time scales. In particular, modelers predicting fluxes for un-irrigated agriculture are posed with the additional challenge of characterizing the onset and severity of water stress. We report results from three years of an ongoing series of measurement campaigns that quantify the spatial heterogeneity of land surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Eddy covariance flux measurements were made in pastures and dominant crop types surrounding the US-DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma (36.605 N, 97.485 W). Ancillary measurements included radiation budget, meteorology, soil moisture and temperature, leaf area index, plant biomass, and plant and soil carbon and nitrogen content. Within a given year, the dominant spatial variation in fluxes of carbon, water, and energy are caused by variations of land cover due to the distinct phenology of winter-spring (winter wheat) versus summer crops (e.g., pasture, sorghum, soybeans). Within crop and yearly variations were smaller. In 2002, variations in net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), for three closely spaced winter wheat fields was 10-20%. Variations between years for the same crop types were also large. Net primary production (NPP) of winter wheat in the spring of 2003 versus 2002 increased by a factor of two, while NEE increased by 35%. The large increase in production and NEE are positively correlated with precipitation, integrated over the previous summer-fall periods. We discuss the implications of these results by extracting and comparing factors relevant for parameterization of land surface models and by comparing crop yield with historic variations in yield at the landscape scale.

  14. Seasonal variation in the nitrogen nutrition and carbon assimilation in wild and cultivated Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lötter, D


    Full Text Available Journal of Botany Seasonal variation in the nitrogen nutrition and carbon assimilation in wild and cultivated Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea) Daleen LötterA,B, Emma Archer van GarderenA,D, Mark Tadross...

  15. Seasonal variation in population density and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.


    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria was examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of (/sup 14/C)glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of (/sup 14/C)glucose was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more (/sup 14/C)glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume. The authors consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature.

  16. Seasonal and inter-annual sea surface height variations of the northern Indian Ocean from the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Snaith, H.; Challenor, P.; Guymer, H.T.

    variations reflect the dominant seasonal signal such as the coastal currents, the upwelling zones along Somalia, Arabia and west coast of India, the Great Whirl and Southern Gyre, and eddies in the Bay of Bengal. Temporal evolution of the coastal circulation...

  17. MDA and GSH-Px activity in transition dairy cows under seasonal variations and their relationship with reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colakoglu Hatice Esra


    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and malondialdehyde (MDA levels under seasonal variations in dairy cows during transition period, and to assess the relationship between chosen reproductive parameters, GSH-Px, and MDA.

  18. Sensitivity of inter-annual variation of CO2 seasonal cycle at Mauna Loa to atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Shoichi; Murayama, Shohei; Higuchi, Kaz


    Origins of the inter-annual variations of the Mauna Loa atmospheric CO 2 seasonal cycle related to atmospheric transport were examined using a global atmospheric transport model with prescribed land biota CO 2 source functions at 11 land sections. On average, the seasonal variation of atmospheric CO 2 at Mauna Loa is influenced mostly by the Siberian CO 2 flux, followed by temperate Asia and North America. The inter-annual variability of the seasonal cycle is caused mainly by the inter-annual variation in the transport of the Siberian signal to Mauna Loa. The characteristics of the simulated seasonal cycle and its inter-annual variability at Mauna Loa are found to be sensitive to the quality of the wind data used to drive the transport model. Implication of this result is that for studying a long-term variations of atmospheric transport a meteorological data set for driving an atmospheric transport model should be obtained from the same production procedure

  19. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.


    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation

  20. Impact of seasonal variation on Escherichia coli concentrations in the riverbed sediments in the Apies River, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, ALK


    Full Text Available quality of riverbed sediments in the Apies River, Gauteng Province, South Africa, using Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator organism and to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on its abundance. Weekly samples were collected at 10 sampling sites...

  1. Seasonal and spatial variations in heterotrophic nanoflagellate and bacteria abundances in sediments of a freshwater littoral zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starink, Mathieu; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Cappenberg, T.E.


    We studied seasonal variation in heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and bacterial, densities at different depths in the sediment of two freshwater littoral stations. Station 1 was in a reed bed of Phragmites australis; station 2 was outside the reed zone in open water. Benthic HNAN abundances

  2. Seasonal variation in population density and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.


    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria was examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of [ 14 C]glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of [ 14 C]glucose was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more [ 14 C]glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume. The authors consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature

  3. Time trends (1993-1997) and seasonal variation in body mass index and waist circumference in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T L S; Seidell, J C


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the time trend and seasonal variation in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. DESIGN: Continuous monitoring health survey carried out between 1 June 1993 and 31 May 1997. SUBJECTS: A total of 8,186 men and 9,638 women aged 20-59 y from three towns in the Netherlands.

  4. Single season effects of mixed-species cover crops on tomato health (cultivar Celebrity) in multi-state field trials (United States)

    Cover crop use can help mitigate the deleterious effects of common cropping practices (e.g., tillage) and is, therefore, an important component of soil health maintenance. While known to be beneficial in the long term, the short-term effects of cover crops, specifically mixed-species cover crops in ...

  5. Long-Term and Seasonal Variation of Suprathermal O2+ and Mass-28+ Ions at Saturn (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; DiFabio, R. D.; Krimigis, S. M.


    Two suprathermal singly-charged molecular ion species exhibit long-term temporal variations in Saturn's near-equatorial magnetosphere at ~4-20 Rs from 2004 to 2012. These ~83-167 keV/e minor heavy ions measured by the Cassini Charge-Energy-Mass Spectrometer, CHEMS, at ~32 and ~28 amu/e are identified as O2+ and 28M+ (Mass-28+, possibly C2H5+, HCNH+, N2+, CO+, and/or Si+), respectively. Their partial density temporal profiles differ from each other and differ relative to the dominant water group ions, W+ (O+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+). O2+, initially the second most abundant heavy ion species relative to W+, has decreased to much lower values. The relative O2+ and 28M+ partial densities declined as ring plane illumination decreased approaching Saturn's equinox in mid-2009. O2+/W+, initially ~4-5%, steadily declined by a factor of ~6 until near equinox. 28M+/W+, initially ~6 times lower than O2+/W+, declined by a factor of ~2 in a manner similar to O2+/W+ until early-2007, over 2 years before equinox. After decline, both ratios remained at consistently low levels until mid-2011, about 2 years after equinox, when O2+/W+ began recovering and 28M+/W+ did not. The main ring atmosphere/ionosphere is the most likely primary source for the O2+. Titan, Enceladus, Rhea, and the E-ring are possible candidate sources for the 28M+. To our knowledge, no temporal/seasonal 28M+ source variation in Saturn's magnetosphere has been anticipated or predicted. Transition from higher/declining to lower/persistent levels may indicate multiple competing components for both ion groups, that is, one component, probably ring-insolation related, is initially dominant and decreases gradually to be subsequently masked by another lower-level component.

  6. Black carbon at a coastal Antarctic station (Syowa Station: seasonal variation and transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara


    Full Text Available Measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC was carried out at Syowa Station Antarctica (69゜00′S, 39゜35′E from February 2004 until January 2007. The BC concentration at Syowa Station ranged from below detection to 176 ng m^. Higher BC concentrations were observed frequently from April until October. Increase of BC concentration may be associated with poleward flow due to the approach of a cyclone and or blocking event during winter-spring. The BC-rich air masses traveled through the lower troposphere from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans to Syowa (Antarctic coast. During the summer (November-February, the BC concentration showed a diurnal variation together with surface wind speed and increased in the presence of katabatic wind from the Antarctic continent. Considering the low BC source strength over the Antarctic continent, the higher BC concentration in the continental air (katabatic wind might be caused by long range transport of BC via the free troposphere from mid- and low- latitudes. The seasonal variation of BC at Syowa Station had a maximum in July-September, while at the other coastal stations (Halley, Neumayer, and Ferraz and a continental station (Amundsen-Scott, the maximum occurred in October. This difference may result from different transport pathways, significant contribution of source regions and scavenging of BC by precipitation during the transport from the source regions. During the austral summer, long-range transport of BC via the free troposphere is likely to make an important contribution to the ambient BC concentration along the Antarctic coasts.

  7. Seasonal Variation of Total Mercury Burden in the American Alligator (Alligator Mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), Florida (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Dorsey, Jonathan E.; Long, Stephen E.; Schock, Tracey B.; Bowden, John A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.


    Seasonal variation of mercury (Hg) is not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations with great accuracy and correlates to environment impact. However, monitoring these trends in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, bacterial composition) that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms. Here, we utilized an abundant and healthy population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, and assessed Hg burden in whole blood samples over a span of 7 years (2007 2014; n 174) in an effort to assess seasonal variation of total [Hg]. While the majority of this population is assumed healthy, 18 individuals with low body mass indices (BMI, defined in this study) were captured throughout the 7 year sampling period. These individual alligators exhibited [Hg] that were not consistent with the observed overall seasonal [Hg] variation, and were statistically different from the healthy population of alligators. The alligators with low BMI had elevated concentrations of Hg compared to their age/sex/season matched counterparts with normal BMI. Statistically significant differences were found between the winter and spring seasons for animals with normal BMI. The data in this report supports the conclusion that organismal total [Hg] do fluctuate directly with seasonal deposition rates as well as other seasonal environmental parameters, such as average rainfall and prevailing wind direction. This study highlights the unique environment of MINWR to permit annual assessment of apex predators, such as the American alligator, to determine detailed environmental impact of contaminants of concern.

  8. Seasonal and clonal variation in cellulose microfibril orientation during cell wall formation of tracheids in Cryptomeria japonica. (United States)

    Jyske, Tuula; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Iki, Taiichi; Zhang, Chunhua; Jyske, Tuomas K; Abe, Hisashi


    To investigate the biological mechanism by which trees control the changes in microfibril (MF) orientation among secondary cell wall layers of conifer tracheids, we studied seasonal variation in the orientation of newly deposited MFs during tracheid cell wall development in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) trees growing in Central Japan (36°36'N, 140°39'E). Sample blocks were repeatedly collected from four 16-year-old clones of different origins during the growing season of 2010 to investigate the hypotheses that changes in cellulose MF orientation between wall layers exhibited seasonal and clonal differences. The progressive change in the orientation of newly deposited MFs on the primary and secondary cell wall layers of tracheids was detected by field-emission-scanning electron microscopy. Tracheid production and differentiation was studied by light microscopy. We observed a decreasing trend in the orientation of deposited MFs from earlywood to latewood in the S2 and S1 layers, where MFs appeared in a Z-helix. In contrast, no seasonal pattern in the orientation of the MFs in the S-helix was observed. Minor clonal variation was observed in the phenology of tracheid production and differentiation. We concluded that a seasonal decreasing trend in the orientation of the MFs in the Z-helix in S1 and S2 was present, whereas the MFs in other layers exhibited minor random variations. Thus, the orientation of the MFs in S2 was affected by seasonal factors, whereas the MFs in other layers were more intrinsically controlled. The within-ring variations in the MF orientation and thus the resulting average MF angle might also be related to genotypic differences in the tracheid production and differentiation rate. However, our results do not exclude other intrinsic and environmental regulations in the change in MF orientation, which remains a topic for future studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  9. Seasonal variation of presentation for headache in a pediatric emergency department. (United States)

    Caperell, Kerry; Pitetti, Raymond


    Headache is a common pediatric complaint. Our experience indicated that there was a seasonal variation in children seeking emergency department (ED) care for headache. We hypothesized that visits to the ED would be more common during the school year compared with that during the summer months. Electronic medical record data were reviewed from January 1, 2008 through June 30, 2010. All patients age 4 years and older with a chief complaint of headache were examined. Patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts, intracranial mass, trauma, or stroke were excluded. The following data were accumulated: date of visit, birth date, sex, race, and diagnosis. Visits were grouped by month of occurrence and school year (September through May) and non-school year (June through August). Cumulative binomial probabilities were used to determine the likelihood of experiencing the observed number of occurrences or fewer in each period. A total of 2731 visits met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Girls were older, more likely to be white, and more likely to be diagnosed with migraine. There is a clear nadir in May and June and a peak in September, October, and November that is statistically significant (Pheadache type. These findings persisted when comparing the groups based on school year versus non-school year. Visits to the ED for headache were less common in May and June and more common during the fall. This remained true across headache type, age, sex, and racial groups.

  10. Seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosol properties by direct and scattered solar radiation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manago, Naohiro; Miyazawa, Shuji; Bannu; Kuze, Hiroaki


    Long-term characterization of tropospheric aerosol has been carried out at Chiba, Japan, using a compact, stand-alone spectroradiometer under clear-sky conditions between August 2007 and March 2009. The spectra of direct solar radiation, aureole, and scattered solar radiation in various directions are observed in a wavelength range between 350 and 1050 nm with an optical resolution of 10 nm. Radiative transfer calculation using the MODTRAN4 code is employed to retrieve aerosol optical parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, scattering phase function, and asymmetry parameter, as well as water vapor column amount. The retrieved value of AOD varies in the range 0.1-0.5, while the water vapor column amount changes from 0.2 to 4 g/cm 2 , showing reasonable agreements with the concurrent measurements with a sunphotometer and a microwave radiometer, respectively. The seasonal variation of the retrieved parameters indicates the major impacts of dust particles in spring, sea salt particles in summer, and anthropogenic fine particles in winter.

  11. Tropospheric methane in northern Finland: seasonal variations, transport patterns and correlations with other trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Tuula; Hatakka, Juha; Lallo, Marko


    Methane mixing ratios have been continuously observed at Pallas, Finland since winter 2004. The seasonal variation in monthly means was ca. 40 ppb, showing largest mixing ratios in winter and also high values during late summer. Examination of back-trajectories showed that the air masses with elevated methane mixing ratios arrived from continental Eastern and Central Europe while low methane mixing ratios were connected with Atlantic and Arctic air masses. During summer, air masses with highest mixing ratios arrived from Northwestern Russia indicating wetland sources, while the influence of southern emissions became more significant in winter. Methane was positively correlated with carbon dioxide and negatively correlated with ozone in winter. The average slope of the selected wintertime background hourly mean mixing ratios was 7.0 ± 1.2 ppb(CH 4 )/ppm(CO 2 ). Nocturnal summertime low-altitude measurements above a local wetland source indicated slopes of about 10 ± 1 ppb(CH 4 )/ppm(CO 2 ). The different slopes reflect the differences in emission parameters

  12. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo


    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  13. Molecular composition and seasonal variation of amino acids in urban aerosols from Beijing, China (United States)

    Ren, Lujie; Bai, Huahua; Yu, Xi; Wu, Fengchang; Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Li, Linjie; Lai, Senchao; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing


    Fifteen hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) were quantified in urban aerosols (TSP samples) collected during April 2012 to May 2013 in Beijing, China using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after their derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), to investigate their molecular distributions and seasonal variation. Total concentrations of amino acids ranged from 1.73-25.7 nmol m- 3 with a peak in spring (13.7 nmol m- 3), followed by winter (11.5 nmol m- 3), fall (9.51 nmol m- 3) and summer (7.45 nmol m- 3). Glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala) and valine (Val) are found to be the most abundant species, which account for 46% of the total THAA. Compared with those recorded in previous studies, the atmospheric levels of amino acids in Beijing were higher than those from other regions. Enhanced amounts of methionine, tyrosine, histidine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found during the rainfall events. The factor analysis further suggests that amino acids in urban Beijing originated from multiple sources including biological emission, biomass burning, as well as anthropogenic activities.

  14. Influence of isentropic transport on seasonal ozone variations in the lower stratosphere and subtropical upper troposphere (United States)

    Jing, P.; Cunnold, D. M.; Yang, E.-S.; Wang, H.-J.


    The isentropic cross-tropopause ozone transport has been estimated in both hemispheres in 1999 based on the potential vorticity mapping of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 ozone measurements and contour advection calculations using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global and Modeling Assimilation Office analysis. The estimated net isentropic stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux is approx.118 +/- 61 x 10(exp9)kg/yr globally within the layer between 330 and 370 K in 1999; 60% of it is found in the Northern Hemisphere, and 40% is found in the Southern Hemisphere. The monthly average ozone fluxes are strongest in summer and weakest in winter in both hemispheres. The seasonal variations of ozone in the lower stratosphere (LS) and upper troposphere (UT) have been analyzed using ozonesonde observations from ozonesonde stations in the extratropics and subtropics, respectively. It is shown that observed ozone levels increase in the UT over subtropical ozonesonde stations and decrease in the LS over extratropical stations in late spring/early summer and that the ozone increases in the summertime subtropical UT are unlikely to be explained by photochemical ozone production and diabatic transport alone. We conclude that isentropic transport is a significant contributor to ozone levels in the subtropical upper troposphere, especially in summer.

  15. A 2-year study of seasonal indoor radon variations in northern Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Chrosniak, C.E.


    The concentrations of indoor radon in the basements of homes located in northern Virginia average about 1.4 times the first-floor radon concentrations. Basement indoor radon concentrations exhibit seasonal variations that can be related to home use patterns of the occupants. Little indoor radon difference was seen between homes that have concrete block basement walls and poured concrete basement walls, but homes that use oil or gas furnaces for heating have ∼ 25% lower indoor radon than homes that use electrical heating systems. Particular geological units seem to be associated with elevated indoor radon concentrations, and several units are associated with indoor radon concentrations that exceed 4 pCi/l (the U.S. Environmental Agency action level) at some time in more than 40% of the homes. Comparative studies between indoor radon and total gamma aeroradioactivity show that aeroradioactivity can be accurately used to estimate community radon hazards. When combined with information about the home heating system, geology and aeroradioactivity can be used to identify problem homes

  16. Seasonal and Long-term Variations in 137Cs Among Adults from Swedish Hunter Families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agren, G.


    To study seasonal variations in 137 Cs, whole-body content measurements of adults from Swedish hunter families have been performed in autumn 1997 and spring 1998. Measurements were performed in three locations, By, Harbo and Gavle, geographically close (within 100 km of each other) but with large differences in ground deposition levels. The hunter families at these three locations were previously measured in 1994. The measured persons were also asked for their frequency of intake of moose, roe-deer, freshwater fish, mushrooms and berries. A statistically significant lower frequency of intake of mushrooms and berries in By, moose, roe-deer and mushrooms in Harbo, and moose in Gavle was found in springtime compared to autumn. In one of the locations, there was a statistically significant lower average 137 Cs whole-body content in spring 1998 than in autumn 1997 while in the other two locations no such effects could be seen. The 137 Cs whole-body content has decreased by 37% from 1994 and to 1998 (including physical decay) correlated to an effective ecological half time of 6 years. (author)

  17. Seasonal and Long-term Variations in {sup 137}Cs Among Adults from Swedish Hunter Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agren, G


    To study seasonal variations in {sup 137}Cs, whole-body content measurements of adults from Swedish hunter families have been performed in autumn 1997 and spring 1998. Measurements were performed in three locations, By, Harbo and Gavle, geographically close (within 100 km of each other) but with large differences in ground deposition levels. The hunter families at these three locations were previously measured in 1994. The measured persons were also asked for their frequency of intake of moose, roe-deer, freshwater fish, mushrooms and berries. A statistically significant lower frequency of intake of mushrooms and berries in By, moose, roe-deer and mushrooms in Harbo, and moose in Gavle was found in springtime compared to autumn. In one of the locations, there was a statistically significant lower average {sup 137}Cs whole-body content in spring 1998 than in autumn 1997 while in the other two locations no such effects could be seen. The {sup 137}Cs whole-body content has decreased by 37% from 1994 and to 1998 (including physical decay) correlated to an effective ecological half time of 6 years. (author)

  18. Seasonal variations of 222Rn and SGD fluxes to Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.; Costa, P.; Braga, E.S.


    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate submarine groundwater discharge in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 11 vertical profiles varied from (3.3±1.1) x 10 3 to (19±5) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 . The estimated total fluxes required to support the inventories varied from (0.6±0.2) x 10 3 to (3.4±0.9) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 x d -1 . Considering these results, the submarine groundwater discharge advective rates necessary to balance the sub-pycnocline fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.06 to 1.9 cm x d -1 . During the period of this investigation (from March/03 to May/2004), the highest 222 Rn in excess inventories were observed late in the summer season (March). Taking into account all vertical profiles established, the relative variability was 67%. Although, if we consider only the fluxes determined in both Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, the relative variation was 21%. (author)

  19. Seasonal Variation of Glochidia in Stream Drift in the Sipsey River, Alabama (United States)

    Culp, J.; Haag, W. R.; Arrington, D. A.


    We determined seasonal variation of freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia) in stream drift in the Sipsey River, west-central Alabama, from May 2004 to April 2005. We identified glochidia to species using shell morphometrics and discriminant functions generated from a reference library of known glochidia. Total glochidia abundance was high from mid-May to early August, but low from mid-August through fall and winter. In general, the most frequently occurring species in the drift corresponded to the most abundant mussel species in benthic mussel communities in the Sipsey River. An exception to this pattern was noted for Amblema plicata, which were rare in the benthic community but regularly constituted large proportions of glochidia in the drift. The prevalence of glochidia of A. plicata in the drift coupled with its high fecundity suggests that this species releases glochidia using a broadcasting strategy. Our results indicate that factors influencing glochidia abundance in stream drift include adult density, species-specific fecundity, and mode of host infection.

  20. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months, 40 heifers aged 16.6±2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0±0.2 ticks/animal, with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9±0.3 flies/animal and D. hominis (1.5±0.2 larvae/animal on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals.

  1. Seasonal variation of CO{sub 2} flux between air and temperate forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Susumo; Murayama, Shohei; Kondo, Hiroaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Carbon dioxide, which is a very important greenhouse gas, contributes approximately 55 % to the problem of global warming. The knowledge to the sources and sinks of carbon on a global basis is very poor. IPCC (1994) suggested that unknown 1.5-2.0 GtC/year may be sunk in terrestrial ecosystem, in particular, in the Northern Hemisphere. As can be seen from a recent estimation of the carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the magnitude. The clear evidence for it has not been shown yet by IPCC (1994). However, based on the gradient of CO{sub 2}, as a function of latitude, main CO{sub 2} sink can be thought to be in the terrestrial biosphere, in the middle to high latitude of the Northern Hemisphere. As can be seen from a recent estimation of the carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the magnitude. From this view, more investigation of the role of the temperate forest on the CO{sub 2} balance is inevitable. In this presentation, the seasonal variation of CO{sub 2} flux between air and biosphere in temperate deciduous forest in Japan is intended to be elucidated. (author)

  2. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; West, Michael E.; O'Neel, Shad; Pettit, Erin C.; Truffer, Martin


    The seismic signatures of calving events, i.e., calving icequakes, offer an opportunity to examine calving variability with greater precision than is available with other methods. Here using observations from Yahtse Glacier, Alaska, we describe methods to detect, locate, and characterize calving icequakes. We combine these icequake records with a coincident, manually generated record of observed calving events to develop and validate a statistical model through which we can infer iceberg sizes from the properties of calving icequakes. We find that the icequake duration is the single most significant predictor of an iceberg's size. We then apply this model to 18 months of seismic recordings and find elevated iceberg calving flux during the summer and fall and a pronounced lull in calving during midwinter. Calving flux is sensitive to semidiurnal tidal stage. Large calving events are tens of percent more likely during falling and low tides than during rising and high tides, consistent with a view that deeper water has a stabilizing influence on glacier termini. Multiple factors affect the occurrence of mechanical fractures that ultimately lead to iceberg calving. At Yahtse Glacier, seismology allows us to demonstrate that variations in the rate of submarine melt are a dominant control on iceberg calving rates at seasonal timescales. On hourly to daily timescales, tidal modulation of the normal stress against the glacier terminus reveals the nonlinear glacier response to changes in the near-terminus stress field.

  3. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Marcelo Carvalho de


    Full Text Available Between October, 1997 and September, 1999 in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais a study of seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis was carried out in three distinct areas of the municipality. Sand flies were sampled at 15-day intervals in three residences, in each of which two CDC light traps were installed, one indoors and the other in the peridomicile. A total of 397 sand flies were captured in the three areas, with 65%, 30% and 1% of specimens collected in the eastern, northeast and Barreiro districts, respectively. The overall proportions of sand flies collected inside and around the houses were similar (57% vs 43% and this pattern was seen for both Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia whitmani . The highest population levels during the two years of the study were from October to March. From October onwards, numbers increased constantly until February. A gradual fall was seen from April onwards until the lowest levels were reached in the months of June, July and August.

  4. Investigations on diurnal and seasonal variations of Schumann resonance oscillations in the auroral region (United States)

    Rossi, C.; Palangio, P.


    Within the framework of the ITALIANTARTIDE project, continuous geomagnetic measurements were performed in the frequency range 5-20 Hz during 1996-97 at high latitude location (Baia Terra Nova Base, Antarctica; geomagnetic latitude 80.0° S, 307.7° E). BTN is a particularly important observation site, which is located in auroral region of known high electromagnetic activity in the ELF band. This site is connected by lines of force that reach the magnetopause in the daylight side at the Earth and the plasmasheet of the magnetotail in the nightside therefore BTN is able to look extreme regions of the magnetosphere. Its remote location Antarctica provides the important advantage that electromagnetic background noise is not corrupted by anthropogenic noise and there is a very low lightning activity. Schumann resonance oscillations are the most remarkable natural electromagnetic phenomena in the lower frequency side of ELF range. The measurements are concenned primarily with the properties of the components of the geomagnetic activity in the Schumann resonance frequency range, which forms a stable background signal level. We present the results on the long-term seasonal and diurnal variation of the background noise and its statistics in the frequency band from 5 to 20 Hz.

  5. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento


    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  6. Seasonal variation of energy metabolism in ghost crab Ocypode quadrata at Siriú Beach (Brazil). (United States)

    Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer; Nunes do Amaral, Ana Paula; Ribarcki, Fabiana Pinto; Fraga da Silveira, Eliane; Périco, Eduardo


    The aim of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) on a sandy beach in the southern region of Brazil. Crabs and hemolymph samples were collected monthly in the field. Hepatopancreas, gills, gonads and claw muscles were used for glycogen determination. In males, blood glucose levels increased in the summer and in the winter. The glycogen values increased significantly in the hepatopancreas in the winter, but remained constant in the muscle, gonads and gills. In females, hemolymph glucose levels, glycogen values in the hepatopancreas and in the gills remained constant throughout the year; however, muscular glycogen increased in the spring and gonad glycogen decreased in the summer. Hemolymph triglyceride levels of males and females and total cholesterol of males decreased significantly in the spring. In females, a significant increase of total cholesterol levels was found in the winter. The findings suggest that in O. quadrata lipids seem to be an important reserve of energy used during reproduction, both in males and females, while glycogen may be used during periods of intense activity or fasting.

  7. Investigations on diurnal and seasonal variations of Schumann resonance intensities in the auroral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rispoli


    Full Text Available Measurements of the magnetic component of the Schumann resonance in the frequency range 6-14 Hz were performed at high latitude location (TNB Antarctica; geographic coordinates: 74.7°S, 164.1°E; geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0°S, 307.7°E; LT=UT+13; MLT=UT–8; altitude=28 m a.s.l., during the two years 1996-1997. TNB is a particularly important observation site located in a region characterised by a high electromagnetic activity in the ELF and VLF bands. Moreover its remote location in Antarctica provides the important advantage that electromagnetic background noise is not corrupted by anthropogenic noise and that the continental lightning activity is very low. The combination of low additional anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation and low atmospheric noise in this area allows detailed investigations into wave generation and amplification in the polar ionosphere and magnetosphere not possible anywhere else in the world. This paper reports the study of the magnetic power of the 8 Hz Schumann resonance mode. For both the years considered diurnal and long-term seasonal variations were observed.

  8. Sources of light-absorbing aerosol in arctic snow and their seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Hegg


    Full Text Available Two data sets consisting of measurements of light absorbing aerosols (LAA in arctic snow together with suites of other corresponding chemical constituents are presented; the first from Siberia, Greenland and near the North Pole obtained in 2008, and the second from the Canadian arctic obtained in 2009. A preliminary differentiation of the LAA into black carbon (BC and non-BC LAA is done. Source attribution of the light absorbing aerosols was done using a positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Four sources were found for each data set (crop and grass burning, boreal biomass burning, pollution and marine. For both data sets, the crops and grass biomass burning was the main source of both LAA species, suggesting the non-BC LAA was brown carbon. Depth profiles at most of the sites allowed assessment of the seasonal variation in the source strengths. The biomass burning sources dominated in the spring but pollution played a more significant (though rarely dominant role in the fall, winter and, for Greenland, summer. The PMF analysis is consistent with trajectory analysis and satellite fire maps.

  9. Southern Ocean Mixed-Layer Seasonal and Interannual Variations From Combined Satellite and In Situ Data (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Guinehut, S.; Verbrugge, N.; Cotroneo, Y.; Zambianchi, E.; Iudicone, D.


    The depth of the upper ocean mixed layer provides fundamental information on the amount of seawater that directly interacts with the atmosphere. Its space-time variability modulates water mass formation and carbon sequestration processes related to both the physical and biological pumps. These processes are particularly relevant in the Southern Ocean, where surface mixed-layer depth estimates are generally obtained either as climatological fields derived from in situ observations or through numerical simulations. Here we demonstrate that weekly observation-based reconstructions can be used to describe the variations of the mixed-layer depth in the upper ocean over a range of space and time scales. We compare and validate four different products obtained by combining satellite measurements of the sea surface temperature, salinity, and dynamic topography and in situ Argo profiles. We also compute an ensemble mean and use the corresponding spread to estimate mixed-layer depth uncertainties and to identify the more reliable products. The analysis points out the advantage of synergistic approaches that include in input the sea surface salinity observations obtained through a multivariate optimal interpolation. Corresponding data allow to assess mixed-layer depth seasonal and interannual variability. Specifically, the maximum correlations between mixed-layer anomalies and the Southern Annular Mode are found at different time lags, related to distinct summer/winter responses in the Antarctic Intermediate Water and Sub-Antarctic Mode Waters main formation areas.

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow cover variations at Mt. Kilimanjaro using multi-temporal Landsat images during 27 years (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Moung-Jin; Jung, Hyung-Sup


    The Landsat TM and ETM+ images have been acquired for the long period from the 1980s until the present with the temporal resolution of a 16-day repeat cycle from the visible, near infrared (NIR), short wave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. The Landsat multi-temporal images have been successfully used to monitor variations of the Earth surface during 27 years. In this paper, we observe the variations of (1) the snow cover area, (2) the snowline height and (3) the land surface temperature (LST) lapse rate at Mt. Kilimanjaro using a total number of 15 Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ images from June 1984-July 2011. Segmentation of normalized difference snow index (NDSI) images with a threshold of 0.6 is used to extract snow cover. Snowline altitude is then determined by combining the snow cover classification maps with a digital elevation model (DEM). And the LST lapse rate is also calculated from the TIR band in the forest area. The results from this study show that (1) the snow cover area largely decreases from 10.1 km2 to 2.3 km2 during about 27 years, which corresponds to a 77.2% reduction, (2) the snowline height rose from 4760 m to 5020 m by about 260 m, and (3) the LST lapse rate shifted from -5.2 °C/km to -2.7 °C/km. This study demonstrates that multi-temporal Landsat images can be successfully used for the spatiotemporal analysis of long-term snow cover changes.

  11. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf (United States)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard


    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study into seasonal variations in the number of Summer Shamal days in the southern Arabian Gulf. The Shamal wind is a north-westerly wind, which has acquired the local name of Shamal. It is the primary ambient wind in the Arabian Gulf and persists most of the year over the area, but with varying characteristics ( Godvina et al, 2001). The study is focused on the parameters of the wind cycles. The wind data are collected over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010) from Bahrain airport data set (Al Aali, 2011) as it is less affected by surrounding topography and the meteorological charts were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis -II data set (NCEP, 2013). The wind data is analyzed to show variations in the number of summer Shamal days over the southern Arabian Gulf. The synoptic conditions which help to understand the wind cycles are analyzed using NCEP Charts. A Shamal Day is defined when the prevailing wind over the Arabian Gulf is from the North-West sector and the strength of the daily mean Shamal wind is 11 knots and more. The condition for the existence of Summer Shamal days is the deepening of the thermal Monsoon Low or the ridging from the Mediterranean High or both (Govinda et al, 2003). A key finding is that the Summer Shamal days start in May and end in October of each year and the number of the Summer Shamal days is decreasing over the study period. During the months of May, June and July the number of Shamal days is the highest. Out of these three months, June has the highest number of Shamal day's. The analysis shows that the reduction in the number of Summer Shamal days over the thirty year period is potentially related to the variations in the parameters of the summer monsoon and the longitudinal location of the Azores High. Furthermore, in the summer there are two global systems: (i) El Nino, which effects the Summer Monsoon (Nazemosadat et al, 2003) and (ii) the Azores High, which have an indirect

  12. Diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of mean winds in the MLT region observed over Kolhapur using MF radar (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Gaikwad, H. P.; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Gurav, O. B.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.; Chavan, G. A.; Sathishkumar, S.


    Medium Frequency (MF) radar located at Kolhapur (16.8°N, 74.2°E) has been upgraded in August 2013. Since then continuous measurements of zonal and meridional winds are obtained covering larger altitudes from the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of these mean winds is presented in this study using four years (2013-2017) of observations. The percentage occurrence of radar echoes show maximum between 80 and 105 km. The mean meridional wind shows Annual Oscillation (AO) between 80 and 90 km altitudes with pole-ward motion during December solstice and equatorial motion during June solstice. Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) with weaker amplitudes are also observed between 90 and 104 km. Zonal winds show semi-annual oscillation (SAO) with westward winds during equinoxes and eastward winds during solstices between 80 and 90 km. AO with eastward winds during December solstice and westward wind in the June solstice is also observed in the mean zonal wind between 100 and 110 km. These results match well with that reported from other latitudes within Indian region between 80 and 90 km. However, above 90 km the results presented here provide true mean background winds for the first time over Indian low latitude region as the present station is away from equatorial electro-jet and are not contaminated by ionospheric processes. Further, the results presented earlier with an old version of this radar are found contaminated due to unknown reasons and are corrected in the present work. This upgraded MF radar together with other MLT radars in the Indian region forms unique network to investigate the vertical and lateral coupling.

  13. Seasonal variation in vertical flux of biogenic matter in the marginal ice zone and the central Barents Sea (United States)

    Olli, Kalle; Wexels Riser, Christian; Wassmann, Paul; Ratkova, Tatjana; Arashkevich, Elena; Pasternak, Anna


    The spatial and seasonal variations in the vertical flux of particulate biogenic matter were investigated in the Barents Sea in winter and spring 1998 and summer 1999. Arrays of simple cylindrical sediment traps were moored for 24 h between 30 and 200 m along a transect from the ice-free Atlantic water to Arctic water with up to 80% ice cover. Large gradients in the quantity and composition of the sinking particles were observed in the south-north direction, and in relation to water column structure and stability, which depend on the processes of ice retreat. The magnitude of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) out of the upper mixed layer ranged from background winter values (30-70 mg C m -2 day -1) to 150-300 mg C m -2 day -1 in summer and 500-1500 mg C m -2 day -1 in spring. Vertical flux of chlorophyll a (CHL) was negligible in winter, generally balticum and single-celled P. pouchetii). The magnitude of the vertical flux to the bottom in spring was comparable in the Arctic and Atlantic waters (ca. 200 mg C m -2 day -1), but the composition and C/N ratio of the particles were different. The regulation of biogenic particle sedimentation took place in the upper layers and over very short vertical distances, and varied with season and water mass. The vertical flux was mainly shaped by the water column stratification (strong salinity stratification in the Arctic water; no stratification in the Atlantic water) and also by the activity of plankton organisms. Zooplankton faecal pellets were an important constituent of the vertical flux (up to 250 mg C m -2 day -1), but their significance varied widely between stations. The daily sedimentation loss rates of POC in spring exceeded the loss rates in summer on the average of 1.7 times. The complexity of the planktonic community during summer suggested the prevalence of a retention food chain with a higher capacity of resource recycling compared to spring.

  14. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Datasets to Evaluate Climate Models in Simulating Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Tropical Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Burleyson, Casey D. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fast, Jerome D. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington


    We use the long-term Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) datasets collected at the three Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites as a tropical testbed to evaluate the ability of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to simulate the various types of clouds, their seasonal and diurnal variations, and their impact on surface radiation. We conducted a series of CAM5 simulations at various horizontal grid spacing (around 2°, 1°, 0.5°, and 0.25°) with meteorological constraints from reanalysis. Model biases in the seasonal cycle of cloudiness are found to be weakly dependent on model resolution. Positive biases (up to 20%) in the annual mean total cloud fraction appear mostly in stratiform ice clouds. Higher-resolution simulations do reduce the positive bias in the frequency of ice clouds, but they inadvertently increase the negative biases in convective clouds and low-level liquid clouds, leading to a positive bias in annual mean shortwave fluxes at the sites, as high as 65 W m-2 in the 0.25° simulation. Such resolution-dependent biases in clouds can adversely lead to biases in ambient thermodynamic properties and, in turn, feedback on clouds. Both the CAM5 model and ARM observations show distinct diurnal cycles in total, stratiform and convective cloud fractions; however, they are out-of-phase by 12 hours and the biases vary by site. Our results suggest that biases in deep convection affect the vertical distribution and diurnal cycle of stratiform clouds through the transport of vapor and/or the detrainment of liquid and ice. We also found that the modelled gridmean surface longwave fluxes are systematically larger than site measurements when the grid that the ARM sites reside in is partially covered by ocean. The modeled longwave fluxes at such sites also lack a discernable diurnal cycle because the ocean part of the grid is warmer and less sensitive to radiative heating/cooling compared to land. Higher spatial resolution is more helpful is this regard. Our

  15. Effect of soil moisture on seasonal variation in indoor radon concentration: modelling and measurements in 326 Finnish houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Holmgren, O.; Haenninen, P.


    The effect of soil moisture on seasonal variation in soil air and indoor radon is studied. A brief review of the theory of the effect of soil moisture on soil air radon has been presented. The theoretical estimates, together with soil moisture measurements over a period of 10 y, indicate that variation in soil moisture evidently is an important factor affecting the seasonal variation in soil air radon concentration. Partitioning of radon gas between the water and air fractions of soil pores is the main factor increasing soil air radon concentration. On two example test sites, the relative standard deviation of the calculated monthly average soil air radon concentration was 17 and 26 %. Increased soil moisture in autumn and spring, after the snow melt, increases soil gas radon concentrations by 10-20 %. In February and March, the soil gas radon concentration is in its minimum. Soil temperature is also an important factor. High soil temperature in summer increased the calculated soil gas radon concentration by 14 %, compared with winter values. The monthly indoor radon measurements over period of 1 y in 326 Finnish houses are presented and compared with the modelling results. The model takes into account radon entry, climate and air exchange. The measured radon concentrations in autumn and spring were higher than expected and it can be explained by the seasonal variation in the soil moisture. The variation in soil moisture is a potential factor affecting markedly to the high year-to-year variation in the annual or seasonal average radon concentrations, observed in many radon studies. (authors)

  16. Southern Hemisphere origins for interannual variations of Tibetan Plateau snow cover in boreal summer (United States)

    Wu, Z.


    The climate response to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) snow cover (TPSC) has been receiving extensive concern. However, relatively few studies have devoted to revealing the potential factors that can contribute to the TPSC variability on the interannual time scale. Especially during the boreal summer, snow cover can persist over the TP at high elevations, which exerts profound influences on the local and remote climate change. The present study finds that May Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM), the dominating mode of atmospheric circulation variability in the SH extratropics, exhibits a significant positive relationship with the boreal summer TPSC interannual variability. Observational analysis and numerical experiments manifest that the signal of May SAM can be "prolonged" by a meridional Indian Ocean tripole (IOT) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) via atmosphere-ocean interaction. The IOT SSTA pattern persists into the following summer and excites anomalous local-scale zonal vertical circulation. Subsequently, a positive (or negative) tropical dipole rainfall (TDR) mode is induced with deficient (or sufficient) precipitation in tropical western Indian Ocean and sufficient (or deficient) precipitation in eastern Indian Ocean-Maritime continent. Rossby wave source diagnosis reveals that the wave energies, generated by the latent heat release of the TDR mode, propagate northward into western TP. As a response, abnormal cyclonic circulation and upward movement are triggered and prevail over western TP, providing favorable dynamical conditions for more TPSC, and vice versa. Hence, the IOT SSTA plays an "ocean bridge" role and the TDR mode acts as an "atmosphere bridge" role in the process of May SAM impacting the following summer TPSC variability. The results of our work may provide new insight about the cross-equatorial propagation of the SAM influence. Keywords Southern Hemisphere annular mode; Tibetan Plateau snow cover; Rossby wave source

  17. Seasonal variations in the level of heavy metals in the water of minor rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Sukhodolska


    presence of nickel in the surface water. For the investigated rivers, the most significant factors in the water’s chemical composition are physiographic (foremost, the character of the soil cover, intensivity of erosion, extent of forest and swamp cover and anthropogenous impact. In the rivers of Rivne region high concentrations of heavy metals are the consequence of the long-term aggradation of abiotic and biotic substances of the water ecosystem. There is a tendency for a reduction in the concentration of most metals in the abiotic substances of the water reservoir during the vegetative season and an increase after the end of this season. This research shows that the high level of contamination of the water of