WorldWideScience

Sample records for coverage gap part

  1. Changes in drug utilization during a gap in insurance coverage: an examination of the medicare Part D coverage gap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Polinski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nations are struggling to expand access to essential medications while curbing rising health and drug spending. While the US government's Medicare Part D drug insurance benefit expanded elderly citizens' access to drugs, it also includes a controversial period called the "coverage gap" during which beneficiaries are fully responsible for drug costs. We examined the impact of entering the coverage gap on drug discontinuation, switching to another drug for the same indication, and drug adherence. While increased discontinuation of and adherence to essential medications is a regrettable response, increased switching to less expensive but therapeutically interchangeable medications is a positive response to minimize costs.We followed 663,850 Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Part D or retiree drug plans with prescription and health claims in 2006 and/or 2007 to determine who reached the gap spending threshold, n = 217,131 (33%. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we compared drug discontinuation and switching rates in selected drug classes after reaching the threshold between all 1,993 who had no financial assistance during the coverage gap (exposed versus 9,965 multivariate propensity score-matched comparators with financial assistance (unexposed. Multivariate logistic regressions compared drug adherence (≤ 80% versus >80% of days covered. Beneficiaries reached the gap spending threshold on average 222 d ±79. At the drug level, exposed beneficiaries were twice as likely to discontinue (hazard ratio [HR]  = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64-2.43 but less likely to switch a drug (HR  = 0.60, 0.46-0.78 after reaching the threshold. Gap-exposed beneficiaries were slightly more likely to have reduced adherence (OR  = 1.07, 0.98-1.18.A lack of financial assistance after reaching the gap spending threshold was associated with a doubling in discontinuing essential medications but not switching drugs in 2006 and 2007

  2. How End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Manage the Medicare Part D Coverage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Pamela J.; Perkins, Nathan; Nuschke, Elizabeth; Carroll, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Medicare Part D was enacted to help elderly and disabled individuals pay for prescription drugs, but it was structured with a gap providing no coverage in 2010 between $2,830 and $6,440. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are especially likely to be affected due to high costs of dialysis-related drugs and the importance of adherence for…

  3. Effects of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Patel, Bimal V; Brunetti, Louis

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of Part D coverage gap reform on diabetes medication adherence. Retrospective data analysis based on pharmacy claims data from a national pharmacy benefit manager. We used a difference-in-difference-indifference method to evaluate the impact of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications. Two cohorts (2010 and 2011) were constructed to represent the last year before Affordable Care Act (ACA) reform and the first year after reform, respectively. Each patient had 2 observations: 1 before and 1 after entering the coverage gap. Patients in each cohort were divided into groups based on type of gap coverage: no coverage, partial coverage (generics only), and full coverage. Following ACA reform, patients with no gap coverage and patients with partial gap coverage experienced substantial drops in copayments in the coverage gap in 2011. Their adherence to diabetes medications in the gap, measured by percentage of days covered, improved correspondingly (2.99 percentage points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.48, P = .019 for patients with no coverage; 6.46 percentage points, 95% CI 3.34-9.58, P gap in 2011. However, their adherence did not increase (-0.13 percentage point, P = .8011). In the first year of ACA coverage gap reform, copayments in the gap decreased substantially for all patients. Patients with no coverage and patients with partial coverage in the gap had better adherence in the gap in 2011.

  4. [Gaps in effective coverage by socioeconomic status and poverty condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.

  5. Minding the gaps: health financing, universal health coverage and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Govender, Veloshnee; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Yates, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In a webinar in 2015 on health financing and gender, the question was raised why we need to focus on gender, given that a well-functioning system moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) will automatically be equitable and gender balanced. This article provides a reflection on this question from a panel of health financing and gender experts.We trace the evidence of how health-financing reforms have impacted gender and health access through a general literature review and a more detailed case-study of India. We find that unless explicit attention is paid to gender and its intersectionality with other social stratifications, through explicit protection and careful linking of benefits to needs of target populations (e.g. poor women, unemployed men, female-headed households), movement towards UHC can fail to achieve gender balance or improve equity, and may even exacerbate gender inequity. Political trade-offs are made on the road to UHC and the needs of less powerful groups, which can include women and children, are not necessarily given priority.We identify the need for closer collaboration between health economists and gender experts, and highlight a number of research gaps in this field which should be addressed. While some aspects of cost sharing and some analysis of expenditure on maternal and child health have been analysed from a gender perspective, there is a much richer set of research questions to be explored to guide policy making. Given the political nature of UHC decisions, political economy as well as technical research should be prioritized.We conclude that countries should adopt an equitable approach towards achieving UHC and, therefore, prioritize high-need groups and those requiring additional financial protection, in particular women and children. This constitutes the 'progressive universalism' advocated for by the 2013 Lancet Commission on Investing in Health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The

  6. Racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in four South American countries: the role of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. DESIGN. Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Transplant recipients are vulnerable to coverage denial under Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lisa M; Maldonado, Angela Q; Lentine, Krista L; Schnitzler, Mark A; Zhang, Zidong; Hess, Gregory P; Garrity, Edward; Kasiske, Bertram L; Axelrod, David A

    2018-02-15

    Transplant immunosuppressants are often used off-label because of insufficient randomized prospective trial data to achieve organ-specific US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Transplant recipients who rely on Medicare Part D for immunosuppressant drug coverage are vulnerable to coverage denial for off-label prescriptions, unless use is supported by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)-approved compendia. An integrated dataset including national transplant registry data and 3 years of dispensed pharmacy records was used to identify the prevalence of immunosuppression use that is both off-label and not supported by CMS-approved compendia. Numbers of potentially vulnerable transplant recipients were identified. Off-label and off-compendia immunosuppression regimens are frequently prescribed (3-year mean: lung 66.5%, intestine 34.2%, pancreas 33.4%, heart 21.8%, liver 16.5%, kidney 0%). The annual retail cost of these at-risk medications exceeds $30 million. This population-based study of transplant immunosuppressants vulnerable to claim denials under Medicare Part D coverage demonstrates a substantial gap between clinical practice, current FDA approval processes, and policy mandates for pharmaceutical coverage. This coverage barrier reduces access to life-saving medications for patients without alternative resources and may increase the risk of graft loss and death from medication nonadherence. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Coverage of genomic medicine: information gap between lay public and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuya; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Fukao, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The sharing of information between the lay public and medical professionals is crucial to the conduct of personalized medicine using genomic information in the near future. Mass media, such as newspapers, can play an important role in disseminating scientific information. However, studies on the role of newspaper coverage of genome-related articles are highly limited. We investigated the coverage of genomic medicine in five major Japanese newspapers (Asahi, Mainichi, Yomiuri, Sankei, and Nikkei) using Nikkei Telecom and articles in scientific journals in PubMed from 1995 to 2009. The number of genome-related articles in all five newspapers temporarily increased in 2000, and began continuously decreasing thereafter from 2001 to 2009. Conversely, there was a continuous increasing trend in the number of genome-related articles in PubMed during this period. The numbers of genome-related articles among the five major newspapers from 1995 to 2009 were significantly different (P = 0.002). Commentaries, research articles, and articles about companies were the most frequent in 2001 and 2003, when the number of genome-related articles transiently increased in the five newspapers. This study highlights the significant gap between newspaper coverage and scientific articles in scientific journals.

  9. Assessing coverage, equity and quality gaps in maternal and neonatal care in sub-saharan Africa: an integrated approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calistus Wilunda

    Full Text Available Gaps in coverage, equity and quality of health services hinder the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa as well as in other high-burden countries, yet few studies attempt to assess all these dimensions as part of the situation analysis. We present the base-line data of a project aimed at simultaneously addressing coverage, equity and quality issues in maternal and neonatal health care in five districts belonging to three African countries.Data were collected in cross-sectional studies with three types of tools. Coverage was assessed in three hospitals and 19 health centres (HCs utilising emergency obstetric and newborn care needs assessment tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program. Emergency obstetrics care (EmOC indicators were calculated. Equity was assessed in three hospitals and 13 HCs by means of proxy wealth indices and women delivering in health facilities were compared with those in the general population to identify inequities. Quality was assessed in three hospitals using the World Health Organization's maternal and neonatal quality of hospital care assessment tool which evaluates the whole range of aspects of obstetric and neonatal care and produces an average score for each main area of care.All the three hospitals qualified as comprehensive EmOC facilities but none of the HCs qualified for basic EmOC. None of the districts met the minimum requisites for EmOC indicators. In two out of three hospitals, there were major quality gaps which were generally greater in neonatal care, management of emergency and complicated cases and monitoring. Higher access to care was coupled by low quality and good quality by very low access. Stark inequities in utilisation of institutional delivery care were present in all districts and across all health facilities, especially at hospital level.Our findings confirm the existence of serious issues regarding coverage

  10. Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kaschner

    Full Text Available Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (≥ 5 times to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km(2 covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts.

  11. In-gap discounts in Medicare Part D and specialty drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeah; Xu, Wendy Yi; Cheong, Chelim

    2017-09-01

    Specialty drugs can bring significant benefits to patients, but they can be expensive. Medicare Part D plans charge relatively high cost-sharing costs for specialty drugs. A provision in the Affordable Care Act reduced cost sharing in the Part D coverage gap phase in an attempt to mitigate the financial burden of beneficiaries with high drug spending. We examined the early impact of the Part D in-gap discount on specialty cancer drug use and patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) spending. Natural experimental design. We compared changes in outcomes before and after the in-gap discount among beneficiaries with and without low-income subsidies (LIS). Beneficiaries with LIS, who were not affected by the in-gap discount, made up the control group. We studied a random sample of elderly standalone prescription drug plan enrollees with relatively uncommon cancers (eg, leukemia, skin, pancreas, kidney, sarcomas, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) between 2009 and 2013. We constructed 4 outcome variables annually: 1) use of any specialty cancer drug, 2) the number of specialty cancer drug fills, 3) total specialty drug spending, and 4) OOP spending for specialty cancer drugs. The in-gap discount did not influence specialty cancer drug use, but reduced annual OOP spending for specialty cancer drugs among users without LIS by $1108. In-gap discounts in Part D decreased patients' financial burden to some extent, but resulted in no change in specialty drug use. As demand for specialty drugs increases, it will be important to ensure patients' access to needed drugs, while simultaneously reducing their financial burden.

  12. Locating spare part warehouses using the concept of gradual coverage - A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    for MAN Diesel SE is presented, where gradual coverage has been used for locating warehouses for spare parts. In particular it is described, how coverage decay functions are found, which identifies customers’ reaction to the offered ’speed of delivery’ and ’total order cost’. With these functions, demand...

  13. Understanding the Influence of Socioeconomic Environment on Paediatric Antiretroviral Treatment Coverage: Towards Closing Treatment Gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyinka, Daniel A; Evans, Meirion R; Ozigbu, Chamberline E; van Woerden, Hugo; Adeyinka, Esther F; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Aimakhu, Chris; Odoh, Deborah; Chamla, Dick

    2017-03-01

    Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets. Ecological analyses of paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic indicators were performed. The data were obtained from the United Nations agencies and Forum for a new World Governance reports for the 21 Global Plan priority countries in Africa with highest burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Spearman's correlation and median regression were utilized to explore possible enablers of paediatric ART coverage. Factors associated with paediatric ART coverage included adult literacy (r=0.6, p=0.004), effective governance (r=0.6, p=0.003), virology testing by 2 months of age (r=0.9, p=0.001), density of healthcare workers per 10,000 population (r=0.6, p=0.007), and government expenditure on health (r=0.5, p=0.046). The paediatric ART coverage had a significant inverse relationship with the national mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate (r=-0.9, pgender inequality index (r=-0.6, p=0.006). Paediatric ART coverage had no relationship with poverty and HIV stigma indices. Low paediatric ART coverage continues to hamper progress towards eliminating AIDS-related deaths in HIV-infected children. Achieving this requires full commitment to a broad range of socioeconomic development goals. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  14. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part II: Statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of shot distribution and maximum coverage at impulse breakdown voltage for positive point electr-odes (needle and cone electrodes) in small air gaps in non-uniform electric fields were investigated. During the breakdown test, a sheet of paper was placed on the plate electrode (-ve), and each breakdown shot ...

  15. The Gender Wage Gap: Does a Gender Gap in Reservation Wages Play a Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Mahlstedt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on re-examining the gender wage gap and the potential role that reservation wages play. Based on two waves of rich data from the IZA Evaluation Dataset Survey we examine the importance of gender differences in reservation wages to explain the gender gap in realized wages for a sample of newly unemployed individuals actively searching for a full-time job in Germany. The dataset includes measures for education, socio-demographics, labor market history, psychological factors a...

  16. Automated inspection of gaps on the free-form shape parts by laser scanning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sen; Xu, Jian; Tao, Lei; An, Lu; Yu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In industrial manufacturing processes, the dimensional inspection of the gaps on the free-form shape parts is critical and challenging, and is directly associated with subsequent assembly and terminal product quality. In this paper, a fast measuring method for automated gap inspection based on laser scanning technologies is presented. The proposed measuring method consists of three steps: firstly, the relative position is determined according to the geometric feature of measuring gap, which considers constraints existing in a laser scanning operation. Secondly, in order to acquire a complete gap profile, a fast and effective scanning path is designed. Finally, the range dimension of the gaps on the free-form shape parts including width, depth and flush, correspondingly, is described in a virtual environment. In the future, an appliance machine based on the proposed method will be developed for the on-line dimensional inspection of gaps on the automobile or aerospace production line.

  17. Plenary III–04: Responses to Drug Costs: Year Three of the Medicare Part D Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Vicki; Reed, Mary; Hsu, John

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Many Medicare Part D beneficiaries face substantial prescription drug cost-sharing. In the first year of the program, many beneficiaries reported substantial drug use changes in response to the coverage gap. In response, an increasing number of plans offer generic drug coverage during the gap. We compared responses to Part D costs among beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage and full gap coverage in 2008, the third year of the Part D program.

  18. Part-time wage-gap in Germany: Evidence across the wage distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tõnurist, Piret; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses insights from labour-market segmentation theory to investigate the wage differences between part-time and full-time workers in Germany at different parts of the wage distribution. This is accomplished with the use of a quintile regression and panel data from the SOEP (1991-2008). To get more insight on the part-time wage-gap, we apply a counterfactual wage decomposition analysis. The results show that, in the lower end of the wage distribution, part-time workers receive lower ...

  19. The persistent gap in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State: BRFSS, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z Joyce; Anderson, Naomi J; Foley, Michael; Rauser, Eddy; Silverstein, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    We examined the disparities in health-care coverage between low- and high-income workers in Washington State (WA) to provide support for possible policy decisions for uninsured workers. We examined data from the WA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2007 and compared workers aged 18-64 years of low income (annual household income income (annual household income ≥$35,000) on proportions and sources of health-care coverage. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses on factors that were associated with the uninsured. Of the 54,536 survey respondents who were working-age adults in WA, 13,922 (25.5%) were low-income workers. The proportions of uninsured were 38.2% for low-income workers and 6.3% for high-income workers. While employment-based health benefits remained a dominant source of health insurance coverage, they covered only 40.2% of low-income workers relative to 81.5% of high-income workers. Besides income, workers were more likely to be uninsured if they were younger; male; Hispanic; less educated; not married; current smokers; self-employed; or employed in agriculture/forestry/fisheries, construction, and retail. More low-income workers (28.7%) reported cost as an issue in paying for health services than did their high-income counterparts (6.7%). A persistent gap in health-care coverage exists between low- and high-income workers. The identified characteristics of these workers can be used to implement policies to expand health insurance coverage.

  20. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional 150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging 7 days per month during winter and 2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  1. Partial-coverage posterior ceramic restorations. Part 1: a return to diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W H

    2001-01-01

    The application of multisurfaced tooth-colored restorations in the posterior dentition is an exercise in risk tolerance when dentin occupies the bulk of the tooth substrate. Not only is interfacial integrity capricious, but also a recent in vivo study has confirmed that dentin bond strengths deteriorate with time. Although the literature is replete with esthetic guidelines for posterior restitution, most practicing clinicians appreciate the prime tenet that clinical success involves more than esthetic realism in the posterior dentition. Success with indirect ceramic restorations is dependent on interfacial integrity, which, although multitudinous, is contingently related to operative competence. Innovative clinical techniques are described in this two-part article, along with a discussion of the probationary status of current adhesive options and the need for excellence in all phases of this demanding restorative sequence. Restorative success in the posterior dentition is profoundly influenced by the variability of operative competence and diligence. This article discusses the precincts of posterior indirect ceramic restorations and submits a number of innovative solutions to the clinical challenge.

  2. Costs in the coverage gap

    Science.gov (United States)

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  3. Drug Coverage (Part D)

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    ... Glossary MyMedicare.gov Login Search Main Menu , collapsed Main Menu Sign Up / Change Plans Getting started with ... setup: setupNotifier, notify: notify }; lrNotifier.setup(); $("#menu-btn, li.toolbarmenu .toolbarmenu-a").click(function() { // var isExpanded = ' is ...

  4. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  5. Study of natural convection characteristics in a narrow annular gap in (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahara, Nobuyuki; Uotani, Masaki; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1986-01-01

    To clarify the characteristics of natural convection in a narrow annular gap at the roof-slab penetrations in pool-type LMFBR, preliminary and visualization experiments were carried out. The results are summarized as follows. (1) In the preliminary experiment having the upper and bottom closed annular space nondimensional circumferential temperature difference increases with gap width decreasing, and decreses with Rayleigh number increasing at the range of rayleigh number 10 10 to 10 11 . (2) In the visualization experiment, which consists the upper and bottom closed annular space type apparatus and the upper-closed bottom-open type apparatus, flow pattern and its effect at temperature distribution are clarified. (author)

  6. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part I: Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of barrier position on breakdown voltage in air dielectric has been investigated. Needle and Cone positive point electrodes were used and the effects of electrode curvature on barrier position for maximum breakdown voltage were compared, with air gap for the point to plane electrode fixed at 10 cm for all the ...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in his name alone. What is the insurance coverage? Answer: The two accounts are added together and... Question: Member C College maintains three separate accounts with the same credit union under the titles...: Since all of the funds are the property of the college, the three accounts are added together and...

  8. Finding the gap: revealing local disparities in coverage of maternal, newborn and child health services in South Sudan using lot quality assurance sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Berendes, Sima; Lako, Richard; Gould, Simon; Vargas, William; Milner, Susan

    2015-12-01

    We adapted a rapid monitoring method to South Sudan, a new nation with one of the world's highest maternal and child mortality rates, aiming to assess coverage of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) services at the time of independence, and introducing a monitoring and evaluation system (M&E) for equity-sensitive tracking of progress related to Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5 at national, state and county levels to detect local variability. We conducted a national cross-sectional household survey among women from six client populations in all, but six of South Sudan's 79 counties. We used lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) to measure coverage with diverse MNCH indicators to obtain information for national-, state- and county-level health system management decision-making. National coverage of MNCH services was low for all maternal and neonatal care, child immunisation, and child care indicators. However, results varied across states and counties. Central Equatoria State (CES), where the capital is located, showed the highest coverage for most indicators (e.g. ≥4 antenatal care visits range: 4.5% in Jonglei to 40.1% in CES). Urban counties often outperformed rural ones. This adaptation of LQAS to South Sudan demonstrates how it can be used in the future as an M&E system to track progress of MDGs at national, state and county levels to detect local disparities. Overall, our data reveal a desperate need for improving MNCH service coverage in all states. © 2015 The Authors.Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The challenges and opportunities of translating best practice immunisation strategies among low performing general practices to reduce equity gaps in childhood immunisation coverage in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki M; Charania, Nadia A; Chong, Angela; Stewart, Joanna; Taylor, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Immunisation coverage rates vary considerably at the local level across New Zealand and challenges remain with effectively translating best available research evidence into public health practice. This study aimed to translate best practices from high performing general practices into strategies to improve childhood immunisation coverage among low performing practices. An intervention study was undertaken of general practices with low immunisation coverage rates and a high percentage of the enrolled population being of Māori ethnicity. Intervention groups received customised action plans and support for a 12 month period while control groups received 'business as usual' support. Structured interviews were conducted with key informants from all participating practices to understand current aspects related to childhood immunisation delivery and surveys were conducted to understand how the intervention worked. Collected data were thematically analysed. Ten sites were randomised to either intervention ( n  = 6) or control group ( n  = 4). Positive aspects of childhood immunisation delivery included high prioritisation at the practice and staff being pro-immunisation and knowledgeable. Key challenges experienced included inaccurate family contact information and discrepancies with referral processes to other providers. Other challenges noted were building rapport with families and vaccine hesitancy. The action plans included various strategies aimed to improve processes at the practice, contact and engagement with parents, and partnership development with local service providers. Creating customised action plans and providing support to providers were considered as helpful approaches when attempting to improve childhood immunisation coverage rates. Our study supports the notion that one strategy will not solely by itself improve childhood immunisation rates and highlights the importance of having a toolkit of strategies from which to draw from.

  10. Part-time wage-gap in Germany: Evidence across the wage distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tõnurist, Piret; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses insights from labour-market segmentation theory to investigate the wage differences between part-time and full-time workers in Germany at different parts of the wage distribution. This is accomplished with the use of a quintile regression and panel data from the SOEP (1991-2008). To

  11. An advanced GAP/AN/TAGN propellant : part 2 : stability and storage life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, M.D. [Bristol Aerospace, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Badeen, C.M.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

    2007-07-15

    An advanced solid propellant was characterized. The propellant was based on a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) energetic binder with an ammonium nitrate (AN) oxidizer, and contained a significant percentage of triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN). Raw ingredient accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was performed to determine self-heating rates. Thermal stability and heat flow calorimetry tests were also conducted. Ballistic analyses were conducted to determine the propellant's burn rate. The propellant was designed to produce non-toxic and non-acidic exhaust products. Results of the tests indicated that the propellant is safe for prolonged storage. The study demonstrated that propellant samples can be heated to temperatures up to 175 degrees C for several hours without combustion response. A mass loss of 62 per cent was observed at temperatures between 160 and 230 degrees C. The samples ignited almost immediately after being placed in a pre-heated block at temperatures higher than 175 degrees C. The propellant's burn rate was approximately twice that of standard AN propellants. The propellant will be further evaluated as a candidate for the propulsion of tactical rockets and missiles. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Innovative nuclear fuels and applications. Part 1: limits of today's fuels and concepts for innovative fuels. Part 2: materials properties, irradiation performance and gaps in our knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.

    2000-01-01

    Part I of this contribution on innovative nuclear fuels gives a summary of current developments and problems of today's fuels, i.e. enriched UO 2 and UO 2 with a few % of PUO 2 (MOX fuel) or Gd 2 O 3 (as burnable neutron poison). The problems and property changes caused by high burnups (e.g. degradation of the thermal conductivity, polygonization or formation of the rim-structure) are discussed. Subsequently, the concepts for new fuels to burn excess Pu and to achieve an effective transmutation of the minor actinides Np, Am and Cm are treated. The criteria for the choice of suitable fuels and different fuel types (high Pu-content fuels, nitrides, U-free fuels, inert matrix supported fuels, cercers, cermets, etc.) are discussed. Part II of this contribution on innovative nuclear fuels deals with the properties of relevance of the different materials suggested to be used in innovative fuels which range from pure actinide fuel such as PuN and AmO 2 to spinel MgAl 2 O 4 and zircon ZrSiO 4 for inert matrix-based fuels, etc. The available knowledge on materials research aspects is summarized with emphasis on the physics of radiation damage. It is shown that significant gaps in the present knowledge exist, e.g. for the minor actinide compounds, and suggestions are made to fill these gaps in order to achieve a sufficient data base to design and operate suitable innovative fuels in a near future. (author)

  13. Percent Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Percent Coverage is a spreadsheet that keeps track of and compares the number of vessels that have departed with and without observers to the numbers of vessels...

  14. Gap Flows through Idealized Topography. Part I: Forcing by Large-Scale Winds in the Nonrotating Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabersek, Sasa.; Durran, Dale R.

    2004-12-01

    Gap winds produced by a uniform airstream flowing over an isolated flat-top ridge cut by a straight narrow gap are investigated by numerical simulation. On the scale of the entire barrier, the proportion of the oncoming flow that passes through the gap is relatively independent of the nondimensional mountain height , even over that range of for which there is the previously documented transition from a “flow over the ridge” regime to a “flow around” regime.The kinematics and dynamics of the gap flow itself were investigated by examining mass and momentum budgets for control volumes at the entrance, central, and exit regions of the gap. These analyses suggest three basic behaviors: the linear regime (small ) in which there is essentially no enhancement of the gap flow; the mountain wave regime ( 1.5) in which vertical mass and momentum fluxes play a crucial role in creating very strong winds near the exit of the gap; and the upstream-blocking regime ( 5) in which lateral convergence generates the strongest winds near the entrance of the gap.Trajectory analysis of the flow in the strongest events, the mountain wave events, confirms the importance of net subsidence in creating high wind speeds. Neglect of vertical motion in applications of Bernoulli's equation to gap flows is shown to lead to unreasonable wind speed predictions whenever the temperature at the gap exit exceeds that at the gap entrance. The distribution of the Bernoulli function on an isentropic surface shows a correspondence between regions of high Bernoulli function and high wind speeds in the gap-exit jet similar to that previously documented for shallow-water flow.

  15. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  16. Functional coverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

  17. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  18. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, D.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Endrayanto, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells

  19. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Öncel

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  20. Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Weeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We assess how changes in the social organization and compensation of work hours over the last three decades are associated with changes in wage differentials among mothers, fathers, childless women, and childless men. We find that large differences between gender and parental status groups in long work hours (fifty or more per week, coupled with sharply rising hourly wages for long work hours, contributed to rising gender gaps in wages (especially among parents, motherhood wage penalties, and fatherhood wage premiums. Changes in the representation of these groups in part-time work, by contrast, is associated with a decline in the gender gap in wages among parents and in the motherhood wage penalty, but an increase in the fatherhood wage premium. These findings offer important clues into why gender and family wage differentials still persist.

  1. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  2. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  3. RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 1: Evidence analysis and consensus process: collaborative path toward small animal CPR guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Manuel; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    To describe the methodology used by the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) to evaluate the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR and to compose consensus-based clinical CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This report is part of a series of 7 articles on the RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis and consensus-based small animal CPR guidelines. It describes the organizational structure of RECOVER, the evaluation process employed, consisting of standardized literature searches, the analysis of relevant articles according to study design, species and predefined quality markers, and the drafting of clinical CPR guidelines based on these data. Therefore, this article serves as the methodology section for the subsequent 6 RECOVER articles. Academia, referral practice. RECOVER is a collaborative initiative that systematically evaluated the evidence on 74 topics relevant to small animal CPR and generated 101 clinical CPR guidelines from this analysis. All primary contributors were veterinary specialists, approximately evenly split between academic institutions and private referral practices. The evidence evaluation and guideline drafting processes were conducted according to a predefined sequence of steps designed to reduce bias and increase the repeatability of the findings, including multiple levels of review, culminating in a consensus process. Many knowledge gaps were identified that will allow prioritization of research efforts in veterinary CPR. Collaborative systematic evidence review is organizationally challenging but feasible and effective in veterinary medicine. More experience is needed to refine the process. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  4. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA studied in previous laboratory experiments generally showed only slight hygroscopic growth, but a much better activity as a CCN (Cloud Condensation Nucleus than indicated by the hygroscopic growth. This discrepancy was examined at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, using a portable generator that produced SOA particles from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, and adding butanol or butanol and water vapor during some of the experiments. The light scattering signal of dry SOA-particles was measured by the LACIS optical particle spectrometer and was used to derive a refractive index for SOA of 1.45. LACIS also measured the hygroscopic growth of SOA particles up to 99.6% relative humidity (RH, and a CCN counter was used to measure the particle activation. SOA-particles were CCN active with critical diameters of e.g. 100 nm and 55 nm at super-saturations of 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. But only slight hygroscopic growth with hygroscopic growth factors ≤1.05 was observed at RH<98% RH. At RH>98%, the hygroscopic growth increased stronger than would be expected if a constant hygroscopicity parameter for the particle/droplet solution was assumed. An increase of the hygroscopicity parameter by a factor of 4–6 was observed in the RH-range from below 90% to 99.6%, and this increase continued for increasingly diluted particle solutions for activating particles. This explains an observation already made in the past: that the relation between critical super-saturation and dry diameter for activation is steeper than what would be expected for a constant value of the hygroscopicity. Combining measurements of hygroscopic growth and activation, it was found that the surface tension that has to be assumed to interpret the measurements consistently is greater than 55 mN/m, possibly close to that of pure water, depending on the different SOA-types produced, and therefore only in part accounts for the discrepancy

  5. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  6. Pension coverage among the baby boomers: initial findings from a 1993 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J R

    1994-01-01

    Using data from a series of supplements to the Current Population Survey, this article presents findings on workers' coverage under employer-sponsored retirement plans in 1993, and recent trends in coverage. The analysis focuses on workers 25-54, a group that includes the baby boom generation. Among all wage and salary workers in this age range (including government employees and part-time workers), 55 percent reported participating in a retirement plan on their current primary jobs, and an additional 3 percent were covered from other jobs. After a modest decline in the early 1980's, the coverage rate has remained essentially unchanged over the past 10 years, and limited data suggest that the baby boomers are doing about as well on pension coverage as older workers at similar points in their careers. Beneath this relative stability in overall coverage, however, at least two important changes have occurred: a significant narrowing of the gender gap in coverage and a shift in types of retirement plans. Increasing numbers of workers are being covered solely by 401(k)-type plans, a development that raises new uncertainties about the form and amount of future benefits. On the other hand, limited data in this study suggest that 401(k) plans may be serving their intended purpose for the majority of workers who have them.

  7. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results. Part II; Cloud Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.

  8. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA) and identify underserved populations and ...

  9. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  10. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  11. Effect of hydrogenation on the band gap of graphene nano-flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Iyama, Tetsuji; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hydrogenation on the band gap of graphene have been investigated by means of density functional theory method. It is generally considered that the band gap increases with increasing coverage of hydrogen atom on the graphene. However, the present study shows that the band gap decreases first with increasing hydrogen coverage and reaches the lowest value at finite coverage (γ = 0.3). Next, the band gap increases to that of insulator with coverage from 0.3 to 1.0. This specific feature of the band gap is reasonably explained by broken symmetry model and the decrease of pi-conjugation. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphene are discussed. - Highlights: • Density functional theory calculations were carried out for hydrogen on graphene • Effects of hydrogenation on the band gap of graphene were examined. • The band gap showed a minimum at a finite coverage. • Mechanism of specific band gap feature was discussed

  12. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  13. Incorporating shrub and snag specific LiDAR data into GAP wildlife models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J Lorenz; Kerri T Vierling; Jody Vogeler; Jeffrey Lonneker; Jocelyn Aycrigg

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Gap Analysis Program (hereafter, GAP) is a nationally based program that uses land cover, vertebrate distributions, and land ownership to identify locations where gaps in conservation coverage exist, and GAP products are commonly used by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and private citizens. The GAP land-cover...

  14. Filling the gap in the European administrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Ellen; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    European administrative networks (EANs) are a key building block of the European Administrative Space (EAS). Crucially, they are to fill the gap between the EU’s policy ambitions and its limited administrative capacities. Whereas ample research has been done on policy preparation networks, the role...... of implementing EANs has received less attention in the EAS literature. This article fills this gap by providing a systematic review of relevant insights in four adjacent literatures: EU governance; international relations; public administration; and EU compliance. Employing a systematic literature review......, it reports divergent findings on EAN establishment, functioning and impact, as well as variant normative evaluations. These variant findings partly relate to a lack of comparative research, selective policy coverage and predominant focus on North-western states. We conclude by suggesting a number of lines...

  15. The insurance industry and unconventional gas development: Gaps and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherell, Daniel; Evensen, Darrick

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly growing and controversial practice of natural gas development by horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) faces a severe environmental insurance deficit at the industry level. Part of this deficit is arguably inherent to the process, whereas another part is caused by current risk information shortfalls on the processes and impacts associated with development. In the short and long terms, there are several conventional and unconventional methods by which industry-level and governmental-level policy can insure against these risks. Whilst academic attention has been afforded to the potential risks associated with unconventional natural gas development, little consideration has been given to the lack of insurance opportunities against these risks or to the additional risks promulgated by the dearth of insurance options. We chronicle the ways in which insurance options are limited due to unconventional gas development, the problems caused by lack of insurance offerings, and we highlight potential policy remedies for addressing these gaps, including a range of government- and industry-specific approaches. - Highlights: •A gap exists in provision of liability insurance for ‘fracking’-related risks. •The market gap is due primarily to uncertainties about probabilistic risk. •Insurance for risks similar to ‘fracking’ highlight potential policy options. •Government regulation and/or industry agreements can effectively fill the gap. •Policies on insurance and liability coverage necessitate ethical considerations.

  16. AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherai Dana Simona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme – It is know that the large public and auditors hold different beliefs about the auditors’ duties and responsibilities. In this conditions audit expectation gap represents that level of expectation that remains uncovered. In this study paper, audit expectation gap represents the difference between the achievements of public auditors and the expectations that general public (students have beyond those responsibility. Purpose – The evolution of audit expectation gap has been examined in various countries, but the extent of the concept has not been investigated so much in public area. This study attempts to assess the perceptions of possible future auditors, students, regarding the existence of expectation gap in public area. Literature review – A review of the literature identifies many researches who define the concept since was given the first definition of audit expectation gap as the difference between the levels of expected performance and the results that auditors give, but just a few analysis the public area using students’ knowledge to understand the perception of future users of accounting information or potential bidders of accounting information. Methodology – This paper represents the beginning of a broader study that will be part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Organization and exercise of public audit in Romania”, started in 2009 at University Babes Bolyai from Cluj Napoca, coordinated by PhD Professor Matis Dumitru. The aim of this paper is to explore the findings of an empirical study, made on 352 students, were the primary data used were obtained through a questionnaire technique regarding the audit expectation gap in the public sector in Romania, looking into future to obtain responses using a larger respondent group. Findings – A reasonableness gap was uncovered, there is a gap between the expectation of students regarding the public auditors' profession and their results and there are differences

  17. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  18. Discontinuity of Medicaid Coverage: Impact on Cost and Utilization Among Adult Medicaid Beneficiaries With Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xu; Wilk, Adam S; Druss, Benjamin G; Lally, Cathy; Cummings, Janet R

    2017-08-01

    Gaps in Medicaid coverage may disrupt access to and continuity of care. This can be detrimental for beneficiaries with chronic conditions, such as major depression, for whom disruptions in access to outpatient care may lead to increased use of acute care. However, little is known about how Medicaid coverage discontinuities impact acute care utilization among adults with depression. Examine the relationship between Medicaid discontinuities and service utilization among adults with major depression. A total of 139,164 adults (18-64) with major depression was identified using the 2003-2004 Medicaid Analytic eXtract Files. We used generalized linear and two-part models to examine the effect of Medicaid discontinuity on service utilization. To establish causality in this relationship, we used instrumental variables analysis, relying on exogenous variation in a state-level policy for identification. Emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient episodes, inpatient days, and Medicaid-reimbursed costs. Approximately 29.4% of beneficiaries experienced coverage disruptions. In instrumental variables models, those with coverage disruptions incurred an increase of $650 in acute care costs per-person per Medicaid-covered month compared with those with continuous coverage, evidenced by an increase in ED use (0.1 more ED visits per-person-month) and inpatient days (0.6 more days per-person-month). The increase in acute costs contributed to an overall increase in all-cause costs by $310 per-person-month (all P-valuesMedicaid coverage may help prevent acute episodes requiring high-cost interventions.

  19. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  20. State Medicaid Coverage, ESRD Incidence, and Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Mitani, Aya A.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of low-income nonelderly adults covered by Medicaid varies widely by state. We sought to determine whether broader state Medicaid coverage, defined as the proportion of each state’s low-income nonelderly adult population covered by Medicaid, associates with lower state-level incidence of ESRD and greater access to care. The main outcomes were incidence of ESRD and five indicators of access to care. We identified 408,535 adults aged 20–64 years, who developed ESRD between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008. Medicaid coverage among low-income nonelderly adults ranged from 12.2% to 66.0% (median 32.5%). For each additional 10% of the low-income nonelderly population covered by Medicaid, there was a 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.0% to 2.6%) decrease in ESRD incidence. Among nonelderly adults with ESRD, gaps in access to care between those with private insurance and those with Medicaid were narrower in states with broader coverage. For a 50-year-old white woman, the access gap to the kidney transplant waiting list between Medicaid and private insurance decreased by 7.7 percentage points in high (>45%) versus low (Medicaid coverage states. Similarly, the access gap to transplantation decreased by 4.0 percentage points and the access gap to peritoneal dialysis decreased by 3.8 percentage points in high Medicaid coverage states. In conclusion, states with broader Medicaid coverage had a lower incidence of ESRD and smaller insurance-related access gaps. PMID:24652791

  1. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  2. 12 CFR 717.20 - Coverage and definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.20 Coverage and definitions (a) Coverage. Subpart C of this part applies...-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed agent, and a consumer based on— (A) A financial contract...

  3. 12 CFR 571.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 571.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of this part applies to... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed...

  4. Greedy Sparse Approaches for Homological Coverage in Location Unaware Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-08

    problems (e.g., coverage hole detection, coverage verification , hole local- ization, and so on; see Section 2 for more details). The sparse coverage...10,17,20–25 2. detection or verification of coverage (i.e., ensuring there is no coverage gap or hole),11,12,26–29 3 Approved for public release...v))) = 0 then Broadcast self as candidate for collapse to neighbors if All neighboring nodes broadcast themselves as non-candidates then v not needed

  5. Tunnel technique with connective tissue graft versus coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative for root coverage: a RCT using 3D digital measuring methods. Part II. Volumetric studies on healing dynamics and gingival dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebele, Stephan F; Zuhr, Otto; Schneider, David; Jung, Ronny E; Hürzeler, Markus B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to compare the clinical performance of the tunnel technique with subepithelial connective tissue graft (TUN) versus a coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession defects. The use of innovative 3D digital measuring methods allowed to study healing dynamics at connective tissue (CT)-grafted sites and to evaluate the influence of the thickness of the root covering soft tissues on the outcome of surgical root coverage. Twenty-four patients contributed a total of 47 Miller class I or II recessions for scientific evaluation. Precise study models collected at baseline and follow-up examinations were optically scanned and virtually superimposed for digital evaluation of clinical outcome measures including mean marginal soft tissue thickness (THK). Healing dynamics were measured in a defined region of interest at CT-grafted sites where volume differences between time points were calculated. At 12 months, recession reduction as well as mean root coverage were significantly better at CT-grafted sites treated in the TUN group (1.94 mm and 98.4% respectively) compared to the non-augmented sites of the CAF group (1.17 mm and 71.8% respectively) and statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of THK (1.63 mm TUN versus 0.91 mm CAF, p tissue healing following surgical root coverage with CT-grafting was mainly accomplished after 6 months, with around two-thirds of the augmented volume being maintained after 12 months. The TUN resulted in thicker gingiva and better clinical outcomes compared to CAF. Increased gingival thickness was associated with better surgical outcomes in terms of recession reduction and root coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its convenience for providers and women, cost effectiveness, and high acceptability ... Using data from the 2012 SA National HIV Prevalence, Incidence ... Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. ... 7 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK.

  7. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schubert, Kirsten; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053).In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH

  8. 14 CFR 440.13 - Standard conditions of insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... against that licensee, permittee or additional insured). (5) Each exclusion from coverage must be...; or (ii) Includes in each of its policies or insurance obtained under this part a contract clause in...

  9. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...

  10. Wisps in the outer edge of the Keeler Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Arnault, Ethan G.

    2015-11-01

    Superposed upon the relatively smooth outer edge of the Keeler Gap are a system of "wisps," which appear to be ring material protruding inward into the gap, usually with a sharp trailing edge and a smooth gradation back to the background edge location on the leading side (Porco et al. 2005, Science). The radial amplitude of wisps is usually 0.5 to 1 km, and their azimuthal extent is approximately a degree of longitude (~2400 km). Wisps are likely caused by an interplay between Daphnis (and perhaps other moons) and embedded moonlets within the ring, though the details remain unclear.Aside from the wisps, the Keeler Gap outer edge is the only one of the five sharp edges in the outer part of Saturn's A ring that is reasonably smooth in appearance (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), with occultations indicating residuals less than 1 km upon a possibly non-zero eccentricity (R.G. French, personal communication, 2014). The other four (the inner and outer edges of the Encke Gap, the inner edge of the Keeler Gap, and the outer edge of the A ring itself) are characterized by wavy structure at moderate to high spatial frequencies, with amplitudes ranging from 2 to 30 km (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS).We will present a catalogue of wisp detections in Cassini images. We carry out repeated gaussian fits of the radial edge location in order to characterize edge structure and visually scan those fitted edges in order to detect wisps. With extensive coverage in longitude and in time, we will report on how wisps evolve and move, both within an orbit period and on longer timescales. We will also report on the frequency and interpretation of wisps that deviate from the standard morphology. We will discuss the implications of our results for the origin and nature of wisps, and for the larger picture of how masses interact within Saturn's rings.

  11. The homeownership gap

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Haughwout; Richard Peach; Joseph Tracy

    2009-01-01

    After rising for a decade, the U.S. homeownership rate peaked at 69 percent in the third quarter of 2006. Over the next two and a half years, as home prices fell in many parts of the country and the unemployment rate rose sharply, the homeownership rate declined by 1.7 percentage points. An important question is, how much more will this rate decline over the current economic downturn? To address this question, we propose the concept of the 'homeownership gap' as a gauge of downward pressure o...

  12. Young Adults’ Selection and Use of Dependent Coverage under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependent coverage expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA required health insurance policies that cover dependents to offer coverage for policyholder’ children up to age 26. It has been well documented that the provision successfully reduced the uninsured rate among the young adults. However, less is known about whether dependent coverage crowded out other insurance types and whether young adults used dependent coverage as a fill-in-the-gap short-term option. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation 2008 Panel, the paper assesses dependent coverage uptake and duration before and after the ACA provision among young adults aged 19–26 versus those aged 27–30. Regressions for additional coverage outcomes were also performed to estimate the crowd-out rate. It was found that the ACA provision had a significant positive impact on dependent coverage uptake and duration. The estimated crowd-out rate ranges from 27 to 42%, depending on the definition. Most dependent coverage enrollees used the coverage for 1 or 2 years. Differences in dependent coverage uptake and duration remained among racial groups. Less healthy individuals were also less likely to make use of dependent coverage.

  13. Change of mobile network coverage in France from 29 August

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced.    From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site.  This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.

  14. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  15. Insurance Coverage for Rehabilitation Therapies and Association with Social Participation Outcomes among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Mansha; Kim, Yoonsang

    2016-01-01

    (1) To profile children's health insurance coverage rates for specific rehabilitation therapies; (2) to determine whether coverage for rehabilitation therapies is associated with social participation outcomes after adjusting for child and household characteristics; (3) to assess whether rehabilitation insurance differentially affects social participation of children with and without disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of secondary survey data on 756 children (ages 3-17) from 370 households living in low-income neighborhoods in a Midwestern U.S. city. Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models were estimated. Significantly higher proportions of children with disabilities had coverage for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech and language pathology, yet gaps in coverage were noted. Multivariate analysis indicated that rehabilitation insurance coverage was significantly associated with social participation (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.013-2.75). This trend was sustained in subgroup analysis. Findings support the need for comprehensive coverage of all essential services under children's health insurance programs.

  16. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  17. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  18. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  19. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job.

  20. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  1. Benard convection in gaps and cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    1981-04-01

    The article contains two parts. In the first part a condensed review of the most striking phenomena in Benard convection in laterally confined fluid layers is given. In the second part recent experimental and theoretical work on Benard convection in gaps is presented an analysed. (orig.) [de

  2. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  3. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s –1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  4. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  5. Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Waldfogel

    1998-01-01

    As the gender gap in pay between women and men has been narrowing, the 'family gap' in pay between mothers and nonmothers has been widening. One reason may be the institutional structure in the United States, which has emphasized equal pay and opportunity policies but not family policies, in contrast to other countries that have implemented both. The authors now have evidence on the links between one such family policy and women's pay. Recent research suggests that maternity leave coverage, b...

  6. German press coverage of former Yugoslavia after the fall of Miloševic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Annabring

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades any war that received considerable attention in the Western public (like the wars in Vietnam, in the Gulf, in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan or Iraq has been followed by numerous studies analyzing media coverage during the war. In marked contrast, studies examining the media’s coverage of post-war or post-conflict processes are hard to find. This paper attempts to reduce this gap by presenting the results of both a quantitative and a qualitative study of German press coverage of former Yugoslavia from the fall of Miloševic in October 2000 up to the agreement between Serbia and Montenegro in March 2002. While Germany was part of the alliance that bombed Serbia in 1999 to stop Miloševic’s policy in Kosovo, the fall of Miloševic implied a new beginning in the relationship between Germany and Yugoslavia that started a transition to democracy at that time. The aim of the quantitative study was to analyze how the German media covered this process of rapprochement, democratization and reconciliation. How flexible was the German press in covering changing political situations? Did the media contribute to the constructive transformation of the Yugoslavian conflict? A selection of 483 articles from the Frankfurter Rundschau – exemplary for the German quality press – were chosen for analysis with a modified coding scheme developed and used earlier by this peace research group (Kempf et al., 1999. Latent Class Analysis was used as the evaluation method. The results show that coverage of confrontational behavior and a critical evaluation of Serbia is still common in the postwar period, but there is also significant support for and recognition of the democratic transition. The qualitative analysis gave particular attention to the identification of constructive, de-escalation-oriented aspects that journalists used in their reporting. A selection of 23 articles was drawn from five German quality newspapers, related to four

  7. Science coverage and the press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.

    1992-01-01

    The writer, a journalist, summarizes the discussion of the Chilton Seminar, February 1992, and discusses the problems of bridging the incomprehension gap between scientists and lay readers of the press. (Author)

  8. Further observations on comparison of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling and 30 cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Jain, D C; Sharma, R S; Verghese, T

    1996-06-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and standard EPI methodology (30 cluster sampling) were used to evaluate immunization coverage in a Primary Health Center (PHC) where coverage levels were reported to be more than 85%. Of 27 sub-centers (lots) evaluated by LQAS, only 2 were accepted for child coverage, whereas none was accepted for tetanus toxoid (TT) coverage in mothers. LQAS data were combined to obtain an estimate of coverage in the entire population; 41% (95% CI 36-46) infants were immunized appropriately for their ages, while 42% (95% CI 37-47) of their mothers had received a second/ booster dose of TT. TT coverage in 149 contemporary mothers sampled in EPI survey was also 42% (95% CI 31-52). Although results by the two sampling methods were consistent with each other, a big gap was evident between reported coverage (in children as well as mothers) and survey results. LQAS was found to be operationally feasible, but it cost 40% more and required 2.5 times more time than the EPI survey. LQAS therefore, is not a good substitute for current EPI methodology to evaluate immunization coverage in a large administrative area. However, LQAS has potential as method to monitor health programs on a routine basis in small population sub-units, especially in areas with high and heterogeneously distributed immunization coverage.

  9. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  10. Realizing Universal Health Coverage in East Africa: the relevance of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Maleche, Allan

    2017-08-03

    Applying a robust human rights framework would change thinking and decision-making in efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), and advance efforts to promote women's, children's, and adolescents' health in East Africa, which is a priority under the Sustainable Development Agenda. Nevertheless, there is a gap between global rhetoric of human rights and ongoing health reform efforts. This debate article seeks to fill part of that gap by setting out principles of human rights-based approaches (HRBAs), and then applying those principles to questions that countries undertaking efforts toward UHC and promoting women's, children's and adolescents' health, will need to face, focusing in particular on ensuring enabling legal and policy frameworks, establishing fair financing; priority-setting processes, and meaningful oversight and accountability mechanisms. In a region where democratic institutions are notoriously weak, we argue that the explicit application of a meaningful human rights framework could enhance equity, participation and accountability, and in turn the democratic legitimacy of health reform initiatives being undertaken in the region.

  11. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    influences the weather and climate of a place, thus acting as an ... earth by absorbing the most energetic part of the ... effect of cloud coverage on the surface ozone over. Kolkata. 2. ..... Burrows W R 1997 CART regression models for predicting.

  12. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human... effective and efficient operation of Government. As a part of OPM's overall leadership responsibilities in...

  13. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  14. 42 CFR 410.40 - Coverage of ambulance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., which are defined in § 414.605 of this chapter: (1) Basic life support (BLS) (emergency and nonemergency). (2) Advanced life support, level 1 (ALS1) (emergency and nonemergency). (3) Advanced life support... Coverage of ambulance services. (a). Basic rules. Medicare Part B covers ambulance services if the...

  15. Leveraging Simulation Against the F-16 Flying Training Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGrath, Shaun R

    2005-01-01

    .... Therefore, this myriad of constraints and restraints further hamstrings the peacetime mission essential competencies training gap driven in large part by concerns for personnel, equipment, and environmental safety...

  16. Root coverage with bridge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession in anterior teeth is a common concern due to esthetic reasons or root sensitivity. Gingival recession, especially in multiple anterior teeth, is of huge concern due to esthetic reasons. Various mucogingival surgeries are available for root coverage. This case report presents a new bridge flap technique, which allows the dentist not only to cover the previously denuded root surfaces but also to increase the zone of attached gingiva at a single step. In this case, a coronally advanced flap along with vestibular deepening technique was used as root coverage procedure for the treatment of multiple recession-type defect. Here, vestibular deepening technique is used to increase the width of the attached gingiva. The predictability of this procedure results in an esthetically healthy periodontium, along with gain in keratinized tissue and good patient′s acceptance.

  17. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  18. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  19. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  20. [Quantification of acetabular coverage in normal adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R M; Yang, C Y; Yu, C Y; Yang, C R; Chang, G L; Chou, Y L

    1991-03-01

    Quantification of acetabular coverage is important and can be expressed by superimposition of cartilage tracings on the maximum cross-sectional area of the femoral head. A practical Autolisp program on PC AutoCAD has been developed by us to quantify the acetabular coverage through numerical expression of the images of computed tomography. Thirty adults (60 hips) with normal center-edge angle and acetabular index in plain X ray were randomly selected for serial drops. These slices were prepared with a fixed coordination and in continuous sections of 5 mm in thickness. The contours of the cartilage of each section were digitized into a PC computer and processed by AutoCAD programs to quantify and characterize the acetabular coverage of normal and dysplastic adult hips. We found that a total coverage ratio of greater than 80%, an anterior coverage ratio of greater than 75% and a posterior coverage ratio of greater than 80% can be categorized in a normal group. Polar edge distance is a good indicator for the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative coverage conditions. For standardization and evaluation of acetabular coverage, the most suitable parameters are the total coverage ratio, anterior coverage ratio, posterior coverage ratio and polar edge distance. However, medial coverage and lateral coverage ratios are indispensable in cases of dysplastic hip because variations between them are so great that acetabuloplasty may be impossible. This program can also be used to classify precisely the type of dysplastic hip.

  1. Disparities in Private Health Insurance Coverage of Skilled Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Tovino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and

  2. Towards universal health coverage: the role of within-country wealth-related inequality in 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Victora, Cesar G; Bergen, Nicole; Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties

    2011-12-01

    To measure within-country wealth-related inequality in the health service coverage gap of maternal and child health indicators in sub-Saharan Africa and quantify its contribution to the national health service coverage gap. Coverage data for child and maternal health services in 28 sub-Saharan African countries were obtained from the 2000-2008 Demographic Health Survey. For each country, the national coverage gap was determined for an overall health service coverage index and select individual health service indicators. The data were then additively broken down into the coverage gap in the wealthiest quintile (i.e. the proportion of the quintile lacking a required health service) and the population attributable risk (an absolute measure of within-country wealth-related inequality). In 26 countries, within-country wealth-related inequality accounted for more than one quarter of the national overall coverage gap. Reducing such inequality could lower this gap by 16% to 56%, depending on the country. Regarding select individual health service indicators, wealth-related inequality was more common in services such as skilled birth attendance and antenatal care, and less so in family planning, measles immunization, receipt of a third dose of vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and treatment of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age. The contribution of wealth-related inequality to the child and maternal health service coverage gap differs by country and type of health service, warranting case-specific interventions. Targeted policies are most appropriate where high within-country wealth-related inequality exists, and whole-population approaches, where the health-service coverage gap is high in all quintiles.

  3. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  4. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  5. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  6. Myopic and Forward Looking Behavior in Branded Oral Anti-Diabetic Medication Consumption: An Example from Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Naomi C; Burgess, James F; Cabral, Howard J; Pizer, Steven D

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate consumption responses to the non-linear Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. We compare propensity-matched older patients with diabetes and Part D Standard or low-income-subsidy (LIS) coverage. We evaluate monthly adherence to branded oral anti-diabetics, with high end-of-year donut hole prices (>$200) for Standard patients and consistent, low (≤$6) prices for LIS. As an additional control, we examine adherence to generic anti-diabetics, with relatively low, consistent prices for Standard patients. If Standard patients are forward looking, they will reduce branded adherence in January, and LIS-Standard differences will be constant through the year. Contrary to this expectation, branded adherence is lower for Standard patients in January and diverges from LIS as the coverage year progresses. Standard-LIS generic adherence differences are minimal. Our findings suggest that seniors with chronic conditions respond myopically to the nonlinear Part D benefit, reducing consumption in response to high deductible, initial coverage and gap prices. Thus, when the gap is fully phased out in 2020, cost-related nonadherence will likely remain in the face of higher spot prices for more costly branded medications. These results contribute to studies of Part D plan choice and medication adherence that suggest that seniors may not make optimal healthcare decisions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  8. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  9. Understanding the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Claudia

    1985-01-01

    Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…

  10. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  11. 5 CFR 890.1106 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... family member is an individual whose relationship to the enrollee meets the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 8901... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Temporary Continuation of Coverage § 890.1106 Coverage. (a) Type of enrollment. An individual who enrolls under this subpart may elect coverage for self alone or self and family...

  12. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and includes...

  13. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 801.3 Section 801.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any...

  14. Realizing right to health through universal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJALI Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of right to health is an essential step to work towards improvement of public health and to attain highest standard of physical and mental health of the people. Right to health in India is implicit part of right to life under Article 19 mentioned in the Constitution of India but is not recognized per se. Universal Health Coverage adopts rights based approach and principles of universality, equity, empowerment and comprehensiveness of care. The Universal Coverage Report of India makes recommendations in six identified areas to revamp the health systems in order to ensure right to health of Indians. These areas are: health financing and financial protection; health service norms; human resources for health; community participation and citizen engagement; access to medicines, vaccines and techno- logy; management and institutional reforms. This paper attempts to determine the ways inwhich Universal Health Coverage can make a contribution in realizing right to health and thus human rights in developing countries.

  15. Method for Bubbledeck Concrete Slab with Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Călin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite slabs are made of BubbleDeck type slab elements with spherical gaps, poured in place on transversal and longitudinal directions. By introducing the gaps leads to a 30...50\\% lighter slab which reduces the loads on the columns, walls and foundations, and of course of the entire building. BubbleDeck slab elements are plates with ribs on two directions made of reinforced concrete or precast concrete with spherical shaped bubbles. These slab elements have a bottom and an upper concrete part connected with vertical ribs that go around the gaps.

  16. Enhancing Political Will for Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregbeshola, Bolaji S

    2017-01-01

    Universal health coverage aims to increase equity in access to quality health care services and to reduce financial risk due to health care costs. It is a key component of international health agenda and has been a subject of worldwide debate. Despite differing views on its scope and pathways to reach it, there is a global consensus that all countries should work toward universal health coverage. The goal remains distant for many African countries, including Nigeria. This is mostly due to lack of political will and commitment among political actors and policymakers. Evidence from countries such as Ghana, Chile, Mexico, China, Thailand, Turkey, Rwanda, Vietnam and Indonesia, which have introduced at least some form of universal health coverage scheme, shows that political will and commitment are key to the adoption of new laws and regulations for reforming coverage. For Nigeria to improve people's health, reduce poverty and achieve prosperity, universal health coverage must be vigorously pursued at all levels. Political will and commitment to these goals must be expressed in legal mandates and be translated into policies that ensure increased public health care financing for the benefit of all Nigerians. Nigeria, as part of a global system, cannot afford to lag behind in striving for this overarching health goal.

  17. Understanding the Adolescent Gap in HIV Testing Among Clients of Antenatal Care Services in West and Central African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    New HIV infections among children have declined significantly more slowly in West and central African countries (WCA) than in eastern and southern African countries between 2009 and 2015. Since adolescent fertility is particularly high in WCA countries, frequent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV may in part be due to low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents during antenatal care (ANC). We investigated this adolescent gap in HIV testing using survey data from the demographic and health surveys and multiple indicators cluster surveys collected in 21 WCA countries since 2009. We found significant adolescent gaps in HIV testing in 12 out of 21 WCA countries, with the largest gap observed in Nigeria. In countries with a significant adolescent gap in HIV testing, we used Fairlie decompositions to assess what proportion of these gaps were explained by age-related differences in the distribution of (a) marital status, (b) socioeconomic status (SES), (c) MTCT-related knowledge, and (d) patterns of ANC utilization. Differences in SES and MTCT-related knowledge were the most consistent determinants of adolescent gaps in HIV testing during ANC. Differences in ANC utilization (e.g., fewer and possibly delayed ANC visits) also contributed to the adolescent gap in 8 out of 12 countries. Interventions that improve knowledge of MTCT risks, and/or promote the sustained use of ANC services, could help engage HIV-infected adolescents who become pregnant in PMTCT services. Targeting these interventions at the most disadvantaged households will be crucial in further reducing HIV infections among children.

  18. The potential of satellite-observed crop phenology to enhance yield gap assessments in smallholder landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M A Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the undernourished people on the planet obtain their entitlements to food via agricultural-based livelihood strategies, often on underperforming croplands and smallholdings. In this context, expanding cropland extent is not a viable strategy for smallholders to meet their food needs. Therefore, attention must shift to increasing productivity on existing plots and ensuring yield gaps do not widen. Thus, supporting smallholder farmers to sustainably increase the productivity of their lands is one part of a complex solution to realising universal food security. However, the information (e.g. location and causes of cropland underperformance required to support measures to close yield gaps in smallholder landscapes are often not available. This paper reviews the potential of crop phenology, observed from satellites carrying remote sensing sensors, to fill this information gap. It is suggested that on a theoretical level phenological approaches can reveal greater intra-cropland thematic detail, and increase the accuracy of crop extent maps and crop yield estimates. However, on a practical level the spatial mismatch between the resolution at which crop phenology can be estimated from satellite remote sensing data and the scale of yield variability in smallholder croplands inhibits its use in this context. Similarly, the spatial coverage of remote sensing-derived phenology offers potential for integration with ancillary spatial datasets to identify causes of yield gaps. To reflect the complexity of smallholder cropping systems requires ancillary datasets at fine spatial resolutions which, often, are not available. This further precludes the use of crop phenology in attempts to unpick the causes of yield gaps. Research agendas should focus on generating fine spatial resolution crop phenology, either via data fusion or through new sensors (e.g. Sentinel-2 in smallholder croplands. This has potential to transform the applied use of remote sensing

  19. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK...... markets. Firstly, there was a decline in the transatlantic price gap but it was not sharp and the gap remained substantial. Secondly, the fall in the transatlantic price differential had more to do with improved market and marketing efficiency than with falling transport costs. Thirdly, spurious price...

  20. Housing Instability and Children's Health Insurance Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Anne; Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    To assess the extent to which housing instability is associated with gaps in health insurance coverage of preschool-age children. Secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children born in the United States in 2001, was conducted to investigate associations between unstable housing-homelessness, multiple moves, or living with others and not paying rent-and children's subsequent health insurance gaps. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. Ten percent of children were unstably housed at age 2, and 11% had a gap in health insurance between ages 2 and 4. Unstably housed children were more likely to have gaps in insurance compared to stably housed children (16% vs 10%). Controlling for potentially confounding factors, the odds of a child insurance gap were significantly higher in unstably housed families than in stably housed families (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61). The association was similar in alternative model specifications. In a US nationally representative birth cohort, children who were unstably housed at age 2 were at higher risk, compared to their stably housed counterparts, of experiencing health insurance gaps between ages 2 and 4 years. The findings from this study suggest that policy efforts to delink health insurance renewal processes from mailing addresses, and potentially routine screenings for housing instability as well as referrals to appropriate resources by pediatricians, would help unstably housed children maintain health insurance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  2. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  3. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  4. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  5. AUTOMATIC ROAD GAP DETECTION USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hashemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic feature extraction from aerial and satellite images is a high-level data processing which is still one of the most important research topics of the field. In this area, most of the researches are focused on the early step of road detection, where road tracking methods, morphological analysis, dynamic programming and snakes, multi-scale and multi-resolution methods, stereoscopic and multi-temporal analysis, hyper spectral experiments, are some of the mature methods in this field. Although most researches are focused on detection algorithms, none of them can extract road network perfectly. On the other hand, post processing algorithms accentuated on the refining of road detection results, are not developed as well. In this article, the main is to design an intelligent method to detect and compensate road gaps remained on the early result of road detection algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of five main steps as follow: 1 Short gap coverage: In this step, a multi-scale morphological is designed that covers short gaps in a hierarchical scheme. 2 Long gap detection: In this step, the long gaps, could not be covered in the previous stage, are detected using a fuzzy inference system. for this reason, a knowledge base consisting of some expert rules are designed which are fired on some gap candidates of the road detection results. 3 Long gap coverage: In this stage, detected long gaps are compensated by two strategies of linear and polynomials for this reason, shorter gaps are filled by line fitting while longer ones are compensated by polynomials.4 Accuracy assessment: In order to evaluate the obtained results, some accuracy assessment criteria are proposed. These criteria are obtained by comparing the obtained results with truly compensated ones produced by a human expert. The complete evaluation of the obtained results whit their technical discussions are the materials of the full paper.

  6. Automatic Road Gap Detection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S.; Valadan Zoej, M. J.; Mokhtarzadeh, M.

    2011-09-01

    Automatic feature extraction from aerial and satellite images is a high-level data processing which is still one of the most important research topics of the field. In this area, most of the researches are focused on the early step of road detection, where road tracking methods, morphological analysis, dynamic programming and snakes, multi-scale and multi-resolution methods, stereoscopic and multi-temporal analysis, hyper spectral experiments, are some of the mature methods in this field. Although most researches are focused on detection algorithms, none of them can extract road network perfectly. On the other hand, post processing algorithms accentuated on the refining of road detection results, are not developed as well. In this article, the main is to design an intelligent method to detect and compensate road gaps remained on the early result of road detection algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of five main steps as follow: 1) Short gap coverage: In this step, a multi-scale morphological is designed that covers short gaps in a hierarchical scheme. 2) Long gap detection: In this step, the long gaps, could not be covered in the previous stage, are detected using a fuzzy inference system. for this reason, a knowledge base consisting of some expert rules are designed which are fired on some gap candidates of the road detection results. 3) Long gap coverage: In this stage, detected long gaps are compensated by two strategies of linear and polynomials for this reason, shorter gaps are filled by line fitting while longer ones are compensated by polynomials.4) Accuracy assessment: In order to evaluate the obtained results, some accuracy assessment criteria are proposed. These criteria are obtained by comparing the obtained results with truly compensated ones produced by a human expert. The complete evaluation of the obtained results whit their technical discussions are the materials of the full paper.

  7. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  8. Wikipedia Culture Gap: Quantifying Content Imbalances Across 40 Language Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miquel-Ribé

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is the largest general information repository created through collaborative efforts from all over the globe. Despite the project's goal being to achieve the sum of human knowledge, there are strong content imbalances across the language editions. In order to quantify and investigate these imbalances, we study the impact of cultural context in 40 language editions. To this purpose, we developed a computational method to identify articles that can be related to the editors' cultural context associated to each Wikipedia language edition. We employed a combination of strategies taking into account geolocated articles, specific keywords and categories, as well as links between articles. We verified the method's quality with manual assessment and found an average precision of 0.92 and an average recall of 0.95. The results show that about a quarter of each Wikipedia language edition is dedicated to represent the corresponding cultural context. Although a considerable part of this content was created during the first years of the project, its creation is sustained over time. An analysis of cross-language coverage of this content shows that most of it is unique in its original language, and reveals special links between cultural contexts; at the same time, it highlights gaps where the encyclopedia could extend its content. The approach and findings presented in this study can help to foster participation and inter-cultural enrichment of Wikipedias. The datasets produced are made available for further research.

  9. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Providing Universal Health Insurance Coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter O; Brieger, William R

    2016-07-07

    Despite a stated goal of achieving universal coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme of Nigeria had achieved only 4% coverage 12 years after it was launched. This study assessed the plans of the National Health Insurance Scheme to achieve universal health insurance coverage in Nigeria by 2015 and discusses the challenges facing the scheme in achieving insurance coverage. In-depth interviews from various levels of the health-care system in the country, including providers, were conducted. The results of the analysis suggest that challenges to extending coverage include the difficulty in convincing autonomous state governments to buy into the scheme and an inadequate health workforce that might not be able to meet increased demand. Recommendations for increasing the scheme's coverage include increasing decentralization and strengthening human resources for health in the service delivery systems. Strong political will is needed as a catalyst to achieving these goals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  12. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  13. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance

  14. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  15. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H.; Ulrich, S.; Bangert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities q(\\hat{d}, \\hat{v}) of covering a specific target volume fraction \\hat{v} with a certain dose \\hat{d} . Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target volume objectives.

  16. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  17. 5 CFR 531.402 - Employee coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee coverage. 531.402 Section 531... GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.402 Employee coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this subpart applies to employees who— (1) Are classified and paid under the...

  18. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  20. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  1. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  2. Coverage matters: insurance and health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    ...? How does the system of insurance coverage in the U.S. operate, and where does it fail? The first of six Institute of Medicine reports that will examine in detail the consequences of having a large uninsured population, Coverage Matters...

  3. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  4. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  5. Deep coverage of the beer proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochalová, Martina; Konečná, Hana; Stejskal, Karel; Potěšil, David; Fridrichová, Danuše; Srbová, Eva; Ornerová, Kateřina; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2017-06-06

    We adopted an approach based on peptide immobilized pH gradient-isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) separation, coupled with LC-MS/MS, in order to maximize coverage of the beer proteome. A lager beer brewed using traditional Czech technology was degassed, desalted and digested. Tryptic peptides were separated by isoelectric focusing on an immobilized pH gradient strip and, after separation, the gel strip was divided into seven equally sized parts. Peptides extracted from gel fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This approach resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of proteins identified (over 1700) when compared to analysis of unfractionated beer processed by a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP). Over 1900 protein groups (PGs) in total were identified by both approaches. The study significantly extends knowledge about the beer proteome and demonstrates its complexity. Detailed knowledge of the protein content, especially gluten proteins, will enhance the evaluation of potential health risks related to beer consumption (coeliac disease) and will contribute to improving beer quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining the ’Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Army training doctrine, and by adjusting the curriculum of the officer core in order to close the knowledge gap . The author closes by concluding...fight. The research to find these gaps begins with a process trace of doctrine from 1976 to the present, starting with the advent of Active Defense...discovering the one gap , three were found. Upon further examination below, even these initially perceived gaps dissipate under close scrutiny. Gap

  7. Federally-Assisted Healthcare Coverage among Male State Prisoners with Chronic Health Problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Rosen

    Full Text Available Prisoners have higher rates of chronic diseases such as substance dependence, mental health conditions and infectious disease, as compared to the general population. We projected the number of male state prisoners with a chronic health condition who at release would be eligible or ineligible for healthcare coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA. We used ACA income guidelines in conjunction with reported pre-arrest social security benefits and income from a nationally representative sample of prisoners to estimate the number eligible for healthcare coverage at release. There were 643,290 US male prisoners aged 18-64 with a chronic health condition. At release, 73% in Medicaid-expansion states would qualify for Medicaid or tax credits. In non-expansion states, 54% would qualify for tax credits, but 22% (n = 69,827 had incomes of ≤ 100% the federal poverty limit and thus would be ineligible for ACA-mediated healthcare coverage. These prisoners comprise 11% of all male prisoners with a chronic condition. The ACA was projected to provide coverage to most male state prisoners with a chronic health condition; however, roughly 70,000 fall in the "coverage gap" and may require non-routine care at emergency departments. Mechanisms are needed to secure coverage for this at risk group and address barriers to routine utilization of health services.

  8. Federally-Assisted Healthcare Coverage among Male State Prisoners with Chronic Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Grodensky, Catherine A; Holley, Tara K

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners have higher rates of chronic diseases such as substance dependence, mental health conditions and infectious disease, as compared to the general population. We projected the number of male state prisoners with a chronic health condition who at release would be eligible or ineligible for healthcare coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We used ACA income guidelines in conjunction with reported pre-arrest social security benefits and income from a nationally representative sample of prisoners to estimate the number eligible for healthcare coverage at release. There were 643,290 US male prisoners aged 18-64 with a chronic health condition. At release, 73% in Medicaid-expansion states would qualify for Medicaid or tax credits. In non-expansion states, 54% would qualify for tax credits, but 22% (n = 69,827) had incomes of ≤ 100% the federal poverty limit and thus would be ineligible for ACA-mediated healthcare coverage. These prisoners comprise 11% of all male prisoners with a chronic condition. The ACA was projected to provide coverage to most male state prisoners with a chronic health condition; however, roughly 70,000 fall in the "coverage gap" and may require non-routine care at emergency departments. Mechanisms are needed to secure coverage for this at risk group and address barriers to routine utilization of health services.

  9. Gender Wage Gap and Segregation in Late Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Jurajda

    2001-01-01

    Transition countries hoping to join the European Union are in the process of introducing western-type anti-discrimination policies aimed at reducing the gender wage gap. The efficacy of these policies depends on the relative size of those elements of the gap they target; therefore, it is important to quantify these parts. In this Paper, large matched employer-employee data sets from the Czech Republic and Slovakia are used to provide such detailed gender wage gap decomposition. The results, b...

  10. Response of reptile and amphibian communities to canopy gaps created by wind disturbance in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2001-01-01

    Reptile and amphibian communities were sampled in intact gaps created by wind disturbance, salvage-logged gaps, and closed canopy mature forest (controls). Sampling was conducted during June–October in 1997 and 1998 using drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps. Basal area of live trees, shade, leaf litter coverage, and litter depth was highest in controls and...

  11. Cobertura de gotas de pulverização obtida com diferentes pontas e taxas de aplicação na parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar Spray droplet coverage achieved with different nozzles and application rates in the aerial part of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Luiz Schneider

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de produtos fitosssanitários no setor sucroalcoleiro, até recentemente, estava focada principalmente no controle de plantas daninhas. Com o aparecimento da ferrugem alaranjada, como doença de importância agrícola na cultura da cana-de-açúcar, passou a ser imperioso conhecer como a aplicação chega na parte aérea da planta. Dessa forma, o presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade da deposição da calda em pulverização terrestre, conduzido em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (duas pontas de pulverização, duas taxas de aplicação e duas posições dos cartões de papéis hidrosensíveis no dossel da planta, seis repetições, com dez papéis cada. Foram utilizadas as pontas de pulverizacão XR110.02 (jato plano de uso ampliado e TTJ60 - 110.02 (jato plano duplo, com ângulo de 60 graus entre si utilizando-se as taxas de aplicação de 120 e 160L ha-1. Os cartões de papel hidrossensível utilizados para avaliar a deposicão das pulverizações foram distribuidos sobre as folhas de cana-de-açúcar, em duas posições distintas em relação ao dossel da planta (parte superior e inferior, aproximadamente, 0,80 e 0,50 metros do solo, dispostos na horizontal e inclinado em relação à superfície do solo, respectivamente. A cultivar utilizada foi 'RB 96-6928', com altura de 0,80m aos 120 dias do plantio. Um scaner de mesa foi utilizado para digitalizar as imagens dos papéis e avaliou-se as coberturas através do programa Conta-Gotas®. Os dados de deposição/cobertura foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. No dossel superior da cana-de-açúcar observou-se maior cobertura, quando comparado ao dossel inferior, sendo que não se observaram diferenças entre as taxas de aplicação de 120 e 160L ha-1,. A ponta TTJ60-110.02 promoveu cobertura superior à ponta XR 110.02 quando se utilizou 160L ha-1 (40,34 e 36

  12. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role

  13. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  14. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  15. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  16. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  17. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders’ perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Materials and Methods Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders’ perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. Results We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical work-flow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Discussion Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Conclusion Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation. PMID:27847961

  18. MV controlled spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimovich, V.M.; Evlampiev, S.B.; Korshunov, G.S.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Sviridov, Yu.F.; Khmyrov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A megavolt gas-filled trigatron gap with a sectional gas-discharge chamber having a more than three-fold range of operating voltages is described. The discharge chamber consists of ten sections, each 70 mm thick, made of organic glass. The sections are separated one from another by aluminium gradient rings to which ohmic voltage divider is connected. Insulational sections and gradient rings are braced between themselves by means of metal flanges through gaskets made of oil-resistant rubber with the help of fiberglass-laminate pins. The gap has two electrodes 110 mm in diameter. The trigatron ignition assembly uses a dielectric bushing projecting over the main electrode plane. Use has been made of a gas mixture containing 10% of SF 6 and 90% of air making possible to ensure stable gap operation without readjusting in the voltage range from 0.4 to 1.35 MV. The operation time lag in this range is equal to 10 μs at a spread of [ru

  19. The Elon Gap Experience: A Transformative First-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephen T.; Burr, Katherine H.; Waters, Rexford A.; Hall, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    The Elon Gap Experience (EGE) was conceived out of Elon University's most recent strategic plan, the Elon Commitment (Elon University, 2009). One theme calls for "strategic and innovative pathways in undergraduate and graduate education," specifically "to launch a service program as part of a gap-year program" (Elon University,…

  20. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  1. [Medical coverage of a road bicycle race].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Harding, Ulf; Schüler, Christine; Thoms, Jürgen; Püschel, Klaus; Kappus, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Major sport events require adequate expertise and experience concerning medical coverage and support. Medical and ambulance services need to cover both participants and spectators. Likewise, residents at the venue need to be provided for. Concepts have to include the possibility of major incidents related to the event. Using the example of the Hamburg Cyclassics, a road bicycle race and major event for professional and amateur cyclists, this article describes the medical coverage, number of patients, types of injuries and emergencies. Objectives regarding the planning of future events and essential medical coverage are consequently discussed. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.

  2. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Federal Employees Health Benefit Plan Equivalent Coverage (FEHBP—Equivalent Health Insurance Coverage). A... coverage. Health benefits coverage that is offered and generally available to State employees in the State... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section...

  3. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches

  4. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Myatt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1) poverty, 2) poor dietary diversity, and 3) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1) consumption of the vehicle, 2) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches are needed

  5. Constructing and Using Broad-coverage Lexical Resource for Enhancing Morphological Analysis of Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, M.; Atwell, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-coverage language resources which provide prior linguistic knowledge must improve the accuracy and the performance of NLP applications. We are constructing a broad-coverage lexical resource to improve the accuracy of morphological analyzers and part-of-speech taggers of Arabic text. Over the past 1200 years, many different kinds of Arabic language lexicons were constructed; these lexicons are different in ordering, size and aim or goal of construction. We collected 23 machine-readable l...

  6. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pavićević Olivera; Bulatović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim...

  7. Can investments in health systems strategies lead to changes in immunization coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan

    2014-04-01

    National immunization programs in developing countries have made major strides to immunize the world's children, increasing full coverage to 83% of children. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 22 million children less than five years of age are left unvaccinated, and coverage levels have been plateauing for nearly a decade. This paper describes the evidence on factors contributing to low vaccination uptake, and describes the connection between these factors and the documented strategies and interventions that can lead to changes in immunization outcomes. The author suggests that investments in these areas may contribute more effectively to immunization coverage and also have positive spill-over benefits for health systems. The paper concludes that while some good quality evidence exists of what works and may contribute to immunization outcomes, the quality of evidence needs to improve and major gaps need to be addressed.

  8. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  9. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...

  10. Does Health Insurance Coverage Lead to Better Health and Educational Outcomes? Evidence from Rural China. NBER Working Paper No. 16417

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyu; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Many governments advocate nationwide health insurance coverage but the effects of such a program are less known in developing countries. We use part of the 2006 China Agricultural Census (CAC) to examine whether the recent health insurance coverage in rural China has affected children mortality, pregnancy mortality, and the school enrollment of…

  11. From coverage to care: addressing the issue of churn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Charles

    2015-02-01

    In any given year, a significant number of individuals will move between Medicaid and qualified health plans (QHP). Known as "churn," this movement could disrupt continuity of health care services, even when no gap in insurance coverage exists. The number of people who churn in any given year is significant, and they often are significant utilizers of health care services. They could experience disruption in care in several ways: (1) changing carrier; (2) changing provider because of network differences; (3) a disruption in ongoing services, even when the benefit is covered in both programs (e.g., surgery that has been authorized but not yet performed; ongoing prescription medications for chronic illness; or some but not all therapy or counseling sessions have been completed); and (4) the loss of coverage for a service that is not a covered benefit in the new program. Many strategies are available to states to reduce the disruption caused by churn. The specific option, intervention, and set of policies in a given state will depend on its context. Policy makers would benefit from an examination and discussion of these issues. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  12. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  13. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, A.C.; Althoff, F.; Kalender, W. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics; Wenkel, E. [University Hospital of Erlangen (Germany). Radiological Inst.

    2015-02-15

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate.

  14. Summary of DOD Acquisition Program Audit Coverage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This report will provide the DoD audit community with information to support their planning efforts and provide management with information on the extent of audit coverage of DoD acquisition programs...

  15. NOAA Weather Radio - County Coverage by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using SAME SAME Non-Zero Codes DOCUMENTS NWR

  16. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  17. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  18. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  19. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  20. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  1. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  2. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  3. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  4. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  5. Coverage for SCS Pre-1941 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was generated by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at the New Mexico State Office to show the coverage for the Pre-1941 aerial photography...

  6. The implication of the shortage of health workforce specialist on universal health coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miseda, Mumbo Hazel; Were, Samuel Odhiambo; Murianki, Cirindi Anne; Mutuku, Milo Peter; Mutwiwa, Stephen N

    2017-12-01

    Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and the greatest burden is borne by low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Kenya is experiencing health workforce shortage particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater for the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015)). Efficient use of the existing health workforce including task shifting is under consideration as a short-term stop gap measure while deliberate efforts are being put on retention policies and increased production of HRH. The Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from the United States Agency for International Development-funded FUNZOKenya project and MOH/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project conducted a country-wide training needs assessment (TNA) to identify skill gaps in the provision of specialized health care in private and public hospitals in 46 out of Kenya's 47 counties between April and June 2015. A total of 99 respondents participated in the TNA. Structured questionnaires were used to undertake this assessment. The assessment sought to determine the extent of skill gaps on the basis of the national guidelines and as perceived by the County Directors of Health (CDH). The questionnaires were posted to and received by all the respondents a week prior to a face-to-face interview with the respondents for familiarization. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Overall, the findings revealed average skill gaps on selected specialists (healthcare professional whose practice is limited to a particular area, such as a branch of medicine, surgery, or nursing, especially, one who by virtue of advanced training is certified by a

  7. The generation of chromosomal deletions to provide extensive coverage and subdivision of the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Christensen, Stacey J; Deal, Jennifer A; Coburn, Rachel A; Deal, Megan E; Gresens, Jill M; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions are used extensively in Drosophila melanogaster genetics research. Deletion mapping is the primary method used for fine-scale gene localization. Effective and efficient deletion mapping requires both extensive genomic coverage and a high density of molecularly defined breakpoints across the genome. A large-scale resource development project at the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center has improved the choice of deletions beyond that provided by previous projects. FLP-mediated recombination between FRT-bearing transposon insertions was used to generate deletions, because it is efficient and provides single-nucleotide resolution in planning deletion screens. The 793 deletions generated pushed coverage of the euchromatic genome to 98.4%. Gaps in coverage contain haplolethal and haplosterile genes, but the sizes of these gaps were minimized by flanking these genes as closely as possible with deletions. In improving coverage, a complete inventory of haplolethal and haplosterile genes was generated and extensive information on other haploinsufficient genes was compiled. To aid mapping experiments, a subset of deletions was organized into a Deficiency Kit to provide maximal coverage efficiently. To improve the resolution of deletion mapping, screens were planned to distribute deletion breakpoints evenly across the genome. The median chromosomal interval between breakpoints now contains only nine genes and 377 intervals contain only single genes. Drosophila melanogaster now has the most extensive genomic deletion coverage and breakpoint subdivision as well as the most comprehensive inventory of haploinsufficient genes of any multicellular organism. The improved selection of chromosomal deletion strains will be useful to nearly all Drosophila researchers.

  8. Modeling coverage gaps in haplotype frequencies via Bayesian inference to improve stem cell donor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzoun, Yoram; Alter, Idan; Gragert, Loren; Albrecht, Mark; Maiers, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Regardless of sampling depth, accurate genotype imputation is limited in regions of high polymorphism which often have a heavy-tailed haplotype frequency distribution. Many rare haplotypes are thus unobserved. Statistical methods to improve imputation by extending reference haplotype distributions using linkage disequilibrium patterns that relate allele and haplotype frequencies have not yet been explored. In the field of unrelated stem cell transplantation, imputation of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes has an important application in identifying the best-matched stem cell donor when searching large registries totaling over 28,000,000 donors worldwide. Despite these large registry sizes, a significant proportion of searched patients present novel HLA haplotypes. Supporting this observation, HLA population genetic models have indicated that many extant HLA haplotypes remain unobserved. The absent haplotypes are a significant cause of error in haplotype matching. We have applied a Bayesian inference methodology for extending haplotype frequency distributions, using a model where new haplotypes are created by recombination of observed alleles. Applications of this joint probability model offer significant improvement in frequency distribution estimates over the best existing alternative methods, as we illustrate using five-locus HLA frequency data from the National Marrow Donor Program registry. Transplant matching algorithms and disease association studies involving phasing and imputation of rare variants may benefit from this statistical inference framework.

  9. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  10. 12 CFR 230.1 - Authority, purpose, coverage, and effect on state laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, coverage, and effect on..., and effect on state laws. (a) Authority. This part, known as Regulation DD, is issued by the Board of... advertising rules in § 230.8 of this part apply to any person who advertises an account offered by a...

  11. Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program, Image Processing Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillesand, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a series of technical guidelines by which land cover information is being extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper data as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP...

  12. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  13. Investigating the Equatorial Gaps in Snowball Earth Sea Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding-Astudillo, F.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Tziperman, E.; Abbot, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The way photosynthetic life survived the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events is still a matter of debate that has deep implications for planetary habitability. One option is that gaps in thick, semi-global ice coverage (sea glaciers) could be maintained at the equator by ocean-ice-atmosphere dynamics. We investigate this idea by modifying a global ocean-thick-marine-ice model developed for modeling Neoproterozoic Snowball Events to account for gaps in thick ice and interactions with atmospheric dynamics. Our hypothesis is that in the parameter regime that allows for sea glacier flow, ice flow will make gaps in the thick ice, and therefore an open ocean solution, less likely. This would suggest that oases in thick ice are a more viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic life during a Snowball Earth event.

  14. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    we would like to web developer; gather comments from GAP researchers and data users. We are * facilitate collaboration among GAP projects by...N.Y. Research Grant #012/01 A. 42 Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13, December 2005 Ga pAnalysis Smith, S. D., W. A. Brown, C. R. Smith, and M. E. Richmond... GAP will be focusing activities have greatly reduced the habitat available to support on the enduring features of the Great Lakes basin. Influences

  16. Treefall Gap Mapping Using Sentinel-2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Barton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper knowledge about resources in forest management is fundamental. One of the most important parameters of forests is their size or spatial extension. By determining the area of treefall gaps inside the compartments, a more accurate yield can be calculated and the scheduling of forestry operations could be planned better. Several field- and remote sensing-based approaches are in use for mapping but they provide only static measurements at high cost. The Earth Observation satellite mission Sentinel-2 was put in orbit as part of the Copernicus programme. With the 10-m resolution bands, it is possible to observe small-scale forestry operations like treefall gaps. The spatial extension of these gaps is often less than 200 m2, thus their detection can only be done on sub-pixel level. Due to the higher temporal resolution of Sentinel-2, multiple observations are available in a year; therefore, a time series evaluation is possible. The modelling of illumination can increase the accuracy of classification in mountainous areas. The method was tested on three deciduous forest sites in the Börzsöny Mountains in Hungary. The area evaluation produced less than 10% overestimation with the best possible solutions on the sites. The presented work shows a low-cost method for mapping treefall gaps which delivers annual information about the gap area in a deciduous forest.

  17. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  18. Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel, Leonid G.; Aicardi, Francesca

    2006-12-01

    There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d 1 , . . . , d m ) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d 1 , . . . , d m }. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)

  19. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  20. 45 CFR 148.124 - Certification and disclosure of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... method of counting creditable coverage, and the requesting entity may identify specific information that... a payroll deduction for health coverage, a health insurance identification card, a certificate of...

  1. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  2. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  3. Evaluation of Coverage and Barriers to Access to MAM Treatment in West Pokot County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basquin, Cecile; Imelda, Awino; Gallagher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite an increased number of nutrition treatment coverage assessments conducted, they often focus on Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) treatment. In a recent experience in Kenya, Action Against Hunger| ACF International (ACF) conducted a coverage assessment to evaluate access to SAM and Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) treatment. ACF supports the Ministry of Health (MoH) in delivering SAM and MAM treatment at health facility level through an Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition (IMAM) programme in West Pokot county since 2011. In order to evaluate the coverage of Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) and Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) components, the Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC) methodology was used. The goals of the coverage assessment were i) to estimate coverage for OTP and SFP; ii) to identify barriers to access to SAM and MAM treatment; iii) to evaluate whether any differences exist between barriers to access to SAM versus to MAM treatment as SFP coverage and uptake of MAM services were never assessed before; and iv) to build local capacities in assessing coverage and to provide recommendations for the MoH-led IMAM programme. With the support of the Coverage Monitoring Network (CMN), ACF led the SLEAC assessment as part of an on-the-job training exercise for MoH and partners in July 2013, covering all of West Pokot county. SLEAC is a rapid and low-resource survey method that uses a three-tier classification approach to evaluate and classify coverage, i.e., low coverage: < 20%; moderate: 20% -50%; and high coverage: ≤ 50%. In a first sampling stage, villages in each of the four sub-counties were randomly selected using systematic sampling. In a second sampling stage, in order to also assess MAM coverage, a house-to-house approach was applied to identify all or near all acutely malnourished children using Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) tape and identification of bilateral

  4. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  5. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  6. Minding the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Carlberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plan for the Round table session was to focus on organizational and social/cultural differences between librarians and faculty with the aim to increase our awareness of the differences when we try to find ways to cooperate within the academy or school. This may help us to sort things out, experience acceptance and take adequate actions, saving energy and perhaps be less frustrated.  The questions that the workshop addressed were: What is in the gap between librarians and faculty when dealing with information literacy? How can we fill the gap? Participants discussed this in detail with the aim of together finding ways to understand it better and make it possible to find ways to fill this gap. By defining it and thereby making it easier to work out a strategy for future action to improve the teaching of information literacy, including listing possible, impossible or nearly impossible ways. The springboard to the discussion was extracted from some projects that the workshop leader has been engaged in since 2009. The first example is a research circle where Uppsala University Library used action research to observe and understand the process when we had the opportunity to implement information literacy classes with progression in an undergraduate program. What worked well? What did not? Why? This work was described together with other examples from Uppsala University to an international panel working with quality issues. What did they think of our work? May this change the ways we are working? How? Another example is an ongoing joint project where librarians and faculty members are trying to define ways to increase the cooperation between the library and faculty and make this cooperation sustainable. Recent experience from this was brought to the discussion.   There are an overwhelming number of papers written in this field. A few papers have inspired these ideas. One article in particular: Christiansen, L., Stombler, M. & Thaxton, L. (2004. A

  7. Medicare Part D-a roundtable discussion of current issues and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Donald C; Evans, Steven; Januska, Jeff; Lee, Helen Y; Lewis, Sonya J; Nolan, Steve R; Noga, Mark; Stemple, Charles; Thapar, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    Medicare Part D was introduced with a goal of providing access to prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries. Regulatory mandates and the changing landscape of health care require continued evaluation of the state of the Part D benefit. To review the current state of plan offerings and highlight key issues regarding the administration of the Part D benefit. The Part D drug benefit continues to evolve. The benefit value appears to be diluted compared to the benefit value of large employer plans. Regulatory restrictions mandated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are reported to inhibit the ability of plans to create an effective, competitive drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. Management in this restrictive environment impedes competitive price negotiations and formulary coverage issues continue to create confusion especially for patients with chronic diseases. The doughnut hole coverage gap represents a significant cost-shifting issue for beneficiaries that may impact medication adherence and persistence. To address these and other challenges, CMS is working to improve the quality of care for Part D beneficiaries by designing and supporting demonstration projects. Although these projects are in different stages, all stakeholders are hopeful that they will lead to the development of best practices by plans to help manage their beneficiaries more efficiently. A significant number of Medicare beneficiaries are currently receiving prescription drug benefits through Part D. The true value of this benefit has been called into question as a result of plan design parameters that lead to cost-shifting, an increasing burden for enrollees. Concerns regarding the ability to provide a competitive plan given the stringent rules and regulations have been voiced by plan administrators. In an effort to drive toward evidence-based solutions, CMS is working to improve the overall quality of care through numerous demonstration projects.

  8. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  9. The GAP-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Cocco, A.G.; Meo, P. Di; Vanzanella, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Walker, S.; Fiorillo, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  10. Finding the gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, A. M.

    Much of the pioneering work on radiation damage was based on very simple potentials. Potentials are now much more sophisticated and accurate. Self-consistent molecular dynamics is routine for adiabatic energy surfaces, at least for modest numbers of atoms and modest timescales. This means that non-equilibrium nuclear processes can be followed dynamically. It might also give the illusion that any damage process can be modelled with success. Sadly, this is not yet so. This paper discusses where the gaps lie, and specifically three groups of challenges. The first challenge concerns electronic excited states. The second challenge concerns timescales, from femtoseconds to tens of years. The third challenge concerns length scales, and the link between microscopic (atomistic) and mesoscopic (microstructural) scales. The context of these challenges is materials modification by excitation: the removal of material, the modification of bulk or surface material, the altering of rates of processes or changing of branching ratios, and damage, good or bad.

  11. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  12. Presidential inability: Filling in the gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feerick, John D

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on potential gaps caused by the absence from the Twenty-Fifth Amendment of provisions to deal with the disability of a Vice President and the omission from the statutory line of succession law of provisions comparable to Sections 3 and 4 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment for when there is an able Vice President. The analysis offers a critical review of the latent ambiguities in the succession provision to the United States Constitution, noting problems that have arisen from the time of the Constitutional Convention, to John Tyler's accession to office, to numerous disability crises that presented themselves throughout the twentieth century, to the present day. As the world becomes more complex and threats to the presidency more common, continued examination of our succession structure and its adequacy for establishing clear and effective presidential succession provisions under a broad range of circumstances is of paramount concern. This article embraces this robust discussion by offering some suggestions for improving the system in a way that does not require a constitutional amendment. The first part of the analysis traces the events that have driven the development of the nation's succession procedures. The second part examines the inadequacies, or "gaps," that remain in the area of presidential inability, and the third part sets forth recommendations for resolving these gaps.

  13. Women In The United States Experience High Rates Of Coverage 'Churn' In Months Before And After Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jamie R; Hatfield, Laura A; Swartz, Katherine; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-04-01

    Insurance transitions-sometimes referred to as "churn"-before and after childbirth can adversely affect the continuity and quality of care. Yet little is known about coverage patterns and changes for women giving birth in the United States. Using nationally representative survey data for the period 2005-13, we found high rates of insurance transitions before and after delivery. Half of women who were uninsured nine months before delivery had acquired Medicaid or CHIP coverage by the month of delivery, but 55 percent of women with that coverage at delivery experienced a coverage gap in the ensuing six months. Risk factors associated with insurance loss after delivery include not speaking English at home, being unmarried, having Medicaid or CHIP coverage at delivery, living in the South, and having a family income of 100-185 percent of the poverty level. To minimize the adverse effects of coverage disruptions, states should consider policies that promote the continuity of coverage for childbearing women, particularly those with pregnancy-related Medicaid eligibility. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Technique for estimating relocated gap width for gap conductance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Thermally induced fuel fragmentation and relocation has been demonstrated to influence the thermal behavior of a fuel rod in two ways. The effective fuel pellet conductivity is decreased and pellet-to-cladding heat transfer is improved. This paper presents a correlation between as-built and relocated gap width which, used with the Ross and Stoute Gap Conductance Correlation and an appropriate fuel thermal expansion model, closely predicts the measured gap conductances

  15. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Freya M; Moyes, Catherine L; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Marinho, Fatima; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hombach, Joachim; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick; Reiner, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the

  16. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  17. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. From the Kohn-Sham band gap to the fundamental gap in solids. An integer electron approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerends, E J

    2017-06-21

    It is often stated that the Kohn-Sham occupied-unoccupied gap in both molecules and solids is "wrong". We argue that this is not a correct statement. The KS theory does not allow to interpret the exact KS HOMO-LUMO gap as the fundamental gap (difference (I - A) of electron affinity (A) and ionization energy (I), twice the chemical hardness), from which it indeed differs, strongly in molecules and moderately in solids. The exact Kohn-Sham HOMO-LUMO gap in molecules is much below the fundamental gap and very close to the much smaller optical gap (first excitation energy), and LDA/GGA yield very similar gaps. In solids the situation is different: the excitation energy to delocalized excited states and the fundamental gap (I - A) are very similar, not so disparate as in molecules. Again the Kohn-Sham and LDA/GGA band gaps do not represent (I - A) but are significantly smaller. However, the special properties of an extended system like a solid make it very easy to calculate the fundamental gap from the ground state (neutral system) band structure calculations entirely within a density functional framework. The correction Δ from the KS gap to the fundamental gap originates from the response part v resp of the exchange-correlation potential and can be calculated very simply using an approximation to v resp . This affords a calculation of the fundamental gap at the same level of accuracy as other properties of crystals at little extra cost beyond the ground state bandstructure calculation. The method is based on integer electron systems, fractional electron systems (an ensemble of N- and (N + 1)-electron systems) and the derivative discontinuity are not invoked.

  19. Aspects of coverage in medical DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Richard K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequencing is now emerging as an important component in biomedical studies of diseases like cancer. Short-read, highly parallel sequencing instruments are expected to be used heavily for such projects, but many design specifications have yet to be conclusively established. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is the redundancy required to detect sequence variations, which bears directly upon genomic coverage and the consequent resolving power for discerning somatic mutations. Results We address the medical sequencing coverage problem via an extension of the standard mathematical theory of haploid coverage. The expected diploid multi-fold coverage, as well as its generalization for aneuploidy are derived and these expressions can be readily evaluated for any project. The resulting theory is used as a scaling law to calibrate performance to that of standard BAC sequencing at 8× to 10× redundancy, i.e. for expected coverages that exceed 99% of the unique sequence. A differential strategy is formalized for tumor/normal studies wherein tumor samples are sequenced more deeply than normal ones. In particular, both tumor alleles should be detected at least twice, while both normal alleles are detected at least once. Our theory predicts these requirements can be met for tumor and normal redundancies of approximately 26× and 21×, respectively. We explain why these values do not differ by a factor of 2, as might intuitively be expected. Future technology developments should prompt even deeper sequencing of tumors, but the 21× value for normal samples is essentially a constant. Conclusion Given the assumptions of standard coverage theory, our model gives pragmatic estimates for required redundancy. The differential strategy should be an efficient means of identifying potential somatic mutations for further study.

  20. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of the...

  1. 28 CFR 55.6 - Coverage under section 203(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.6 Coverage under section 203(c). (a) Coverage formula. There are four ways in which a political subdivision can become subject to section 203(c). 2 2 The criteria for coverage are contained in section 203(b). (1) Political...

  2. Microstrip Antenna Design for Femtocell Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mircostrip antenna is designed for multielement antenna coverage optimization in femtocell network. Interference is the foremost concern for the cellular operator in vast commercial deployments of femtocell. Many techniques in physical, data link and network-layer are analysed and developed to settle down the interference issues. A multielement technique with self-configuration features is analyzed here for coverage optimization of femtocell. It also focuses on the execution of microstrip antenna for multielement configuration. The antenna is designed for LTE Band 7 by using standard FR4 dielectric substrate. The performance of the proposed antenna in the femtocell application is discussed along with results.

  3. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of urban grass coverage on rainfall-induced runoff in Xi'an loess region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the regulatory effects of grass coverage on rainfall-runoff processes. A total of 80 grass blocks planted with well-grown manilagrass, together with their root systems, were sampled from an eastern suburban area of Xi'an City in the northwest arid area of China and sent to a laboratory for rainfall simulation experiments. The runoff and infiltration processes of a slope with different grass coverage ratios and vegetation patterns were analyzed. The results show that the runoff coefficient decreases with the increase of the grass coverage ratio, and the influence of grass coverage on the reduction of runoff shows a high degree of spatial variation. At a constant grass coverage ratio, as the area of grass coverage moves downward, the runoff coefficient, total runoff, and flood peak discharge gradually decrease, and the flood peak occurs later. With the increase of the grass coverage ratio, the flood peak discharge gradually decreases, and the flood peak occurs later as well. In conclusion, a high grass coverage ratio with the area of grass coverage located at the lower part of the slope will lead to satisfactory regulatory effects on rainfall-induced runoff.

  5. Estimation of measles vaccination coverage using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method--Tamilnadu, India, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, Saravanan; Manickam, P; Ramakrishnan, R; Hutin, Y; Gupte, M D

    2006-04-28

    As part of the global strategic plan to reduce the number of measles deaths in India, the state of Tamilnadu aims at > or =95% measles vaccination coverage. A study was conducted to measure overall coverage levels for the Poondi Primary Health Center (PPHC), a rural health-care facility in Tiruvallur District, and to determine whether any of the PPHC's six health subcenters had coverage levels LQAS) method was used to identify health subcenters in the PPHC area with measles vaccination coverage levels or =95%). All data were pooled in a stratified sample to estimate overall total coverage in the PPHC area. For two (33.3%) of the six health subcenters, more than two children were unvaccinated (i.e., coverage was LQAS techniques proved useful in identifying small health areas with lower vaccination coverage, which helps to target interventions. Monthly review of vaccination coverage by subcenter and village is recommended to identify pockets of unvaccinated children and to maintain uniform high coverage in the PPHC area.

  6. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  7. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Pocock, Nicola Suyin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chhorvann, Chhea; Duc, Ha Anh; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lim, Jeremy; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Ng, Nawi; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Phonvisay, Alay; Soe, Kyaw Min; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and 'snowball' further data. We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly considered to mitigate

  8. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  9. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, S. J.; Lee, P. R.; Kim, J. G.; Ryu, M. T.; Park, H. M.; Chung, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E g ) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na + ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na + ions is found to deplete the π* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E g . The band gap increases with increasing Na + coverage with a maximum E g ≥0.70 eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na + ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na + ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.

  10. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  11. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  12. Coverage of, and compliance with, mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Bontha V; Babu, Gopalan R

    2014-09-01

    India's mass drug administration (MDA) programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (PELF) covers all 250 endemic districts, but compliance with treatment is not adequate for the programme to succeed in eradicating this neglected tropical disease. The objective of our study was to systematically review published studies on the coverage of and compliance with MDA under the PELF in India. We searched several databases-PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, CINAHL/EBSCO, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science) and OVID-and by applying selection criteria identified a total of 36 papers to include in the review. Overall MDA coverage rates varied between 48.8% and 98.8%, while compliance rates ranged from 20.8% to 93.7%. The coverage-compliance gap is large in many MDA programmes. The effective level of compliance, ≥65%, was reported in only 10 of a total of 31 MDAs (5 of 20 MDAs in rural areas and 2 of 12 MDAs in urban areas). The review has identified a gap between coverage and compliance, and potentially correctable causes of this gap. These causes need to be addressed if the Indian programme is to advance towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  14. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  15. Policy Choices for Progressive Realization of Universal Health Coverage Comment on "Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2016-07-31

    In responses to Norheim's editorial, this commentary offers reflections from Thailand, how the five unacceptable trade-offs were applied to the universal health coverage (UHC) reforms between 1975 and 2002 when the whole 64 million people were covered by one of the three public health insurance systems. This commentary aims to generate global discussions on how best UHC can be gradually achieved. Not only the proposed five discrete trade-offs within each dimension, there are also trade-offs between the three dimensions of UHC such as population coverage, service coverage and cost coverage. Findings from Thai UHC show that equity is applied for the population coverage extension, when the low income households and the informal sector were the priority population groups for coverage extension by different prepayment schemes in 1975 and 1984, respectively. With an exception of public sector employees who were historically covered as part of fringe benefits were covered well before the poor. The private sector employees were covered last in 1990. Historically, Thailand applied a comprehensive benefit package where a few items are excluded using the negative list; until there was improved capacities on technology assessment that cost-effectiveness are used for the inclusion of new interventions into the benefit package. Not only cost-effectiveness, but long term budget impact, equity and ethical considerations are taken into account. Cost coverage is mostly determined by the fiscal capacities. Close ended budget with mix of provider payment methods are used as a tool for trade-off service coverage and financial risk protection. Introducing copayment in the context of fee-for-service can be harmful to beneficiaries due to supplier induced demands, inefficiency and unpredictable out of pocket payment by households. UHC achieves favorable outcomes as it was implemented when there was a full geographical coverage of primary healthcare coverage in all districts and sub

  16. Radiating gap filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In May, corrosion on the outside wall of the over 50 year old Canadian Chalk River reactor vessel caused a heavy water leak and the reactor was shut down triggering worldwide a nuclear medicine shortage. The reactor is also a major supplier of the isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), a precursor of the medically widely used technetium-99 m . To fill the gap in demand, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has now arranged with US company Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., a world leader in medical imaging, to supply Mo-99. Subject to pending Australian regulatory processes, the deal is expected to assist in alleviating the world's current nuclear medicine shortage. As ANSTO is currently also the only global commercial supplier that produces Mo-99 from low enriched uranium (LEU) targets, Lantheus will be the first company bringing LEU derived Tc-99 m to the US market. To date, over 95% of Mo-99 is derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, there are concerns regarding proliferation risks associated with HEU targets and for commercial uses production from LEU targets would be desirable. ANSTO says that global Mo-99 supply chain is fragile and limited and it is working closely with nuclear safety and healthy regulators, both domestically and overseas, to expedite all necessary approvals to allow long-term production and export of medical isotopes.

  17. Communicating uncertainty media coverage of new and controversial science

    CERN Document Server

    Dunwoody, Sharon; Rogers, Carol L

    1997-01-01

    This work, by the editors of "Scientists and Journalists: Reporting Science as News", explores scientific uncertainty and media coverage of it in such major public issues as AISA, biotechnology, dioxin, global warming, and nature vs. nurture. It examines the interrelations of the major actors in constructing and explaining uncertainty: scientists, journalists, scholars, and the larger public. Part 1 examines participants in the scientific uncertainty arena and how the major actors react to, cope with and manage uncertain issues. It also describes how scientists and journalists vie for control over uncertain science. The panel discussion at the end of this section is a spirited discourse on how they handle scientific uncertainty. Part 2 explores instances of scientific uncertainty in the public arena, highlighting studies involving uncertainty and biotechnology, dioxin, human resources for science, and human behaviour. The panel discussion concluding this section reacts to several of these specific issues and ...

  18. 24 CFR 51.302 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage. 51.302 Section 51.302 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... significantly prolongs the physical or economic life of existing facilities or which, in the case of Accident...

  19. 5 CFR 880.304 - FEGLI coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under § 880.205, FEGLI premiums and benefits will be computed using the date of death established under...) RETIREMENT AND INSURANCE BENEFITS DURING PERIODS OF UNEXPLAINED ABSENCE Continuation of Benefits § 880.304 FEGLI coverage. (a) FEGLI premiums will not be collected during periods when an annuitant is a missing...

  20. 44 CFR 17.610 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.610 Coverage. (a) This... covered by this subpart, except where specifically modified by this subpart. In the event of any conflict... are deemed to control with respect to the implementation of drug-free workplace requirements...

  1. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... eliminating annual and lifetime dollar limits would result in dramatic premium hikes for student plans and.... Industry and university commenters noted that student health insurance coverage benefits typically... duplication of benefits and makes student plans more affordable. Industry commenters noted that student health...

  2. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  3. 5 CFR 610.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.402 Coverage. The regulations contained in this subpart apply only to flexible work schedules and compressed work schedules established under subchapter 11 of chapter 61 of...

  4. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 18,000 pounds maximum payload capacity, carriers need only maintain coverage of $2,000,000 per... than 30 seats or 7,500 pounds maximum cargo payload capacity, and a maximum authorized takeoff weight... not be contingent upon the financial condition, solvency, or freedom from bankruptcy of the carrier...

  5. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage. (a... Criminal Investigation of the Internal Revenue Service. (11) The Office of Investigative Programs of the... Firearms; (13) The Criminal Division of the Department of Justice; (14) The Central Imagery Office; (15...

  6. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched...

  7. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple

  8. Universal health coverage in Rwanda: dream or reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyandekwe, Médard; Nzayirambaho, Manassé; Baptiste Kakoma, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has been a global concern for a long time and even more nowadays. While a number of publications are almost unanimous that Rwanda is not far from UHC, very few have focused on its financial sustainability and on its extreme external financial dependency. The objectives of this study are: (i) To assess Rwanda UHC based mainly on Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) from 2000 to 2012; (ii) to inform policy makers about observed gaps for a better way forward. A retrospective (2000-2012) SWOT analysis was applied to six metrics as key indicators of UHC achievement related to WHO definition, i.e. (i) health insurance and access to care, (ii) equity, (iii) package of services, (iv) rights-based approach, (v) quality of health care, (vi) financial-risk protection, and (vii) CBHI self-financing capacity (SFC) was added by the authors. The first metric with 96,15% of overall health insurance coverage and 1.07 visit per capita per year versus 1 visit recommended by WHO, the second with 24,8% indigent people subsidized versus 24,1% living in extreme poverty, the third, the fourth, and the fifth metrics excellently performing, the sixth with 10.80% versus ≤40% as limit acceptable of catastrophic health spending level and lastly the CBHI SFC i.e. proper cost recovery estimated at 82.55% in 2011/2012, Rwanda UHC achievements are objectively convincing. Rwanda UHC is not a dream but a reality if we consider all convincing results issued of the seven metrics.

  9. Experimental Study on CHF in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J.H.; Park, R.J.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the SONATA-IV program, KAERI is conducting an experimental investigation of critical heat flux(CHF) in hemispherical narrow gaps. A visualization experiment, VISU-II, was done as the first step to get a visual observation of the flow behaviour inside a hemispherical gap and to understand the CHF-triggering mechanism. It was observed that the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) phenomenon prevented water from wetting the heater surface and induced CHF. The CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) test is now being performed to measure the CHF and to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in hemispherical narrow gaps. Temperature measurements over the heater surface show that the two-phase flow behaviour inside the gaps could be quite different from the other usual CHF experiments. The measured CHF points are lower than the predictions by existing empirical correlations based on the data measured with small-scale horizontal plates and vertical annulus. (authors)

  10. Proton Therapy Coverage for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Wagner, Marcus; Mahajan, Chaitali; Indelicato, Daniel; Fryer, Amber; Falchook, Aaron; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; McKenzie, Craig C.; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Lin Liyong; Keole, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prostate motion on dose coverage in proton therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 prostate positions were analyzed on 10 treatment plans for 10 prostate patients treated using our low-risk proton therapy prostate protocol (University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute 001). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging T 2 -weighted turbo spin-echo scans were registered for all cases. The planning target volume included the prostate with a 5-mm axial and 8-mm superoinferior expansion. The prostate was repositioned using 5- and 10-mm one-dimensional vectors and 10-mm multidimensional vectors (Points A-D). The beam was realigned for the 5- and 10-mm displacements. The prescription dose was 78 Gy equivalent (GE). Results: The mean percentage of rectum receiving 70 Gy (V 70 ) was 7.9%, the bladder V 70 was 14.0%, and the femoral head/neck V 50 was 0.1%, and the mean pelvic dose was 4.6 GE. The percentage of prostate receiving 78 Gy (V 78 ) with the 5-mm movements changed by -0.2% (range, 0.006-0.5%, p > 0.7). However, the prostate V 78 after a 10-mm displacement changed significantly (p 78 coverage had a large and significant reduction of 17.4% (range, 13.5-17.4%, p 78 coverage of the clinical target volume. The minimal prostate dose was reduced 33% (25.8 GE), on average, for Points A-D. The prostate minimal dose improved from 69.3 GE to 78.2 GE (p < 0.001) with realignment for 10-mm movements. Conclusion: The good dose coverage and low normal doses achieved for the initial plan was maintained with movements of ≤5 mm. Beam realignment improved coverage for 10-mm displacements

  11. Dental Use and Expenditures for Older Uninsured Americans: The Simulated Impact of Expanded Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J; Moeller, John F; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; Pepper, John V; St Clair, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if providing dental insurance to older Americans would close the current gaps in dental use and expenditure between insured and uninsured older Americans. Data Sources/Study Setting We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) supplemented by data from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Study Design We compared the simulated dental use and expenditures rates of newly insured persons against the corresponding rates for those previously insured. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The HRS is a nationally representative survey administered by the Institute for Social Research (ISR). The MEPS is a nationally representative household survey sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Principal Findings We found that expanding dental coverage to older uninsured Americans would close previous gaps in dental use and expense between uninsured and insured noninstitutionalized Americans 55 years and older. Conclusions Providing dental coverage to previously uninsured older adults would produce estimated monthly costs net of markups for administrative costs that comport closely to current market rates. Estimates also suggest that the total cost of providing dental coverage targeted specifically to nonusers of dental care may be less than similar costs for prior users. PMID:25040355

  12. Dominant frames in legacy and social media coverage of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Saffron; Williams, Hywel T. P.; Kurz, Tim; Wiersma, Bouke; Boykoff, Maxwell

    2015-04-01

    The media are powerful agents that translate information across the science-policy interface, framing it for audiences. Yet frames are never neutral: they define an issue, identify causes, make moral judgements and shape proposed solutions. Here, we show how the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was framed in UK and US broadcast and print coverage, and on Twitter. Coverage of IPCC Working Group I (WGI) was contested and politicized, employing the `Settled Science, Uncertain Science, Political or Ideological Struggle and Role of Science’ frames. WGII coverage commonly used Disaster or Security. More diverse frames were employed for WGII and WGIII, including Economics and Morality and Ethics. Framing also varied by media institution: for example, the BBC used Uncertain Science, whereas Channel 4 did not. Coverage varied by working group, with WGIII gaining far less coverage than WGI or WGII. We suggest that media coverage and framing of AR5 was influenced by its sequential three-part structure and by the availability of accessible narratives and visuals. We recommend that these communication lessons be applied to future climate science reports.

  13. "Prince Charming Syndrome?" Gender gap in preferences for defined contribution pensions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi P

    2017-01-01

    Using survey data collected by the Japan Institute of Life Insurance in 2002, this study finds that a significant gender gap existed in defined contribution (DC) pension knowledge among workers employed at small- to medium-sized private firms in Japan. Even with similar DC knowledge, however, men and women reveal different preferences for DC pensions, indicating that their perceptional responses may widely differ from actual behaviors. Apart from the knowledge gap, the result shows evidence of the Prince Charming Syndrome among female employees as a significant source of the gender gap in DC participation rates. Among corporate pension-covered employees, the gender difference in the efficacy of DC portability is a more significant gap-generating factor. DC tax advantage is particularly favored by pension-covered female employees over male counterparts, reducing the DC preference gap. No similar evidence is found for employees with no corporate pension coverage.

  14. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  15. Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? : Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arulampalam, Wiji; Booth, Alison L.; Bryan, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns bet...

  16. The unequal distribution of unequal pay - An empirical analysis of the gender wage gap in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothe Bonjour; Michael Gerfin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the distribution of the gender wage gap. Using microdata for Switzerland we estimate conditional wage distribution functions and find that the total wage gap and its discrimination component are not constant over the range of wages. At low wages an overproportional part of the wage gap is due to discrimination. In a further analysis of specific individuals we examine the wage gap at different quantiles and propose a new measure to assess equal earnings opportunities. ...

  17. Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Akseer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Methods Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q gaps (Q5-Q1 and the slope index of inequality (SII, while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1 and the concentration index (CIX. The lives saved tool (LiST modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Results Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS, skilled birth attendance (SBA, and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4 where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the

  18. Formulation and properties of ADN/GAP propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, Klaus; Heintz, Thomas; Schweikert, Wenka; Keicher, Thomas; Krause, Horst [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this contribution two ways are described, how it is possible to achieve perfectly cured and processible propellants with prilled ADN, low amounts of HMX 5{mu}m mps and a binder system based on GAP diole and GAP triole oligomers with and without TMETN as a nitrate ester plasticizer. It was shown how it will be possible to suppress the strongly gas forming reaction between ADN and reactive isocyanates by a mixture of stabilizers. In this way it was possible to create minimum smoke ADN/HMX/GAP/TMETN propellants cured with the triisocyanate N100. In the second part an unconventional binder system based on the 1.3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azido groups with acetylene compounds forming 1,2,3-triazole heterocyclic rings has been applied for ADN/GAP and AP/GAP propellants. Together with small parts of HMX formulations with ADN/HMX/GAP and the corresponding AP/HMX/GAP exhibit high thermodynamic performance, are easily processible, and cure successfully at 60 C. Their basic properties consisting of burning behavior and mechanical properties, at ambient temperature, chemical stability, and sensitivity have been investigated and are compared to each other. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Treatment gaps in Parkinson's disease care in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamora, Roland Dominic G; Miyasaki, Janis M

    2017-08-01

    Neurological services and resources are scarce in low-income and developing countries, such as the Philippines. We looked into the treatment gaps in Parkinson's disease (PD) care in the Philippines in the following areas: epidemiology, healthcare, financial coverage, pharmacotherapy, surgical treatment and manpower. We collected relevant data on the above-mentioned areas. There is no available Philippine data on PD prevalence. Philippine healthcare is paid through user fees at the point of service. The average consultation fee in Manila ranges from US$10.57-31.74. The average minimum daily wage is US$9.39-10.17. Philippine healthcare is devolved to the local government units. Deep brain stimulation surgery is only available in Manila. Most PD medications are available in the Philippines. There are only nine movement disorder specialists for a population of 100.98 million. Gaps and challenges in PD care in the Philippines still exist.

  20. The emissions gap report 2012. A UNEP synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    One of the fundamental questions in the global climate negotiations is: what level of ''ambition'', in terms of collective emission reductions, is needed to protect global climate? To help answer this question UNEP and the scientific community have published a series of reports on the ''emissions gap1'' since 2010. Of particular interest to the ambition question is the gap in 2020 between emission levels consistent with the 2 deg. C climate target and emissions levels projected if country reduction pledges are fulfilled. If there is a gap, then there is doubt that the ambition of countries is great enough to meet the agreed-upon 2 deg. C climate target. In the 2010 Emissions Gap Report, scientists indicated that there would likely be a substantial emissions gap in 2020, although estimates of this gap ranged widely, depending on assumptions about how country pledges would be complied with. In the 2011 Bridging the Emissions Gap Report, scientists noted that enough technical potential existed to close the gap in 2020, but fast action by countries was needed. UNEP has now convened a group of 55 scientists and experts from 43 scientific groups across 22 countries to produce this third emissions gap report which covers the following: 1) An update of global greenhouse gas emission estimates, based on a number of different authoritative scientific sources; 2) An overview of national emission levels, both current (2010) and projected (2020) consistent with current pledges and other commitments; 3) An estimate of the level of global emissions consistent with the two degree target in 2020, 2030 and 2050; 4) An update of the assessment of the emissions gap for 2020; 5) A review of selected examples of the rapid progress being made in different parts of the world to implement policies already leading to substantial emission reductions. These policies could contribute significantly to narrowing the gap if they are scaled up and replicated in other countries. (Author)

  1. Coverage-dependent adsorption thermodynamics of oxygen on ZnO(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming; Seebauer, Edmund G., E-mail: eseebaue@illinois.edu

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption enthalpy and entropy of oxygen on Zn-term ZnO(0001) were measured by photoreflectance. • These parameters are large in magnitude and vary nonmonotonically with coverage. • Many kinds of sites, chemical species and reconstructions contribute to this behavior. • Entropic and enthalpic contributions to the free energy are comparable near room temperature. - Abstract: The equilibrium behavior of oxygen adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces such as ZnO(0001) often affects their behavior in applications such as gas sensing. The present work attempts to bridge this distinct gap to applications from an alternate perspective by employing the optical technique of photoreflectance (PR) to measure the enthalpy ΔH{sub ads} and entropy ΔS{sub ads} of oxygen adsorption as a function of coverage on Zn-terminated ZnO(0001). The large and strongly coverage-dependent parameters, stemming from a multiplicity of sites, chemical species and reconstructions, lead to a nonmonotonic coverage variation in both ΔH{sub ads} and ΔS{sub ads}. The entropic contribution to the free energy is comparable to the enthalpic contribution even near room temperature, so that temperature effects on oxygen adsorption may be uncommonly large.

  2. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  3. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  4. 78 FR 17313 - Ninety-Day Waiting Period Limitation and Technical Amendments to Certain Health Coverage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... health insurance issuer conditions eligibility on any employee's (part-time or full-time) having... the contracting provisions of the Federal Employee Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). OPM has... estimate that 4.1 million new employees receive group health insurance coverage through private sector...

  5. 77 FR 4734 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance-Stillborn Child Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO30 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Stillborn Child Coverage AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI...

  6. 5 CFR 890.401 - Temporary extension of coverage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exercise the right of conversion provided for by this part. The 31-day extension of coverage and the right... benefits with respect to that person while he or she is entitled to any inpatient benefits under the prior... Program contract on the day after the day all inpatient benefits have been exhausted under the prior plan...

  7. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fees. CMS may impose user fees on Part D plans for the transmittal of information necessary for benefit...) Provides supplemental drug coverage to individuals based on financial need, age, or medical condition, and... effective exchange of information and coordination between such plan and SPAPs and entities providing other...

  8. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 147, 155 and 156 [CMS-9945-IFC] RIN 0938-AS17 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities AGENCY... meeting the size standards of the Small Business Administration (SBA); (2) a not-for-profit organization...

  9. Experimental Study on Critical Power in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of critical heat flux in gap (CHFG) has been performed to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in a hemispherical narrow gap. The objectives of the CHFG test are to measure critical power from a critical heat removal rate through the hemispherical narrow gap using distilled water with experimental parameters of system pressure and gap width. The CHFG test results have shown that a countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) brings about local dryout at the small edge region of the upper part and finally global dryout in a hemispherical narrow gap. Increases in the gap width and pressure lead to an increase in critical power. The measured values of critical power are lower than the predictions made by other empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate, annuli, and small spherical gaps. The measured data on critical power in the hemispherical narrow gaps have been correlated using nondimensional parameters with a range of approximately ±20%. The developed correlation has been expanded to apply the spherical geometry using the Siemens/KWU correlation

  10. [Options for flap coverage in pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, S; Antohi, N; Stîngu, C; Stan, V; Parasca, S

    2010-01-01

    Despite improvements in reconstructive techniques for pressure sores, recurrences are still seen frequently, and success rate remains variable. During 2003 - 2007, at the Emergency Hospital for Plastic Surgery and Burns in Bucharest, 27 patients underwent surgical repair of 45 pressure sores located at sacral (22 ulcers), ischial (12 ulcers) and trochanteric (11 ulcers) regions. The mean patient age was 57, 1 years (range 26 to 82 years). Mean postoperative follow-up was 6 months (range 2 months - 2 years). There were 18 complications for the 45 sores (40%). At 6 months postoperatively, recurrence was noted in 12 ulcers (27%). Details regarding indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages for different coverage options are outlined. The authors advocate the importance of surgical coverage in reducing morbidity, mortality and treatment costs.

  11. The Moderating Effects of Ethnicity and Employment Type on Insurance Coverage: Four Asian Subgroups in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Choi, Sunha; Park, So Young

    2015-10-01

    Despite nearly universal insurance coverage for older Americans over the age of 65, the preretirement age cohort is susceptible to gaps in coverage. Related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), this study investigated heterogeneity in insurance status for preretirement Asian immigrants by examining the interacting effects of Asian ethnicity and employment type, which is a major factor that determines an individual's insurance status in the U.S. Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, which included 1,024 Asians between the ages of 50 and 64, were analyzed. Our findings indicate significant moderating effects of employment type and Asian ethnicity. However, regardless of employment type, Koreans had the highest rate of being uninsured. To effectively reach the ACA's goal of reducing the number of uninsured individuals, targeted interventions specific to Asian subgroups are essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Use of comparative effectiveness research in drug coverage and pricing decisions: a six-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2010-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has assumed an increasing role in drug coverage and, in some cases, pricing decisions in Europe, as decision-makers seek to obtain better value for money. This issue brief comparatively examines the use of CER across six countries--Denmark, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. With CER gaining traction in the United States, these international experiences offer insights and potential lessons. Investing in CER can help address the current gap in publicly available, credible, up-to-date, and scientifically based comparative information on the effectiveness of drugs and other health interventions. This information can be used to base coverage and pricing decisions on evidence of value, thereby facilitating access to and public and private investment in the most beneficial new drugs and technologies. In turn, use of CER creates incentives for more efficient, high-quality health care and encourages development of innovative products that offer measurable value to patients.

  13. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  14. Coverage maximization for a poisson field of drone cells

    KAUST Repository

    Azari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2018-02-15

    The use of drone base stations to provide wireless connectivity for ground terminals is becoming a promising part of future technologies. The design of such aerial networks is however different compared to cellular 2D networks, as antennas from the drones are looking down, and the channel model becomes height-dependent. In this paper, we study the effect of antenna patterns and height-dependent shadowing. We consider a random network topology to capture the effect of dynamic changes of the flying base stations. First we characterize the aggregate interference imposed by the co-channel neighboring drones. Then we derive the link coverage probability between a ground user and its associated drone base station. The result is used to obtain the optimum system parameters in terms of drones antenna beamwidth, density and altitude. We also derive the average LoS probability of the associated drone and show that it is a good approximation and simplification of the coverage probability in low altitudes up to 500 m according to the required signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR).

  15. Recommendation system for immunization coverage and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Uzair Aslam; Huang, Mengxing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Yu; Mehmood, Anum; Di, Wu

    2018-01-02

    Immunization averts an expected 2 to 3 million deaths every year from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and measles; however, an additional 1.5 million deaths could be avoided if vaccination coverage was improved worldwide. 1 1 Data source for immunization records of 1.5 M: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs378/en/ New vaccination technologies provide earlier diagnoses, personalized treatments and a wide range of other benefits for both patients and health care professionals. Childhood diseases that were commonplace less than a generation ago have become rare because of vaccines. However, 100% vaccination coverage is still the target to avoid further mortality. Governments have launched special campaigns to create an awareness of vaccination. In this paper, we have focused on data mining algorithms for big data using a collaborative approach for vaccination datasets to resolve problems with planning vaccinations in children, stocking vaccines, and tracking and monitoring non-vaccinated children appropriately. Geographical mapping of vaccination records helps to tackle red zone areas, where vaccination rates are poor, while green zone areas, where vaccination rates are good, can be monitored to enable health care staff to plan the administration of vaccines. Our recommendation algorithm assists in these processes by using deep data mining and by accessing records of other hospitals to highlight locations with lower rates of vaccination. The overall performance of the model is good. The model has been implemented in hospitals to control vaccination across the coverage area.

  16. The generaltion gap in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G.P. van Niekerk

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation gap is one of those catch phrases that we so often use, and misuse, to excuse ourselves or to cover up for our shortcomings. It is like the shortage of nurses behind which we hide from all our nursing problems. Although it is such a commonly used phrase, do we really know what it means? When you consult the Oxford Dictionary, you will find that it defines generation gap as: differences of opinion between those of different generations. It will surprise most people that the generation gap becomes a problem only when there are differences of opinion.

  17. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  18. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-12-09

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement.

  19. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  20. An analysis of the policy coverage and examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... topics in subjects such as Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Life Orientation, ... The aim of the research reported here was to investigate the coverage and ... In analysing the coverage and examination of environmental-impact topics, ...

  1. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Determinants of vaccination coverage among pastoralists in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of vaccination coverage among pastoralists in north eastern Kenya. ... Attitudes, and Practices (KAPs) on vaccination coverage among settled and ... We used a structured instrument to survey pastoralist mothers with children ...

  3. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  4. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  5. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  6. Understanding the carbon dioxide gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Thomas W L; Wicke, Jannis N; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current review attempts to demonstrate the value of several forms of carbon dioxide (CO2) gaps in resuscitation of the critically ill patient as monitor for the adequacy of the circulation, as target for fluid resuscitation and also as predictor for outcome. Fluid resuscitation is one of the key treatments in many intensive care patients. It remains a challenge in daily practice as both a shortage and an overload in intravascular volume are potentially harmful. Many different approaches have been developed for use as target of fluid resuscitation. CO2 gaps can be used as surrogate for the adequacy of cardiac output (CO) and as marker for tissue perfusion and are therefore a potential target for resuscitation. CO2 gaps are easily measured via point-of-care analysers. We shed light on its potential use as nowadays it is not widely used in clinical practice despite its potential. Many studies were conducted on partial CO2 pressure differences or CO2 content (cCO2) differences either alone, or in combination with other markers for outcome or resuscitation adequacy. Furthermore, some studies deal with CO2 gap to O2 gap ratios as target for goal-directed fluid therapy or as marker for outcome. CO2 gap is a sensitive marker of tissue hypoperfusion, with added value over traditional markers of tissue hypoxia in situations in which an oxygen diffusion barrier exists such as in tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation. Venous-to-arterial cCO2 or partial pressure gaps can be used to evaluate whether attempts to increase CO should be made. Considering the potential of the several forms of CO2 measurements and its ease of use via point-of-care analysers, it is recommendable to implement CO2 gaps in standard clinical practice.

  7. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  8. Bridging the Gap (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-05

    1 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency “Bridging the Gap ” Dr. Robert F. Leheny Deputy Director Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bridging the Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  9. Mobile-robot navigation with complete coverage of unstructured environments

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; González de Santos, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    There are some mobile-robot applications that require the complete coverage of an unstructured environment. Examples are humanitarian de-mining and floor-cleaning tasks. A complete-coverage algorithm is then used, a path-planning technique that allows the robot to pass over all points in the environment, avoiding unknown obstacles. Different coverage algorithms exist, but they fail working in unstructured environments. This paper details a complete-coverage algorithm for unstructured environm...

  10. Uterotonic use immediately following birth: using a novel methodology to estimate population coverage in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Jim; Dwivedi, Vikas; Varallo, John; Singh, Gajendra; Pallipamula, Suranjeen Prasad; Amade, Nazir; de Luz Vaz, Maria; Bishanga, Dustan; Plotkin, Marya; Al-Makaleh, Bushra; Suhowatsky, Stephanie; Smith, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-22

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. While incidence of PPH can be dramatically reduced by uterotonic use immediately following birth (UUIFB) in both community and facility settings, national coverage estimates are rare. Most national health systems have no indicator to track this, and community-based measurements are even more scarce. To fill this information gap, a methodology for estimating national coverage for UUIFB was developed and piloted in four settings. The rapid estimation methodology consisted of convening a group of national technical experts and using the Delphi method to come to consensus on key data elements that were applied to a simple algorithm, generating a non-precise national estimate of coverage of UUIFB. Data elements needed for the calculation were the distribution of births by location and estimates of UUIFB in each of those settings, adjusted to take account of stockout rates and potency of uterotonics. This exercise was conducted in 2013 in Mozambique, Tanzania, the state of Jharkhand in India, and Yemen. Available data showed that deliveries in public health facilities account for approximately half of births in Mozambique and Tanzania, 16% in Jharkhand and 24% of births in Yemen. Significant proportions of births occur in private facilities in Jharkhand and faith-based facilities in Tanzania. Estimated uterotonic use for facility births ranged from 70 to 100%. Uterotonics are not used routinely for PPH prevention at home births in any of the settings. National UUIFB coverage estimates of all births were 43% in Mozambique, 40% in Tanzania, 44% in Jharkhand, and 14% in Yemen. This methodology for estimating coverage of UUIFB was found to be feasible and acceptable. While the exercise produces imprecise estimates whose validity cannot be assessed objectively in the absence of a gold standard estimate, stakeholders felt they were accurate enough to be actionable. The exercise

  11. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.410 Health benefits coverage options. (a) Types of...

  12. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage Enhancement Option. 457.172 Section 457.172..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.172 Coverage Enhancement Option. The Coverage Enhancement Option for the 2009 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC policies: United...

  13. 20 CFR 701.401 - Coverage under state compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage under state compensation programs...; DEFINITIONS AND USE OF TERMS Coverage Under State Compensation Programs § 701.401 Coverage under state compensation programs. (a) Exclusions from the definition of “employee” under § 701.301(a)(12), and the...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1065 - Self-employment coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment coverage. 404.1065 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment § 404.1065 Self-employment coverage. For an individual to have self-employment coverage under social security, the...

  15. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  16. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart. [55 FR 36820...

  17. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an ACS are provided in RUS Telecommunications Engineering and Construction Manual section 205. (e... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage... the borrower's records contain sufficient information as to subscriber development to enable cost...

  18. 29 CFR 2.12 - Audiovisual coverage permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage permitted. 2.12 Section 2.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.12 Audiovisual coverage permitted. The following are the types of hearings where the Department...

  19. Religious subgroups influencing vaccination coverage in the Dutch Bible belt: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van der Velden, Koos; de Vos, Sjoerd; Knippenberg, Hans; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2011-02-14

    two very conservative OPDs. As variance in municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt is largely explained by membership ratios of the various OPDs, control of vaccine preventable diseases should be focused on these specific risk groups. In current policy part of the orthodox protestant risk group is missed.

  20. Attaining higher coverage: obstacles to overcome. English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    In 1983, 8 (42%) of the 19 English-speaking Caribbean countries (including Suriname) achieved at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine among children under 1 year of age and 6 countries (32%) had at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV). In addition, 10 countries (53%) achieved over 75% DPT coverage and 11 (58%) achieved over 75% TOPV coverage. Despite this record of progress, several factors continue to impede further gains in immunization coverage. Of particular concern is the high dropout rate. As many as 25% of infants receive their 1st dose of DPT and TOPV but do not return to complete their course of immunization. There is also a need for each health center to estimate its annual target population for immunization every year through analysis of the total live births from the previous year in the health center's catchment area (minus infant mortality). Monthly target figures can thus be computed and coverage monitored. A further problem has been a reluctance on the part of some health workers to administer vaccines simultaneously. This does not reduce effectiveness or increase the risk of complications, and reduces the number of visits needed to complete the immunization schedule. An unresolved question is whether to immunize ill or malnourished children. Decisions on this matter should take into account the availability and accessibility of health care services, the ability to follow-up children who are not immunized, and the likelihood that children will return for subsequent immunizations. Finally, a number of immunizations performed by private practitioners and institutions are not reported. Both public and private health care providers should agree on a standardized reporting format to allow better estimation of coverage.

  1. An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, C J

    2009-01-01

    The general antiparticle spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is an indirect dark matter search. GAPS detects the antideuterons produced in WIMP-WIMP annihilation, a generic feature in many theories beyond the Standard Model. Antideuterons are a nearly background free signature of exotic physics. GAPS has substantial discovery potential for dark matter within the minimal supersymmetric model and its extensions, and models with universal extra dimensions. GAPS complements underground experiments, reaching parts of supersymmetric parameter space unavailable to them, and working to better constrain the properties of dark matter where they overlap in parameter space. GAPS is designed to be launched from a balloon. GAPS is funded for a prototype flight in 2011, to be followed by a long duration balloon flight to execute its science program. We discuss recent theoretical investigations on antideuteron searches, and their implications for experiment design. We describe the GAPS experiment placing particular emphasis on recent investigations that represent technical or conceptual extensions of the original GAPS concept.

  2. Science of safety topic coverage in experiential education in US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Derek H; Warholak, Terri L; Slack, Marion K; Malone, Daniel C; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2011-12-15

    To compare the science of safety (SoS) topic coverage and associated student competencies in the experiential education curricula of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Taiwan. The experiential education director, assistant director, or coordinator at a random sample of 34 US colleges and schools of pharmacy and all 7 Taiwan schools of pharmacy were interviewed and then asked to complete an Internet-based survey instrument. Faculty members in both countries perceived that experiential curricula were focused on the postmarketing phase of the SoS, and that there is a need for the pharmacy experiential curricula to be standardized in order to fill SoS coverage gaps. Inter-country differences in experiential SoS coverage were noted in topics included for safety biomarkers that signal potential for drug-induced problems and pharmacogenomics. Experiential SoS topic coverage and student ability gaps were perceived within and between US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.

  3. Preliminary test of 5-gap glass multi-gap resistive plate chamber for photon detection for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganai, R.; Mondal, M.; Mehta, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a type of gas detector which uses constant and uniform electric field in between several high resistive electrodes and works on the principle of gas ionisation. In MRPC a particular gas gap is divided into several parts with the help of thin high resistive electrodes. Division of the gas gap helps to improve the time resolution of the detector significantly. MRPCs with time resolution of ∼15 ps have been reported

  4. GapMis: a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Tomás; Frousios, Kimon; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Park, Kunsoo; Pissis, Solon P; Tischler, German

    2013-08-01

    Pairwise sequence alignment has received a new motivation due to the advent of recent patents in next-generation sequencing technologies, particularly so for the application of re-sequencing---the assembly of a genome directed by a reference sequence. After the fast alignment between a factor of the reference sequence and a high-quality fragment of a short read by a short-read alignment programme, an important problem is to find the alignment between a relatively short succeeding factor of the reference sequence and the remaining low-quality part of the read allowing a number of mismatches and the insertion of a single gap in the alignment. We present GapMis, a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap. It is based on a simple algorithm, which computes a different version of the traditional dynamic programming matrix. The presented experimental results demonstrate that GapMis is more suitable and efficient than most popular tools for this task.

  5. Interaction of the Bragg gap with polaritonic gap in opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayer, Eradat; Sivachenko, Andrey Yu; Li, Sergey; Raikh, Mikhail E.; Valy Vardeny, Z.

    2001-03-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) are a class of artificial structures with a periodic dielectric function. PCs can be a laboratory for testing fundamental processes involving interactions of radiation with matter in novel conditions. We have studied the optical properties of opal PCs that are infiltrated with highly polarizable media such as j-aggregates of cyanine dyes. Opals are self- assembled structures of silica (SiO_2) spheres. We report our studies on clarifying the relationship between a polaritonic gap and a photonic stop band (Bragg gap) when they resonantly coexist in the same structure. Infiltration of opal with polarizable molecules combines the polaritonic and Bragg diffractive effects. Both effects exist independently when the Bragg (at ω=ω_B) and polaritonic (at ω=ω_T) resonances are well separated in frequency. A completely different situation occurs when ωT =ω_B. Such a condition was achieved in opals that were infiltrated with J-aggregates of cyanine dyes that have large Rabi frequency. Our measurements show some dramatic changes in the shape of the reflectivity plateaus, which are due to the interplay between the photonic band gap and the polaritonic gap. The experimental results on reflectivity and its dependence on the light propagation angle and concentration of the cyanie dyes are in agreement with the theoretical calculations. (The work was supported in part by Army Research office DAAD19-00-1-0406.)

  6. Is there a gap in the gap? Regional differences in the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  7. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  8. A road map for universal coverage: finding a pass through the financial mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Samuel Y; Lee, Philip R

    2008-04-01

    Government already pays for more than half of U.S. health care costs, and nearly all universal health insurance proposals assume continued government involvement through tax subsidies and other means. The question of what specific taxes could be used to finance universal coverage is, however, seldom carefully examined, in part due to efforts by health care reform proponents to downplay tax issues. In this article we undertake such an examination. We argue that the challenges of relying on taxes for universal coverage are even greater than is generally appreciated, but that they can nevertheless be met. A proposal to fund a universal health insurance voucher system with a value-added tax illustrates issues that would arise for tax-financed plans in general and provides a broad framework for a bipartisan approach to universal coverage. We discuss significant problems that such an approach would face and suggest solutions. We outline a long-term political and legislative strategy for enacting universal coverage that draws upon precedents set by comparable legislative initiatives, including tax reform and Medicare. The results are an improved understanding of the relationship between systemic health care finance reform and taxation and a politically realistic plan for universal coverage that employs undisguised taxes.

  9. Filling the Gap between IT Governance and IT Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Jette

    2007-01-01

    there is a gap between IT governance and IT project management. Theory on IT governance assumes that strategies are implemented through projects - but do not go into detail on how to do it. Theories on project management do not include interaction with governance processes. A gap between IT governance...... and IT project management can result in IT that does not support business strategy and in lack of flexibility and agility. Competitive, changing business environments combined with the uncertainty and unpredictability of IT implementation projects call for IT governance organisation and processes to sense......The goal of this paper is to explore coordination mechanisms as part of a solution to fill the gap between IT Governance and IT project management. The Gap between IT governance and IT project management has not been fully explored in IT management research. Both in theory and in practice...

  10. Building that Bridge over the Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Ramanathan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers worldwide are seeking and failing to find in new recruits many skills that are critical for success. Skills that enable employees to work as part of a team, communicate effectively, take decisions, lead, adapt to change and solve problems creatively are not often found in fresh graduates. Education does not impart these skills as efficiently as it does academic knowledge and subject-specific skills. A change in the pedagogy and content of education is required to bridge the increasing skills gap we face today. The World University Consortium has identified themes that must be part of our future education, and this article highlights methods and strategies that can implement these ideas.

  11. Cobertura efectiva de las intervenciones en salud de América Latina y el Caribe: métrica para evaluar los sistemas de salud Effective coverage of health interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean: metrics for the assessment of health systems performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir la cobertura efectiva para once intervenciones de salud en nueve países de América Latina utilizando las encuestas de demografía y salud o registros administrativos que abarcan la salud infantil, de la mujer y el adulto. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron las intervenciones y se armonizaron definiciones y métodos de cálculo de acuerdo con la información disponible para lograr la comparabilidad entre países. RESULTADOS: Chile es el país con mejores indicadores de coberturas crudas y efectivas, seguido por México y Colombia, y existen brechas importantes entre regiones, departamentos o estados. CONCLUSIONES: La métrica de cobertura efectiva es un indicador sensible que relaciona la necesidad de las intervenciones en salud, su utilización y calidad, lo que permite valorar los programas de salud al aportar datos precisos de dónde y a quién deben dirigirse los recursos y esfuerzos nacionales para que los países alcancen los propósitos y metas planteados.OBJECTIVE: To measure effective coverage for ll health interventions in Latin America including the children's, women's and adult health, as part of program evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interventions were selected; the definitions and calculation methods were harmonized according to the information available to ensure comparability between countries. RESULTS: Chile has better indicators of crude and effective coverage followed by Mexico and Colombia.There are significant gaps between regions, counties or states. CONCLUSIONS: The health metric on effective coverage is a sensitive indicator that links three important aspects: Coverage of health interventions, use of health services, and access to such services. Effective coverage is a good tool to evaluate health programs performance, and also provides data of where and to whom the system should address national efforts and resources to achieve the purposes and goals set.

  12. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  13. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  14. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  15. Is expanding Medicare coverage cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennig Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proposals to expand Medicare coverage tend to be expensive, but the value of services purchased is not known. This study evaluates the efficiency of the average private supplemental insurance plan for Medicare recipients. Methods Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Death Index, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed to estimate the costs, changes in life expectancy, and health-related quality of life gains associated with providing private supplemental insurance coverage for Medicare beneficiaries. Model inputs included socio-demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics. Parameter estimates from regression models were used to predict quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs associated with private supplemental insurance relative to Medicare only. Markov decision analysis modeling was then employed to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Medicare supplemental insurance is associated with increased health care utilization, but the additional costs associated with this utilization are offset by gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy. The incremental cost-effectiveness of private supplemental insurance is approximately $24,000 per QALY gained relative to Medicare alone. Conclusion Supplemental insurance for Medicare beneficiaries is a good value, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparable to medical interventions commonly deemed worthwhile.

  16. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  17. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  19. Top IS research on quality of transaction standards: a structured literature review to identify a research gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Berends, W.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly

  20. Generation Gap Management in Restructured Metallurgical Enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdzik Bożena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of generation gap management resulting from personnel restructuring in foundries in Poland. Structural changes to steelworks led to a sharp decline in employment caused by decreased steelworks production. New hiring was limited as a part of employment rationalisation in the steelworks sector. Such personnel policy eventually led to a generation gap. Ratios between individual age groups of employees are imbalanced at steelworks: the numbers of young personnel are low and of those aged 50+ are high. This research forecasts changes in employment levels for the 2013-2019 period, aimed at closing the generation gap. The paper consists of three parts: (1 a descriptive analysis of labor market demographics in Poland’s steel industry; (2 proposed methodology for HR management model, and (3 econometric models forecasting labor demographics in Poland’s steel industry.

  1. Gender gap or program gap? Students' negotiations of study practice in a course in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013. Dynamics behind this gap were explored through interpretative discourse analysis on interviews of 21 students who had recently passed the course. A recurring pattern was identified in the interviews. Students described studying electromagnetism as either studying to pass or studying to learn. Their choice of practice was influenced by the significance recognized in the course, which primarily was discussed in relation to program affiliation. Students stressed that perceived differences, in their study context, were larger between students affiliated with different programs than between male and female students on the same program. This was supported by quantitative analysis of course grades in relation to study programs, where the grade difference between female and male students on the same program in most cases were not statistically significant. The gender gap in grades for the whole course was related to different achievements on different programs. Programs further from the discipline of physics had lower mean grades and also enrolled a larger fraction of female students. Society-wide gender differences in interest and study choice are reflected in the grades on this single course. These results displace the achievement gap from the level of individuals to that of programs, and the gender gap from a difference in achievement to a difference in study choice. We discuss the implications of this shift of perspective in relation to gender differences for both research and teaching.

  2. A Case Study into Microbial Genome Assembly Gap Sequences and Finishing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utturkar, Sagar M; Klingeman, Dawn M; Hurt, Richard A; Brown, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    This study characterized regions of DNA which remained unassembled by either PacBio and Illumina sequencing technologies for seven bacterial genomes. Two genomes were manually finished using bioinformatics and PCR/Sanger sequencing approaches and regions not assembled by automated software were analyzed. Gaps present within Illumina assemblies mostly correspond to repetitive DNA regions such as multiple rRNA operon sequences. PacBio gap sequences were evaluated for several properties such as GC content, read coverage, gap length, ability to form strong secondary structures, and corresponding annotations. Our hypothesis that strong secondary DNA structures blocked DNA polymerases and contributed to gap sequences was not accepted. PacBio assemblies had few limitations overall and gaps were explained as cumulative effect of lower than average sequence coverage and repetitive sequences at contig termini. An important aspect of the present study is the compilation of biological features that interfered with assembly and included active transposons, multiple plasmid sequences, phage DNA integration, and large sequence duplication. Our targeted genome finishing approach and systematic evaluation of the unassembled DNA will be useful for others looking to close, finish, and polish microbial genome sequences.

  3. Extending Coverage and Lifetime of K-coverage Wireless Sensor Networks Using Improved Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Ebrahimnezhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available K-coverage wireless sensor networks try to provide facilities such that each hotspot region is covered by at least k sensors. Because, the fundamental evaluation metrics of such networks are coverage and lifetime, proposing an approach that extends both of them simultaneously has a lot of interests. In this article, it is supposed that two kinds of nodes are available: static and mobile. The proposed method, at first, tries to balance energy among sensor nodes using Improved Harmony Search (IHS algorithm in a k-coverage and connected wireless sensor network in order to achieve a sensor node deployment. Also, this method proposes a suitable place for a gateway node (Sink that collects data from all sensors. Second, in order to prolong the network lifetime, some of the high energy-consuming mobile nodes are moved to the closest positions of low energy-consuming ones and vice versa after a while. This leads increasing the lifetime of network while connectivity and k-coverage are preserved. Through computer simulations, experimental results verified that the proposed IHS-based algorithm found better solution compared to some related methods.

  4. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries...... are giving increasing attention to where they need to be in 2025, 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, this year’s update of the report benefits from the findings on the emissions budget from the latest series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports...

  5. Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in

  6. Interpreting wage gaps of disabled men: the roles of productivity and discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Nicoletti, Cheti; Platt, Lucinda

    2010-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, we study wage gaps for disabled men after the introduction of the Disability Discrimination Act. We estimate wage gaps at the mean and at different quantiles of the wage distribution, and decompose them into the part explained by differences in workers' and job characteristics, the part that can be ascribed to health-related reduced productivity, and a residual part which we can more confidently interpret as discrimination. For physically disabled workers, mo...

  7. Footprints: A Visual Search Tool that Supports Discovery and Coverage Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ellen; Domico, Kelly; Ahern, Shane; Bart, Eugene; Singhal, Mudita

    2014-12-01

    Searching a large document collection to learn about a broad subject involves the iterative process of figuring out what to ask, filtering the results, identifying useful documents, and deciding when one has covered enough material to stop searching. We are calling this activity "discoverage," discovery of relevant material and tracking coverage of that material. We built a visual analytic tool called Footprints that uses multiple coordinated visualizations to help users navigate through the discoverage process. To support discovery, Footprints displays topics extracted from documents that provide an overview of the search space and are used to construct searches visuospatially. Footprints allows users to triage their search results by assigning a status to each document (To Read, Read, Useful), and those status markings are shown on interactive histograms depicting the user's coverage through the documents across dates, sources, and topics. Coverage histograms help users notice biases in their search and fill any gaps in their analytic process. To create Footprints, we used a highly iterative, user-centered approach in which we conducted many evaluations during both the design and implementation stages and continually modified the design in response to feedback.

  8. State of inequality in malaria intervention coverage in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Smith, Thomas A; de Savigny, Don; Penny, Melissa A

    2017-10-18

    Scale-up of malaria interventions over the last decade have yielded a significant reduction in malaria transmission and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated economic gradients in the distribution of these efforts and of their impacts within and across endemic countries. Using Demographic and Health Surveys we computed equity metrics to characterize the distribution of malaria interventions in 30 endemic countries proxying economic position with an asset-wealth index. Gradients were summarized in a concentration index, tabulated against level of coverage, and compared among interventions, across countries, and against respective trends over the period 2005-2015. There remain broad differences in coverage of malaria interventions and their distribution by wealth within and across countries. In most, economic gradients are lacking or favor the poorest for vector control; malaria services delivered through the formal healthcare sector are much less equitable. Scale-up of interventions in many countries improved access across the wealth continuum; in some, these efforts consistently prioritized the poorest. Expansions in control programs generally narrowed coverage gaps between economic strata; gradients persist in countries where growth was slower in the poorest quintile or where baseline inequality was large. Despite progress, malaria is consistently concentrated in the poorest, with the degree of inequality in burden far surpassing that expected given gradients in the distribution of interventions. Economic gradients in the distribution of interventions persist over time, limiting progress toward equity in malaria control. We found that, in countries with large baseline inequality in the distribution of interventions, even a small bias in expansion favoring the least poor yielded large gradients in intervention coverage while pro-poor growth failed to close the gap between the poorest and least poor. We demonstrated that dimensions of disadvantage

  9. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    Media representations are an important part of the dynamics of contemporary socio-ecological systems. The media agenda influences and interacts with the public and the policy agenda and all of these are connected to the changes of the state of the environment. Partly as a result of media debate, some issues are considered serious environmental problems, some risks are amplified while others are attenuated, and some proposals for remedies are highlighted and others downplayed. Research on environmental media coverage has focused predominantly on the English-speaking industrialised countries. This thesis presents an analysis of Finnish environmental coverage, focusing on representations of climate change and eutrophication from 1990- 2010. The main source of material is Helsingin Sanomat (HS), the most widely-read newspaper in Finland. The analysis adopts the perspective of contextual constructivism and the agenda-setting function of the mass media. Selected models describing the evolution of environmental coverage are applied within an interdisciplinary emphasis. The results show that the amount of newspaper content on eutrophication and climate change has generally increased, although both debates have been characterised by intense fluctuations. The volume of the coverage on climate change has been higher than that of eutrophication, especially since 2006. Eutrophication was highlighted most during the late 1990s while the peaks of climate coverage occurred between 2007 and 2009. Two key factors have shaped the coverage of eutrophication. First, the coverage is shaped by ecological factors, especially by the algal occurrences that are largely dependent on weather conditions. Second, the national algal monitoring and communication system run by environmental authorities has provided the media with easy-to-use data on the algal situation during the summertime. The peaks of climate coverage have been caused by an accumulation of several contributing factors. The two

  10. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. Closing the Gaps. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between groups of students (minority and white, rich and poor, English speakers and English language learners) are complex and intractable. Increasingly, they are being seen as a result of disparities between opportunities for learning available to different groups. By changing the opportunity structures of schools and…

  13. The Emissions Gap Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Following the historic signing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this sixth edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report comes as world leaders start gathering in Paris to establish a new agreement on climate change. The report offers an independent assessment of the mitigation...

  14. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  15. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  16. Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-10

    Violet Spectra of Hot Sparks in Hh’Iacua, ’ ?hys. Rev., Vol. 12, p. 167, (1913). 31A Maitland , "Spark CondiiIoning Equation for Olane ElectrodesI-in...Appl. Phys., Vol. 1, 1291 G. Thecohilus, K. Srivastava, and R. ’ ian Heeswi.k, ’tn-situ Observation of !Microparticles in a Vacuum-Tnsulated Gap Using

  17. Featured Image: Simulating Planetary Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    The authors model of howthe above disk would look as we observe it in a scattered-light image. The morphology of the gap can be used to estimate the mass of the planet that caused it. [Dong Fung 2017]The above image from a computer simulation reveals the dust structure of a protoplanetary disk (with the star obscured in the center) as a newly formed planet orbits within it. A recent study by Ruobing Dong (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) and Jeffrey Fung (University of California, Berkeley) examines how we can determine mass of such a planet based on our observations of the gap that the planet opens in the disk as it orbits. The authors models help us to better understand how our observations of gaps might change if the disk is inclined relative to our line of sight, and how we can still constrain the mass of the gap-opening planet and the viscosity of the disk from the scattered-light images we have recently begun to obtain of distant protoplanetary disks. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationRuobing Dong () and Jeffrey Fung () 2017 ApJ 835 146. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/146

  18. Globalization and the Gender Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  19. PSS: beyond the implementation gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, a large number of papers on planning support systems (PSS) have been published in national and international, scientific and professional journals. What is remarkable about PSS is that for quite some time their history has been dominated by an implementation gap, that

  20. Denmark and the gap year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Noemi; Juul, Tilde Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes three different educational offers to young people: “The Folk High School”, “The ‘After-school’” and 10th class. All can be considered optional Gap Years. The following diagram shows how the Danish education system is structured. The Folk High School is a training course...

  1. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  2. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  3. The MgB2 superconducting energy gaps measured by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilty, James William

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the superconducting energy gap in magnesium diboride is an essential part of understanding this unusual superconductor, and Raman scattering is a convenient and powerful technique which is able to directly measure the key physical properties of the gap. The Raman spectra of MgB 2 show clear superconductivity induced renormalisations and evidence is found for two superconducting gaps residing on the σ and π Fermi surfaces with maximum magnitudes of around 110 and 30 cm -1 . The larger gap appears as a sharp peak in the electronic Raman scattering continuum while the smaller gap manifests itself as a threshold in the low-frequency spectral intensity, indicating that the gaps form in different electronic environments. The physical properties of the gaps favour explanations of the extraordinarily high T c in MgB 2 within strong coupling theory

  4. A vorticity transport model to restore spatial gaps in velocity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Siavash; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Often measurements of velocity data do not have full spatial coverage in the probed domain or near boundaries. These gaps can be due to missing measurements or masked regions of corrupted data. These gaps confound interpretation, and are problematic when the data is used to compute Lagrangian or trajectory-based analyses. Various techniques have been proposed to overcome coverage limitations in velocity data such as unweighted least square fitting, empirical orthogonal function analysis, variational interpolation as well as boundary modal analysis. In this talk, we present a vorticity transport PDE to reconstruct regions of missing velocity vectors. The transport model involves both nonlinear anisotropic diffusion and advection. This approach is shown to preserve the main features of the flow even in cases of large gaps, and the reconstructed regions are continuous up to second order. We illustrate results for high-frequency radar (HFR) measurements of the ocean surface currents as this is a common application of limited coverage. We demonstrate that the error of the method is on the same order of the error of the original velocity data. In addition, we have developed a web-based gateway for data restoration, and we will demonstrate a practical application using available data. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. 1520825.

  5. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  6. Skill gap analysis and training needs in Indian aerospace industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Balaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the paper is on assessing the global aerospace industry as well as Indian scenario, and attempts to assess the skill gaps and training needs of Indian aerospace industry.  Design/methodology/approach: The study is qualitative in nature, and employs wide array of qualitative tools which includes desktop study, focus group interviews and secondary sources of information. Around 10 focus groups were used in the study, with each focus group having a minimum of 6 members of experts in the aerospace and allied industries. The study evolved into a 2 staged one, with the first study elucidating the growing importance and potential of aerospace industry, justifying the significance to take forward the second part of the study. And the second study specifically focuses on skill gaps and training needs. Findings and Originality/value: The Study yields varied results on existing generic expectations of aerospace industry, specific needs of aerospace industry, identification of aerospace job categories unique to aerospace industry, key issues of training in Indian scenario and recommendations. The paper in summary reflects the current scenario of aerospace industry potentials for India and its likely impact on skills gap and training needs. Practical implications: Skills gap is a significant gap between an organization’s current capabilities and the skills it needs to achieve its goals. As a number of Global forecasts project, India as an emerging aviation market, the skill gaps in this sector is predicted to be huge and necessitates the study on assessing the skill gaps and its allied training needs. Originality/value: The Study is highly original and first one of its kind in reflecting the current situation of the skills gap and training needs in Indian Aerospace industry. The focus group interviews were conducted with the experts at various levels in the industyr without any bias yielding valid and realtime data for the

  7. Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to serve for the ecological monitoring efficiency of Poyang Lake, an improved hybrid algorithm, mixed with differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, is proposed and applied to optimize the coverage problem of wireless sensor network. And then, the affect of the population size and the number of iterations on the coverage performance are both discussed and analyzed. The four kinds of statistical results about the coverage rate are obtained through lots of simulation experiments.

  8. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this...

  9. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. © 2016 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Hydrocarbon deposition in gaps of tungsten and graphite tiles in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qian; Yang Zhongshi; Luo Guangnan

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo code PIC-EDDY has been utilized to investigate the mechanism of hydrocarbon deposition in gaps of tungsten tiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), where the sheath potential is calculated by the 2D in space and 3D in velocity particle-in-cell method. The calculated results for graphite tiles using the same method are also presented for comparison. Calculation results show that the amount of carbon deposited in the gaps of carbon tiles is three times larger than that in the gaps of tungsten tiles when the carbon particles from re-erosion on the top surface of monoblocks are taken into account. However, the deposition amount is found to be larger in the gaps of tungsten tiles at the same CH 4 flux. When chemical sputtering becomes significant as carbon coverage on tungsten increases with exposure time, the deposition inside the gaps of tungsten tiles would be considerable. (author)

  11. Emplacement Gantry Gap Analysis Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, R.

    2005-01-01

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on the identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512], Table A-11). Further, SSCs credited with performing safety functions are classified as ITS. In turn, assurance that these SSCs will perform as required is sought through the use of consensus codes and standards. This gap analysis is based on the design completed for license application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed throughout this study. This gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard identified within the ''Emplacement Gantry ITS Standards Identification Study'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173586]) to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied, a gap is highlighted. This study will identify requirements to supplement or augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, this gap analysis will identify nonstandard areas of the design that will be subject to a design development plan. Nonstandard components and nonstandard design configurations are defined as areas of the design that do not follow standard industry practices or codes and standards. Whereby, assurance that an SSC will perform as required may not be readily sought though the use of consensus standards. This

  12. Dental Care Coverage and Use: Modeling Limitations and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined why older US adults without dental care coverage and use would have lower use rates if offered coverage than do those who currently have coverage. Methods. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to estimate a multinomial logistic model to analyze the influence of personal characteristics in the grouping of older US adults into those with and those without dental care coverage and dental care use. Results. Compared with persons with no coverage and no dental care use, users of dental care with coverage were more likely to be younger, female, wealthier, college graduates, married, in excellent or very good health, and not missing all their permanent teeth. Conclusions. Providing dental care coverage to uninsured older US adults without use will not necessarily result in use rates similar to those with prior coverage and use. We have offered a model using modifiable factors that may help policy planners facilitate programs to increase dental care coverage uptake and use. PMID:24328635

  13. State contraceptive coverage laws: creative responses to questions of "conscience".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailard, C

    1999-08-01

    The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) guaranteed contraceptive coverage for employees of the federal government. However, opponents of the FEHBP contraceptive coverage questioned the viability of the conscience clause. Supporters of the contraceptive coverage pressed for the narrowest exemption, one that only permit religious plans that clearly states religious objection to contraception. There are six of the nine states that have enacted contraceptive coverage laws aimed at the private sector. The statutes included a provision of conscience clause. The private sector disagrees to the plan since almost all of the employees¿ work for employers who only offer one plan. The scope of exemption for employers was an issue in five states that have enacted the contraceptive coverage. In Hawaii and California, it was exemplified that if employers are exempted from the contraceptive coverage based on religious grounds, an employee will be entitled to purchase coverage directly from the plan. There are still questions on how an insurer, who objects based on religious grounds to a plan with contraceptive coverage, can function in a marketplace where such coverage is provided by most private sector employers.

  14. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  15. Expanding the universe of universal coverage: the population health argument for increasing coverage for immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Loue, Sana; Galea, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    As the US recession deepens, furthering the debate about healthcare reform is now even more important than ever. Few plans aimed at facilitating universal coverage make any mention of increasing access for uninsured non-citizens living in the US, many of whom are legally restricted from certain types of coverage. We conducted a critical review of the public health literature concerning the health status and access to health services among immigrant populations in the US. Using examples from infectious and chronic disease epidemiology, we argue that access to health services is at the intersection of the health of uninsured immigrants and the general population and that extending access to healthcare to all residents of the US, including undocumented immigrants, is beneficial from a population health perspective. Furthermore, from a health economics perspective, increasing access to care for immigrant populations may actually reduce net costs by increasing primary prevention and reducing the emphasis on emergency care for preventable conditions. It is unlikely that proposals for universal coverage will accomplish their objectives of improving population health and reducing social disparities in health if they do not address the substantial proportion of uninsured non-citizens living in the US.

  16. Capping the tax exclusion for employment-based health coverage: implications for employers and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    . For self-insured employers, calculating insurance premium costs under a tax cap could be done fairly easily using the COBRA premium. However, whether self-insured employers would be able to use the least costly method to determine the value of coverage would have to be determined by law and/or regulations. THE SEC. 89 EXPERIENCE: Sec. 89 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which attempted to make employee benefits more standard and fair, became so controversial that it was repealed by Congress in 1989--in part because the regulations created regulatory burdens that were so complicated and costly as to be unworkable. Similarly, valuation calculations under a health coverage tax cap could become overly burdensome if the lessons from Sec. 89 are not heeded.

  17. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  18. Exploring the gender gap in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P; Haddock, C C; Barowsky, D

    1996-01-01

    A 1990 study by ACHE and the University of Iowa compared the career attainments and attitudes of a group of male and female healthcare executives. The research showed that among men and women who had entered the field at the same time and had achieved similar educational levels, women did not fare as well as men in terms of salary, position level, or job satisfaction. A follow-up to this study, which consisted of two parts, was conducted in 1995 by ACHE, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Lamalie Amrop International to learn whether the gender gap had narrowed. The 1990 study divided respondents into groups according to the year they entered healthcare management: 1971-1975, 1976-1980, or 1981-1985. The first part of the 1995 project was a replication study that paralleled the 1990 study, dividing a new pool of respondents into three groups: 1976-1980, 1981-1985, and 1986-1990. The second part of the follow-up project was a panel study, in which respondents from the 1990 study were surveyed again. Following are highlights from the 1995 study.

  19. Universal coverage of IVF pays off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, M P; Connolly, M P; Kadoch, I-J; Phillips, S; Bissonnette, F

    2014-06-01

    What was the clinical and economic impact of universal coverage of IVF in Quebec, Canada, during the first calendar year of implementation of the public IVF programme? Universal coverage of IVF increased access to IVF treatment, decreased the multiple pregnancy rate and decreased the cost per live birth, despite increased costs per cycle. Public funding of IVF assures equality of access to IVF and decreases multiple pregnancies resulting from this treatment. Public IVF programmes usually mandate a predominant SET policy, the most effective approach for reducing the incidence of multiple pregnancies. This prospective comparative cohort study involved 7364 IVF cycles performed in Quebec during 2009 and 2011 and included an economic analysis. IVF cycles performed in the five centres offering IVF treatment in Quebec during 2009, before implementation of the public IVF programme, were compared with cycles performed at the same centres during 2011, the first full calendar year following implementation of the programme. Data were obtained from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technologies Register (CARTR). Comparisons were made between the two periods in terms of utilization, pregnancy rates, multiple pregnancy rates and costs. The number of IVF cycles performed in Quebec increased by 192% after the new policy was implemented. Elective single-embryo transfer was performed in 1.6% of the cycles during Period I (2009), and increased to 31.6% during Period II (2011) (P IVF programme increased government costs per IVF treatment cycle from CAD$3730 to CAD$4759. Despite increased costs per cycle, the efficiency defined by the cost per live birth, which factored in downstream health costs up to 1 year post delivery, decreased from CAD$49 517 to CAD$43 362 per baby conceived by either fresh and frozen cycles. The costs described in the economic model are likely an underestimate as they do not factor in many of the long-term costs that can occur after 1 year of age. The

  20. GAP Analysis. Bulletin Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    dynamics into ecotoxicology . Pages 281-317 in O.E. Rhodes, Jr., R.K. Chesser, and M.H. Smith, editors. Population dynamics in ecological space and time...current stewardship chapter of the GAP handbook states that ... human-induced barren, cultivated exotic-dominated, or ar- "...the process of categorizing...least some level of protection, very sible. The initial data used in developing the map was remotely little of our scrub/shrub, grassland, or cultivated

  1. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  2. Hyper-active gap filling

    OpenAIRE

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F.; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L.; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap d...

  3. Hyper-active gap filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking) that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal noun phrases is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  4. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Hugo; Adimo, Ochieng; Claessens, Lieven; Wart, Van Justin; Bussel, van Lenny G.J.; Grassini, Patricio; Wolf, Joost; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, Hendrik; Oort, van Pepijn A.J.; Yang, Haishun S.; Ittersum, van Martin K.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2017-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et al. (2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop simulation models in sub-Saharan

  5. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project (old version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de H.L.E.; Adimo, A.O.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Wart, van J.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, H.L.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Yang, H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org ) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et. al. (van Ittersum et. al., 2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop

  6. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim. As an aspect of this capacity, media coverage of victims is indicator of victimization visibility. This paper discusses nature of media reporting as a phenomenon appearing in various forms as per given sources of victimization, and the ethical aspects of media presentation of victims. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the critical analysis of the media coverage of victims, by reconsidering an increased visibility of victims and their suffering, which is generated by media reporting, and whose dominant characteristic is presenting victims in the interpretative and performing manner.

  7. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  9. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Part I of this research article presents a needs-based analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape (EC Province, South Africa. This part of the research paper focuses on quantifying human resources and bed needs for these three severe mental illnesses. Human resource expenditure is calculated for nursing staff at acute, ambulatory and medium-to-long-stay services. A further objective was to conduct a gap analysis for human resources and beds for the EC in order to assist mental health planners in the commissioning of services.  Methods. Data from previous research conducted in the province, and international and national epidemiological studies were utilised to quantify the requirements for human resources (psychiatrists, medical officers/registrars, psychologists, nurses, occupational therapists and social workers and beds for acute, medium-to-long-stay and ambulatory services at provincial and regional levels, to provide mental healthcare. The authors focused on three of the eight priority conditions set by the World Health Organization. A target coverage rate of 80% was used in all calculations. A gap analysis was conducted to demonstrate deficits and excesses, utilising available data on human resources and beds available in the province. Results. The results showed that the districts of Alfred Nzo and Ukhahlamba have no human resources or beds for the provision of mental health services. The province has a deficit of 23 psychiatrists and 243 nurses trained in psychiatry, and an oversupply of 486 other nurses. The results also clearly demonstrated an inequitable distribution of resources in the province.  Conclusions. This is the first study that has provided detailed estimates of human resource and bed deficits in the EC. The study demonstrates that the areas of greatest need in terms of bed and human resource requirements are in the eastern regions of the

  10. [Research progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthro-plasty (TKA). The domestic and foreign related literature about larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA, and its impact factors, biomechanical and kinematic features, and clinical results were summarized. During TKA, to adjust the relations of flexion gap and extension gap is one of the key factors of successful operation. The biomechanical, kinematic, and clinical researches show that properly larger flexion gap than extension gap can improve both the postoperative knee range of motion and the satisfaction of patients, but does not affect the stability of the knee joint. However, there are also contrary findings. So adjustment of flexion gap and extension gap during TKA is still in dispute. Larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA is a new joint space theory, and long-term clinical efficacy, operation skills, and related complications still need further study.

  11. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  12. 22 CFR 513.610 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Drug-Free Workplace Requirements (Grants) § 513.610... subpart. In the event of any conflict between provisions of this subpart and other provisions of this part... workplace requirements concerning grants. ...

  13. Challenges in Estimating Vaccine Coverage in Refugee and Displaced Populations: Results From Household Surveys in Jordan and Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Weiss, William; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country’s vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies. Among households with a child aged 12–23 months, 55.1% of respondents in Jordan and 46.6% in Lebanon were able to produce the child’s EPI card. Only 24.5% of Syrian refugee children in Jordan and 12.5% in Lebanon were fully immunized through routine vaccination services (having received from non-campaign sources: measles, polio 1–3, and DPT 1–3 in Jordan and Lebanon, and BCG in Jordan). Respondents in Jordan (33.5%) and Lebanon (40.1%) reported difficulties obtaining child vaccinations. Our estimated immunization rates were lower than expected and raise serious concerns about gaps in vaccine coverage among Syrian refugees. Although our estimates likely under-represent true coverage, given the additional benefit of campaigns (not captured in our surveys), there is a clear need to increase awareness, accessibility, and uptake of immunization services. Current methods to measure vaccine coverage in refugee and displaced populations have limitations. To better understand health needs in such groups, we need research on: validity of recall methods, links between campaigns and routine immunization programs, and improved sampling of hard-to-reach populations. PMID:28805672

  14. To close the childhood immunization gap, we need a richer understanding of parents' decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Paul; Leask, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination is widely acknowledged as one of the most successful public health interventions globally and in most high-income countries childhood vaccination coverage rates are moderately high. Yet in many instances, immunisation rates remain below aspirational targets and have shown only modest progress toward those targets in recent years, despite concerted efforts to improve uptake. In part, coverage rates reflect individual parents' vaccination attitudes and decisions and, because vaccination decision-making is complex and context-specific, it remains challenging at individual and community levels to assist parents to make positive decisions. Consequently, in the search for opportunities to improve immunisation coverage, there has been a renewed research focus on parents' decision-making. This review provides an overview of the literature surrounding parents' vaccination decision-making, offering suggestions for where efforts to increase vaccination coverage should be targeted and identifying areas for further research.

  15. Critical gaps in the medical knowledge base of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dennis; Drabkin, Anne; Krantz, Mori J; Mascolo, Margherita; Rosen, Elissa; Sachs, Katherine; Welles, Christine; Mehler, Philip S

    2018-04-21

    Eating disorders are unique in that they inherently have much medical comorbidity both as a part of restricting-type eating disorders and those characterized by purging behaviors. Over the last three decades, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of the medical complications of eating disorders. Yet, unfortunately, there is much research that is sorely needed to bridge the gap between current medical knowledge and more effective and evidence-based medical treatment knowledge. These gaps exist in many different clinical areas including cardiology, electrolytes, gastrointestinal and bone disease. In this paper, we discuss some of the knowledge gap areas, which if bridged would help develop more effective medical intervention for this population of patients.

  16. Coverage of Entrepreneurship in Principles of Economics Textbooks: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin A.; Rushing, Francis W.

    1999-01-01

    Updates a study of the coverage of entrepreneurship contained in principles of economics textbooks originally carried out in the mid-1980s. Analyzes coverage of the same topics in 14 popular introductory texts. Concludes that entrepreneurship still has not worked its way into economics-principles texts. (DSK)

  17. Local Coverage of Three Mile Island during 1981-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Local newspaper coverage of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident was examined in a study to determine what changes, if any, were made by local media and what lessons they had learned from it. Data were collected through interviews with 21 media representatives. TMI coverage in the six newspapers was examined using each…

  18. Awareness and Coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub- national levels possess a high degree of autonomy in a number of sectors including health. It is important to assess the level of coverage of the scheme among the formal sector workers in Nigeria as a proxy to gauge the extent of coverage of the scheme and derive suitable lessons that could be used in its expansion.

  19. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.7 - “Enterprise” coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âEnterpriseâ coverage. 1620.7 Section 1620.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.7 “Enterprise” coverage. (a) The terms “enterprise” and “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of...

  1. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  2. original article assessment of effective coverage of hiv prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    BACKGROUND: Coverage assessment of prevention of Pregnant Mother to Child Transmission. (PMTCT) of HIV service is useful to measure the health system effort or performance of health service delivery function and ... anti retroviral drugs, breast-feeding counseling and ... care service coverage to develop appropriate.

  3. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite ...

  4. Improved HIV testing coverage after scale-up of ... - Lusaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved HIV testing coverage after scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs in urban Zambia: Evidence from serial hospital surveillance. ... Background: We evaluated changing HIV testing coverage and prevalence rates before and after expanding city-wide antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

  5. Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Michael J. Kuhlman1, Student Member, IEEE, Petr Švec2, Member, IEEE, Krishnanand...Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  6. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  7. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  8. Anterior palatal island advancement flap for bone graft coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Palatal Island Advancement Flap was effective in bone graft coverage in premaxillary edentulous area. Conclusion: It can be used as an aid for bone graft coverage of premaxillary edentulous ridge, where the need for mucosa is small in width but long in length. Keywords: Anterior maxilla, bone graft, dental implant, ...

  9. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  10. US Media Coverage of Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives represents a competitive field where tobacco control advocates and the tobacco industry vie to shape public and policymaker understandings about tobacco control and the industry. Through a content analysis of 649 US news items, we examined US media coverage of tobacco industry CSR and identified characteristics of media items associated with positive coverage. Most coverage appeared in local newspapers, and CSR initiatives unrelated to tobacco, with non-controversial beneficiaries, were most commonly mentioned. Coverage was largely positive. Tobacco control advocates were infrequently cited as sources and rarely authored opinion pieces; however, when their voices were included, coverage was less likely to have a positive slant. Media items published in the South, home to several tobacco company headquarters, were more likely than those published in the West to have a positive slant. The absence of tobacco control advocates from media coverage represents a missed opportunity to influence opinion regarding the negative public health implications of tobacco industry CSR. Countering the media narrative of virtuous companies doing good deeds could be particularly beneficial in the South, where the burdens of tobacco-caused disease are greatest, and coverage of tobacco companies more positive.

  11. 12 CFR 334.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's licensed...

  12. Computing Convex Coverage Sets for Faster Multi-Objective Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Whiteson, S.; Oliehoek, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we propose new algorithms for multi-objective coordination graphs (MO-CoGs). Key to the efficiency of these algorithms is that they compute a convex coverage set (CCS) instead of a Pareto coverage set (PCS). Not only is a CCS a sufficient solution set for a large class of problems,

  13. 20 CFR 404.1913 - Precluding dual coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precluding dual coverage to avoid inequitable or anomalous coverage situations for certain workers. However... 404.1913 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...) General. Employment or self-employment or services recognized as equivalent under the Act or the social...

  14. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage. (a) Section 4(f)(4). A covered State, a political subdivision of a covered State, or a separately covered political subdivision may terminate the application of section 4(f)(4) by obtaining the...

  15. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among mothers of below one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty and lack of health facilities also contributed to the low level of immunization coverage. For TT immunization to improve in the area studied, factors impeding immunization must be addressed. Keywords: tetanus, immunization, coverage. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 233- ...

  16. A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zambia. As national health systems in developing countries make progress toward achieving universal health service coverage, many face ethical challenges. In its 2010 World Health Report, the World Health Assembly called on the ...

  17. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  18. 21 CFR 1405.100 - What does this part do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does this part do? 1405.100 Section 1405.100 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 1405.100 What does this part do? This part carries...

  19. 34 CFR 84.100 - What does this part do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this part do? 84.100 Section 84.100 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 84.100 What does this part do? This part carries out the...

  20. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.; Eperon, G. E.; Snaith, H. J.; Chapman, S. J.; Goriely, A.

    2014-01-01

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  1. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Experimental investigation on streaming due to a gap between blanket modules in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Chikara; Maekawa, Fujio; Oyama, Yukio; Uno, Yoshitomo; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Wada, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    A gap streaming experiment was performed by using a D-T neutron source at FNS/JAERI as the ITER/EDA R and D Task T-218, in order to examine the streaming effects due to gap between shield blanket modules in ITER. The experiment had three phases. The first one defined neutron source characteristics (Source Characterization Experiment), the second (Experiment-l ) aimed at shield for welding part between shield blanket and back plate and the third (Experiment-2) focused on the influence that the gap between shield blanket modules would have on superconducting magnet. The effects of gap streaming were examined in detail experimentally. (author)

  3. Universal coverage reforms in the USA: From Obamacare through Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Unruh, Lynn Y; van Ginneken, Ewout; Rosenau, Pauline; Barnes, Andrew J

    2018-05-22

    Since the election of Donald Trump as President, momentum towards universal health care coverage in the United States has stalled, although efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in its entirety failed. The ACA resulted in almost a halving of the percentage of the population under age 65 who are uninsured. In lieu of total repeal, the Republican-led Congress repealed the individual mandate to purchase health insurance, beginning in 2019. Moreover, the Trump administration is using its administrative authority to undo many of the requirements in the health insurance exchanges. Partly as a result, premium increases for the most popular plans will rise an average of 34% in 2018 and are likely to rise further after the mandate repeal goes into effect. Moreover, the administration is proposing other changes that, in providing states with more flexibility, may lead to the sale of cheaper and less comprehensive policies. In this volatile environment it is difficult to anticipate what will occur next. In the short-term there is proposed compromise legislation, where Republicans agree to provide funding for the cost-sharing subsidies if the Democrats agree to increase state flexibility in some areas and provide relief to small employers. Much will depend on the 2018 and 2020 elections. In the meantime, the prospects are that the number of uninsured will grow. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental study of a spark-gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, H.; Moreno, C.; Vieytes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Some experimental results concerning to the resistance of an atmospheric pressure spark-gap, operating in the self breakdown regime are presented. The influence of the energy discharging through the gap on this resistance is discussed. (Author)

  5. 2 CFR 182.105 - Do terms in this part have special meanings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 182.105 Do terms in this part have special meanings? This part uses terms...

  6. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-01-01

    Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap), and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The m...

  7. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  8. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  9. Gap Analysis: Rethinking the Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    there could exist a basis for gap in capability and, therefore, a desire to close the capability gap . What one desires versus what one has is, in...Analysis is not intended to close the space between the most distant extremes or the rarest occurrences. Rather, Gap Analysis is centered on the larger...åÖÉ=======- 13 - = = Research Objectives The process of identifying needs and unsatisfied desires, or gaps in capability—in essence, the goal—is

  10. The effect of full coverage winglets on tip leakage aerodynamics over the plane tip in a turbine cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Cheon, Joo Hong; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of full coverage (FC) winglets on tip leakage aerodynamics is tested. • A qualitative tip gap flow model for the FC winglet is suggested. • The FC winglet of w/p = 10.55% is considered an optimal one for the plane tip. -- Abstract: The effect of full coverage (FC) winglets on tip leakage aerodynamics over the plane tip in a turbine cascade has been investigated with the variation of winglet width (w) up to w/p = 15.83% for a tip gap-to-span (chord) ratio of h/s = 1.36% (h/c = 2.0%). A qualitative tip gap flow model for the FC winglet is suggested on the bases of the near-tip surface flow visualizations. As w/p increases, the passage vortex tends to be weakened meanwhile the tip leakage vortex becomes stronger and wall-jet-like. With an increment of w/p, the mass-averaged aerodynamic loss all over the measurement plane decreases steeply up to w/p = 10.55% and then becomes almost unchanged. Thus, the FC winglet of w/p = 10.55% is considered an optimal one for the plane tip. With respect to the baseline plane tip without winglet, the maximum mass-averaged loss reduction by installing the FC winglet on the plane tip is still somewhat smaller than that by employing the cavity squealer rim on the plane tip surface

  11. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-04-05

    Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms.

  12. Anomalous electromagnetically induced transparency in photonic-band-gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency has been studied when a four-level atom is located in a photonic band gap material. Quantum interference is introduced by driving the two upper levels of the atom with a strong pump laser field. The top level and one of the ground levels are coupled by a weak probe laser field and absorption takes place between these two states. The susceptibility due to the absorption for this transition has been calculated by using the master equation method in linear response theory. Numerical simulations are performed for the real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility for a photonic band gap material whose gap-midgap ratio is 21%. It is found that when resonance frequencies lie within the band, the medium becomes transparent under the action of the strong pump laser field. More interesting results are found when one of the resonance frequencies lies at the band edge and within the band gap. When the resonance frequency lies at the band edge, the medium becomes nontransparent even under a strong pump laser field. On the other hand, when the resonance frequency lies within the band gap, the medium becomes transparent even under a weak pump laser field. In summary, we found that the medium can be transformed from the transparent state to the nontransparent state just by changing the location of the resonance frequency. We call these two effects anomalous electromagnetically induced transparency

  13. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M.; Messner, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior. PMID:21709751

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT AND THE GENDER GAP IN ADOLESCENT VIOLENT CRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2010-12-01

    Although researchers consistently demonstrate that females engage in less criminal behavior than males across the life course, research on the variability of the gender gap across contexts is sparse. To address this issue, we examine the gender gap in self-reported violent crime among adolescents across neighborhoods. Multilevel models using data from the Project of Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) indicate that the gender gap in violent crime decreases as levels of neighborhood disadvantage increase. Further, the narrowing of the gender gap is explained by gender differences in peer influence on violent offending. Neighborhood disadvantage increases exposure to peer violence for both sexes, but peer violence has a stronger impact on violent offending for females than for males, producing the reduction in the gender gap at higher levels of disadvantage. We also find that the gender difference in the relationship between peer violence and offending is explained, in part, by (1) the tendency for females to have more intimate friendships than males, and (2) the moderating effect of peer intimacy on the relationship between peer violence and self-reported violent behavior.

  15. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  16. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  17. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  18. Hyper-active gap filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOmaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure-building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal NPs is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  19. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  20. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  1. Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne

    2003-05-01

    As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge

  2. Coverage or Cover-up: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the 19th Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study compared newspaper coverage of the women's suffrage movement in the 1920s with coverage of efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s, to see if the similar movements with different outcomes were treated similarly or differently by the press. A content analysis of relevant articles in the "New York…

  3. Spatio-temporal gap analysis of OBIS-SEAMAP project data: assessment and way forward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Y Kot

    Full Text Available The OBIS-SEAMAP project has acquired and served high-quality marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle data to the public since its inception in 2002. As data accumulated, spatial and temporal biases resulted and a comprehensive gap analysis was needed in order to assess coverage to direct data acquisition for the OBIS-SEAMAP project and for taxa researchers should true gaps in knowledge exist. All datasets published on OBIS-SEAMAP up to February 2009 were summarized spatially and temporally. Seabirds comprised the greatest number of records, compared to the other two taxa, and most records were from shipboard surveys, compared to the other three platforms. Many of the point observations and polyline tracklines were located in northern and central Atlantic and the northeastern and central-eastern Pacific. The Southern Hemisphere generally had the lowest representation of data, with the least number of records in the southern Atlantic and western Pacific regions. Temporally, records of observations for all taxa were the lowest in fall although the number of animals sighted was lowest in the winter. Oceanographic coverage of observations varied by platform for each taxa, which showed that using two or more platforms represented habitat ranges better than using only one alone. Accessible and published datasets not already incorporated do exist within spatial and temporal gaps identified. Other related open-source data portals also contain data that fill gaps, emphasizing the importance of dedicated data exchange. Temporal and spatial gaps were mostly a result of data acquisition effort, development of regional partnerships and collaborations, and ease of field data collection. Future directions should include fostering partnerships with researchers in the Southern Hemisphere while targeting datasets containing species with limited representation. These results can facilitate prioritizing datasets needed to be represented and for planning research for

  4. A diagnostic study of the global coverage by contrails. Pt. 1. Present day climate. Revised version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Gierens, K.; Ponater, M.; Schumann, U.

    1998-03-01

    The global distribution of the contrail formation potential and the contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analysis data for temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and a data base on aircraft fuel consumption. Regions with humidity between ice and liquid saturation and with temperature low enough to let aircraft trigger contrail formation are identified as regions in which persistent contrails may be formed. The frequency with which a region is conditioned for such persistent contrail formation measures the contrail formation potential. The mean contrail cloud coverage is computed by multiplying this frequency with a suitable function of fuel consumption (linear or non-linear). The product is normalized such that the contrail coverage equals the observed value of 0.5% in a domain between 30 W to 30 E, 35 N to 75 N. The results show a large potential for contrail formation in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics but also at mid-latitudes. At northern mid-latitudes about 20% of the upper tropospheric air is conditioned to form persistent contrails. Part of this region may be covered by otherwise forming cirrus clouds. When multiplied with fuel consumption of 1992 aviation, large cover by persistent contrail clouds is computed over Europe, the North Atlantic, the continental USA, and south-east Asia. The computed contrail coverage reaches 2% over the USA, and is larger in winter than in summer. The global mean contrail coverage is about 0.11% for linear fuel dependence and the given normalization. The result is only weakly sensitive to the propulsion efficiency of aircraft, but strongly sensitive to aircraft flight altitude. (orig.)

  5. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  6. The Generation Gap: Age or Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Kenneth

    1971-01-01

    The author examines the breakdown in family communication, the parent youth ideological gap, and the issues affecting family polarization. He suggests that the generation gap may be an issues gap and briefly explores the possible role of the social worker in dealing with such differences. (Author)

  7. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the. Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence ...

  8. Closing the gap between research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Marcia Patton-Mallory

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the reasons for gaps in communication between researchers and natural resource managers and identify methods to close these gaps. Gaps originate from differing patterns of language use, disparities in organizational culture and values, generation of knowledge that is too narrowly-focused to solve complex problems, failure by managers to relay...

  9. Design and methodology of the Geo-social Analysis of Physicians' settlement (GAP-Study) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groneberg, David A; Boll, Michael; Bauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Unequally distributed disease burdens within populations are well-known and occur worldwide. They are depending on residents' social status and/or ethnic background. Country-specific health care systems - especially the coverage and distribution of health care providers - are both a potential cause as well as an important solution for health inequalities. Registers are built of all accredited physicians and psychotherapists within the outpatient care system in German metropolises by utilizing the database of the Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians. The physicians' practice neighborhood will be analyzed under socioeconomic and demographic perspectives. Therefore, official city districts' statistics will be assigned to the physicians and psychotherapists according to their practice location. Averages of neighborhood indicators will be calculated for each specialty. Moreover, advanced studies will inspect differences by physicians' gender or practice type. Geo-spatial analyses of the intra-city practices distribution will complete the settlement characteristics of physicians and psychotherapists within the outpatient care system in German metropolises. The project "Geo-social Analysis of Physicians' settlement" (GAP) is designed to elucidate gaps of physician coverage within the outpatient care system, dependent on neighborhood residents' social status or ethnics in German metropolises. The methodology of the GAP-Study enables the standardized investigation of physicians' settlement behavior in German metropolises and their inter-city comparisons. The identification of potential gaps within the physicians' coverage should facilitate the delineation of approaches for solving health care inequality problems.

  10. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eugene; Al-Tamimi, Wasan; Russell, Steven Paul; Butt, Muhammad Obaid-Ul Islam; Blanton, Curtis; Musani, Altaf Sadrudin; Date, Kashmira

    2017-01-01

    During November-December 2015, as part of the 2015 cholera outbreak response in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Health targeted ≈255,000 displaced persons >1 year of age with 2 doses of oral cholera vaccine (OCV). All persons who received vaccines were living in selected refugee camps, internally displaced persons camps, and collective centers. We conducted a multistage cluster survey to obtain OCV coverage estimates in 10 governorates that were targeted during the campaign. In total, 1,226 household and 5,007 individual interviews were conducted. Overall, 2-dose OCV coverage in the targeted camps was 87% (95% CI 85%-89%). Two-dose OCV coverage in the 3 northern governorates (91%; 95% CI 87%-94%) was higher than that in the 7 southern and central governorates (80%; 95% CI 77%-82%). The experience in Iraq demonstrates that OCV campaigns can be successfully implemented as part of a comprehensive response to cholera outbreaks among high-risk populations in conflict settings.

  11. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed; Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; Serrano, Julian Alberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Zijlstra, Ed

    2018-04-01

    On 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. In this review, we review the road to recognition, the ISHAM working group meeting in Argentina, and we address the progress made in closing the knowledge gaps since 2013. Progress included adding another 9000 patients to the literature, which allowed us to update the prevalence map on mycetoma. Furthermore, based on molecular phylogeny, species names were corrected and four novel mycetoma causative agents were identified. By mapping mycetoma causative agents an association with Acacia trees was found. For early diagnosis, three different isothermal amplification techniques were developed, and novel antigens were discovered. To develop better treatment strategies for mycetoma patients, in vitro susceptibility tests for the coelomycete agents of black grain mycetoma were developed, and the first randomized clinical trial for eumycetoma started early 2017.

  12. Tunable transport gap in phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Zhang, Wei; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoffmann, Axel; Dubey, Madan; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-10-08

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

  13. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  14. 12 CFR 205.3 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorizes a financial institution to debit or credit a consumer's account. Generally, this part applies to financial institutions. For purposes of §§ 205.3(b)(2) and (b)(3), 205.10(b), (d), and (e) and 205.13, this..., or magnetic tape for the purpose of ordering, instructing, or authorizing a financial institution to...

  15. 5 CFR 432.102 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The Government Printing Office. (d) Agencies excluded. This part does not apply to: (1) A Government corporation; (2) The Central Intelligence Agency; (3) The Defense Intelligence Agency; (4) The National... principal function of which is the conduct of foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities; (6...

  16. Detecting Boundary Nodes and Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of coverage holes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs means that some special events have broken out and the function of WSNs will be seriously influenced. Therefore, the issues of coverage holes have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we focus on the identification of boundary nodes and coverage holes, which is crucially important to preventing the enlargement of coverage holes and ensuring the transmission of data. We define the problem of coverage holes and propose two novel algorithms to identify the coverage holes in WSNs. The first algorithm, Distributed Sector Cover Scanning (DSCS, can be used to identify the nodes on hole borders and the outer boundary of WSNs. The second scheme, Directional Walk (DW, can locate the coverage holes based on the boundary nodes identified with DSCS. We implement the algorithms in various scenarios and fully evaluate their performance. The simulation results show that the boundary nodes can be accurately detected by DSCS and the holes enclosed by the detected boundary nodes can be identified by DW. The comparisons confirm that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing ones.

  17. [Response of forest bird communities to forest gap in winter in southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Dong; Wu, Ying-Huan; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Guang-Wei; Zhou, Fang

    2013-06-01

    Although forest gap ecology is an important field of study, research remains limited. By plot setting and point counted observation, the response of birds to forest gaps in winter as well as bird distribution patterns in forest gaps and intact canopies were studied in a north tropical monsoon forest of southwestern China from November 2011 to February 2012 in the Fangcheng Golden Camellia National Nature Reserve, Guangxi. The regression equation of bird species diversity to habitat factor was Y1=0.611+0.002 X13+0.043 X2+0.002 X5-0.003 X8+0.006 X10+0.008 X1 and the regression equation of bird species dominance index to habitat factor was Y3=0.533+0.001 X13+0.019 X2+0.002 X3-0.017 X4+0.002 X1. There were 45 bird species (2 orders and 13 families) recorded in the forest gap, accounting for 84.9% of all birds (n=45), with an average of 9.6 species (range: 2-22). Thirty-nine bird species (5 orders and 14 families) were recorded in non-gap areas, accounting for 73.6% of all birds (n=39), with an average of 5.3 species (range: 1-12). These results suggested that gap size, arbor average height (10 m from gap margin), arbor quantity (10 m from gap margin), shrub quantity (10 m from gap margin), herbal average coverage (1 m from gap margin) and bare land ratio were the key forest gap factors that influenced bird diversities. On the whole, bird diversity in the forest gap was greater than in the intact canopy. Spatial distributions in the forest gaps were also observed in the bird community. Most birds foraged in the "middle" and "canopy" layers in the vertical stratification. In addition, "nearly from" and "close from" contained more birds in relation to horizontal stratification. Feeding niche differentiation was suggested as the main reason for these distribution patterns.

  18. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  19. Does the Medicare Part D Decision-Making Experience Differ by Rural/Urban Location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Casey, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira

    2017-01-01

    Although much has been written about Medicare Part D enrollment, much less is known about beneficiaries' personal experiences with choosing a Part D plan, especially among rural residents. This study sought to address this gap by examining geographic differences in Part D enrollees' perceptions of the plan decision-making process, including their confidence in their choice, their knowledge about the program, and their satisfaction with available information. We used data from the 2012 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and included adults ages 65 and older who were enrolled in Part D at the time of the survey (n = 3,706). We used ordered logistic regression to model 4 outcomes based on beneficiaries' perceptions of the Part D decision-making and enrollment process, first accounting only for differences by rurality, then adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and coverage characteristics. Overall, half of all beneficiaries were not very confident in their Part D knowledge. Rural beneficiaries had lower odds of being confident in the plan they chose and in being satisfied with the amount of information available to them during the decision-making process. After adjusting for all covariates, micropolitan residents continued to have lower odds of being confident in the plan that they chose. Policy-makers should pay particular attention to making information about Part D easily accessible for all beneficiaries and to addressing unique barriers that rural residents have in accessing information while making decisions, such as reduced Internet availability. Furthermore, confidence in the decision-making process may be improved by simplifying the Part D program. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  20. The landslide database for Germany: Closing the gap at national level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has long been among the few European countries that lack a national landslide database. Systematic collection and inventory of landslide data still has a long research history in Germany, but one focussed on the development of databases with local or regional coverage. This has changed in recent years with the launch of a database initiative aimed at closing the data gap existing at national level. The present paper reports on this project that is based on a landslide database which evolved over the last 15 years to a database covering large parts of Germany. A strategy of systematic retrieval, extraction, and fusion of landslide data is at the heart of the methodology, providing the basis for a database with a broad potential of application. The database offers a data pool of more than 4,200 landslide data sets with over 13,000 single data files and dates back to the 12th century. All types of landslides are covered by the database, which stores not only core attributes, but also various complementary data, including data on landslide causes, impacts, and mitigation. The current database migration to PostgreSQL/PostGIS is focused on unlocking the full scientific potential of the database, while enabling data sharing and knowledge transfer via a web GIS platform. In this paper, the goals and the research strategy of the database project are highlighted at first, with a summary of best practices in database development providing perspective. Next, the focus is on key aspects of the methodology, which is followed by the results of three case studies in the German Central Uplands. The case study results exemplify database application in the analysis of landslide frequency and causes, impact statistics, and landslide susceptibility modeling. Using the example of these case studies, strengths and weaknesses of the database are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a summary of the database project with regard to previous

  1. Massachusetts health reform: employer coverage from employees' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The national health reform debate continues to draw on Massachusetts' 2006 reform initiative, with a focus on sustaining employer-sponsored insurance. This study provides an update on employers' responses under health reform in fall 2008, using data from surveys of working-age adults. Results show that concerns about employers' dropping coverage or scaling back benefits under health reform have not been realized. Access to employer coverage has increased, as has the scope and quality of their coverage as assessed by workers. However, premiums and out-of-pocket costs have become more of an issue for employees in small firms.

  2. 24/7 pediatric radiology attending coverage: times are changing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, James S. [Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, IL (United States); Thakrar, Kiran H. [University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Body Imaging, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The job of the pediatric radiologist long ago ceased to be an 8-to-5 role. Many practices have adopted evening shifts of in-house attending radiologists to cover the busy evening activity. With the ever-increasing role of imaging in clinical decisions and patient management, there is a need - if not a demand - to further extend attending pediatric radiology coverage. In this article, we discuss the needs and justification for extending pediatric radiology coverage at a tertiary-care children's hospital. We also describe the approach we took toward implementing 24/7 attending in-house coverage of pediatric radiology. (orig.)

  3. Did the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate Increase Premiums?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs Depew; James Bailey

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on insurance premiums. The expansion of dependent coverage under the ACA allows young adults to remain on their parent's private health insurance plans until the age of 26. We find that the mandate has led to a 2.5-2.8 percent increase in premiums for health insurance plans that cover children, relative to single-coverage plans. We find no evidence that the mandate caused an increase in the amount of the employe...

  4. Pertussis: herd immunity and vaccination coverage in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E; Fitch, L

    1983-11-12

    In a single complete epidemic in St Lucia, an island too small to support constant clinical pertussis, the pertussis case rates in small communities (villages and small towns) with differing levels of vaccination coverage of young children were compared. The association between greater vaccination coverage and greater herd immunity was clear, despite the imperfect protection given to individuals. An analysis in terms of population dynamics is evidence against the theory that endemic subclinical pertussis maintains transmission in a highly vaccinated population. We suggest that with a homogeneous vaccination coverage of 80% of 2-year-old children pertussis might be eradicated from the island, and that this is a practicable experiment.

  5. CHIP premiums, health status, and the insurance coverage of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2010-01-01

    This study uses the introduction of premiums into Kentucky's Children's Health Insurance Program (KCHIP) to examine whether the enrollment impact of new premiums varies by child health type. We also examine the extent to which children find alternative coverage after premium nonpayment. Public insurance claims data suggest that those with chronic health conditions are less likely to leave public coverage. We find little evidence of a differential impact of premiums on enrollment among the chronically ill. Our survey of nonpayers shows that 56% of responding families found alternative private or public health coverage for their children after losing CHIP.

  6. Comparative Estimates of Crude and Effective Coverage of Measles Immunization in Low-Resource Settings: Findings from Salud Mesoamérica 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, K Ellicott; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gagnier, Marielle C; Palmisano, Erin; Ranganathan, Dharani; Usmanova, Gulnoza; Salvatierra, Benito; Nazar, Austreberta; Tristao, Ignez; Sanchez Monin, Emmanuelle; Anderson, Brent W; Haakenstad, Annie; Murphy, Tasha; Lim, Stephen; Hernandez, Bernardo; Lozano, Rafael; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Timely and accurate measurement of population protection against measles is critical for decision-making and prevention of outbreaks. However, little is known about how survey-based estimates of immunization (crude coverage) compare to the seroprevalence of antibodies (effective coverage), particularly in low-resource settings. In poor areas of Mexico and Nicaragua, we used household surveys to gather information on measles immunization from child health cards and caregiver recall. We also collected dried blood spots (DBS) from children aged 12 to 23 months to compare crude and effective coverage of measles immunization. We used survey-weighted logistic regression to identify individual, maternal, household, community, and health facility characteristics that predict gaps between crude coverage and effective coverage. We found that crude coverage was significantly higher than effective coverage (83% versus 68% in Mexico; 85% versus 50% in Nicaragua). A large proportion of children (19% in Mexico; 43% in Nicaragua) had health card documentation of measles immunization but lacked antibodies. These discrepancies varied from 0% to 100% across municipalities in each country. In multivariate analyses, card-positive children in Mexico were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in urban areas or the jurisdiction of De Los Llanos. In contrast, card-positive children in Nicaragua were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in rural areas or the North Atlantic region, had low weight-for-age, or attended health facilities with a greater number of refrigerators. Findings highlight that reliance on child health cards to measure population protection against measles is unwise. We call for the evaluation of immunization programs using serological methods, especially in poor areas where the cold chain is likely to be compromised. Identification of within-country variation in effective coverage of measles immunization will allow researchers and public health

  7. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  8. Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka Henriksson, Dorcus; Fredriksson, Mio; Waiswa, Peter; Selling, Katarina; Swartling Peterson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system. Methods: A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study. Results: Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent. Conclusion: The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified. PMID:28581379

  9. Measuring coverage in MNCH: indicators for global tracking of newborn care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisyn C Moran

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of under-five mortality. Consequently, improving newborn survival is a global priority. However, although there is increasing consensus on the packages and specific interventions that need to be scaled up to reduce neonatal mortality, there is a lack of clarity on the indicators needed to measure progress. In 2008, in an effort to improve newborn survival, the Newborn Indicators Technical Working Group (TWG was convened by the Saving Newborn Lives program at Save the Children to provide a forum to develop the indicators and standard measurement tools that are needed to measure coverage of key newborn interventions. The TWG, which included evaluation and measurement experts, researchers, individuals from United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, and donors, prioritized improved consistency of measurement of postnatal care for women and newborns and of immediate care behaviors and practices for newborns. In addition, the TWG promoted increased data availability through inclusion of additional questions in nationally representative surveys, such as the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Surveys and the United Nations Children's Fund-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Several studies have been undertaken that have informed revisions of indicators and survey tools, and global postnatal care coverage indicators have been finalized. Consensus has been achieved on three additional indicators for care of the newborn after birth (drying, delayed bathing, and cutting the cord with a clean instrument, and on testing two further indicators (immediate skin-to-skin care and applications to the umbilical cord. Finally, important measurement gaps have been identified regarding coverage data for evidence-based interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care and care seeking for newborn infection.

  10. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  11. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  12. AI Tools Bridge Technology Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Hindin, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    This second part of a report on artificial intelligence focuses on the development of expert systems in a variety of applications, from engineering to science, and details expectations for implementation of these systems. (JN)

  13. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    China successfully achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history. While the achievement is widely recognized, it is still largely unexplored why China was able to attain it within a short period. This study aims to fill the gap. Through a systematic political and socio-economic analysis, it identifies seven major drivers for China's success, including (1) the SARS outbreak as a wake-up call, (2) strong public support for government intervention in health care, (3) renewed political commitment from top leaders, (4) heavy government subsidies, (5) fiscal capacity backed by China's economic power, (6) financial and political responsibilities delegated to local governments and (7) programmatic implementation strategy. Three of the factors seem to be unique to China (i.e., the SARS outbreak, the delegation, and the programmatic strategy.) while the other factors are commonly found in other countries' insurance expansion experiences. This study also discusses challenges and recommendations for China's health financing, such as reducing financial risk as an immediate task, equalizing benefit across insurance programs as a long-term goal, improving quality by tying provider payment to performance, and controlling costs through coordinated reform initiatives. Finally, it draws lessons for other developing countries. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing Cellular Coverage Quality by Virtual Access Point and Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultradensification deploying for cellular networks is a direct and effective method for the improvement of network capacity. However, the benefit is achieved at the cost of network infrastructure investment and operating overheads, especially when there is big gap between peak-hour Internet traffic and average one. Therefore, we put forward the concept of virtual cellular coverage area, where wireless terminals with high-end configuration are motivated to enhance cellular coverage quality by both providing RF energy compensation and rewarding free traffic access to Internet. This problem is formulated as the Stackelberg game based on three-party circular decision, where a Macro BS (MBS acts as the leader to offer a charging power to Energy Transferring Relays (ETRs, and the ETRs and their associating Virtual Access Points (VAPs act as the followers to make their decisions, respectively. According to the feedback from the followers, the leader may readjust its strategy. The circular decision is repeated until the powers converge. Also, the better response algorithm for each game player is proposed to iteratively achieve the Stackelberg-Nash Equilibrium (SNE. Theoretical analysis proves the convergence of the proposed game scheme, and simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  15. Uninsured Migrants: Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Mexican Return Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassink, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Despite an expansive body of research on health and access to medical care among Mexican immigrants in the United States, research on return migrants focuses primarily on their labor market mobility and contributions to local development. Motivated by recent scholarship that documents poor mental and physical health among Mexican return migrants, this study investigates return migrants' health insurance coverage and access to medical care. I use descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze data from the 2009 and 2014 rounds of Mexico's National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID, combined n=632,678). Analyses reveal a large and persistent gap between recent return migrants and non-migrants, despite rising overall health coverage in Mexico. Multivariate analyses suggest that unemployment among recent arrivals contributes to their lack of insurance. Relative to non-migrants, recently returned migrants rely disproportionately on private clinics, pharmacies, self-medication, or have no regular source of care. Mediation analysis suggests that returnees' high rate of uninsurance contributes to their inadequate access to care. This study reveals limited access to medical care among the growing population of Mexican return migrants, highlighting the need for targeted policies to facilitate successful reintegration and ensure access to vital resources such as health care.

  16. Social health insurance in Nepal: A health system departure toward the universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Rajani; Silwal, Pushkar Raj

    2018-04-10

    The World Health Organization has identified universal health coverage (UHC) as a key approach in reducing equity gaps in a country, and the social health insurance (SHI) has been recommended as an important strategy toward it. This article aims to analyze the design, expected benefits and challenges of realizing the goals of UHC through the recently launched SHI in Nepal. On top of the earlier free health-care policy and several other vertical schemes, the SHI scheme was implemented in 2016 and has reached population coverage of 5% in the implemented districts in just within a year of implementation. However, to achieve UHC in Nepal, in addition to operationalizing the scheme, several other requirements must be dealt simultaneously such as efficient health-care delivery system, adequate human resources for health, a strong information system, improved transparency and accountability, and a balanced mix of the preventive, health promotion, curative, and rehabilitative services including actions to address the social determinants of health. The article notes that strong political commitment and persistent efforts are the key lessons learnt from countries achieving progressive UHC through SHI. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Media coverage of "wise" interventions can reduce concern for the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizer, Elif G; Blanton, Hart

    2016-06-01

    Recent articulation of the "wise" approach to psychological intervention has drawn attention to the way small, seemingly trivial social psychological interventions can exert powerful, long-term effects. These interventions have been used to address such wide-ranging social issues as the racial achievement gap, environmental conservation, and the promotion of safer sex. Although there certainly are good reasons to seek easier as opposed to harder solutions to social problems, we examine a potentially undesirable effect that can result from common media portrayals of wise interventions. By emphasizing the ease with which interventions help address complex social problems, media reports might decrease sympathy for the individuals assisted by such efforts. Three studies provide evidence for this, showing that media coverage of wise interventions designed to address academic and health disparities increased endorsement of the view that the disadvantaged can solve their problems on their own, and the tendency to blame such individuals for their circumstances. Effects were strongest for interventions targeted at members of a historically disadvantaged group (African Americans as opposed to college students) and when the coverage was read by conservatives as opposed to liberals. Attempts to undermine this effect by introducing cautious language had mixed success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Symposia for a Meeting on Ion Channels and Gap Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Sáez, Juan

    1997-01-01

    Ion channels allow us to see nature in all its magnificence, to hear a Bach suite, to smell the aroma of grandmother's cooking, and, in this regard, they put us in contact with the external world. These ion channels are protein molecules located in the cell membrane. In complex organisms, cells need to communicate in order to know about their metabolic status and to act in a coordinate manner. The latter is also accomplished by a class of ion channels able to pierce the lipid bilayer membranes of two adjacent cells. These intercellular channels are the functional subunits of gap junctions. Accordingly, the book is divided in two parts: the first part is dedicated to ion channels that look to the external world, and the second part is dedicated to gap junctions found at cell interfaces. This book is based on a series of symposia for a meeting on ion channels and gap junctions held in Santiago, Chile, on November 28-30, 1995. The book should be useful to graduate students taking the first steps in this field as...

  20. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen

    2012-06-29

    To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC) in dental practice Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: 'imprecision of information (results)', 'biased information', 'inconsistency or unknown consistency' and 'not the right information', as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), outcomes (O) and setting (S). Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to 'Lack of information' caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk). Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk). This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review's conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  1. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickenautsch Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC in dental practice Methods Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: ‘imprecision of information (results’, ‘biased information’, ‘inconsistency or unknown consistency’ and ‘not the right information’, as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P, intervention (I, comparison (C, outcomes (O and setting (S. Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. Results A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to ‘Lack of information’ caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk. Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk. Conclusion This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review’s conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  2. [Effects of gap size on seedling natural regeneration in artificial Pinus tabulaeformis plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Juan; Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Wen-Hui

    2012-11-01

    To clarify the effects of gap size created by thinning on the seedling natural regeneration in artificial Pinus tabulaeformis plantation, a plot investigation was conducted to study the ecological factors and the age structure, height, diameter, length of needles, and dry biomass of roots, stems, and needles of 1-10 year-old seedlings in different habitats, and a path analysis was made on the environmental factors affecting the seedling regeneration. Obvious differences were observed in the ecological factors in different size gaps and slope aspects. There lacked of above 3 year-old seedlings in understory and of above 7 year-old seedlings in small gap, and the seedlings of 5 and 6 year-old were lesser in big gap. The 1-10 year-old seedlings could be divided into 3 development phases, i. e. , 1-3 year-old, 4-7 year-old, and 8-10 year-old seedlings, among which, 1-3 year-old seedlings were critical for the establishment and growth of the population. The growth situation of the seedlings in different habitats was in order of big gap in shady slope > big gap in sunny slope > small gap in sunny slope > small gap in shady slope > understory in sunny slope > understory in shady slope. Path analysis showed light intensity had decisive positive effects on the seedling number of different development phases, shrub coverage had decisive negative effects on the seedling number of 4-7 year-old and 8-10 year-old phases, whereas humus dry mass had negative effects on the seedling number of 4-7 year-old but positive effects on the seedling number of 8-10 year-old. It was suggested that in the management of artificial P. tabulaeformis plantation, relatively high intensity thinning combined with shrub clearing should be adopted to provide favorable conditions for the sustainable development of P. tabulaeformis population.

  3. Childhood Illness and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsan, Marcella; Xing, Anlu; Wise, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bendavid, Eran

    2017-07-01

    Achieving gender equality in education is an important development goal. We tested the hypothesis that the gender gap in adolescent education is accentuated by illnesses among young children in the household. Using Demographic and Health Surveys on 41 821 households in 38 low- and middle-income countries, we used linear regression to estimate the difference in the probability adolescent girls and boys were in school, and how this gap responded to illness episodes among children gender gap in education, we assessed the relationship between the gender gap and national immunization coverage. In our sample of 120 708 adolescent boys and girls residing in 38 countries, girls were 5.08% less likely to attend school than boys in the absence of a recent illness among young children within the same household (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.50%-4.65%). This gap increased to 7.77% (95% CI, 8.24%-7.30%) and 8.53% (95% CI, 9.32%-7.74%) if the household reported 1 and 2 or more illness episodes, respectively. The gender gap in schooling in response to illness was larger in households with a working mother. Increases in child vaccination rates were associated with a closing of the gender gap in schooling (correlation coefficient = 0.34, P = .02). Illnesses among children strongly predict a widening of the gender gap in education. Investments in early childhood health may have important effects on schooling attainment for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Motorcycle Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  5. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  6. Spatial-temporal Evolution of Vegetation Coverage and Analysis of it’s Future Trends in Wujiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianyong; Bai, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Dequan; Qian, Qinghuan; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation coverage dynamics is affected by climatic, topography and human activities, which is an important indicator reflecting the regional ecological environment. Revealing the spatial-temporal characteristics of vegetation coverage is of great significance to the protection and management of ecological environment. Based on MODIS NDVI data and the Maximum Value Composites (MVC), we excluded soil spectrum interference to calculate Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC). Then the long-term FVC was used to calculate the spatial pattern and temporal variation of vegetation in Wujiang River Basin from 2000 to 2016 by using Trend analysis and Hurst index. The relationship between topography and spatial distribution of FVC was analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The multi-annual mean vegetation coverage reveals a spatial distribution variation characteristic of low value in midstream and high level in other parts of the basin, owing a mean value of 0.6567. (2) From 2000 to 2016, the FVC of the Wujiang River Basin fluctuated between 0.6110 and 0.7380, and the overall growth rate of FVC was 0.0074/a. (3) The area of vegetation coverage tending to improve is more than that going to degrade in the future. Grass land, Arable land and Others improved significantly; karst rocky desertification comprehensive management project lead to persistent vegetation coverage improvement of Grass land, Arable land and Others. Residential land is covered with obviously degraded vegetation, resulting of urban sprawl; (4) The spatial distribution of FVC is positively correlated with TNI. Researches of spatial-temporal evolution of vegetation coverage have significant meaning for the ecological environment protection and management of the Wujiang River Basin.

  7. Results of gap conductance tests in the power burst facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, R.W.; Sparks, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod behavior studies are being conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. These studies are being performed under contract to the Energy Research and Development Adminstration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Water Reactor Safety Research Fuel Behavior Program. Experimental data for verification of analytical models developed to predict light water nuclear fuel rod behavior under normal and postulated accident conditions are being obtained from a variety of in-reactor and out-of-reactor experiments. This paper summarizes the results of tests performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to obtain data from which the thermal response, gap conductance, and stored energy of LWR fuel rods can be determined. Primary objectives of the PBF gap conductance test program are (a) to obtain data on a variety of pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rod designs, under a wide range of operating conditions, from which gap conductance values can be determined and (b) to evaluate experimentally the power oscillation method for measuring the gap conductance and thermal response of a fresh or burned LWR fuel rod. Tests have been performed with both irradiated and unirradiated PWR-type fuel and with fresh BWR-type fuel rods. Some PWR rod test results are described, and the thermal response data from BWR rod tests are discussed in greater detail. Comparisons are made of gap conductance values determined by the tests with analytically calculated values using the Fuel Rod Analysis Program-Transient (FRAP-T) computer code. These comparisons provide insight into both the experimental measurements methods and the validity of the gap conductance models

  8. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2018. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  9. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  10. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  11. Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Levitt, Pam; Deikman, Doug; Vlahos, Bob

    1999-01-01

    This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 26,800 square miles in northwestern Colorado. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and three Colorado State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) former district offices at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Project in the Uinta-Piceance Basin Province and the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment Project in the Colorado Plateau.

  12. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  13. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  14. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M G; Neves, L A; Zafalon, G F D; Valêncio, C; Pinto, A R; Nascimento, M Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  15. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  16. Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012, recently published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  17. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage......The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...

  18. Experimental study of critical heat flux in inclined rectangular gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Noh, S.W.; Suh, K.Y.; Rempe, J.L.; Cheung, F.B.; Kim, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel was overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later found out in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, a great deal of investigations was performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of in-vessel retention (IVR). As part of a joint Korean-U.S. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project, Tests were conducted to examine the critical heat flux (CHF) on the one-dimensional downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap by changing the orientation of the copper test heater assembly in a pool of saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The test parameters include both the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180deg) to the vertical position (90deg), respectively. It was observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. However, in downward-facing position (180deg), somewhat differing results were detected relative to previous reports. For a certain gap size having a similar dimension with vapor layer thickness, more efficient heat transfer was detected and this may be interpreted by characteristic property such as the vapor layer thickness of water. In consistency with several studies reported in the literature, it was found that there exists a transition angle above that the CHF changes with a rapid slope. (author)

  19. Financing Ethiopia's Development: Confronting the Gap between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reforestation, and introduction of clean production technologies. Like the. GTP-I .... high international reserve coverage, and low external debt.7Since 2011/12, ..... ―deadbeats‖), which points to increased audit and enforcement as the.

  20. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act Evaluation Findings on Children's Health Insurance Coverage in an Evolving Health Care Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Duplicate Health Insurance Coverage: Determinants of Variation Across States

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, Harold S.; Maerki, Susan C.

    1982-01-01

    Although it is recognized that many people have duplicate private health insurance coverage, either through separate purchase or as health benefits in multi-earner families, there has been little analysis of the factors determining duplicate coverage rates. A new data source, the Survey of Income and Education, offers a comparison with the only previous source of state level data, the estimates from the Health Insurance Association of America. The R2 between the two sets is only .3 and certai...

  2. Primary care practice and health professional determinants of immunisation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cameron C; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Turner, Nikki; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Kerse, Ngaire; Jones, Rhys; York, Deon; Desmond, Natalie; Stewart, Joanna

    2011-08-01

    To identify primary care factors associated with immunisation coverage. A survey during 2005-2006 of a random sample of New Zealand primary care practices, with over-sampling of practices serving indigenous children. An immunisation audit was conducted for children registered at each practice. Practice characteristics and the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, nurses and caregivers were measured. Practice immunisation coverage was defined as the percentage of registered children from 6 weeks to 23 months old at each practice who were fully immunised for age. Associations of practice, doctor, nurse and caregiver factors with practice immunisation coverage were determined using multiple regression analyses. One hundred and twenty-four (61%) of 205 eligible practices were recruited. A median (25th-75th centile) of 71% (57-77%) of registered children at each practice was fully immunised. In multivariate analyses, immunisation coverage was higher at practices with no staff shortages (median practice coverage 76% vs 67%, P = 0.004) and where doctors were confident in their immunisation knowledge (72% vs 67%, P= 0.005). Coverage was lower if the children's parents had received information antenatally, which discouraged immunisation (67% vs 73%, P = 0.008). Coverage decreased as socio-economic deprivation of the registered population increased (P < 0.001) and as the children's age (P = 0.001) and registration age (P = 0.02) increased. CONCLUSIONS Higher immunisation coverage is achieved by practices that establish an early relationship with the family and that are adequately resourced with stable and confident staff. Immunisation promotion should begin antenatally. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  4. Graphene transfer process and optimization of graphene coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Sabki Syarifah Norfaezah; Shamsuri Shafiq Hafly; Fauzi Siti Fazlina; Chon-Ki Meghashama Lim; Othman Noraini

    2017-01-01

    Graphene grown on transition metal is known to be high in quality due to its controlled amount of defects and potentially used for many electronic applications. The transfer process of graphene grown on transition metal to a new substrate requires optimization in order to ensure that high graphene coverage can be obtained. In this work, an improvement in the graphene transfer process is performed from graphene grown on copper foil. It has been observed that the graphene coverage is affected b...

  5. Stability of children's insurance coverage and implications for access to care: evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas; Orzol, Sean M; Shore-Sheppard, Lara

    2014-06-01

    Even as the number of children with health insurance has increased, coverage transitions--movement into and out of coverage and between public and private insurance--have become more common. Using data from 1996 to 2005, we examine whether insurance instability has implications for access to primary care. Because unobserved factors related to parental behavior and child health may affect both the stability of coverage and utilization, we estimate the relationship between insurance and the probability that a child has at least one physician visit per year using a model that includes child fixed effects to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Although we find that unobserved heterogeneity is an important factor influencing cross-sectional correlations, conditioning on child fixed effects we find a statistically and economically significant relationship between insurance coverage stability and access to care. Children who have part-year public or private insurance are more likely to have at least one doctor's visit than children who are uninsured for a full year, but less likely than children with full-year coverage. We find comparable effects for public and private insurance. Although cross-sectional analyses suggest that transitions directly between public and private insurance are associated with lower rates of utilization, the evidence of such an effect is much weaker when we condition on child fixed effects.

  6. Financial considerations insurance and coverage issues in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Michael

    2004-12-01

    To increase healthcare workers' knowledge of reimbursement concerns. Chronological survey of transplants reimbursed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center from December 1997 to October 2003, which include accounts of 30 patients who received intestine transplants. Gross billed hospital charges for the past 30 transplantations ranged from dollars 112094 to dollars 667597. Length of stay ranged from 18 to 119 days. Charges include organ procurement fees. All 30 intestine transplants were reimbursed by third-party healthcare coverage; combination of coverage; and/or patient and family payments, which resulted in adherence to financial guidelines prearranged by the hospital. Financial guidelines are usually cost plus a percentage. Thirteen transplantations occurred after April 2001, when Medicare made a national coverage decision to reimburse this form of transplantation. Since then, obtaining surgical authorization and reimbursement is easier. Most insurance companies and state public health agencies accept intestinal transplantations as a form of treatment. Researching transplant coverage before evaluation is essential to be compensated adequately. Financial guidelines will secure the fiscal success of the program. Educating patients to insurance and entitlements may reduce the out-of-pocket cost to patients. Transplant financial coordinators coordinate these efforts for the facility. The best coverage option for the patient and transplant programs is a combination of commercial healthcare coverage, secondary entitlement program, and fund-raising. With length of stay ranging up to 119 days and a lifetime of posttransplant outpatient follow-up care, it is beneficial for the facility to also have a fundraising program to assist patients.

  7. [Neonatal screening - the challenge of an universal and effective coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botler, Judy; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; da Cruz, Marly Marques; George, Pâmela

    2010-03-01

    Newborn screening programs (NSP) aim to detect carriers of several congenital diseases among asymptomatic infants in order to warrant effective intervention. Specimen collection is the first step of a process that should be done in an universal and timely manner. A review of coverage and time of collection was done in NSP of several countries. The search was made in various sources, from 1998 to 2008, with "neonatal screening" and "coverage" as key words. The lack of a typical study design did not allow to the rigor required for a systematic review. Data were grouped in macro-regions. Canada had coverage of 71% in 2006 while the European coverage was of 69% in 2004, with data of 38 countries. In Asia and Pacific region, there were data of 19 countries. In Middle East and North Africa, there were data of 4 countries. In Latin America, the coverage was 49% in 2005, with data of 14 countries. In Brazil, coverage was 80%. Twelve reports had information about timeliness. The conclusion is that epidemiological transition has contributed to NSP success. Developed regions had more universal and timelier collection. In Brazil, government initiative increased access to the NSP, but late collections lead to the need of educational actions and participation of professional organizations in developing specific guidelines definition.

  8. Exploring the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlon Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivering health services to dense populations is more practical than to dispersed populations, other factors constant. This engenders the hypothesis that population density positively affects coverage rates of health services. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly for some services at a local level, but not at a national level. Methods We use cross-sectional data to conduct cross-country, OLS regressions at the national level to estimate the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage. We separately estimate the effect of two measures of density on three population-level coverage rates (6 tests in total. Our coverage indicators are the fraction of the maternal population completing four antenatal care visits and the utilization rates of both skilled birth attendants and in-facility delivery. The first density metric we use is the percentage of a population living in an urban area. The second metric, which we denote as a density score, is a relative ranking of countries by population density. The score’s calculation discounts a nation’s uninhabited territory under the assumption those areas are irrelevant to service delivery. Results We find significantly positive relationships between our maternal health indicators and density measures. On average, a one-unit increase in our density score is equivalent to a 0.2% increase in coverage rates. Conclusions Countries with dispersed populations face higher burdens to achieve multinational coverage targets such as the United Nations’ Millennial Development Goals.

  9. Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Joseph L.; Kirtley, Jr., James L.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

  10. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-03-20

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colorado Health Foundation commissioned the RAND Corporation to conduct a study to better understand why these individuals are not enrolled in health insurance coverage and to develop recommendations for how Colorado can strengthen its outreach and enrollment efforts during the next open enrollment period, which starts in November 2014. RAND conducted focus groups with uninsured and newly insured individuals across the state and interviews with local stakeholders responsible for enrollment efforts in their regions. The authors identified 11 commonly cited barriers, as well as several that were specific to certain regions or populations (such as young adults and seasonal workers). Collectively, these barriers point to a set of four priority recommendations that stakeholders in Colorado may wish to consider: (1) Support and expand localized outreach and tailored messaging; (2) Strengthen marketing and messaging to be clear, focused on health benefits of insurance (rather than politics and mandates), and actionable; (3) Improve the clarity and transparency of insurance and health care costs and enrollment procedures; and (4) Revisit the two-stage enrollment process and improve Connect for Health Colorado website navigation and technical support.

  11. Training in fundamentals of radiological coverage in Laguna Verde NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara H, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    In 2010, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) celebrates the Knowledge Transfer and Retention Workshop, an event where nuclear regulators and operators presented the strategies that various NPP to worldwide were implemented to mitigate the consequences of this generational change and take advantage of it, the trend in the presented works was the same: the generational change occurs in a faster way that the transfer of knowledge, the future was already here and many NPP had not been adequately prepared to train its nuclear technicians and engineers in the tasks demanded by the industry of them, so in addition to preparing these workers to forced marches was necessary to establish strategies to retain at more experienced staff in the industry. The Laguna Verde NPP has not been exempt to this process; the preparation of personnel squares to replace those that reaching retirement age in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has become extensive in the last five years, sometimes leading to have personnel covering functions without an alternate to the next lower position, the cause? Not enough staff. In the specific case of radiation protection (Rp) the time required for obtaining the status of Rp technician according to the ANSI/ANS 3.1 standard is 2 years, one of the tasks that most occupies part of these two years is training in radiological coverage, this training requires a mix of knowledge and experience, recently one of the concepts used for training in Rp is the evaluation and management of the radiological risk, topic that is considered in this technical work. (Author)

  12. Revisiting the ichthyodiversity of Java and Bali through DNA barcodes: taxonomic coverage, identification accuracy, cryptic diversity and identification of exotic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahruddin, Hadi; Hutama, Aditya; Busson, Frédéric; Sauri, Sopian; Hanner, Robert; Keith, Philippe; Hadiaty, Renny; Hubert, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Among the 899 species of freshwater fishes reported from Sundaland biodiversity hotspot, nearly 50% are endemics. The functional integrity of aquatic ecosystems is currently jeopardized by human activities, and landscape conversion led to the decline of fish populations in several part of Sundaland, particularly in Java. The inventory of the Javanese ichthyofauna has been discontinuous, and the taxonomic knowledge is scattered in the literature. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for the inland fishes of Java and Bali with the aim to streamline the inventory of fishes in this part of Sundaland. Owing to the lack of available checklist for estimating the taxonomic coverage of this study, a checklist was compiled based on online catalogues. A total of 95 sites were visited, and a library including 1046 DNA barcodes for 159 species was assembled. Nearest neighbour distance was 28-fold higher than maximum intraspecific distance on average, and a DNA barcoding gap was observed. The list of species with DNA barcodes displayed large discrepancies with the checklist compiled here as only 36% (i.e. 77 species) and 60% (i.e. 24 species) of the known species were sampled in Java and Bali, respectively. This result was contrasted by a high number of new occurrences and the ceiling of the accumulation curves for both species and genera. These results highlight the poor taxonomic knowledge of this ichthyofauna, and the apparent discrepancy between present and historical occurrence data is to be attributed to species extirpations, synonymy and misidentifications in previous studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. EXPLAINING THE GAP IN ANTENATAL CARE SERVICE UTILIZATION BETWEEN YOUNGER AND OLDER MOTHERS IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Sheila A; Amoyaw, Jonathan; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-05-01

    Over two-thirds of pregnant women (69%) have at least one antenatal care (ANC) coverage contact in sub-Saharan Africa. However, to achieve the full life-saving potential that ANC promises for women and babies, a nuanced understanding of age-specific gaps in utilization of ANC services is required. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 1456 individuals, this study examined the disparities in the use of ANC services between younger and older mothers by applying four counterfactual decomposition techniques. The results show that cross-group differences in the explanatory variables largely account for the differentials in ANC service utilization between younger and older mothers. Birth order (parity) accounts for the largest share of the contribution to the overall explained gap in ANC utilization between the younger and older mothers, suggesting that ANC differentials between the two groups are probably due to biosocial factors. To a lesser extent, wealth status of the two groups also contributes to the overall explained gap in ANC service utilization. The policy implications of these findings are that in order to bridge the ANC service utilization gap between the two groups, policymakers must systematically address gaps in cross-group differences in the explanatory variables in order to increase the utilization of ANC to attain the minimum recommendation of four visits as per World Health Organization guidelines.

  14. Detection and Evaluation of Pre-Preg Gaps and Overlaps in Glare Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Davide; Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Leonard, Rob; Sinke, Jos

    2018-03-01

    Gaps and overlaps between pre-preg plies represent common flaws in composite materials that can be introduced easily in an automated fibre placement manufacturing process and are potentially detrimental for the mechanical performances of the final laminates. Whereas gaps and overlaps have been addressed for full composite material, the topic has not been extended to a hybrid composite material such as Glare, a member of the family of Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs). In this paper/research, the manufacturing, the detection, and the optical evaluation of intraply gaps and overlaps in Glare laminates are investigated. As part of an initial assessment study on the effect of gaps and overlaps on Glare, only the most critical lay-up has been considered. The experimental investigation started with the manufacturing of specimens having gaps and overlaps with different widths, followed by a non-destructive ultrasonic-inspection. An optical evaluation of the gaps and overlaps was performed by means of microscope image analysis of the cross sections of the specimens. The results from the non-destructive evaluations show the effectiveness of the ultrasonic detection of gaps and overlaps both in position, shape, width, and severity. The optical inspections confirm the accuracy of the non-destructive evaluation also adding useful insights about the geometrical features due to the presence of gaps and overlaps in the final Glare laminates. All the results justify the need for a further investigation on the effect of gaps and overlaps on the mechanical properties.

  15. Distinct roles of the RasGAP family proteins in C. elegans associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurkó, M Dávid; Csermely, Péter; Sőti, Csaba; Steták, Attila

    2015-10-15

    The Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) are regulators of the conserved Ras/MAPK pathway. Various roles of some of the RasGAPs in learning and memory have been reported in different model systems, yet, there is no comprehensive study to characterize all gap genes in any organism. Here, using reverse genetics and neurobehavioural tests, we studied the role of all known genes of the rasgap family in C. elegans in associative learning and memory. We demonstrated that their proteins are implicated in different parts of the learning and memory processes. We show that gap-1 contribute redundantly with gap-3 to the chemosensation of volatile compounds, gap-1 plays a major role in associative learning, while gap-2 and gap-3 are predominantly required for short- and long-term associative memory. Our results also suggest that the C. elegans Ras orthologue let-60 is involved in multiple processes during learning and memory. Thus, we show that the different classes of RasGAP proteins are all involved in cognitive function and their complex interplay ensures the proper formation and storage of novel information in C. elegans.

  16. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  17. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  18. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  19. New evidence on the motherhood wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Kimmel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we assess the role of employment-based health insurance offers in explaining the motherhood wage gap. Researchers have been aware of the existence of a motherhood gap for many years; yet, the literature has failed to address the role of non-wage compensation in explaining the motherhood wage gap despite the increasing importance of non-wage benefits in total compensation packages. As hedonic wage theory suggests, mothers might vi...

  20. Constellations of gaps in Eratosthenes sieve

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago we identified a recursion that works directly with the gaps among the generators in each stage of Eratosthenes sieve. This recursion provides explicit enumerations of sequences of gaps among the generators, which sequences are known as constellations. Over the last year we identified a discrete linear system that exactly models the population of any gap across all stages of the sieve. In August 2014 we summarized our results from analyzing this discrete model on populations of...