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Sample records for cover estonia east

  1. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  2. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  3. Institutional Change and Gender Inequalities at Labour Market Entry: A Comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Kosyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post- state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime’s effectiveness in equalising women’s and men’s opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities.

  4. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  5. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  6. Long-term deposition patterns of airborne wastes in the North-East of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, M.; Kaasik, H.

    1999-01-01

    The deposition loads of fly ash and sulfur have been high in the North-East Estonia since the late fifties, when the oil shale energetics, chemical and cement industry achieved the remarkable extent. The combined effects of both pollutants have seriously damaged sensitive ecosystems (forest on podsolic soils and bog). Most of sulphur deposition is closely related to the oil shale fly ash deposition. The main effects are related with alkalisation due to accumulation of fly ash components and the Sphagnum growth inhibition due to sulfur load. These effects have the time scale of several years or even more. The pollution loads have been changed during recent 40 years due to launching and reconstruction of enterprises (incl. purification systems) and variations of production capacity. First representative data on air pollution deposition originate from the middle of eighties. Only model estimations could be used to quantify the deposition fluxes before that time, as well as for assessing the future scenarios

  7. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  8. Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi; Liblik, Valdo

    1998-01-01

    As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of natural and artificial structure are formed, as well as 'mountainous' and hilly reliefs in the form of waste heaps, ash plateaus, coke-ash dumps etc. Deformed (stable) and undeformed (unstable) areas from underground mining currently cover about 220km 2 . About 90km 2 (80%) of the area damaged by open pits are recultivated and reformed as forested and agricultural (grassland) areas. The total area occupied by solid waste has reached up to 26km 2 . New technogenic landscape units, i.e. made by technical means, will essentially influence the environment

  9. Holocene vegetation and climate change on the Haanja heights, South-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarse, Leili; Rajamaee, Raivo

    1997-01-01

    The development of forests on the Haanja Heights has been controlled by external factors, including climate, soils, hydrology, and human impact. The sediment sequence from Lake Kirikumaee, which covers about 12 000 years, records the vegetation history throughout the Late Glacial and Holocene. In the Alleroed, woodland tundra with sparse birch and willow was established. Grass-shrub tundra in the Younger Dryas was replaced by birch forest in the Pre-Boreal. During the Holocene two major shifts in vegetation dynamics occurred: the first about 8500 BP with a sharp decline in Betula-Pinus forest and development of broad-leaved forest, and the second about 3500 BP, with a decline in broad-leaved forest and regeneration of Pinus-Betula forest with a high share of Picea. The climate modelling, based on pollen record and lake-level changes, suggest cold, severe climate with low precipitation values in the early Pre-Boreal. Between 9500-8500 BP the climate was rather stable. The lake level first rose, then stabilized, and finally dropped. The sharp climate amelioration in the late Boreal together with the humidity increase resulted in a lake-level rise. The decreased precipitation and rather high summer temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and reduced water balance are characteristic of the Sub-Boreal. Since 3500 BP, the climate deteriorated and mixed coniferous forest started to dominate. Several small climatic fluctuations, including the Little Ice Age cooling, have been traced by modelling. (author)

  10. Does estuarine health relate to catchment land-cover in the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible links between catchment and buffer zone land-cover class composition and the health of the East Kleinemonde Estuary were explored. There was a relationship between catchment land-cover and estuarine health within all assessed catchment delineations. Natural land-cover was determined to be the best ...

  11. Influence of Western Tibetan Plateau Summer Snow Cover on East Asian Summer Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng; Huang, Gang; Liu, Ge; Zhu, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    The influence of boreal winter-spring eastern Tibetan Plateau snow anomalies on the East Asian summer rainfall variability has been the focus of previous studies. The present study documents the impacts of boreal summer western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies on summer rainfall over East Asia. Analysis shows that more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau induces anomalous cooling in the overlying atmospheric column. The induced atmospheric circulation changes are different corresponding to more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. The atmospheric circulation changes accompanying the western Plateau snow cover anomalies are more obvious over the midlatitude Asia, whereas those corresponding to the southern Plateau snow cover anomalies are more prominent over the tropics. As such, the western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies influence the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation through different pathways. Nevertheless, the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation anomalies induced by the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies tend to display similar distribution so that they are more pronounced when the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies work in coherence. Analysis indicates that the summer snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau may be related to late spring snow anomalies due to the persistence. The late spring snow anomalies are related to an obvious wave train originating from the western North Atlantic that may be partly associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  13. Towards sustainable Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtvee, Valdur

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989 the Estonian Green Movement has had a working group on energy issues. This group has tried to influence the energy policy in Estonia towards sustainable development. But the process has been hard. Five years have passed since Estonia has started with taking on its shoulders international environmental obligations. Unfortunately, Estonia is one of the last countries in Europe still to join the obligation on transboundary pollution. A master plan on energy is now prepared in Estonia within the framework of PHARE programme, involving quite a few high level specialists from various institutions in Estonia and assisted by foreign specialists. But the energy sector has not been open to public discussion in Estonia up to now. It's very important not to lose from sight the environmental problems in connection with energy sector development plans. The Estonian Green Movement together with its umbrella organization, the Friends of the Earth Europe, have worked out a new energy strategy for Estonia, based on the concept of environmental space. This concept has been used by some countries already on working out the strategy for their economic progress. The limit values for a set of basic mineral resources and local fuels of Estonia have been calculated on the basis of environmental space and economic targets set for the year 2010

  14. Environmental performance reviews. Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This review of Estonia is the first environmental performance review (EPR) carried out under the auspices of the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy. This pilot ECE study builds, inter alia, on the experience gained in the preparation of pilot environmental performance reviews of Poland and Bulgaria, which were carried out in 1994-1995 by OECD in cooperation with ECE. The report focuses on capacity building; air, water, waste, and nature management; the integration of environmental and economic policies both generally and more specifically within the energy sector; and cooperation of Estonia with the international community. The review examines the current situation, recent and likely future trends, pressures, policy responses and their effectiveness. The principal conclusions and recommendations for improving Estonia's environmental performance are brought together in the concluding chapter.

  15. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  16. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas.We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps.We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  17. New data about the climate of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, Jaak

    1999-01-01

    During last 100-150 years global climate has changed significantly. Climate warming has also observed in Estonia. The aim of this paper is to analyse how different are old climate normals calculated for 1881-1880 from present-day normals (1966-1998). The new normals are calculated for monthly and annual mean air temperature at 22 stations in Estonia. Mean monthly and annual precipitation totals and snow cover duration are found at 69 stations and observation sites. Significant differences were determined between the old and new averages. As a rule, air temperature has increased while 0.4 deg C in case of annual values. Snow cover duration has decreased during this century. Its new normals are lower by 5-10 days, what is a direct consequence of climate warming

  18. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  19. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  20. Impact of Land Use Land Cover Change on East Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukoti, N.; Xue, Y.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    Humans modify the Earth's terrestrial surface on a continental scale by removing natural vegetation for crops/grazing. The current rates, extents and intensities of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are greater than ever in history. The earlier studies of Land-atmosphere interactions used specified land surface conditions without interannual variations. In this study using NCEP CFSv2 coupled with Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) model, biogeophysical impacts of LULCC on climate variability, anomaly, and changes are investigated by using the LULCC map from the Hurtt et al. (2006, 2011), which covered 66 years from 1950-2015 with annual variability. We combined the changes in crop and pasture fractions and consider as LULCC. A methodology had been developed to convert the Hurtt LULCC change map with 1° resolution to the GCM grid points. Since the GCM has only one dominant type, when the crop and pasture frction value at one point was larger than the critical value, that grid was assigned as degraded. Comprehensive evaluation was conducted to ensure the consistence of the trend of land degradation in the Hurtt's map and in the GCM LULCC map. In the degraded point, trees were changed to low vegetation or grasses, and low vegetation to bare soil. A set of surface parameters such as leaf area index, vegetation height, roughness length, and soil parameters, associated with vegetation are changed to show the degradation effects. We integrated the model with the potential vegetation map and the map with LULCC from 1950 to 2015, and the results indicate the LULCC causes precipitation reduction globally, with the strongest signals over monsoon regions. For instance, the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produced significant precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. Meanwhile, it has also found that the LULCC enhances the surface warming during the summer in monsoon

  1. Country report: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  2. Hydropower in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Long life practice has proved that small hydropower is not a beaten track in the global energy field. Before the Second World War small hydropower was rather well developed in Estonia as well. Being neglected during the years of Soviet occupation, it is rather important to help it to regain its position in the Estonian energy system once again. Our hydropower potential is not big, but it has got a good established position as an energy saving measure. By now we have some good examples of restored hydropower stations on commercial basis to be optimistic about the future

  3. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  4. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  5. Rabarocki eelsoojendus. Meeleolukas kevadkontsert Estonias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    13. ja 14. juunil Järvakandis toimuva Rabarocki warm-up peost klubis Rockstars ja esimesest ETV saatest Rabarocki triloogiast 24. mail. Kevadkontserdist "Feeling Good" 26. mail Estonia kontserdisaalis

  6. Land-Cover Change in the East Central Texas Plains, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    Project Background: The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-use and land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for measuring regional land-cover change across the United States, (2) characterize the types, rates and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period, (3) document regional driving forces and consequences of change, and (4) prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). Using the 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) as the geographic framework, geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 were processed and analyzed to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000. General land-cover classes such as water, developed, grassland/shrubland, and agriculture for these periods were interpreted from Landsat MSS, TM, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize land-cover change and evaluate using a modified Anderson Land-Use Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation. The interpretation of these land-cover classes complement the program objective of looking at land-use change with cover serving as a surrogate for land use. The land-cover change rates are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historical aerial photographs from similar timeframes and other

  7. Clifton, AZ 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  8. Tularosa, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  9. Gallup, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  10. Douglas, AZ 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  11. Roswell, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  12. Aztec, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  13. Socorro, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  14. Raton, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  15. Shiprock, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  16. Albuquerque, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  17. Carlsbad, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  18. Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Selçuk

    2008-10-01

    Mapping land use/land cover (LULC) changes at regional scales is essential for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. LULC alterations (based especially on human activities), negatively effect the patterns of climate, the patterns of natural hazard and socio-economic dynamics in global and local scale. In this study, LULC changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Rize, North-East Turkey. For this purpose, firstly supervised classification technique is applied to Landsat images acquired in 1976 and 2000. Image Classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from aerial images dated 1973 and 2002. The second part focused on land use land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel). In third part of the study, the land cover changes are analyzed according to the topographic structure (slope and altitude) by using GIS functions. The results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred in agricultural (36.2%) (especially in tea gardens), urban (117%), pasture (-72.8%) and forestry (-12.8%) areas has been experienced in the region between 1976 and 2000. It was seen that the LULC changes were mostly occurred in coastal areas and in areas having low slope values.

  19. Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Reis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping land use/land cover (LULC changes at regional scales is essential for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. LULC alterations (based especially on human activities, negatively effect the patterns of climate, the patterns of natural hazard and socio-economic dynamics in global and local scale. In this study, LULC changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey. For this purpose, firstly supervised classification technique is applied to Landsat images acquired in 1976 and 2000. Image Classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from aerial images dated 1973 and 2002. The second part focused on land use land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel. In third part of the study, the land cover changes are analyzed according to the topographic structure (slope and altitude by using GIS functions. The results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred in agricultural (36.2% (especially in tea gardens, urban (117%, pasture (-72.8% and forestry (-12.8% areas has been experienced in the region between 1976 and 2000. It was seen that the LULC changes were mostly occurred in coastal areas and in areas having low slope values.

  20. Land use/land cover changes around Rameshwaram Island, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowthaman, R.; Dwarakish, G.S.; Sanilkumar, V.

    Land-use/land cover changes are studied using the Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS-1C, IRS-6) Linear Image Self-scan Sensor (LISS) III data of 1998 and 2010 Coastal land use categories such as sand, vegetation, coral reef and water have been...

  1. Using the Landsat Archive to Estimate and Map Changes in Agriculture, Forests, and other Land Cover Types in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, S. P.; Oduor, P.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Ouko, E.; Gorelick, N.; Wilson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Every country's land is distributed among different cover types, such as: agriculture; forests; rangeland; urban areas; and barren lands. Changes in the distribution of these classes can inform us about many things, including: population pressure; effectiveness of preservation efforts; desertification; and stability of the food supply. Good assessment of these changes can also support wise planning, use, and preservation of natural resources. We are using the Landsat archive in two ways to provide needed information about land cover change since the year 2000 in seven East African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia). First, we are working with local experts to interpret historical land cover change from historical imagery at a probabilistic sample of 2000 locations in each country. This will provide a statistical estimate of land cover change since 2000. Second, we will use the same data to calibrate and validate annual land cover maps for each country. Because spatial context can be critical to development planning through the identification of hot spots, these maps will be a useful complement to the statistical, country-level estimates of change. The Landsat platform is an ideal tool for mapping land cover change because it combines a mix of appropriate spatial and spectral resolution with unparalleled length of service (Landsat 1 launched in 1972). Pilot tests have shown that time series analysis accessing the entire Landsat archive (i.e., many images per year) improves classification accuracy and stability. It is anticipated that this project will meet the civil needs of both governmental and non-governmental users across a range of disciplines.

  2. Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Guzha

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights: Forest cover loss is accompanied by increased stream discharges and surface runoff. No significant difference in stream discharge is observed between bamboo and pine plantation catchments, and between cultivated and tea plantation catchments. Trend analyses show that despite forest cover loss, 63% of the watersheds show non-significant changes in annual discharges while 31% show increasing trends. Half of the watersheds show non-significant trends in wet season flows and low flows while 35% reveal decreasing trends in low flows. Modeling studies estimate that forest cover loss increases annual discharges and surface runoff by 16 ± 5.5% and 45 ± 14%, respectively. Peak flows increased by a mean of 10 ± 2.8% while low flows decreased by a mean of 7 ± 5.3%. Increased forest cover decreases annual discharges and surface runoff by 13 ± 1.9% and 25 ± 5%, respectively. Weak correlations between forest cover and runoff (r = 0.42, p < 0.05, mean discharge (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 and peak discharge (r = 0.67, p < 0.05 indicate that forest cover alone is not an accurate predictor of hydrological fluxes in East African catchments. The variability in these results supports the need for long-term field monitoring to better understand catchment responses and to improve the calibration of currently used simulation models.

  3. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  4. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  5. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  6. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

  7. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  8. The Effects of Water Parameters on Monthly Seagrass Percentage Cover in Lawas, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Kamil, E. I.; Ramli, R.; Jaaman, S. A.; Bali, J.; Al-Obaidi, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass is a valuable marine ecosystem engineer. However, seagrass population is declining worldwide. The lack of seagrass research in Malaysia raises questions about the status of seagrasses in the country. The seagrasses in Lawas, which is part of the coral-mangrove-seagrass complex, have never been studied in detail. In this study, we examine whether monthly changes of seagrass population in Lawas occurred. Data on estimates of seagrass percentage cover and water physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) were measured at 84 sampling stations established within the study area from June 2009 to May 2010. Meteorological data such as total rainfall, air temperature, and Southern Oscillation Index were also investigated. Our results showed that (i) the monthly changes of seagrass percentage cover are significant, (ii) the changes correlated significantly with turbidity measurements, and (iii) weather changes affected the seagrass populations. Our study indicates seagrass percentage increased during the El-Nino period. These results suggest that natural disturbances such as weather changes affect seagrass populations. Evaluation of land usage and measurements of other water physicochemical parameters (such as heavy metal, pesticides, and nutrients) should be considered to assess the health of seagrass ecosystem at the study area. PMID:24163635

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Aerosol and Snow Cover of Siberian Towns (east Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, A.; Marinayte, I.

    Contamination of the atmosphere above Siberian towns has a few peculiarities: (i) level of pollution is presumably determined by discharges of large enterprises sur- rounded by company towns; (ii) long (up to 150 days) winter is characterized by the highest concentrations of pollutants within the near-ground atmospheric layer due to pronounced anti-cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere; (iii) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are specific minor components of the aerosols. Relatively high PAH concentrations in aerosol of Siberian towns are caused by the presence of ad- ditional intensive sources of PAH (besides those traditional: gas discharges of met- allurgy, heat-and-power engineering enterprises, and motor transport). These are the discharges of low power (produc- ing plant (50000 residents) - are presented in the report. Daily and seasonal dynamics of aerosol pollution and level of PAH accumulation in snow covers during 1996 U 2001 are estimated. The highest PAH concentrations (total concentrations of identi- fied compounds) are up to 300 ng/m3 in aerosol and up to 16 mg/m2 in snow cover. At day and night temperatures lowering up to -30 oe -40 01057;, the maximum of PAH concentration is observed in the daytime due to displacement of the tempera-ture in- version. When temperature increases, two SclassicalT maximums are observed during & cedil;the morning and the evening hours. It was shown that the effect of Scity air circula- & cedil;tionT caused by air masses transportation above a city from its center to out-skirts (within the near-ground air layer U to its center) does not contribute to efficient level- ing of PAH concentrations. The level of PAH accumulation in snow cover in different citySs sites and within one citySs region is ranging up to 10 times during a season. Calculated benz[a]pyren fluxes allow us to conclude that contamination of the atmo- sphere above Irkutsk (2.5 mkg/m2 per week) is comparable with that above large cities of Western

  10. Estonia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  11. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  12. Estonia in the system of global climate change. Publication 4/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia is among the countries who signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The FCCC calls on its parties to inventory national sources, to reduction in greenhouse gases and to development of projects responding to climate change. In 1994, an Estonian Country Study Project was initiated within the U.S. Country Studies Program. The Estonian Country Study Project is comprehensive, covering all sectors and directions of activity in Estonia that might impact climate change or be influenced by Global Climate Change. This book contains a collection of papers, covering the aims of the Estonian Country Study Project

  13. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  14. Hearing impairment in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teek, R; Kruustük, K; Zordania, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The present study was initiated to establish the etiological causes of early onset hearing loss (HL) among Estonian children between 2000-2009. Methods: The study group consisted of 233 probands who were first tested with an arrayed primer extension assay, which covers 199 mutat...... for 115 Estonian patients (49%). This algorithm may be generalized to other populations for clinical application....... performed. Results: In 110 (47%) cases, the etiology of HL was genetic and in 5 (2%) congenital CMV infection was diagnosed. We found mutations with clinical significance in GJB2 (100 children, 43%) and in 2 mitochondrial genes (2 patients, 1%). A single mutation in SLC26A4 gene was detected in 5 probands...... able to conclude that the found abnormalities are definitely pathogenic (12q13.3-q14.2 and 17q22-23.2 microdeletion), but the pathogenity of 2 other findings (3p26.2 and 1p33 microdeletion) remained unknown. Conclusion: This practical diagnostic algorithm confirmed the etiology of early onset HL...

  15. Predictors and consequences of job insecurity: Comparison of Slovakia and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ištoňová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a significant current social issue in many European countries. Slovakia and Estonia significantly differ in the prevalence of job insecurity. The main aim of the present study was to compare Slovakia and Estonia in regard to job insecurity by looking at socio-demographic, job and organisational predictors and individual and social consequences based on ESS round five data. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between job insecurity and its predictors as well as job insecurity and its consequences. The analysis covered employed people with unlimited or limited contracts, working 40-50 hours per week, within the age range of 20-60. The results suggested significant differences in the predictors of job insecurity for Slovakia and Estonia. However, the individual, social and economic consequences of job insecurity were similar for both countries. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of job insecurity predictors and consequences in the European region.

  16. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  17. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  18. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  19. Climate change studies in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallaste, Tiit; Kuldna, Piret

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of papers was compiled on the basis of research papers written by Estonian scientists during the United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environment Facility initiated climate change programme Country Case Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Assessments. The Estonian country case study was finally approved by UNEP/GEF in February 1996, practical work started in September. The priorities for Estonia in the study of global climate change impacts and adaptation have been in the following areas of interest: agriculture, water resources, forestry, the Baltic Sea and Estonian coast, also historical climate and socioeconomic background together with the biggest producer of greenhouse gases, the energy sector. Those areas have been studied more carefully during the one and half year period of the project

  20. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 25-31, nr. 2 lk. 41-47, nr. 3 lk. 29-37, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 16-23, nr. 2 lk. 39-47, nr. 3 lk. 25-33, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 23-31, nr. 2 lk. 33-41, nr. 3 lk. 31-39, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 31-39, nr. 2 lk. 35-41; 2005 nr. 1 lk. 37-44, nr. 2 lk. 43-51, nr. 3 lk. 23-27. Ülevaade Eesti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  1. Silver City, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  2. Saint Johns, AZ 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  3. Las Cruces, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  4. El Paso, TX 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  5. Santa Fe, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  6. Fort Sumner, NM 1:250,000 Quad East Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  7. Paul Pinna avab Estonia Talveaias omanimelise baari / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia sajanda sünnipäeva puhul etendub 12. ja 13. septembril Estonia Talveaias lavastus "Paul Pinnat otsimas". Tekst on 95% osas Paul Pinna ja Karl August Hindrey sulest, dramatiseeris ja lavastas Heidi Sarapuu

  8. Climatic trends in Estonia during the period of instrumental observations and climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Weather conditions in Estonia are quite variable. Long-term periodical fluctuations have been observed in meteorological values. At the same time, the climate change during the last 100-150 years is marked. As a general tendency, the climate has become more maritime. Air pressure is characterized by an increasing trend in spring and summer, and by a decreasing trend in autumn and winter. Mean air temperature has increased, particularly over the colder half of the year. Precipitation area totals have risen, most of all in autumn and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased significantly. General circulation model-based climate change scenarios expect a general increase in air temperature in Estonia with warming in winter more significant than that in summer. Moreover, they indicate an increase in precipitation, but the results of the individual models are quite variable. The transient scenario shows that the main increase in precipitation will not occur during next decades, but only at the end of the transient period, around 2070. It can be stated that observed tendencies of climate change in Estonia concur with expected changes caused by global warming. According to the long-term fluctuations of meteorological values in Estonia, changes different from general trends can take place during the next decade. An increase in mean air pressure, sunshine duration and snow cover duration, as well as a decrease in mean air temperature and precipitation is expected in the following years

  9. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  10. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  11. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  12. Estonia: In and Out of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian economic developments during the first decade of 21st century. Estonia provided in that period a clear-cut example of the classical business cycle with an extreme bubble-burst sequence of economic activities. The author analyses the reasons on such a volatile economic growth pattern and explains economic cycle management particularities in Estonia. In the frames of macroeconomic developments will be analyzed monetary and fiscal policies. The author argues, that Estonia’s fiscal policy has been always pro-cyclical, what has deepened country’s macroeconomic volatility. The paper also analyses critically the government activities and policies during the recent crisis

  13. Rahvusooper Estonia interjööride renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonia National Opera House interiors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. lõpetati Rahvusooperi Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar. Siseviimistluse ja laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine ja konserveerimine: KAR Grupp. Akustik Linda Madalik. 8 värv. vaadet

  14. On the Linkage between Springtime Eurasian Snow Cover Retreat due to the Global Warming and Changes in Summertime Atmospheric Circulation over Japan and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, T.; Fujiwara, S.

    2017-12-01

    According to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5), snow cover extent (SCE) over the northern hemisphere is greatly decreasing in spring. This change is expected to affect atmospheric circulation change via land-atmosphere interactions. In this study, we investigated relationships between spring SCE anomaly over the Eurasia and changes in atmospheric circulations, mainly analyzing the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55). Differences in composites of zonal winds at upper and middle levels between large and small SCE years over Western Siberia in spring show that, around Japan and East Asia, jet stream in small SCE years is shifted southward in April and June. We also analyzed surface temperature and soil moisture and find that, in small SCE years, surface temperature in Western Siberia and Central Asia is increased and soil moisture reduced significantly in June. The air temperature in the middle and low level atmosphere also significantly increased and have wave-like pattern in May. These results suggest that there are some linkages between the springtime Eurasian SCE reduction and changes in summertime jet stream over Japan and East Asia through land-atmosphere interactions.

  15. SMEs in Estonia : Achievements and Worries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Phare toetusel ja Eesti Väikeettevõtete Assotsiatsiooni abil läbi viidud uurimusest "The State of Small Business in Estonia" (väikeettevõtted Eestis). Tabelid ja diagrammid. Eesti väikeettevõtete probleemid, osalemine eksport/import tegevuses, peamised probleemid pangalaenude taotlemisel

  16. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  17. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  18. Friends of Estonia discuss next move

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    1. juulil 2011 avas Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Riigikogu konverentsikeskuses Eesti sõprade kokkutuleku raames korraldatava sümpoosioni “Quo vadis, Estonia?”, kus ütles, et Eesti järgmine eesmärk on riiklike ja ühiskondlike struktuuride tugevdamisele keskendumine

  19. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  20. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  1. Local influence of south-east France topography and land cover on the distribution and characteristics of intense rainfall cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent

    2017-04-01

    The Greater Lyon area is strongly built up, grouping 58 communes and a population of 1.3 million in approximately 500 km2. The flood risk is high as the territory is crossed by two large watercourses and by streams with torrential flow. Floods may also occur in case of runoff after heavy rain or because of a rise in the groundwater level. The whole territory can therefore be affected, and it is necessary to possess in-depth knowledge of the depths, causes and consequences of rainfall to achieve better management of precipitation in urban areas and to reduce flood risk. This study is thus focused on the effects of topography and land cover on the occurrence, intensity and area of intense rainfall cells. They are identified by local radar meteorology (C-band) combined with a processing algorithm running in a geographic information system (GIS) which identified 109,979 weighted mean centres of them in a sample composed of the five most intense rainfall events from 2001 to 2005. First, analysis of spatial distribution at an overall scale is performed, completed by study at a more detailed scale. The results show that the distribution of high-intensity rainfall cells is spread in cluster form. Subsequently, comparison of intense rainfall cells with the topography shows that cell density is closely linked with land slope but that, above all, urbanised zones feature nearly twice as many rainfall cells as farm land or forest, with more intense intensity.

  2. "Gerontiuse unenägu" Estonias / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    2. aprillil Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud Edward Elgari oratooriumi "Gerontiuse unenägu" ettekandest, esitasid: ERSO, Estonia ooperikoor, Estonia poistekoor, kammerkoor Voces Musicales, Helen Lokuta, Bernhard Gärtner, Priit Volmer, dirigent Carlos Spiereri

  3. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  4. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-07-17

    In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0-14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001-2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality from external causes in 0-14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is needed to enable establishing the intent of death.

  5. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is

  6. Environmental remediation of the former Soviet military uranium milling site at Sillamae, Estonia: Features of approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quick launch of the nuclear program was a high priority for the Soviet military, as a uranium production plant installation was started at Sillamae, Estonia, in 1946. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0.03% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. Altogether more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany) were processed at Sillamae. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards from the past; however, remain: Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; and uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental project is now complete, the completion of practical remedial works by the end of 2005 will render Sillamae project a pioneer among Central and East European restoration projects of this character. This paper presents characteristic features of Sillamae remediation project, planning the use of best technical solutions, especially considering the vulnerability of geotechnical stability. (author)

  7. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  8. Kunstiakadeemia kolib ajutiselt Estonia puiesteele / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia on 2010. a. alguseks vanadest ruumidest kolinud hoonesse aadressil Estonia pst. 7. Rüütelkonna hoones leidis endale ajutise kodu vabade kunstide teaduskonna enamik erialasid. Veebruari algul toimuvast tühjendamispeost. EKA uue maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroodes Sea ja Effekt valminud töö "Art Plaza". Uue hoone ehitus algab aprillis, valmimistähtajaks on 2012. a. kevad

  9. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupo Mändla; Sven-Erik Enno; Mait Sepp

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer month...

  10. Valmis film parvlaev Estonia katastroofist / Imre Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Imre

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal on valminud poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsent ja esialgse stsenaariumi autor koosHenning Wittega on Jutta Rabe, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  11. Detergent zeolite complex "Ceosil", Tallinn, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department, together with the "Birac", Zvornik Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite production, using waste flotation sand and hydrates. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, production plant in Tallinn, Estonia was constructed, with a capacity of 100,000 t/y from 1989. to 1993. This plant became the biggest producer of detergent zeolite in the world.Several goals we...

  12. Comparison of the Microbial Diversity and Abundance Between the Freshwater Land-Locked Lakes of Schirmacher Oasis and the Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Untersee in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan; Hoover, Richard B.; Swain, Ashit; Murdock, Chris; Bej, Asim K.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme conditions such as low temperature, dryness, and constant UV-radiation in terrestrial Antarctica are limiting factors of the survival of microbial populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity and enumeration between the open water lakes of Schirmacher Oasis and the permanently ice-covered Lake Untersee. The lakes in Schirmacher Oasis possessed abundant and diverse group of microorganisms compared to the Lake Untersee. Furthermore, the microbial diversity between two lakes in Schirmacher Oasis (Lake L27C and L47) was compared by culture-based molecular approach. It was determined that L27Chad a richer microbial diversity representing 5 different phyla and 7 different genera. In contrast L47 consisted of 4 different phyla and 6 different genera. The difference in microbial community could be due to the wide range of pH between L27C (pH 9.1) and L47 (pH 5.7). Most of the microbes isolated from these lakes consisted of adaptive biological pigmentation. Characterization of the microbial community found in the freshwater lakes of East Antarctica is important because it gives a further glimpse into the adaptation and survival strategies found in extreme conditions.

  13. Youth negotiation and performance of masculine identities in rural Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores key shared places and practices through which young men in rural Estonia perform and construct masculine identities. Whereas powerful images of rural places and rural masculinity exist and are reproduced in public discourse in Estonia, not much is known about how masculinities

  14. Ekspert välistab Estonia lepingust taganemise / Aivar Pau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pau, Aivar

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli rahvusvahelise õiguse õppetooli hoidja Lauri Mälksoo peab mõeldamatuks Eesti ühepoolset otsust loobuda riikidevahelisest hauarahulepingust ja tõsta Estonia vrakk merepõhjast üles. Riigikogu erikomisjoni esimees Margus Leivo on algatanud Estonia vraki ülestõstmiseks internetis allkirjade kogumise kampaania

  15. Pilot projects for the remediation of Sillamaee uranium tailings in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    First Estonian uranium, produced in a pilot plant at Narva, was presented to Soviet military administration in 1945 and just a year later - 1946 - installation of an uranium production plant was started at Sillamaee, Estonia. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0,026% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. The uranium mine, having been activated from 1947 to 1952, was left in status of 'active conservation' for 17 years, until finally closed in 1969. Potential threats of this hidden legacy have never been revealed. After close-down of local uranium mine, more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany were processed at Sillamaee. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca. 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides together its power generating facilities ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards of the history, however, remain: - Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; - stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; - uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental remediation project, done by Wismut, is now complete and first implementation steps are underway. The project for mine area restoration is in initiation phase; it shall reveal the current and potential environmental hazards of the facility and create the concept for necessary rehabilitation

  16. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  17. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  18. 137Cs in forest ecosystems in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jueri; Martin, Ljudmilla; Paern, Henn; Vilde, Raimolt

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In the recently published 'Europe's Environment' (1995) one can find the map on 1 37C s cumulative deposition in Europe after the Chernobyl accident (source: De Corte et al., 1990). On this map most of the Eastern Europe including Baltic Sea region is practically uncovered. In this reason we decided to present data on accumulation of 1 37C s in the forest ecosystems in Estonia. Field sampling for current study has been conducted in 1986 - 1994. 1 37C s concentrations were measured in different compartments of model trees, ground vegetation layers, debris and topsoil. The amount of 1 37C s varied from 1.9 kBq/m 2 in continental Estonia to 28.8 kBq/m 2 in north-eastern Ne part of Estonia. The results obtained correspond to data presented in Wahlstroem et al., (1992) for Finland. According to the 'Europe's Environment' criteria northeastern Estonia belongs to the third cumulative deposition zone (10 to 32 kBq/m 2 ). In Estonia the total deposition of 1 37C s varies in the range from practically zero to 3.9 kBq/m 2 . The calculations of Realo et al. (1994) back to May 1, 1986 gave figures from 0 to 21 kBq/m 2 . In macro lichens Cetraria, Cladina, Cladonia the rapid changes in 1 37C s concentrations were observed: 0.06 - 0.18 kBq/kg in 1982-85, 0.93 - 6.23 kBq/kg in 1986-87, 0.27 -4.26 kBq/kg in 1988-89, 0.05 - 1.46 kBq/kg in 1990-91 and, finally, 0.03 - 0.46 kBq/kg in 1993-94. At the end of the observation period average value of the 1 37C s concentrations was the same as maximum before the CRA and decline of the concentrations was 4 times during six years. Average concentrations of 1 3 7 C s in two common forest mosses Pleurozium shreberi and Hylocomium splendens was 0.43 kBq/kg of dry matter and in forest debris 0.38 kBq/kg. In 1986 the highest concentration in mushrooms - 16.6 kBq/kg was found in Lactarius sp. (Martin, L., et al., 1991). In 1991 samples of 41 different mushroom species from 63 sample sites mostly in Scots pine stands were analyzed. The

  19. Country policy profile - Estonia. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  20. Country policy profile - Estonia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  1. Siim Nestor soovitab : Acid Mothers Temple. Dzhäss ja "tõsidus" NYYD Ensemble ilt. Garage, this is paradise. East-West / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Jaapani megaorkestri AMT esinemisest Linnakultuurifestivali üritusel "Operation B" Von Krahlis 8. nov. Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast ansambli NYYD kontserdist 11. nov. Klubis Wimbledon 8. nov. toimuvast peost "Garage, this is paradise". Saku Suurhallis toimuvast peost "East West"

  2. Thermography of network in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of environmental energy sector programmes is to reduce dependency on unsafe nuclear power stations and also to reduce the environmental impact of the energy sector by means of improved energy efficiency, increased use of cleaner technology and cleaner energy sources. In order to ensure sustainability during the reorganisation of the energy sector, support must be provided for organisational development as well as for training and education. The programmes cover both suppliers and consumers. This paper concludes that IR thermography is an excellent performance control method for district heating networks: A biannual or annual inspection gives a good impression of the general condition of the network; Digging costs will be reduced through precise location of any defects; It will be easier to decide the exact timing of any repairs or renovation, leading to improved purchase options; If sudden water losses occur, IR technology can be applied for quick location; It is essential that operators receive very thorough training, and that close attention is paid to qualifications and references when selecting operators. Resources must be made available for individual training in the field, Where trainee operators are given responsibility for completing their own assignments under the supervisoon of experienced operators. (EG)

  3. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  4. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  5. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  6. Uudised : Rossini "Wilhelm Tell" Estonias. Cavalli ooper Amsterdamis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Gioachino Rossini ooperi "Wilhelm Tell" kontsertettekandest 18. ja 20. dets. Rahvusooper Estonias (peaosas Rauno Elp, külalisesinejaks Mario Zeffiri). Itaalia barokihelilooja Francesco Cavalli ooperi "Ercole amante" lavastamisest Madalmaade Ooperis Amsterdamis (lavastaja David Alden, esietendus 11. jaanuaril)

  7. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  8. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  9. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  10. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  11. Technical assistance for EBRD-PMU, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The EBRD Energy Sector Emergency Loan to Estonia has resulted in numerous benefits for the Estonian Energy Sector and the Estonian Society and the locals as well as the end users have developed themselves tremendously during the project. The substantial economic, environmental and energy saving effects of the loan project have been: Energy savings and improved energy efficiency in the electricity grid, the district heating networks, the district heating consumer installations, the energy production plants in terms of rehabilitated or converted boilers and burners, industrial consumer installations. The energy efficiency improvements have resulted in energy savings between 5% and 30%; Conversion of boilers from expensive imported heavy fuel oil to indigenous fuels such as peat and wood. The results are higher supply security, improved boiler efficiency, reduced emissions and reduced operation and maintenance costs; Rehabilitated district heating networks resulted in reduced heat and water losses, improved operation of installations and reduced maintenance costs; Rehabilitated electricity grids with fewer break-downs, reduced maintenance costs and improved energy efficiency as results; Improved operation of the larger energy utilities resulting in lower operational costs, improved dispatch of the energy systems and speedier actions in case of break-downs. The economic indicators, pay-back time and Internal Rate of Return show that a large number of the projects have had a substantial impact on the Estonian economy and that the projects have been sound investments. The recommendations for the local completion of the work in Estonia are: The Juri boiler plant should be carefully attended to by the PMU and the Estonian authorities. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Project Radiation protection East. Status Report, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Sundewall, H.; Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [TeknoTelje (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Project Radiation Protection East is a Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994 radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in the project. This report presents a summary over some 140 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. 12 tabs.

  13. Modeling of Alpine Grassland Cover Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology and Multi-Factor Methods: A Case Study in the East of Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grassland cover and its temporal changes are key parameters in the estimation and monitoring of ecosystems and their functions, especially via remote sensing. However, the most suitable model for estimating grassland cover and the differences between models has rarely been studied in alpine meadow grasslands. In this study, field measurements of grassland cover in Gannan Prefecture, from 2014 to 2016, were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology. Single-factor parametric and multi-factor parametric/non-parametric cover inversion models were then constructed based on 14 factors related to grassland cover, and the dynamic variation of the annual maximum cover was analyzed. The results show that (1 nine out of 14 factors (longitude, latitude, elevation, the concentrations of clay and sand in the surface and bottom soils, temperature, precipitation, enhanced vegetation index (EVI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI exert a significant effect on grassland cover in the study area. The logarithmic model based on EVI presents the best performance, with an R2 and RMSE of 0.52 and 16.96%, respectively. Single-factor grassland cover inversion models account for only 1–49% of the variation in cover during the growth season. (2 The optimum grassland cover inversion model is the artificial neural network (BP-ANN, with an R2 and RMSE of 0.72 and 13.38%, and SDs of 0.062% and 1.615%, respectively. Both the accuracy and the stability of the BP-ANN model are higher than those of the single-factor parametric models and multi-factor parametric/non-parametric models. (3 The annual maximum cover in Gannan Prefecture presents an increasing trend over 60.60% of the entire study area, while 36.54% is presently stable and 2.86% exhibits a decreasing trend.

  14. Estland im Sog der Russischen Volkswirtschaft? Estonia Being Caught Up in Russian Turmoil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Friedrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Ukraine crisis and Russia’s economic problems, the authors pose the question to what extent the Estonian economy still relies on foreign trade with Russia and which costs Estonia might bear in the course of an aggravation of the lingering East-West conflict. Estonian trade relations with Russia as well as Estonia’s integration in the European and global division of labor are analyzed by a gravity model which also incorporates the trade foreign trade of the Baltic neighbors Latvia and Lithuania as benchmark countries. The authors find that even before the crisis Estonia’s trade with Russia lost weight and the dependency on Russian export and import markets diminished. By an in-depth analysis of Estonia’ sectoral trade patterns these findings were confirmed for the majority of industries. Only in the case of the Estonian milk industry the authors observe significant effects of Russian sanctions. In contrast to this particular case, Estonia becomes increasingly independent from imports of Russian natural gas which in the past made the country vulnerable to political blackmail. The authors conclude that regional and sectoral diversification of Estonian trade patterns induced by the current crisis will help the country to improve its international competitiveness and its economic integration into world markets.

  15. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  16. University courses on radiation protection in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, Enn

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is given on the educational courses containing topics in the field of radiation protection in the Tallinn Technical University and in the University of Tartu, Estonia. It follows from the analysis that at present there is no complete system for education or training of experts in the field. At the same time a significant deficit in specialists and experts is one of the major barriers in the development of an efficient radiation protection infrastructure in this country. A comparison of the course topics to the syllabus for the training of qualified experts recommended by EC and by IAEA demonstrates the items, which need a further development and an expanded coverage in the existing or in future courses. These items involve, e.g., operational radiation protection and its organisation, waste management, transport, quality assurance, etc. Upgrading of courses for the missing theoretical items is not difficult, but it is not sufficient. The largest void lies in the weakness / absence of an adequate basis for practical work or exercises for students. The examples of co-operation and help provided for the existing courses, especially by the Nordic countries, are encouraging. (au)

  17. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  18. Should Estonia have a nuclear power station?(Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries the problem of energy supply can be of paramount importance. Estonia, however, being the small country of a small nation, has to take into account special considerations before deciding on the possible introduction of nuclear electricity. Should another disaster like that of Chernobyl take place on Estonian territory, the whole nation might perish. Therefore, those scientists who place national interests above all have been active looking for alternative sources of energy. The present paper discusses the situation in Northern Europe and draws the readers' attention to the still unsolved problem of nuclear waste disposal. The paper emphasises the fact that the Fifth Estonian Conference on Ecology regarded nuclear energy as entirely unacceptable for Estonia and declared its full support for the decision taken by the Estonian Government not to consider the application of nuclear power in Estonia before the year 2000. (author). 8 figs

  19. Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmann, Artu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.

  20. Domestic fuel consumption in Estonia (The first half of 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1993-01-01

    According to the data of the Estonian Statistics Department the consumption of fuels in Estonia over the period of January-June 1993 was a follows: coal 77,053 t, oil shale 7,981,840 t, fuel peat 127,376 t, peat briquette 42,041 t, firewood 154,511 solid metres, wood chip 55,648 solid metres. The consumption of fuel peat (chiefly for producing briquette) was more considerable in the town of Kohtla-Jaerve and in the districts of Paernu and Tartu where Estonia's major peat-briquette plants are located. The share of peat in the other industries has been less significant. (author)

  1. Radio synovectomy: First results in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Samarina, G.; Poksi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In Estonia first radiosynovectomy (RSE) was carried out in 2001 at Tallinn Central Hospital, which has remained the only institution in North Estonia performing these procedures. Purpose of this study was to analyze the results and the clinical experience gained during the period of September 2001 January 2005. We performed RSE in 10 knee joints of 7 patients. Our patient population consisted of 3 males and 4 females (mean age 34, range 16-48). There were 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic synovitis and 1 patient with haemophilia (HE) who had one episode of haemarthrosis eight month prior to RSE. In RA the duration of the disease was ranging from 2 month to 20 years. All RA patients were resistant to anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants and intraarticular steroid therapy. Prior to RSE, conventional rheumatologic evaluation and MRI scan were carried out, revealing the thickness of synovia of 2-5 mm, and minimal or no cartilage damage. In our HE patient chronic hypertrophic synovitis associated with haemarthrosis did not respond to haematological treatment: replacement of the missing clotting factor, intermittent steroids, immobilization, physical therapy. According to MRI, the thickness of synovia was patchy, 5-26 mm, the cartilage damage was absent. For RSE, intraarticular injection of radiocolloid was carried out in aseptic conditions and under local anesthesia. Treated joints were immobilized for 2 days. In 5 out of 6 RA patients the injection was performed once, in one RA patient four times. In order to minimize local inflammation and lymphatic clearance glucocorticoids were administered together with radioisotope agents. In three patients (2 with RA and 1 with HE) 27 mCi of 166-Ho-FHMA was injected, and in remaining four patients with RA - 4-6 mCi of 90-Y radiocolloid was used. All joints with Ho-FHMA were checked for radiocolloid leakage by subsequent gamma camera imaging. Treatment response was evaluated from 2 to 6 month

  2. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  3. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  4. Estonia taastusravikeskuse termid : Sääse 7, Pärnu = Baths at SPA Estonia : Sääse 7, Pärnu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Estonia taastusravikeskuse basseini- ja vesiravikompleksist, mille arhitektid ning sisearhitektid on Edda Soolep ja Jüri Soolep (Archimedium OÜ). Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  5. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  6. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  7. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  8. Estonia hukk jõuab suvel kinodesse / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Nädal tagasi alustati Berliinis poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow

  9. A 13th-century kettlehat from Kodasoo, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäll, Jaak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest surviving helmet from Estonia is a 13th-century kettlehat found near village of Kodasoo in northern Estonia. Three samples from different parts of the kettlehat were investigated in a metallographic study. The raw material of the Kodasoo kettlehat was a slag-rich iron of heterogeneous carbon content. It was improved by folding and forge-welding it at least three times, resulting in layered structure with more uniformly distributed carbon content.

    El casco más antiguo encontrado en Estonia es un «chapel de fer» del siglo XIII que proviene de cerca de la aldea de Kodasoo, en el Norte de Estonia. Tres muestras de diversas partes del casco fueron investigadas mediante un estudio metalográfico. El material original del casco de Kodasoo era un hierro de contenido de carbono heterogéneo y con abundantes inclusiones de escoria. Se intentó mejorar su calidad mediante forja, doblándolo y soldándolo a la calda por lo menos tres veces, dando como resultado una estructura estratificada, con el contenido de carbono distribuido más uniformemente.

  10. Elegantne ja värske Rahvusooper Estonia / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar, SAB Lember & Padar. Arhitektuurse projekti autor Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. J. Lemberist ja A. Padarist, nende tähtsamad tööd, autasud. Ill.: plaan, 16 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  11. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered t...

  12. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S; Eensaar, A [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1996-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  13. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  14. Estonia juubelihooaeg tuleb tavalisest sisukam / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia 100. hooaja etendustest: G. Verdi "Othello", G. Puccini ooper "Tosca", Rene Eespere ooper "Gurmaanid-2", P. Mascagni "Talupoja au", R. Leoncavallo "Pajatsid", W. A. Mozarti ooper "Don Giovanni" ja ooperi "La clemenza di Tito" kontsertettekanne, Tiit Härmi ballett "Kameeliadaam", Ludvig Minkuse ballett "Don Quijote". Osavõtust Dalhalla ooperifestivalist Rootsis Puccini ooperiga "Tosca" ja Cannito/Schiavoni balletiga "Cassandra"

  15. Estonia näitas uut logo / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Ooperiteatri uue logo autor on Kristjan Kirsfeldt. Liis Kolle lavastab G. Rossini ooperi "Sinjoor Bruschino ehk Poeg juhuse tahtel", kunstnikud Liina Keevallik ja Reili Evart. 2. juunil Rahvusooperis etendunud rahvusooperi näiteringi "Welcome to Estonia" Neeme Kuninga kirjutatud ja lavastatud muusikalist "Minu veetlev Eedi".

  16. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  17. Communication of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Estonia's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Estonia. In light of the wish expressed in the Note Verbale, its text is attached hereto

  18. Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad ja palve seoses USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Estonia protsessiühingu esimehe Helje Kaskeli ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu esimehe Ülo Veide pöördumises president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poole tuuakse esile katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad. Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 29. nov. 2006, lk. 4-5, pealk.: Ilves, avita! Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste palvekiri Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele; Vaba Eesti Sõna 30. nov. 2006, lk. 3, 10, pealk.: Avalik kiri Eesti Vabariigi presidendile Toomas H. Ilvesele

  19. Kohtumisel Bushiga tuleks tõstatada ka Estonia huku teema / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute omaste ühendused avaldasid oma pöördumises Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele soovi, et president arutaks kohtumisel USA presidendi George W. Bushiga USA julgeolekuagentuuri NSA käsutuses olevate laevahukku puudutavate salastatud dokumentide üleandmist Eestile. Pöördumisele on alla kirjutanud Estonia Litigation Associationi esimees Helje Kaskel ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu (EHVM) juht Ülo Veide

  20. Rahmaninov ja Saint-Saens Estonia kontserdisaalis / Tiina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiina, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    18. novembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast Sergei Rahmaninovi Klaverikontsert nr 2 ja "Kellad" ettekandest ja 29. novembril Toimuvast Camille Saint-Saensi ooperi "Simson ja Delila" kontsertettekandest

  1. Sajandi sündmus : Estonia teater jõudis Financial Timesi / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Maailmakuulus majandusleht Financial Times avaldas 4. jaanuaril ajakirjanik George Loomis'e artikli, mis kajastab Rahvusooperis Estonia 14. detsembril 2001 esietendunud Carl Orffi ooperit "Tark naine"

  2. Berliner Zeitung annab Estonia-filmile hävitava hinnangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukaja Saksa ajakirjanduses

  3. Building up the radiation protection infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, Merle; Muru, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide a timeline overview of the of radiation protection infrastructure following the 1999 declaration of independence. In Estonia, an independent competent authority was inaugurated in 1996 and the first Radiation Act was approved by Parliament the following year, in 1997. This paper will address several important factors and the means which promoted development. International cooperation was and remains an essential factor worthy of discussion. For example participation in International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation programme and co-operation with neighbouring countries greatly facilitated greatly the development. Political choices and the long term goal of accession to the European Union had great importance to the process also. Today, the Republic of Estonia is member of European Union and has built up a well functioning radiation protection system according the international standards and requirements. This paper is intended to share the experience and to facilitate the learning process. (author)

  4. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  5. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  6. PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF ESTONIA IN A GROWTH ACCOUNTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien MOLNAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the economic growth tendencies in Estonia and other formal post-socialist countries and the interaction between productivity growth and their determinants after the transition decades. So this paper is structured as follows. Firstly we will introduce an alternative growth accounting method to determine the components of productivity growth based on this concept. In Section we will also provide our empirical results in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Hungary compared to the EU-15 countries between 1990 and 2011 how TFP (Total Factor Productivity, Physical and Labour Capital Accumulation can contribute to (increase or decrease economic performance of each country. Finally, we can conclude that the relationship between labour and output growth per capita has obviously and temporarily changed after the mid-1990s, which could be determined by the increasing role of such socio-economic factors as technological changes, capital accumulation and demographical fluctuations etc.

  7. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  8. Energy from Waste and Biomass - ALTENER Conference held in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Inge

    1999-01-01

    On November 9-10, 1998 ALTENER Conference Energy from Waste and Biomass took place in the hotel Pirita, Tallinn, Estonia. The Conference was organized by the Swedish National Energy Administration in co-operation with the FEMOPET Estonia and the South Jutland University Centre, Biomass Institute (Denmark). The main topics of the Conference were: collecting biogas from landfall, biogas from municipal sewage treatment, biogas from animal manure, waste heat, biomass from the pulp industry and the sawmill, biomass from forestry, biomass for local and district heating. More than 200 delegates from 14 countries participated in this event. A poster exhibition and two study tours to Paeaeskuela Landfill Plant and Jueri Boiler House were organised too. (author)

  9. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  10. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  11. Estonia ujub Saksamaa kinodesse / Andres Laasik, Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja. Põhjamaades on filmi linastamine kahtluse all

  12. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Gurvitsh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional and business ethics and determine its place in the modern business world as seen by Estonian business students and practitioners. To achieve the goals, the authors conducted a survey among Estonian graduate and undergraduate accounting and business students at Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian business practitioners. 587 responses were collected in the process. This infor-mation was compiled and analyzed based on status, gender, age, and specialization. The survey revealed that in Estonia people are familiar with business ethics; however, it is not of great interest to them. The results also indicate that professional and business ethics merit more attention and should be included as a required course in the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. In general, business ethics in Estonia was not ranked as “high”, which was also the case for both professional ethics at the work-place/university and also the importance and necessity of ethics in the modern business world.

  13. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  14. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia threatened by oil shale mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hiiemaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perpendicular to the generally southward-sloping terrain, and shallow depressions at the surface of mineral soil have influenced mire formation and its spatio-temporal dynamics. The Quaternary cover under the mire is thin and highly variable. Therefore the mire is hydro­geologically insufficiently isolated from the limestone bedrock that is drained by the nearby oil shale mine and consequently the mining activities approaching the mire may have a negative influence on the wetland and proposed Natura 2000 site. Natura 2000 type wetlands, both protected or currently outside the nature reserves, cover a significant portion of the prospective oil shale mining areas. The distribution and resilience of those sites may significantly influence further utilization of oil shale resources.

  15. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  16. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  17. Rahvusooperi Estonia 99. hooaeg algab nädala pärast / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Muusikaturu korraldamisest 18. sept. Estonia teatrihoone taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil. Katri Kaasik-Aaslavi ja Vaino Vahingu näidendi "Teatriromanss" (muusika arranzheerija ja pianist Olav Ehala) esietendusest Estonia kammersaalis 22. oktoobril. Giuseppe Verdi ooperi "Aida" etendamisest Rocca al Mare Onistar Tennisekeskuses 8.-10., 12.-17. oktoobril

  18. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  19. Tosca Mikiveri mälestuseks. Estonia Turupäev 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lavastaja Mikk Mikiveri 70. sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest Giacomo Puccini ooperi "Tosca" esietendusega 4. sept. Tartus Vanemuise väikeses majas. Rahvusooper Estonia 102. hooaja uuslavastuste tutvustamisest 9. sept. Tallinnas Estonia maja taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil

  20. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  1. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  2. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  3. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  4. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m 3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  5. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  6. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  7. Development and problems of radioactive waste management infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Estonia is one of a few countries where the establishment of radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure started only recently, soon after regaining independence in the beginning of 1990's. Both legislative and regulatory infrastructure had to be built from scratch, in parallel with the beginning of urgent activities and practices to manage waste streams inherited from the past. Despite significant deficiency of local expertise and specialists in the field, the main objectives of the establishment were set up: to enforce national legislation basing on contemporary international principles, criteria, requirements and to implement structures and procedures for an efficient regulation of radiation safety issues, including practices involving radioactive waste management and decommissioning

  8. Historical survey of nuclear non-proliferation in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalmann, I.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview about the project initiated in co-operation between the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) to carry out a historical survey of the nuclear activities taken place in the territory of Estonia after the World War II. The main purpose of the project was to create transparency in the State's nuclear related past and to submit the results of the conducted historical survey as a volunteer supplement to the Additional Protocol declaration. (author)

  9. Closed nuclear facilities in Estonia: developments and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.; Realo, K.

    2000-01-01

    At present Estonia has no operating nuclear or a radioactive material production facility. As a legacy of the past the country has become responsible for the decommissioning of two large nuclear cycle facilities of the former USSR. Besides limited funding, major problems arise from deficiencies in legislation, expertise, training and research. International co-operation has been of immense importance to overcome the problems, to establish the national radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure and to launch decommissioning and remediation activities. An overview is given on the status and problems. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  10. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  11. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  12. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 137Cs in soil profiles in NE Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, M.; Realo, K.; Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiocaesium contamination in soil was produced by two fallout's: a global fallout caused by nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere (1950s to 1970s) and a regional one - during/after the Chernobyl accident (1986). The area] distribution of the 137 CS fallout after the 1986 accident was extremely uneven in Estonia. Our previous studies showed that about 60% of its total deposition with the countrywide mean of 2 kBq m -2 occurred predominantly in the north-eastern part of Estonia. In this region the maximum deposition approached the values of 40 kBq m -2 . This is the reason why soil profiles in this region have been of interest. We have also determined the 137 Cs activity concentrations as a function of soil depth during 1991-2000. Attempts have been made to model the found depth-distributions of radiocaesium concentration and to find the possible time-dependent behaviour of these distributions in soil. The migration of radiocaesium into soil is dependent on several factors: soil properties, vegetation, mode of deposition, etc. For this reason, averaged distribution parameters for both total and Chernobyl 137 Cs have been used for deriving general trends of the migration processes. (au)

  14. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  15. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  16. The incidence and survival of acute de novo leukaemias in Estonia and in a well-defined region of western Sweden during 1982-1996: a survey of patients aged > or =65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luik, E; Palk, K; Everaus, H; Varik, M; Aareleid, T; Wennström, L; Juntikka, E-L; Safai-Kutti, S; Stockelberg, D; Holmberg, E; Kutti, J

    2004-07-01

    To compare the incidence and survival of acute de novo leukaemias with particular reference to political/socio-economic and environmental factors in two neighbouring countries over the three 5-year periods (1982-1996). The present report covers only patients diagnosed when aged > or =65 years. A well-defined area of Sweden, the so-called Western Swedish Health Care Region and Estonia. Population-wise, the western Swedish Region and Estonia are very similar; area-wise they are also well comparable. The number of acute de novo leukaemias was quite dissimilar in the two countries (Estonia, n = 137, Sweden, n = 354). The age standardized incidence rates regarding the total number of acute de novo leukaemias was 5.31 per 100,000 inhabitants/year for Estonia and 7.99 for Sweden, this difference being statistically significant. However, the difference was merely attributable to incidence rates as regards acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AML); on the contrary, differences as regards acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL) and non-classifiable, undifferentiated or biphenotypic acute leukaemias (uAL) were negligible. The relative survival for the total material of patients was significantly higher for Swedish when compared with Estonian patients (P or =65 years in Estonia at 1 year was 8.5% and at 3 years 3.5% respectively. The corresponding figures for the Swedish patients were considerably higher, 22.7 and 7.7% respectively. This difference, however, applied only for patients with AML (P acute leukemia patients in two neighbouring countries.

  17. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  18. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  19. Estonia - üks tõeline eestimaine spaa / Dagmar Reinolt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinolt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Heaoluspaa võtmes renoveeritud Estonia Spa Hotelsi ühest kompleksist. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti arhitektid: Raivo Kotov, Indrek Mikk. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti sisearhitektid: Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam, Kärt Loopalu. Valmimisaasta: 2015

  20. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  1. Estonia juhti kahtlustatakse ettevõtte varade omastamises / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link, Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Endine Pärnu linnapea, taastusravikeskuse Estonia pikaaegne juht Vello Järvesalu peeti kinni kahtlustatuna ettevõtte varade omastamises suures ulatuses. Kommenteerivad: Mart Viisitamm, Jane Mets ja Ahti Kõo

  2. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  3. Hip-hop ja ooper kohtuvad Estonias / Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Marko

    2006-01-01

    10. juunil Rahvusooperis Estonia etenduvast Mozarti ooperi "Cosi fan tutte" tänapäevasest versioonist, mis valmis Inglismaa Glyndebounre'i festivali, Saksamaa komische operi ja Soome Rahvusooperi koostöös, lavastaja Clare Whistler

  4. Estonia ballett üle seitsme aasta taas Pärnus / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia balleti kunstiline juht Toomas Edur Estonia balletitrupist ja 20. veebruaril toimuvast kolmest lühiballetist koosnevast balletiõhtust Pärnu kontserdimajas. Esitatakse Bohuslav Martinu "Enne öö saabumist" (koreograaf Nils Christe), Arnold Schönbergi "Pelléas ja Mélisande" (koreograaf Tiit Härm), Robert Schumanni "Teine sümfoonia" (koreograaf Uwe Scholz)

  5. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  6. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    acquired wide popularity (and probably snob appeal ). Kafka, Ionesco and Dostoyevsky were available to Soviet Estonians earlier than to the Russian reading...Estonia . chided as snob appeal ). Of Estonia’s 757 general schools, 556 (i.e. 71) use Estonian, 90 use Russian and 60 are mixed. 2 The same applies to...novels whicr combine literary quality with national appeal ro 2 ’), collective farm realism at its best (M. Traatl), realisti> lezcription of city life

  7. Radiological accidents/incidents with caesium-137 in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisoo, M.

    1998-01-01

    A report is provided of an accident and an incident involving radioactive sources in Estonia. In the 1994 occurrence, looters of a depository of radioactive waste manipulated a source containing 137 Cs and received dangerous doses of radiation. One of the persons involved died, others suffered minor burns. Another event, which occurred in early 1995, did not have a tragic outcome: an abandoned 137 Cs source was found in the vicinity of the highway linking Tallinn and Narva and was disposed of safely. Both these accidents draw attention to the potential dangers caused by the insufficient survey of the territory, radiation protection structures not yet fully operable, and the lack of equipment and know-how. The lessons to be drawn from these events are considered on the basis of the chronologies and factual data. The report contains concise descriptions of the accidents, a medical overview of the fate of the injured persons and the lessons learned from these accidents. (author)

  8. "Estonia" müsteerium / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb 26. okt., 2.,9.,16.,23.,30. nov., 7.,14. dets. ; 2002, 4.,11.,18.,25. jaan., 1.,8.,15.,22. veebr., 1.,8.,15.,22. märts, 5.,12.,26. aprill, 3.,10.,17.,24.,31. mai, 7.,14.,28. juuni, 5.,12.,19.,26. juuli, 2.,9.,16.,23. aug., 6.,13.,20.,27. sept., 4.,11.,25. okt., 1.,8.,15.,22.,29. nov., 13.,20. dets. ; 10.,17.,24., 31. jaan., 2003, 14. veebr., 7.,28. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr., 16.,23. mai, 6.,27. juuni, 11.,18. juuli. Reisilaev "Estonia" mõistatuslikust hukust

  9. On eco-efficiency and sustainable development in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randla, T.; Kurissoo, T.; Vilu, R.

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of sustainable development is a firm understanding that all resources, renewable as well as non-renewable, are limited. Human activities should not exceed the buffering capacity of the earth's ecosystems and the replenishment potential of material cycles. Use of non-renewable, mainly mineral, resources should be kept at the minimum possible level, postponing the depletion of resources as far as possible. Concepts of environmental space and dematerialisation lie at the foundation of the practical launching of sustainable development. Analysis of regional sustainability and ecological efficiency of energy production, the balance of CO 2 , water, etc. were analysed for Estonia and Ida-Virumaa, north-eastern region of the country. The analysis carried out should be considered as a first step in the development and implementation of a national 'green' accounting system and environmental tax system based on the concept of environmental space. (author)

  10. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  11. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  12. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSO, MÄRT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  13. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  14. δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Ordovician succession in the Tartu-453 drillcore, southern Estonia, and the significance of the HICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Bauert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The δ13C isotope data from the Tartu-453 core section in southern Estonia enabled creation of a continuous Ordovician carbon isotope record, ranging from the Floian to the end of the Hirnantian. Five positive δ13C excursions and one negative δ13C excursion were recognized. Most of the positive excursions correspond to those defined on the Baltoscandian carbon isotope chemostratigraphic scheme, except for the Paroveja and Rakvere ICEs which are not well expressed in the Tartu-453 curve. Besides the positive δ13C excursions, a distinctive negative δ13C excursion, the Lower Sandbian NICE, was recorded in the Tartu-453 succession. The well-expressed HICE extends about 10 m higher than the traditional Ordovician–Silurian boundary (between the Porkuni and Juuru regional stages into the Juuru Regional Stage, suggesting that the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is positioned significally higher than traditionally suggested for the East Baltic area.

  15. Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tolli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.

  16. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  17. Radiocarbon dating in the quarternary geology and archaeology of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilves, Eh.; Liiva, A.; Punning, Ya.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the Tartusk radiocarbon laboratory for the last 15 years is presented. Methodological problems of the radiocarbon method are discussed. The geochemistry of carbon isotopes, principles of radiocarbon dating, and areas of its application are considered. Methods of recording natural radiocarbon and materials used for radiocarbon dating are discussed. Preliminary treatment of the samples and synthesis of the radioactive carbon carrier are presented. The preparation of the counter compound in the form of a liquid scintillator from the synthesized natural radiocarbon carrier is described. The scintillator efficiencies of different scintillators are compared. Data are given on the development of criteria for selecting the photoelectron multiplier. Construction of alumina cuvettes used for scintillation counting is described. It is noted that, in the counter apparatus system, amplitude analyzers with two differential discriminators are used, which allows directing the recording of activity to two 14 C regions. The results of using the radiocarbon method for different aspects of natural science and archeology are considered. Problems of geology of the late Pleistocene and the Pre-Baltic Holocene are considered: base of the mid-Valdaisk Karukyulask interglacier, history of deterioration of the final glacial mantle, development of a drainage system and late glacier, development and paleography of the Holocene, and others. New material on the chronology of primeval cultures in the Estonia region and on growth of meteoric craters are presented

  18. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  19. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  20. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  1. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  2. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  3. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  5. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  6. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  7. Different Labelling of Obstructive Airway Diseases in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallasaho, Paula; Meren, Mari; Raukas-Kivioja, Aet; Roenmark, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Large differences in prevalence of asthma have been reported between westernised countries and the former Eastern European countries, and still no consensus about the reasons for the differences exists. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic labelling of obstructive airway diseases, comparing subjects with respiratory symptoms and the diagnoses obtained in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to population-based random samples, and 44,483 (76%) answers were obtained from the 58,661 invited in 1996. Among men, current smoking was most common in Estonia, 60%, followed by Finland, 39%, and Sweden, 28%. In all three countries, 30% of women were current smokers. Most respiratory symptoms including wheezing were most common in Estonia, also among non-smokers. The prevalence of asthma was 2.0% and chronic bronchitis 10.7% in Estonia, while the opposite was found in Sweden with an asthma prevalence of 7.8% and a chronic bronchitis prevalence of 3.1%. The pattern in Finland was similar to that of Sweden. The same differences between the three countries were found also among young subjects. The total proportion of diagnosed obstructive lung diseases in subjects with respiratory symptoms was similar, but the diagnosis of asthma was considerably more common in Finland and Sweden. Chronic bronchitis was favoured in Estonia, also among young adults irrespectively of what symptoms were present. In a multivariate model with correction for confounders, the risk (OR) for having a diagnosis of asthma was 5.65 (95% CI: 4.86-6.56) when living in Sweden, and 3.51 (95% CI: 3.00-4.12) in Finland, whereas risk for chronic bronchitis was 0.28 (0.25-0.31) and 0.22 (0.19-0.25), respectively, compared to Estonia. The study indicates differences in diagnostic practices of obstructive lung diseases between the three countries

  8. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  9. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers` heat demand in the `do nothing`scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town`s heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken. (ARW)

  10. Status and management of noble crayfish Astacus astacus in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Noble crayfish Astacus astacus (L. is an indigenous and the only crayfish species in Estonia. It is potentially endangered by invasion of alien species, diseases and habitat deterioration but does not have legal protected status and is fished only for recreational purpose. Crayfish Working Group of Ministry of Environment and Department of Aquaculture of the Estonian University of Life Sciences have developed crayfish conservation and management plan. Since 1994 standardized test fishing with traps (which catch only crayfish over 7 cm TL has been carried out and database of these fishings shows, that crayfish is dwelling in more than 255 sites in the lakes, rivers, streams, artificial reservoirs. In 52% of monitored sites populations are weak, catch per trap night is below 1 specimen. Exceptionally rich is the stock on the island Saaremaa, where in 59% of populations catch per trap night is over 4 and can reach 50. Licensed recreational catch is allowed in regions, where monitoring data show good status of crayfish stock. It is not allowed to sell the crayfish caught on recreational license. Crayfishing season is limited with August, size limit in recreational fishery is 11 cm TL. There are 10 operating crayfish farms and 15 are under construction. The farms produce yearly around 1000 kg of commercial size crayfish for export to Finland. Over 200000 juveniles are produced for restocking yearly. Restocking projects e.g. restoration of populations, which have been lost because of plague have been successful. The main threat factor is crayfish plague. In 2006–2007 it destroyed the stock of crayfish farms of companies Veteko, Pähkla, Astacus and wild population of Põduste river on the island Saaremaa.

  11. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers' heat demand in the 'do nothing'scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town's heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken

  12. Remediation and decommissioning of radioactive waste facilities in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear training facility at Paldiski was constructed in the early 1960's by the former USSR Navy. The hull sections of Delta and Echo class submarines each housing a full-sized ship reactor were installed in the main building of the site for training of navy personnel in safe operation of the submarine nuclear reactor systems. The first reactor was commissioned in 1968 and the second in 1982, while both was shut down in 1989. After Estonia's reproclamation of independence in 1991 the responsibility for the clean up and decommissioning of the Paldiski site became a subject of negotiations between Russia and Estonia. As the result Estonia took the ownership and control of the site in September 1995. Before the take over the Russian authorities defuelled the reactors and transported the spent fuel to Russia, dismantled the hull sections not related with reactor systems, seal-welded the hull sections housing the reactor vessels with their primary circuitry and enclosed those in reinforced concrete sarcophagi. The auxiliary facilities and radioactive waste were left intact. Main goals of the Conceptual Decommissioning Plan for the Paldiski facilities, developed under the auspices of the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (Pier, a group established at the request of the Estonian government to advise local authorities to maintain the decommissioning and waste management at Paldiski) were defined as following: Establishing the waste management system and a long term monitored interim storage, corresponding to internationally accepted safety standards and capable to condition, receive and store all the waste generated during decommissioning of the facility; Reductions of the extent of radiologically controlled areas as much as possible, in order to minimise maintenance requirements. To achieve these goals the following main tasks were addressed in the short and medium term site management action plans: Rearrangement of site for the needs of

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This report covers international issues relating to the Near East: regional affairs, Palestinian affairs, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Yemen; and South Asia...

  14. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  15. Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality

  16. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  17. Film Estonia katastroofist jääb tegelikkusest kaugele / Kristjan Jaak Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Kristjan Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastroofifilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe, kes koos advokaat Kaj Holmbergiga lõi selleks puhuks stuudio Top Story. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  18. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  19. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  20. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  1. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  2. Welcome to Estonia märk on kaotanud oma sära / Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsalu, Kadi, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus loodab parandada Welcome to Estonia märgi mainet. Märki kasutavad ettevõtjad ei näe märgist olulist kasu toodete müügil. Kommenteerivad Evelin Int-Lambot, Leena Murd ja Olaf Merisalu

  3. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  4. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education ( n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  5. The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidi Kallaste

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD As the purpose of a professional qualification should be to ensure quality to employers/customers, appro-priate requirements for professional training should not be too low. On the other hand, too high require-ments for the amount of training would lead to the situation where maintaining the level is expensive and if the labour market does not consider having a professional certificate necessary, recertification will be discarded. The purpose of the research was to identify the factors that influence an accountant’s decision whether to recertify his/her professional qualification or not. The conditions of recertification were ana-lysed and compared to other countries as were the requirements set up for auditors. The results of the survey revealed that in Estonia the decision not to recertify one’s professional qualification was mainly due to not having fulfilled the required number of qualification hours or not having certificates proving one’s participation in qualification training sessions. At the same time, compared to other countries, the requirements in Estonia are very low. So that the increase in the amount of training would not hinder recertification, alternative solutions for Estonia are proposed in the article.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  7. Estonia vormelitel täitus juba pool sajandit / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    November tehnika ajaloos: 50 aastat möödus Estonia-1 esimesest võistlusstardist Leningradis Nevski ringrajal. 85 aastat tagasi sai Jacob Schick patendi elektrilisele habemeajamismasinale. 60 aastat tagasi konstrueeris Auguste Piccard batüskaafi. 10 aastat tagasi sai 77aastasest USA senaatorist John Glennist maailma vanim astronaut

  8. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  9. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  10. Digoxin: use pattern in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähkla, R; Irs, A; Oselin, K; Rootslane, L

    1999-10-01

    In comparison with neighbouring Scandinavian countries, the use of digoxin in Estonia is high. The present study was carried out to determine the use pattern of digoxin in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader preparation in comparison with Lanoxin. Drug use data were evaluated from the annual reports of wholesale companies. For the bioequivalence study, a single-blind cross-over randomised two-way single-dose comparative bioavailability study was performed using 14 healthy volunteers. Digoxin concentrations in serum samples and urine were measured by chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay. The use of digoxin in Estonia has increased by 35% during the period 1994-97. The steady market leader was the local generic drug. No statistically significant differences were found in any pharmacokinetic parameter between the generic preparation and Lanoxin. All parameters showed considerable variability. The total amount of drug excreted was the parameter with lowest inter- individual variation. The present study indicates that the generic digoxin preparation studied is bioequivalent to Lanoxin. The increasing use of digoxin in Estonia is not caused by low bioavailability of the local market leader but by therapeutic traditions.

  11. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  12. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  13. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  14. Technical-economic parameters of the new oil shale mining-chemical complex in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmiv, I.; Fraiman, J.

    2006-01-01

    The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize the experience of the activities of these branches and to make into a whole the results of their research developments in the past years, as well as to form a notion about perspectives of oil shale in Estonia. Variants of the mining-chemical oil shale complex production and trade patterns differed from used ones. Mining methods, thermal processing of oil shale, and solid, liquid, and gas waste recovery have been studied, analyzed, and worked out up to the present. Setting up a flexible trade structure within the framework of that complex is considered the main economic mechanism capable of balancing production costs of such a complex with its earnings, which could respond properly to any, even peak, fluctuations of the market for final products processed from oil shale. Data of the working 'Estonia' oil shale mine were used as the basis of the analysis and practical conclusions. Information on the mine being projected in the region of Ojamaa in the northeast of Estonia was taken as the data of the worthwhile supplier. Oil shale processing chemical complex is considered in two structural alternatives: in technological chain with the 'Estonia' mine (the first variant), and the projected mine of a new technical level (the second variant). (author)

  15. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO 2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  16. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  17. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai; Grapengiesser, S.; Bennerstedt, T.

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs

  18. Armastus kui vale(m) : Mari Vihmandi ooperi "Armastuse valem" lavastusest Estonias / Ester Võsu ja Kristel Pappel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsu, Ester, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Argentiina kirjaniku Esther Vilari romaani "Nina Glucksteini matemaatika" ainetel valminud Mari Vihmandi ooperist "Armastuse valem", libreto Maimu Berg, lavastaja Liis Kolle, tantsu- ja liikumisseaded Ana Mondini. Esietendus 17. oktoobril 2008 Rahvusooperis Estonia

  19. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  20. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  1. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  2. Remediation and upgrading of old, inadequate waste management facilities. Integrated waste management system for rare earth and rare metal industry at Sillamaee, Estonia, former uranium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, Tonis; Siinmaa, Anti

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Sillamaee Metallurgical Plant was built in 1946-1948 at Sillamaee, in North-East Estonia, ca 190 km from Tallinn. Target product was uranium, mostly in form of yellow cake (U 3 O 8 ) for Soviet nuclear program. Uranium ore processing continued from 1948 to 1977, totally 4,013,000 tons of uranium ore were processed at Sillamaee plant. In early 1970s the plant introduced a new production line - rare earth elements. Rare earths were until 1991 produced from loparite (later from semi-processed loparite) - rare earths, niobium, tantalum and NORM-containing ore for Kola peninsula, Russia; later. All wastes were, as typical to hydrometallurgical processing all over the world, discharged to a large, 40 ha liquid waste depository - tailings pond, what in Sillamaee case was designed to discharge all liquid constituents slowly to the Baltic Sea. All uranium related activities were stopped in 1990, when only rare earth and rare metal production lines remained operational. The plant was 100 % privatized in 1997 and is today operated by Silmet Ltd., processing annually up to 8 000 tons of rare earth and 2000 tons of niobium and tantalum ores. Like all industries, inherited from Soviet times, Silmet plant is today facing a serious challenge to upgrading technologies towards waste minimizations process efficiency. The historical tailings pond, containing ca 1800 tons of natural uranium and ca 800 tons of thorium, was found geotechnically unstable and leaking to the Baltic Sea, in mid 90s. Being a problem of common Baltic concern, an international remediation project was initiated by Estonian Government and plant operator in 1998. In cooperation with Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian Governments and with assistance by the European Union, the tailings pond will be environmentally remediated - dams stabilized and surface covered, by end of 2006. Close-down and environmental remediation of the tailings pond provides plant an ultimate challenge of

  3. Ühe (suure kultuurinarratiivi saatus: Noor-Eesti. The Fate of a (Great Cultural Narrative: Young-Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Veidemann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This focus of this article is the fate of the cultural narrative that has most influenced Estonian culture of the 20th century – Young Estonia. The point of departure for the analysis is Tiit Hennoste’s 2005 essay ”Young Estonia – An Unfinished Project for Self-Colonization”, which I interpret as the interruption of Young Estonia’s ”great narrative”. Hennoste’s demythologizing approach should be regarded in the context of postmodernism (or of postcolonial treatments of literature and art. I argue that the fact that Young Estonia’s models for cultural movements were located in Europe did not automatically lead to the assimilation of 20th century Estonia (literary culture. Neither did they engage in an automatic copying of European culture; their activities might better be regarded as a process of intertexual enrichment. In what follows, the fate of the narrative of Young Estonia will be traced both in terms of the literary field of Soviet Estonia in the 1950s and 1960s, and in exile. I claim that renewed awareness of the narrative of Young Estonia can be traced to the publication of a collection of Gustav Suits’ Poems in 1959, edited and with an afterword by Endel Sõgel. If one lowers the volume on the vulgar Soviet ideologization in Sõgel’s text, key words that characterize the Young Estonia canon remain in place undisturbed: innovativeness, intellectual greatness, turning point, the social nature of art and literature, consonance of the aesthetic and the ethical. Sõgel’s framing of Young Estonia stands in contrast to its apologetic treatment in the postwar Estonian diaspora. On the one hand, this line of interpretation follows the basic outlines of a critical narrative that developed in the 1920s; on the other, since most of Young Estonia’s authors and followers among the Estonian literary elite had gone into exile in 1944, diaspora interpretations represent a definite literary-political position. In the 1960s a

  4. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  5. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  6. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  7. Joint implementation demo project between Denmark and Estonia - Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This project is meant to contribute to form the basis of co-operation between Denmark and Estonia as regards Joint Implementation (JI) and thus gather experience in preparation for practical use of JI. A number of questions can be raised for discussion within this project: What is the scope for JI? What is the role of the host country government? Will JI survive the emerging Emission Trading? The project report gives a status of the present situation within the area of JI both internationally and in Estonia, including a resume of the Estonian National Climate Programme. Furthermore, a stakeholder analysis is presented, along with an illustration of the effect of Joint Implementation in the various energy sectors. (BA)

  8. The Path to and Lessons from the Economic Crisis in Estonia: Employee Compensation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe Estonia’s economic development strategy in the Baltic Sea region primarily from the perspective of labour costs as a factor in international competitiveness. Estonia’s position in the international division of economic activities will be explored based on expert assessments in the context of a study of theoretical literature about labour compensation as a factor in international competitiveness. The differences between the impact of the economic boom and crisis periods on the level and dynamics of employee compensation (labour related expenditures, and gross and net salary in Estonia at the national level will be empirically analysed. An empirical analysis will also be performed to describe the changes in the structure of economic activities (NACE-classification in Estonia

  9. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  10. Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available his article provides an assessment of labour market adjustments occurring in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis. The strategy of internal devaluation succeeded in shrinking the real (hourly unit labour costs by 25 % per year in 2010 and 2011, thus helping Estonian enterprises gain international competitiveness. The whole gamut of tools available in terms of flexibility was used, at least in the worst time of the financial crisis: massive lay-offs, reduced working time and wage cuts. In 2011, Estonia stood as one of the most dynamic EU countries to recover with exports growth. On the social side, however, the track record is not positive: the purchasing power of workers has been reduced and unemployment still remains strong and persistent despite economic recovery.

  11. Research Policies Rewarding Quantity: Estonia and Ukraine. Kvantiteeti tasustav teaduspoliitika: Eesti ja Ukraina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ukrainski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is resting on the theoretical model of Braun (2003 describing the delegation modes for public funding of research in the principal-agent framework. It aims to show by using the conceptualisation of utility functions of principal and agents on the various levels, how different motivations for producing different kinds of research outputs emerge for researchers and universities or public research organisations in Estonia and Ukraine. The article attempts to offer one explanation to why in some quantitative research output indicators both countries perform very well compared to much lower levels of innovation system indicators otherwise. Estonia is rewarding publications and Ukraine is rewarding utility model applications throughout different levels of the system.

  12. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  13. E-Participation in the Legislative Process Lessons from Estonia for Enhancing Democratic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glencross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the success of an innovative national e-participation project in Estonia. To carry out this task, the paper combines quantitative (aggregate user data, content analysis via tagging and qualitative (individual user survey and interviews with public officials data analysis. The analysis is conducted with two principal research objectives in mind. Firstly, to explain how e-participation has fared in Estonia, both in terms of citizen mobilization and government responses. The second goal is to evaluate a series of procedural and technological changes for enhancing e-participation. The Estonian case provides ample lessons for ensuring that e-participation in practice can better meet the expectations of users and government officials alike.

  14. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Estonia, 1946-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremaee, Ello; Tankler, Hain; Putnik, Henno; Maalmann, Iige

    2003-12-01

    The report presents a historical survey on two of the nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards in Estonia - Sillamaee Uranium Extraction Factory and the Paldiski Submarine Training Centre. These facilities were a Soviet legacy and shall be decommissioned and it is only through a close international co-operation and technical assistance that it would be possible to solve all the problems arising at these facilities. The historical survey represents the best available information the authors were able to give on the nuclear facilities, which have functioned on the territory of Estonia. The historical survey was a joint co-operation initiative by the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The historical survey will be presented to the IAEA as a volunteer supplement to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol (author)

  15. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  16. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  17. Business environments versus corporate survival in Estonia and Poland in 2001–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate longevity is - in essence - determined by a company's intrinsic competitive advantage (sometimes dubbed a "moat" as well as exogenous factors: from business doing ease - to broader, macroeconomic and strategic factors. In this study, we have endeavoured to compare the business environments and corporate sectors of two recent entrants into the European Union: Estonia and Poland. Overall, Estonia, thanks to greater resolve in post-communist liberal transition, has consistently ensured a superior corporate governance framework. Surprisingly, it is the macroeconomic and strategic steadiness that led to higher corporate survival in Poland. The global economic crisis of 2007-2009 is expected to further back this claim, as the patterns of macroeconomic growth for both countries are set to widen.

  18. Environmental priority action programme for Leningrad, Leningrad Region, Karelia and Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish Government has drawn up a plan of action concerning co-operation in the near future with Eastern European countries. Go-operation in the field of environmental protection occupies a central position in the plan. In connection with the plan, an Environmental Review and Priority Action Programme for Leningrad, Leningrad region, Karelia and Estonia has been made to determine the main environmental problems and the main measures to reduce them

  19. Uudised : "Eesti väärtorelid" 3. Verdi festival Estonias. Leedu ooper 80 / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    6. jaan. esitleti Jaani kirikus sarja "Eesti väärtorelid" kolmandat CDd, mis jäädvustab A. Terkmanni 1913.a valminud oreli kõla. G. Verdi 100. surma-aastapäevale pühendatud Verdi festivalist Rahvusooperis Estonia 19.-27. jaan. Leedu Rahvuslik Ooperi- ja Balletiteater tähistas leedu ooperikunsti 80. sünnipäeva 30. dets. galakontserdiga, Estoniat esindas M. Palm

  20. Decline in alcohol consumption in Estonia: combined effects of strengthened alcohol policy and economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Jarno

    2011-01-01

    To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downturn started in 2008. The precise roles of policy changes and the economic downturn in the decline of alcohol consumption, and whether the decrease will be sustained, are still unclear.

  1. Cruziana traces from the Late Silurian (Pridoli carbonate shelf of Saaremaa, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Pridoli Cruziana traces have recently been found in carbonate shelf sediments of the Ohesaare Formation on Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Cruziana isp. is interpreted here as a locomotory trace (repichnia of an arthropod, possibly a trilobite. Cruziana traces previously known from the Silurian of Baltica differ from Cruziana isp., indicating that the diversity of Cruziana traces in the late Silurian of Baltica was higher than previously thought.

  2. Estonia hukk jõuab Eesti kinodesse sügisel / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal peatselt esilinastuv poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena, jõuab Eestis siinse levitaja Mati Seppingu sõnul linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist on kapten Arvo Kallase rollis Rein Oja

  3. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  4. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  5. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  6. The Phenomenon of Trust in Flat Owners’ Collective Renovation Strategies in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Ojamäe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilising fl at owners into renovating residential blocks in post-socialist countries has been a complicated process. Evidence from Estonia shows that the success of collective renewal strategies depends not only on economic issues but also on ways investments are organised and, signifi cantly, the relationship of trust between diff erent actors. The paper aims at conceptualising the issue of institutional trust upon the experience of urban housing renewal in Estonia. It is contended that trust is crucial for the joint decision-making in a block as well as for facilitating negotiations between fl at owners’ associations, local municipalities and market actors. The paper draws on three qualitative studies conducted in Estonia during the 2000s, which allow asserting that trust towards new strategies of housing renewal can be achieved and maintained by ‘best practices’, which by concentrating expert knowledge also denote direct communication between experts and fl at owners. While it is important to raise the residents’ technical knowledgeability, it is indispensable to develop abilities to manage and communicate the renovation process between diff erent parties. The public sector is conceived to be a central actor in sustaining trust between actors who have no previous positive experience from collective residential strategies

  7. 25 Years of Change in Management Control Systems and Business Education in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, the Estonian economy has transitioned from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented, globally open, highly competitive economy. Although during these years there has been fast growth and Estonians could tell a lot of success stories, research shows that management practices are still less advanced compared to those in enterprises from developed countries. Increased competition, openness and innovation increased the significance of more sophisticated management control systems (MCS. Researchers accentuate the role of managers and their education and training in using and developing more sophisticated MCS in companies. The objective of the current paper is to better understand how changes in the business environment, managerial training and education are connected to developments in MCS in Estonia. This article provides an overview of the statistics and studies completed in Estonia over the last 25 years. As this study shows, the last decade has brought a different level of internationalization and development in the business environment and business education. The problems associated with developments in MCS , using cloud technology, business education and managerial training are the same in Estonia as in developed countries. To develop the business and economic environment in the country, Estonian entrepreneurs need high-level data processing, analytical and financial education, and practical training courses.

  8. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  9. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by a desire to free themselves from the German influence that had dominated the development of Estonian literature, and from the one-sided relation of cultural dependence that had lasted several hundred years, the Young Estonia movement sought to modernize Estonian literature through borrowing from other European literatures, in particular from French, Scandinavian, and Finnish. This article seeks to clarify the relative importance and selection criteria of translations from German literature for the literary field of the Young Estonia era. Further, I seek to elucidate Young Estonia’s contribution to the renewal of these selection criteria in the first, but more importantly the second decade of the 20th century. The long list of translations from German to Estonian at the beginning of the century speaks of the ”light Muse” of German family newspapers, with an admixture of the following: naturalist light fiction with a social theme and social drama; the historical novel (great favourite of the era of historicism, trendy fiction for both feminine and masculine audiences, and an overwhelming proportion of ”Heimatskunst” (literature of local colour. In the first and second decade of the new century, new names appear on the Estonian literary scene that signal a change in taste. For example, naturalist authors (Kretzer, Hauptmann, Halbe, Dehmel crop up sporadically amidst texts meant for leisure reading. Although the first translations of Nietzsche only appeared in 1901, already in 1902 critics had reason to speak of ”Nietzsche in Estonian literature”. 1910 marked the breakthrough of Viennese modernism in the Estonian literary field (Schnitzler, Altenberg, Bahr. Under the influential protection of the Young Estonians (Suits, Kallas, and published by the Young Estonia Publishing House, Baltic German novellawriter Eduard Keyserling enters the Estonian literary scene. Though ”mass consumption” literature from Germany continued

  10. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  11. Improving conditions for transferring family enterprises in Estonia. Pereettevõtte üleandmise võimalustest Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprise is a business entity that belongs to the family. In Estonia the concept of family business, family entrepreneur, or family enterprise has not been defined in legislation. The concepts of business and enterprise have been defined in several pieces of law with some dissensions in their interpretations, however. Differences in legal definitions become obvious when transferring a business. The aim of the article is to assess the legislative conditions of family enterprises in Estonia. Family enterprises can be transferred either by way of transferring the holding status or by transferring the enterprise. Holding can be transferred in companies; a sole proprietor should transfer the business entity either as a whole or transfer the business entity into a company to have a holding there. Family businesses operating as sole proprietors may incur tax liability by transferring the family enterprise. The paper outlines special features of transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. Business transfers have been few and there is no unambiguous practice in this sphere. Transfer of family enterprises is identified with transfer of enterprises; differences arise when family business has been registered as a sole proprietor. The paper provides a brief description of the differences in transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. A purpose was to evaluate the legal environment of transferring family enterprises. In Estonia guidelines should be formulated for transferring the business of a self-employed family member and legal regulations should be introduced to avoid ill-intentioned transfer of enterprises.

  12. Sajand hiljem. Mida Noor-Eesti tegi ja mida ta ei teinud. A Century Later: What Young Estonia Did – and What it Did Not Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the position of Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti in four different fields of influence: 1. What is the position of the Young Estonia movement in literary history, i.e. in the different monographs and articles on Estonian literature? What position is given to the movement by the writer(s of the various sketches on Estonian literature between 1908 and 2007, and how important are the writers of the group in the eyes of literary historians? 2. How is the movement represented in the collective (public memory of Estonia, e.g. do we find members of the movement on stamps or banknotes or in street names? 3. How do people in Estonia remember the literary production of the members of the group: what are the most important texts people read today, and how are these texts linked to the Young Estonia movement? 4. Finally, how is the movement represented outside Estonia, i.e. in the reception of Estonian literature abroad? Which texts have been translated, which authors are well-known abroad? In answering these questions the author concludes that the Young Estonia movement was much less important than has been assumed with respect to the production of literature, i.e. yielding literary texts that have been recognized and read up till the present. Rather, the lasting importance of Young Estonia has been in the organization of literary life.

  13. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  14. Noor-Eesti antifuturismist.On the Anti-Futurism of Young Estonia

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    Virve Sarapik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Young Estonia persists in Estonian cultural memory as a movement of renewal, among other factors through its impetus to the development of urban culture. This article undertakes to juxtapose Young Estonia’s efforts at cultural renewal, its rhetoric of the future, and futurism as a cultural phenomenon. (As such, futurism was vitally engaged with contemporary urban culture, industry, and technology. Four parameters serve as points of departure: (1 Young Estonia’s rhetoric of the new and the future. Though specific about what they rejected, Young Estonia’s texts do not outline a clear vision of the future. Frequently used key words for what they opposed included German- or Russian-mindedness, a people in servitude, the old, flat land, the lack of a unified whole, lack of style. (2 The place of the city in Young Estonia’s texts. Though in earlier publications there were only a few passing references to urban culture, the problems of the city come to the fore in several programmatic texts and in the visual design of the fourth Young Estonia album in 1912. By then the core members of Young Estonia also had had real experience of a large metropolis. If their earlier attitude toward the city had been critical, then in these Young Estonian texts the city finds its positive face. (3 Industry and the proletariat. The Young Estonia movement received stimulus from such general phenomena as factories, technology, and industry. In their imagination working people and educated people seem to live in separate worlds, with different wishes and needs. However, the freedom of the educated would be impossible without political freedom. Although they believed that technological development was a precondition for the creation of urban culture, neither their own literary works nor their other aspirations bore this out. (4 Futurism and film. Young Estonia’s later period coincided with the intensive use of term ”futurism” in Estonian journalism. Young

  15. The earliest cornulitid on the internal surface of the illaenid pygidium from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia

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    Olev Vinn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The earliest cornulitid Cornulites sp. appears in the Darriwilian (Lasnamägi Regional Stage of Estonia. Internal annulation is present in all Middle Ordovician cornulitids and could be a plesiomorphic character for the group. The encrusted trilobites are rare in the Ordovician of Estonia. Illaenid pygidia and cranidia were encrusted by cornulitids and trepostome bryozoans. The encrustation of both Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobites took place post mortem. The studied hard substrate communities of Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobite pygidia and cranidia are typical of the Ordovician.

  16. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  17. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn

    2017-01-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition—both material and genetic—varied in different parts of Europe [1–7]. Farming-based economies...... Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered...

  18. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T.; Holmberg, P.; Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V.

    1995-01-01

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit's technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author)

  19. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  20. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  1. Socio-demographic Model of Gender Gap in Expected and Actual Wages in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille

    2014-01-01

    Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...

  2. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  3. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  4. Incidence of acute otitis media in children below 6 years of age seen in medical practices in five East European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usonis, Vytautas; Jackowska, Teresa; Petraitiene, Sigita; Sapala, Alicja; Neculau, Andrea; Stryjewska, Izabella; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Tafalla, Monica; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2016-07-26

    Although acute otitis media (AOM) remains a major public health problem worldwide and brings economic burden on health care system and caregivers, little information is available about its epidemiology in Eastern Europe. We conducted an epidemiological, prospective, observational, multi-centre cohort study (NCT01365390) in five East European countries (Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovenia) between June 2011 and January 2013 to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of AOM among children aged children and a higher risk in those attending school/childcare or with allergies. AOM required 521 visits to the doctor. Antibiotics were prescribed for 276 (74.8 %) episodes with the lowest prescription rate in Estonia (51.4 %) and the highest in Romania (83.7 %). Complications were rare and hospitalisations occurred in 2 % of the cases. The disease burden of AOM in Eastern Europe is relevant and public health initiatives to reduce it should be considered. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01365390 .

  5. Charging for Local Social Services: the Case of Estonia

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    Katrin Pihor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing fiscal pressure has forced local governments to seek new sources of autonomous revenues for financing public services. Charging users of social services has been modest, but with an aging society and growing social costs, this option needs to be reconsidered. This paper combines the results of the survey on the application of user charges on local social services in Estonian local governments (LGs with the official financial and population statistics in order to discover trends and explore factors determining the application of user charges in a small, unitary, highly centralised, post-soviet country. We conclude that user charges are mainly considered as a source of information and additional income to partially cover service costs – the possibilities of increased efficiency and demand control have remained undervalued. The probability of charging users of social services tends to be greater if the income level of inhabitants is higher, reflecting the ‘ability to pay’ principle. Charging users is more probable in the municipalities where the social costs are higher in volume or in proportion to the budget’s expenditures.

  6. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  7. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  8. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and ... key issues and trends, and map out strategies for further research and action. ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  9. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  10. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  11. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  12. Perceived Status and National Belonging: The Case of Russian Speakers in Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Anna Renvik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research on disadvantaged minority group members, the research field on the ramifications of low group status is largely split between more material and psychological lines of explanation. There is also a lack of research on how subjectively perceived socio-economic status and discrimination cumulatively affect the sense of national belonging of ethnic minority group members. This survey study was conducted among Russian-speaking immigrants in Finland ('N' = 316 and Estonia ('N' = 501. The results in Estonia showed that for national identification to be high, both indicators of subjective group status had to be perceived as relatively high. In Finland, there was no interaction between the two indicators of subjectively perceived low group status. The study shows how perceptions of cumulative disadvantage may provoke a backlash in the form of immigrants’ psychological distancing from the national ingroup. The findings are discussed in relation to the pervasiveness of low status in different intergroup contexts and minority group members’ perceived investments to society.

  13. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  14. Gentrification in a Post-Socialist Town: The Case of the Supilinn District, Tartu, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele NUTT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the changes that have taken place in the Supilinn district in Tartu, Estonia due to the gentrification process. The gentrification process affects the cultural, social, economic, and physical environment of the area. People have been interested in this topic since the 1960s. Nowadays, there is also reason to discuss this issue in the context of Estonia and of the Supilinn district. Studying and understanding the processes that take place in the living environment, provides an opportunity to be more aware about them and to influence the development of these processes. This article provides an analysis of the conditions necessary for gentrification in the Supilinn district, describes the process of gentrification, and tries to assess the current developmental stage of the gentrification process. Cities are shaped by their people. Every area has a unique look that is shaped not only by the physical environment, but also by the principles, values, and wishes of its residents. Local residents influence the image of the mental and the physical space of the area. What changes has the development of the Supilinn district caused in the population of the area, and how have the residents, in turn, changed the district?

  15. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  16. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  18. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  19. Detection and characterization of Babesia species in Ixodes ticks in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Vasilenko, Veera; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Järvekülg, Lilian; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2011-07-01

    The presence of Babesia spp. was studied in 2603 Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected at seven sites in Estonia. By reverse line blot screening, Babesia spp. was detected in 36 (1.4%) ticks, among them 18 (0.7%) were further recognized by a Babesia microti probe, 3 (0.1%) by a Babesia divergens probe, and the other 15 (0.6%) were recognized only by the universal Babesia spp. "catch all" probe. Sequence analyses of 6 of these 15 samples revealed that all of them belonged to Babesia sp. EU1. B. microti was detected in both tick species I. ricinus and I. persulcatus at the seven sites, whereas B. divergens-like and Babesia sp. EU1 were found only in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus, respectively. Genetic characterization based on partial 18S rRNA showed that the Estonian sequences of B. microti, B. divergens-like, and Babesia sp. EU1 share a high rate of similarity and are closely related to sequences from other European countries, Siberia, and United States. The present study demonstrated for the first time the existence and distribution of Babesia spp. in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in Estonia.

  20. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Russian in Estonia's Public Sector: "Playing on the Borderline" between Official Policy and Real-Life Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkina, Maimu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of Russian in state communication in officially monolingual Estonia. Drawing on interviews with high-level public employees in four central state institutions and an analysis of these institutions' websites, the article shows that while Russian is not specifically mentioned in the laws, it is "de facto"…

  2. Youth sexual health improvement in Estonia, 1990-2009: The role of sexuality education and youth-friendly services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldre, K.; Part, K.; Ketting, E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A new school curriculum was introduced in Estonia in 1996 comprising for the first time sexuality education (SE) topics. The first youth counselling centres (YCCs) addressing sexual health matters were set up in 1991-1992. This study describes the development of school-based SE

  3. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  4. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  5. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  6. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  7. Community orientation of services for persons with a psychiatric disability. Comparison between Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Zsolt Bugarszki; Karin Hanga; Dagmar Narusson; Koidu Saia; Marju Medar

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the way mental health services and social services are orientated on assisting people with a psychiatric disability to participate in different areas of community life. A large research project about community participation in three different countries (Estonia, Hungary and the

  8. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  9. Journal of East African Natural History: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Author Guidelines. Submission: manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document in an email attachment, to the Editor-in-Chief, Journal of East African Natural History at office@naturekenya.org. The manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter from the author, or in the case of multiple ...

  10. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  11. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  12. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  13. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  14. Estonia-filmi peaosas mängib Greta Scacchi : Jutta Rabe on leidnud oma filmile mõjuvõimsad toetajad / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks ja produtsendiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  15. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool, 2010. (Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46)

  16. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  17. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  18. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. RESULTS......: The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%. There was no significant association between work satisfaction and independent variables of age, ethnicity, work abroad, increased responsibility, and involvement in postpartum care and counseling. There was, however, a significant association between work...... satisfaction and salary. The group process revealed that although there is no agreement on the role of family doctors and midwives in antenatal care, there is a general agreement that midwives should be more involved in postpartum care and that their tasks need to be better defined. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half...

  19. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical...... inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio......-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin...

  20. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  1. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  2. Changes in time series of some climate elements in Estonia in early spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russak, Viivi

    1999-01-01

    Systematic changes in some climate elements have become evident in Estonia during the latest decades; the greatest changes have been observed in March. Two possible causes may have led to the observed warming: changes in general atmospheric circulation and in radiation budget. Due to small solar evaluation and shortness of day the role of solar radiation in air temperature formation is not considerable in March. The absence of any significant trend in the time series of net long wave radiation in March seems to be caused by simultaneous and opposite influence of changes in downward and upward infrared radiation fluxes on temperature conditions near ground. In other seasons a significant increase in greenhouse effect has been established. Therefore, the changes in general atmospheric circulation should be considered the main reason of warming, while the role of solar radiation and greenhouse effect is not considerable in March

  3. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  4. The need and possible options for the use of renewable energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdikes, M.; Kivistik, J.

    2002-01-01

    The decrease in fossil fuel and the environmental problems arising from their burning force the mankind to change the structure of energy production. In the Estonian primary energy balance of renewable natural resources wood and peat are on the first place with the percentage of ca 11%. Wind, water and solar energy have not up till now been widely used in Estonia. The foundation of a wind plant and the construction of bioenergy boiler plants are promising from the financial point of view. For the feedstock of bioenergy production, waste from logging and timber industry, energy fast-growing trees and grasses, bulrush and biogas produced by fermentation of organic matter, could be used. One of the options is to produce energy field crops - rape and turnip rape. The authors hope that this paper will emphasise the importance of conducting more extensive research of renewable energy resources and the introduction of such projects. (author)

  5. Organization and implementation of a national programme of regulatory control of sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive material in fields such as medicine, industry, teaching and research is constantly increasing. Consequently, any country using ionizing radiation and radioactive material in these applications must ensure that they are used safely. In order to achieve this goal a country must establish appropriate national infrastructure related to radiation protection and safety. This requires appropriate regulatory mechanism together with an enforcement ability. The national infrastructure adopted in a country will depend on the actual needs of the country, the size and the complexity of the regulated practices and sources, as well as on the regulatory tradition in the country. The national infrastructure in Estonia comprises of three main components: legislation, regulatory authority, resources. (author)

  6. One Country, Two Polarised Audiences: Estonia and the Deficiency of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Jõesaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that until recent times, the Estonian media policy has mainly been interpreted as an economic issue and it did not account for the strategic need to build a comprehensive media field to serve all groups in society. This has happened despite the fact the Estonian media policy is in line with the European Union (EU media policy, which should ensure freedom of information, diversity of opinion and media pluralism. Findings of the Estonian case study show that despite these noble aims, Estonia has two radically different information fields: one for Estonian speaking audiences and one for Russian speakers. Events in Ukraine have added to the democratic media policy paradigm a question of national security. Now it is a challenge for the policy makers to unite polarised media fields and how to minimise the impact of Russian propaganda. On the EU level, one supportive measure could be a revision of the Audiovisual Media Service Directive.

  7. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  8. Website Operators’ Liability for Offensive Comments: A Comparative Analysis of Delfi as v. Estonia and MTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlauskienė Jūratė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 and 2015, the ECtHR in the famous case of Delfi AS v. Estonia recognised the possibility for a website operator to be liable for the delayed removal of illegal comments of internet users. In this case the ECtHR formulated criteria for a website operator’s liability for damage caused to a third party by its visitor comments. The judgment of 2016 in the case of MTE & Index v. Hungary the ECtHR modified the criteria for a website operator’s liability, interpreting it to the benefit of web managers. This article seeks to reveal the criteria for the liability of a website operator and to draw some general guidance that can be applied in similar cases.

  9. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  10. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  11. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  12. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  13. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  14. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  15. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  16. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  19. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  20. Forest cover of Champaign County, Illinois in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus Danilo Chinea; Louis R. Iverson

    1997-01-01

    The forest cover of Champaign County, in east-central Illinois, was mapped from 1993 aerial photography and entered in a geographical information system database. One hundred and six forest patches cover 3,380 ha. These patches have a mean area of 32 ha, a mean perimeter of 4,851 m, a mean perimeter to area ratio of 237, a fractal dimension of 1.59, and a mean nearest...

  1. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  2. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  3. ‘Looking like my favourite Barbie’ – Online Gender Construction of Tween Girls in Estonia and in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Siibak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how tween girls in Estonia and in Sweden describe and discover their gender identities when selecting profile images for social networking sites (SNSs. To this end, interviews with tweens in Estonia (N=21 and in Sweden (N=31 were carried out. As SNSs largely exist without the recognisable surveillance of adults, children can explore the social matrix of relating to others, and they also feel safe to try out and display different constructions and reconstructions of their identity. At the same time, in communicating online, impression management is formulated with constant worry about how to construct one’s virtual identity so that it will be appreciated and accepted by one’s peer group. In this article, our analysis focuses on the most popular posing strategies used by tween girls, which, it turns out, are often marked by reproduction of the dominant heterosexual cultural norms and values.

  4. [The self-perception of their professional role of the primary care physicians of Estonia and Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virjo, I O; Mattila, K J; Lember, M; Kermes, R; Pikk, A; Isokoski, M K

    1997-05-15

    To find out how experienced primary care physicians working in different societies see themselves as doctors. A cross-sectional study. Primary health care in Estonia and Finland. Estonian district doctors (n = 110) and Finnish specialists of general practice (n = 211). In a postal questionnaire the respondents were asked to evaluate how well 18 different expressions described them as doctors on a 5-step scale from "1 = very poorly" to "5 = very well". Four of the five expressions that were thought most accurate and telling--"Listener", "Vocational doctor", "Helper", and "Family physician"--were the same in Estonia and Finland. Even though there are differences in health care systems, the self-images of primary care doctors in both countries were more or less consistent with the international definitions of the general practitioner's job and role.

  5. Independence and Interdependence Values in Changing Societies: A Three-Generation Comparative Study in Estonia, Germany, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirko Tõugu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Independent and interdependent self-construal values of three generations and the intergenerational similarity of self-construal was compared in three countries. The participants were 837 adolescents, their mothers (227 from Russia, 311 from Germany, and 299 from Estonia and 293 maternal grandmothers. In Germany, all three generations displayed higher scores on independence than participants from other countries. Russian participants had higher scores on interdependence compared to participants from other countries. Adolescents scored significantly higher on the interdependent self-construal than the two older generations, and higher than the mothers’ generation on the independent self-construal. Grandmothers’ self-construal was related to mothers’ in all three countries. In Germany and Estonia, mothers’ interdependent self-construal was related to adolescents’ interdependent self-construal. Grandmothers’ (but not mothers’ independent self-construal predicted adolescents’ independent self-construal. The results are discussed in light of the Family Change Theory and the different roles the participants have.

  6. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  7. Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Renata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

  8. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  9. Problems faced by Western expatriate managers in Eastern Europe: Evidence provided by Finnish expatriates in Russia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A common human resource management strategy among Western companies in international operations is the use of home-country expatriate managers although expatriate adjustment has been found to involve difficulties. In the light of this the present study analyses the issues faced by Finnish expatriate managers working in Russia or Estonia. Three aspects were studied: adaptation to society, adaptation at the work place, and company-level management problems with which expatriates have to deal in...

  10. Rahvusooper Estonia annab 5. V oma 99. hooaja viimase etenduse "Luikede järv" / Kaido Padar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padar, Kaido

    2005-01-01

    Kella 12-15 on linnaelanikud ja külalised kutsutud hooaega lõpetama ja saatma Estonia maja remonti. Tutvustatakse remondi-ehitusprogrammi, ekraanidel näeb videot Estoniast, lapsed saavad rasvakriidiga joonistada "Unistuste ooperimaja" ja tutvuda kostüümidega, saalis on noorteprojektides osalenute paremate tööde näitus, saab pildistada ja filmida teatri ruume jpm.

  11. Cross-cultural comparisons of bullying among university students : perspectives from Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Maili; Cvancara, Kristen; Kaal, Esta; Tampere, Kaja; Torres, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The chapter compares bullying experiences among university students between four countries and aims to provide an understanding of the cultural features which might affect these experiences. We start by providing a summary of the results from a cross-cultural survey conducted among undergraduate students in Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States. We continue discussing the ways in which the current cultural, political, historical and economic status and challenges in...

  12. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  13. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  14. Emerging Identities - East! / Siiri Vallner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallner, Siiri, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Ida-Euroopa noore arhitektuuri näitus Saksa Arhitektuurikeskuses Berliinis 24. 11. 2005-20. 02. 2006. Näitus esitles ligi 70 arhitektuuribüroo arhitektide töid kaheksalt maalt ja Berliinist. Kuraator Kristien Ring. Avamisega kaasnes konverents, ilmus kataloog. 15. II Baltikumi päev "Networks - young archirects in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania". Sloveenia, Ungari ja Berliini väljapanekust

  15. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  16. How people perceive immigrants’ role in their country’s life: a comparative study of Estonia and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu PAAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a comparative analysis of people’s attitudes towards immigrants’ role in several aspects of countries’ life depending on the individual’s socio-demographic and economic characteristics in Estonia and Russia. The empirical part of the paper relies on the European Social Survey (ESS fifth round database. The results of the study show that the Estonian people’s attitudes towards immigrants are, on the average, better in all aspects of the country’s life – economy, culture and the country as a living place, compared to the Russian one. Both economic and non-economic factors explain the observed variation of individuals’ opinions regarding the role of immigrants in a country’s life. Ethnic minorities, religious people and people with higher income are more tolerant to immigrants in both countries. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender and education are valid determinants of people’s attitudes towards immigrants only in Estonia. Highly educated people have more positive attitudes towards immigrants compared to less educated people in Estonia but not in Russia. The results of the analysis therefore highlight the necessity to take different factors into account for the design of the migration and integration policies in the countries with ethnically diverse population.

  17. Timing of the deglaciation and the late-glacial vegetation development on the Pandivere Upland, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Amon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deglaciation chronology of the Pandivere Upland is defined, and the late-glacial vegetation trends of north-eastern Estonia are summarised. The multi-proxy study includes accelerated mass spectrometry 14 C dating, plant macrofossil, magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition and grain-size distribution data of the lacustrine sediment record from one previously unpublished study site (Kursi, and the study discusses the results in combination with five previously published study locations from the area. The results indicate that the deglaciation of the Pandivere Upland started at approximately 14 200 cal. yr BP and was completed by 13 800 cal. yr BP. The ice recession rate was approximately 180 m yr -1 . Based on these new radiocarbon dates, the Baltic Ice Lake stage A 1 submerged the northern and western ice-free areas of Estonia by ca. 13 800 cal. yr BP. The prevalent vegetation type in north-eastern Estonia during the late-glacial period was tundra with local variations in the dominant shrub species. The region remained treeless until the Holocene.

  18. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  19. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  1. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  2. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  3. Inducing Water Productivity from Snow Cover for Sustainable Water Management in Ibrahim River Basin, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish , Talal; SHABAN , Amin; Portoghese , Ivan; Vurro , Michele; Khadra , Roula; Saqallah , Sagedah; Drapeau , Laurent; Gascoin , Simon; Amacha , Nabil

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to explore the effects and linkages between snow cover areas, distribution, probability and measured water discharge along east Mediterranean coastal watershed using moderate-resolution satellite images (MODIS-Terra). The Nahr Ibrahim River is a typical Lebanese watershed with an area of 326 km2 stretching between the sea and mountainous terrain to the east. The largest snow cover often exists in January-February with snow-free conditions betwe...

  4. THE BOOK PUBLISHING SYSTEM IN ESTONIA DURING THE SOVIET RULE IN 1944–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möldre, Aile

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the changes in the direction of the publishing activities, the formation of the network of the state book publishing houses as well as the political and economic conditions of their activities in Estonia during the second Soviet occupation in 1944–1991. These years have been divided in three periods according to political history: the Stalinist era in 1944–1956; the thawand stagnation in 1956–1986 and the political break-through leading to the restoration of independence in 1987–1991.Special attention is paid to the leading role of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Communist Party of the ESSR in publishing activities. For example, only the all-union communist party had a right to decide over the establishment of new publishing houses, the leading officials of the local and all-union communist party studied and confirmed the reports and plans of the publishers etc. For the implementation of the regulations of the communist party a specialadministrative body was established, operating under different names in different years. For example, during the all-union reform of 1949 it was called the Central Board of Printing Industry, Publishing and Book Trade by the Council of Ministers, after the reform of 1963 – the State Publishing Committee. The latter had especially wide authority and gave detailed instructions on organising the work in the publishing houses. The directions included rigid requirements about the planning process and co-ordination of the plans on local and all-union level. The co-ordination of plans became especially complex since 1975 when the publishing houses had to get consent fromthe Head Office of Thematic Planning and Co-ordination of the all-union State Publishing Committee for every manuscript they wished to include in their plans. Although this system was unable to function, it was not revoked. All this demonstrates the dependence of the Estonian publishing from the all-union directions and

  5. THE VARIABLE REFLECTION NEBULA CEPHEUS A EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Bressert, Eli

    2009-01-01

    We report K'-band imaging observations of the reflection nebula associated with Cepheus A East covering the time interval from 1990 to 2004. Over this time the reflection nebula shows variations of flux distribution, which we interpret as the effect of inhomogeneous and varying extinction in the light path from the illuminating source HW2 to the reflection nebula. The obscuring material is located within typical distances of ∼ 10 AU from the illuminating source.

  6. Clinical value of FDG-PET in cutaneous malignant melanoma: First experience in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Niin, M.; Paats, A.; Tonnov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In November 2002 first 18F-FDG-PET was performed in Estonia using a mobile truck-mounted scanning technology (Accel, Siemens) provided by the International Healthcare Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, (Helsinki, Finland). In 2003 this scheme was repeated for further scanning sessions. Evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) using nuclear technique is of particular interest in Estonia as its incidence is on the rise. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in CMM has a well-documented high diagnostic accuracy, especially in staging of the disease. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of 18F-FDG-PET on detailed staging and clinical management in CMM. 30 patients of CMM, 16 males and 14 females, all non-diabetic, in the age range of 26 to 69 years were studied. Of these 30 patients, 12 were of high risk primary CMM, 7 had regional lymph node metastases and 11 had distant metastases. Patients were asked to consume a low-carbohydrate diet 3 days prior to the FDG-PET scan. 194 to 410 MBq (average 335 MBq) 18F-FDG was administered to the patients who were asked to come fasting for a minimum of 6 hours. Whole body scan was performed 40 to 65 minutes after the administration of FDG on the mobile PET. In 13 of the 30 patients (43%) 18F-FDG-PET changed the staging. In remaining 17 patients (57%) 18F-FDG-PET increased confidence level for the chosen treatment. Lymphadenectomy was planned in 2 patients showing lymph node involvement on FDG-PET. In other 2 patients, one with small pulmonary and other with a liver lesions found on PET but negative on radiological examination 'wait-and-watch' strategy was chosen. An unexpected hypermetabolic lesion seen in 1 case turned out to be a benign focus of connective tissue. One patient shown to have multiple distant metastases was started on chemotherapy. Finally in 8 of the 30 (27%) patients an immediate positive

  7. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  8. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Kohtla-Jaerve, Ahtme and Johvi (Estonia) were identified as being: Inefficiency of the heat and power production plants; Lack of means for the consumers to control their consumption of energy due to the existing constant flow system; The environmental impact from heat and power production based on oil shale; Water and heat losses from the network; Low heat intensity in the Johvi area. Investigations indicate that improvement should have first priority at the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant, total investment is estimated at US D 60,3 million, of which US D 48 million are foreign costs. The cash flow will be negative in the first half of the projects lifetime. Estii Energia should be involved in the financing of the project. At the present price level, introduction of variable flow does not significantly improve the financial viability of the project, and the improvement of the district heating system might be carried out at a later stage, when the tariff has found a more stable level and the financial viability will be more significant. Implementation of new boilers in the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant. Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers, as well as electrostatic filters and estimated to reduce the environmental impact considerably. A more in depth study of the environmental impact from utilisation of oil shale should be carried out, also in order to inform possible investors of risk of investing in the oil shale industry. It will be more expensive to supply Johvi as an independent district heating system than if Johvi is supplied from Ahtme. The results arrived at are based on a range of the crucial assumptions that: the price of oil shale is expected to reach 75% of the price of coal, the sales price of electricity from plants is 62% of the consumer price, the exchange rate of the Estonian currency is kept constant to the DEM and that the inflation is Estonia will decline from 21% to 2,3% in 2005. (ARW)

  9. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  10. East Carnduff Unit: corrosion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, C D

    1966-07-01

    Waterflooding of the East Carnduff Unit began in late 1962. The first injection line leak was discovered April 29, 1965. The first 6 leaks in the East Carnduff Unit occurred within a period of less than one month--a very startling and serious warning of pending problems. Analysis of the pipe removed showed a deep pit covered by a severe scale in the piping fitting. Several remedial actions were tried in order to develop the present inhibition program. First, the lines were cleaned as well as possible utilizing rubber pig spheres with normal injection pressure. This proved very effective and 2 passes wiped out most of the scale in the lines. Only one line required acid. After the lines had been cleaned, a water treating rate of an organic amine corrosion inhibitor, 10 ppm of the scale inhibitor, and bactericide at the rate of 40 ppm slugs 2 days per month was initiated. The above treating program is in use at the present time and is maintaining a very low leak frequency. This experience has demonstrated 2 important points in waterflood operations: (1) a bare piping system in warm brine service requires constant attention to insure that it is being kept clean; and (2) reliance cannot be placed on any one method of checking corrosion rates.

  11. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE. The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  12. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  13. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaru, T; Sjoberg, O

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the migration patterns during the transition period in Estonia. A structuration approach was used to analyze data from the Estonian Statistical Office collected in 1997. Findings show that for migration between urban and rural areas, work-related reasons have been the most important motivating factor in urban growth during the transition period. Also considered are the family and education. In relation to sociodemographic structure of the population, men cite work, while women count family-related reasons, as the main motive for migrating. As to nonregistration, the most significant reason relates to issues of ownership. Because migrants are living in rented housing, it is not possible for them to register even if they desire to do so. Other reasons include "temporary", associated with study and work; "juridical", bureaucratic matters; and "multiple places of residence". This analysis, however, is incomplete because the attitudes and patterns of behavior have only partially or perfunctorily been related to the dramatic changes that have occurred in Estonian society. Proper statistical data are needed to help examine trends at a more disaggregated spatial level.

  14. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  16. First record of Telephina (Trilobita from the Ordovician of northeastern Estonia and its stratigraphical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a telephinid trilobite was recorded from the shallow-water rocks of the North Estonian Confacies Belt in the oil-shale mining area of northeast Estonia. A cranidium of Telephina (Telephops biseriata (Asklund was collected from a loose boulder of the kerogenous limestone of the Viivikonna Formation, Kukruse Stage, together with a rich assemblage of other trilobites, bryozoans, ostracods and rare graptolites. In its type area Jämtland, Sweden, T. biseriata occurs together with Pygodus anserinus and Hustedograptus teretiusculus in the Ståltorp Limestone Member of the Andersö Shale Formation, marking the latest Darriwilian. The occurrence in the North Estonian Confacies Belt of Telephina, known as a pelagic trilobite inhabiting deeper-water areas, probably reflects a transgression event at this time. Together with T. biseriata, other trilobite taxa such as Remopleurides and Lonchodomas, common in the Hustedograptus teretiusculus Biozone in deeper-water areas, arrive in the North Estonian Confacies Belt. Graptolites from the other loose boulders at the same locality have been identified as Hustedograptus cf. uplandicus, which occur together with a few dendroids.

  17. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  18. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption`s and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  19. Effects of land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2018-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia. Mean AM fungal taxon richness per sample did not differ among habitats. AM fungal community composition, however, was significantly different among habitat types. Both abandonment and land use intensification (clearcutting; trampling combined with frequent mowing) changed AM fungal community composition. The AM fungal communities in different habitat types were most similar in the roots of the single host plant species and most distinct in soil samples, suggesting a non-random pattern in host-fungal taxon interactions. The results show that AM fungal taxon composition is driven by habitat type and land use intensity, while the plant host may act as an additional filter between the available and realized AM fungal species pool.

  20. Quality management and job related factors predicting satisfaction of dental clinic staff in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merisalu, Eda; Männik, Georg; Põlluste, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of managerial style, work environment factors and burnout in determining job satisfaction during the implementation of quality improvement activities in a dental clinic. Quantitative research was carried out using a prestructured anonymous questionnaire to survey 302 respondents in Kaarli Dental Clinic, Estonia. Dental clinic staff assessed job satisfaction, managerial style, work stress and burnout levels through the implementation period of ISO 9000 quality management system in 2003 and annually during 2006-2009. Binary logistic regression was used to explain the impact of satisfaction with management and work organisation, knowledge about managerial activities, work environment and psychosocial stress and burnout on job satisfaction. The response rate limits were between 60% and 89.6%. Job satisfaction increased significantly from 2003 to 2006 and the percentage of very satisfied staff increased from 17 to 38 (pwork organisation and working environment, as well as factors related to career, security and planning. The average scores of emotional exhaustion showed significant decrease, correlating negatively with job satisfaction (pwork environment by decreasing burnout symptoms and increased job satisfaction in staff.

  1. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking differences between university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, and Oulu, Finland, after the disruption of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Rauno; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Hirvonen, Leo; Näyhä, Simo

    2006-01-01

    To provide information on smoking differences between university faculties. Data from smoking surveys performed on 1,441 staff members and 2,308 students at the University of Tartu, Estonia, soon after the fall of communism, were analysed by faculties, using similar data from the University of Oulu, Finland (1,830 staff members, 5,947 students) for reference. Wide variations in smoking were found between faculties in Tartu, the prevalence being high among male students of theology (54%) and low among staff and students in the faculties of exercise & sports sciences (< 5%) and mathematics (< 15%). Less variation was seen in Oulu. The medical faculty showed low smoking rates in Oulu but not in Tartu. High percentages of smokers were typical of Tartu faculties representing disciplines closely connected with the country's transition (e.g. theology), and low percentages in faculties emphasising physical and mental performance (e.g. sports). The relatively high percentage of smokers in the Tartu medical faculty compared with that in Oulu can be interpreted as delayed diffusion of medical information beyond the former Iron Curtain.

  3. Sedimentary record of heavy metals in Lake Rõuge Liinjärv, southern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepane, Viia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impact on Lake Liinjärv (Rõuge, southern Estonia was studied back to the mid-19th century on the basis of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Hg and geochemical parameters of a short sediment core dated by 210Pb isotopes. The development of the lake and its sediment composition are heavily influenced by the inflow of saturated calcareous waters that cause precipitation of calcium carbonates. The concentrations of most of the metals started to increase at the end of the 1970s. This is most clearly observable for Zn, Cu, and Pb. At the same time the distribution pattern of Mn seems to be controlled mainly by the redox conditions in the hypolimneon. The main sources of pollutants in Lake Liinjärv, due to its large catchment area, are the influence of agricultural activity and atmospheric input. Organic matter is the main factor affecting heavy metal (Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn distribution in lake sediments.

  4. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption's and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  5. Quaternary deposits and weathered bedrock material as a source of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersell Valter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia is high, being among the highest in Europe. In almost 33 per cent of Estonian land area, the content of radon in soil-contained air exceeds the safe limit for unrestricted construction (50 kBq/m3. In such high radon-risk areas the concentration of radon in soil-contained air ranges from 50 to 400 kBq/m3, in a few cases reaching up to 2,100 kBq/m3 exceeding the permitted level for residential areas. The situation is particularly serious in the northernmost part of the country, where uranium-rich graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale and the Obolus phosphorite are close to ground surface and their particles are constituent parts of Quaternary deposits. Radon emissions from bedrock have been investigated in detail, but to date Quaternary strata as a source of radon emissions are poorly studied. According to our measurements the highest concentrations of radon are related to tills containing clasts and fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite. Glacial deposits include also granitoidal material, containing U, Th and K, which have been transported by glaciers from the outcrop areas of crystalline basement rocks in Finland and the Gulf of Finland. Due to weathering, outwash and repeated redeposition other genetic types are poorer in radioactive elements and they are weaker sources of radon.

  6. Dose-rate mapping and search of radioactive sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylaetalo, S.; Karvonen, J.; Ilander, T.; Honkamaa, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-12-01

    The Estonian Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) agreed in 1995 on a radiation mapping project in Estonia. The country was searched to find potential man-made radioactive sources. Another goal of the project was to produce a background dose-rate map over the whole country. The measurements provided an excellent opportunity to test new in-field measuring systems that are useful in a nuclear disaster. The basic idea was to monitor road sides, cities, domestic waste storage places and former military or rocket bases from a moving vehicle by measuring gamma spectrum and dose rate. The measurements were carried out using vehicle installed systems consisting of a pressurised ionisation chamber (PIC) in 1995 and a combination of a scintillation spectrometer (NaI(TI)) and Geiger-Mueller-counter (GM) in 1996. All systems utilised GPS-satellite navigation signals to relate the measured dose rates and gamma-spectra to current geographical location. The data were recorded for further computer analysis. The dose rate varied usually between 0.03-0.17 μSv/h in the whole country, excluding a few nuclear material storage places (in Saku and in Sillamae). Enhanced dose rates of natural origin (0.17-0.5 μSv/h) were measured near granite statues, buildings and bridges. No radioactive sources were found on road sides or in towns or villages. (orig.) (14 refs.)

  7. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  8. Carbonate cementation in the late glacial outwash and beach deposits in northern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Rattas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary environments, morphology and formation of carbonate cement in the late glacial glaciofluvial outwash and beach deposits in northern Estonia are discussed. Cementation is observed in well-drained, highly porous carbonaceous debris-rich gravel and sand-forming, resistant ledges in otherwise unconsolidated sediments. The cemented units occur as laterally continuous layers or as isolated lenticular patches with thicknesses from a few centimetres to 3 m. The cement is found in two main morphologies: (1 cement crusts or coatings around detrital grains and (2 massive cement almost entirely filling interparticle pores and intraparticle voids. It is exclusively composed of low-Mg calcite with angular equant to slightly elongated rhombohedral and scalenohedral or prismatic crystals, which indicate precipitation from meteoric or connate fresh surface (glacial lake water and/or near-surface groundwater under low to moderate supersaturation and flow conditions. The absence of organic structures within the cement suggests that cementation is essentially inorganic. The cement exhibits both meteoric vadose and phreatic features and most probably occurred close to the vadose–phreatic interface, where the conditions were transitional and/or fluctuating. Cementation has mainly taken place by CO2-degassing in response to fluctuations in groundwater level and flow conditions, controlled by the Baltic Ice Lake water level, and seasonal cold and/or dry climate conditions.

  9. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. ... Lecturer/Consultant Surgeon, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, .... mind and the results obtained were however satisfying.

  10. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  11. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  12. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  13. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.F.H.

    1983-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  14. Trait-based analysis of decline in plant species ranges during the 20th century: a regional comparison between the UK and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanisto, Lauri; Sammul, Marek; Kull, Tiiu; Macek, Petr; Hutchings, Michael J

    2015-02-02

    Although the distribution ranges and abundance of many plant species have declined dramatically in recent decades, detailed analysis of these changes and their cause have only become possible following the publication of second- and third-generation national distribution atlases. Decline can now be compared both between species and in different parts of species' ranges. We extracted data from distribution atlases to compare range persistence of 736 plant species common to both the UK and Estonia between survey periods encompassing almost the same years (1969 and 1999 in the UK and 1970 and 2004 in Estonia). We determined which traits were most closely associated with variation in species persistence, whether these were the same in each country, and the extent to which they explained differences in persistence between the countries. Mean range size declined less in Estonia than in the UK (24.3% vs. 30.3%). One-third of species in Estonia (239) maintained >90% of their distribution range compared with one-fifth (141) in the UK. In Estonia, 99 species lost >50% of their range compared with 127 species in the UK. Persistence was very positively related to original range in both countries. Major differences in species persistence between the studied countries were primarily determined by biogeographic (affiliation to floristic element) and ecoevolutionary (plant strategy) factors. In contrast, within-country persistence was most strongly determined by tolerance of anthropogenic activities. Decline of species in the families Orchidaceae and Potamogetonaceae was significantly greater in the UK than in Estonia. Almost all of the 736 common and native European plant species in our study are currently declining in their range due to pressure from anthropogenic activities. Those species with low tolerance of human activity, with biotic pollination vectors and in the families referred to above are the most vulnerable, especially where human population density is high. © 2015

  15. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  16. Physicians’ views on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases: findings from cross-sectional studies from 1982–2014 in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    From 1982 to 2014, physicians’ attitudes towards the health risks of smoking improved in Estonia. However, their assessment of a causal role of smoking in smoking-related diseases was related to their own smoking habits and ethnicity. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians would require special efforts targeted at physicians. Societal pressure from a national policy could support a further decline in the social acceptability of smoking in Estonia and developments in medical education could provide continuing evidence-based information about the health effects of smoking to Estonian physicians.

  17. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia, corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian. These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order and family of this taxon are notspecified.

  18. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Ivanov; Tiiu Märss; Anne Kleesment

    2011-01-01

    Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia), corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian). These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order ...

  19. Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, S

    1997-03-01

    A survey of 125 prospective special education teachers assessed perceptions and beliefs about inclusive education in Estonia, Finland, and the United States (Michigan). The attitudes toward inclusion were rather critical. The Estonians were the most critical group, the Finns the least critical. The meanings attached to a student with severe mental retardation were related to the educational setting assessed as the best for this student. The findings suggest that special educators perceptions about inclusion are related to the prevailing implementation of inclusive education. The results support also the idea that the meanings attached to a person with a disability are connected with behavioural intentions toward this person.

  20. The efficiency of private enforcement of publik law claims in Estonia. Riiginõuete sissenõudmise efektiivsus Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Saar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Estonia, since 2001 the function of the enforcement of public law claims, such as fines or taxes, has been transferred to freelance bailiffs. The intention was to create profit motives for private enforcers to increase the effectiveness of the enforcement system. In this paper it is shown that the remuneration scheme for bailiffs that is currently applied tends to lead to inefficiently low level of enforced public law claims. Through quantitative calculations it is illustrated that there might exist alternatives that significantly increase the economic efficiency of the enforcement system.

  1. Danish investors' demands on skills and attributes of local accounting staff, are they met? - the case of Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundgaard, Elin; Thomsen, Jeanette; Alver, Lehte

    2008-01-01

    gaps by examining in depth a specific practice, i.e. the accounting staff of the Danish affiliations in Estonia.  Research on accounting staff is almost non-existing. This paper gives the project description and the research design as well as the results of a pilot interview in a big Danish...... and surprising aspects, e.g. the different roles and skills expectations to accountants and controllers.  These aspects will be considered when interviewing the bulk of Danish-owned Estonian companies to have their answers to the problems. The interviews will be conducted during spring 2009....

  2. Storminess-related rhythmic ridge patterns on the coasts of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Buried or elevated coastal ridges may serve as archives of past variations in sea level and climate conditions. Sometimes such ridges or coastal scarps appear in patterns, particularly on uplifting coasts with adequate sediment supply. Along the seacoasts of Estonia, where relative-to-geoid postglacial uplift can vary between 1.7 and 3.4 mm/yr, at least 27 areas with rhythmic geomorphic patterns have been identified from LiDAR images and elevation data. Such patterns were mainly found on faster emerging and well-exposed, tideless coasts. These are mostly located at heights between 1 and 21 m above sea level, the formation of which corresponds to a period of up to 7500 years. Up to approximately 150 individual ridges were counted on some cross-shore sections. Ten of these ridge patterns that formed less than 4500 years ago were chosen for detailed characterization and analysis in search of possible forcing mechanisms. Among these more closely studied cases, the mean ridge spacing varied between 19 and 28 m. Using land uplift rates from the late Holocene period, the timespans of the corresponding cross sections were calculated. The average temporal periodicity of the ridges was between 23 and 39 years with a gross mean value of 31 years. Considering the regular nature of the ridges, they mostly do not reflect single extreme events, but rather a decadal-scale periodicity in storminess in the region of the Baltic Sea. Although a contribution from some kind of self-organization process is possible, the rhythmicity in ancient coastal ridge patterns is likely linked to quasi-periodic 25−40-year variability, which can be traced to Estonian long-term sea level records and wave hindcasts, as well as in regional storminess data and the North Atlantic Oscillation index.

  3. Restructuring of manufacture under global financial and economic crisis: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilvits Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was not possible for Estonia only by raising the technological level of enterprises and increasing so-called technical productivity to catch up in terms of productivity with the developed industrial countries. The structure of Estonian manufacture was out-of-date and required cardinal and fast changes toward greater value added. Every time a crisis hits, it brings about new breakthroughs in science and technology; promotes fundamental changes that take place in a relatively short period of time; gives birth to new industries; forms new growth points in the economy. The crisis has had a far-reaching impact on the world economy and has brought challenges and opportunities to all countries and all fields. In addition to big difficulties, the crisis provided for Estonian manufacture also an exceptionally good chance for change and development. The crisis had a purifying and disciplining effect, enabled to eliminate from the manufacture wrong investments and inefficient enterprises. Assets were redistributed from passive economic agents to active ones and in favour of those who had capital for growth financing. After the crisis the structure of Estonian manufacturing is more effective than before: 1 technological level higher; 2 organization of work more perfect; 3 value added and productivity higher; 4 position of value chain better; 5 maybe also the value chain itself new and better. But there are fewer jobs in the new structure of manufacturing than before the crisis. Economic, social, regional etc. stratification has increased. The influence of crisis is not over yet and there is still a risk of some setback in future. There may also arise new problems and old problems may grow sharper.

  4. Barite mineralization in Kalana speleothems, Central Estonia: Sr, S and O isotope characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Gaškov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Barite mineralization in association with calcitic speleothem precipitates in cave structures in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia, was studied. Barite mineralization in Kalana occurs in two generations – euhedral bladed-tabular barite zonal crystals from a few to 10 cm in size, growing on the limestone-dolomite wall-rock (generation I, and sparsely placed thin tabular crystals a few millimetres thick and up to 1 cm in size, growing on calcitic crusts (generation II. The barite crystals of generation I are frequently found embedded by paragenetically later calcitic botryoidal crusts. The Sr and S isotopic composition of barite crystals shows a trend of increasing Sr isotope ratios (from 0.7114 to 0.7120 and δ34S values (from 13‰ to 33‰ from the central parts towards the edges of zonal crystals. This suggests barite precipitation by mixing of two endmember fluids at varying ratios during barite formation: warm (up to 70 °C reducing fluid bearing Ba, characterized by an elevated radiogenic Sr- and 34S-enriched isotopic signal, and a cooler ambient fluid bearing an isotopically lighter dissolved sulphate, characterized by lower Sr isotope ratios. The excess of radiogenic 87Sr in barite compared to Phanerozoic seawater values suggests Sr derived from a continental source, whereas sulphate was derived either from oxidized H2S or a modified seawater source. Gradual increase in δ34S values towards the outer zones could also indicate the 34S enrichment due to bacterial sulphate reduction, even though there is no paired 34S and 18O enrichment of sulphate, characteristic of bacterial reworking. This can be interpreted as indicating an open system with limited sulphate resupply where the δ18O composition of sulphate was equilibrated with warm ascending hydrothermal fluid.

  5. Residual Cadmium and Lead Pollution at a Former Soviet Military Airfield in Tartu, Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mander, Ulo; Kull, Ain; Frey, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data on the levels and dynamics of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration in the plants, soil, and groundwater of the landing corridor and airfield of a former Soviet military air base in Estonia, immediately at the end of its 40-year service in 1992 and over the following 8 yr. In 1991-92 we found high Cd concentrations in the meadow plants Trifolium pratense and Dactylis glomerata (up to 56 mg kg -1 ). In 1993, the Cd concentration had dropped to 0.12-0.19 mg kg -1 , and stabilized in 1997-2000 at 0.04 mg kg -1 . Cd concentration in plants decreased significantly with increasing distance from the landing strip. Elevated Cd concentration (0.012 mg L -1 ) was found in the fuel of the TU-22M (Backfire) strategic bombers. In 1991 and 1993, leaded fuel influenced the mean Pb concentration in plants (1.8-4.2 mg kg -1 ). Average Pb concentration in both topsoil and the 30-40 cm soil horizon decreased between 1991 and 2000 from 28 to 6.5 and from 13.5 to 4.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cd concentration in the topsoil of the landing corridor showed a significant increase between 1991 and 1993 (0.07-0.3 and 0.3-1.2 mg kg -1 , respectively), but stabilized later on the level of 0.04 mg kg -1 . The concentrations of both Pb and Cd in the soil were higher closer to the fuel bunkers. Current assessment of the movement of these metals from the vegetation to the soil and to groundwater is linked to potential leaching to the surrounding environment

  6. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  7. The Early Ordovician trilobite distribution and zonation of the East Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pärnaste, Helje

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biozones of the East Baltic Early Ordovician trilobites were studied based on the trilobite distribution in northwestern Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. New data on trilobite distribution reveal the diachroneity of the lowest calcareous sediments of the Mäeküla Member, which forms the upper part of the Leetse Formation in the East Baltic. Trilobites of the Tremadoc Apatokephalus serratus and Megistaspis (Ekeraspis armata biozones are missing in the East Baltic, in contradiction to the suggestion of Balashova (Vopr. Paleontol., 1966, 5, 3–22. Some poorly preserved specimens probably belonging to Megistaspis (Paramegistaspis planilimbata (Angelin and also records of Pliomerops? linnarssoni (Wiman indicate that the Arenig Megistaspis (P. planilimbata Biozone of the Hunneberg Stage may be represented in some localities. The final delimitation of biozones in the Mäeküla and Päite members should improve when the ontogenetic and phylogenetic variation of the M. (Paramegistaspis lineage has been fully documented. Until then the Evropeites lamanskii Biozone is used in the East Baltic following Balashova, as indicated by the appearance of that taxon in most studied localities, marking the beginning of the Billingen Age. The succeeding Megalaspides (Megalaspides dalecarlicus Biozone is represented by the occurrence of at least its upper part in the Vassilkovo Beds in the St. Petersburg region, where Megalaspides paliformis Tjernvik occurs together with the index taxon (these taxa co-occur in the upper part of this zone in Sweden. The Päite Member in the East Baltic is correlated with the Megistaspis (P. estonica Biozone of the upper part of the Billingen Stage in Sweden.

  8. Noor-Eesti tähendust otsides: vanu ja uusi mõtteid. In Quest of the Meaning of Young Estonia: Old and New Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Kivimäe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As an important chapter of Estonian literary history, Young Estonia has been relatively well researched and interpreted. However, its influence as a cultural and intellectual movement in Estonian society in the opening decades of the last century requires further study and verification. What stands reflected in Young Estonia is actually a larger groundswell of history, along with a rupture that took place throughout Estonian society in the course of its modernization. Discussions of the meaning of Young Estonia must therefore concern themselves with literary discourse, but much more so with what transpired outside the boundaries of literary pursuits, in the contexts of social and political history and the history of ideas. In view of historiography, there is no consensus on the definition of Young Estonia: it has been referred to as a movement, a group, or a cluster of seminal ideas. The founding of the group is generally located at the publication of the first Young Estonia album near the high tide of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Young Estonia disintegrated during the First World War, with its ending marked both by the publication of the fifth and final album in 1915 and by the journal Vaba Sõna (Free Word, which carried on the ideology of Young Estonia in the years 1914–1916. Although there are strong parallels between Young Estonia and similar movements and associations in Western and Central Europe in the nineteenth century, the greatest influence being exerted by the politicalliterary movement Nuori-Suomi (Young Finland, the respective group in Estonia was largely autochthonic in its time and milieu. In the rhetoric of the era of national awakening, Baltic Germans referred to Estonian national activists as ”Young Estonians”; the term was also under discussion in the Estonian press, yet there is no direct conceptual connection between this polemic and Young Estonia as a group. The Young Estonia group was mostly composed of young

  9. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  10. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  11. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  12. WHAT SHOULD ESTONIA DO IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF ITS EXPORTS OF GOODS TO SLOVAKIA AND SLOVENIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Romih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Estonia’s trade in goods with the world in general and with Slovakia and Slovenia in particular. Additionally, it also proposes some measures to increase the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to the aforementioned countries, both of which are Estonia’s minor export partners in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2013, the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to Slovakia and Slovenia amounted to €51.3 million and €7.4 million respectively. In order to increase the value of its exports of goods to these two countries, Estonia should increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises (especially small- and medium-sized ones in the Slovakian and Slovenian markets and adopt other measures such as increasing the sustainability of the aforementioned enterprises with a view to facilitating their entry into new markets. In recent years, sustainability has become an important factor in competitiveness, which is mainly the result of increased environmental awareness of consumers and other stakeholders, foremost in developed countries (including Slovakia and Slovenia. Sustainable innovation has therefore become an important source of competitive advantage, which is especially true for enterprises operating in competitive markets. Therefore, in order to increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises in the aforementioned markets, Estonia should promote sustainable innovation and take certain other measures.

  13. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  14. Development and Implementation of the Collaboratory on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxin; Luo Jiarong; Li Guiming; Wang Hua; Cheng Ting

    2006-01-01

    The collaboratory for the EAST is available, which possesses the capacity to further advance active research on EAST. In doing so, the distance between local researchers and participators over the world is just a click away. To feature the system with the function of remote control, the functional business logic is all encapsulated in the mandatory controls, which can potentially boost the computing capability of the clients with a B/S framework. At the same time, the EAST collaboratory embraces powerful on-line data exchange and data management functions via state-of-the-art XML Web services. With the goal of accessing and analysing the pivotal experimental data on-line, a data analysis system is implemented in JAVA. Finally as a valuable asset of the EAST collaboratory the function of videoconference will be also covered in this contribution

  15. Uudised : Don Juan jõuab Estonia lavale. VII Rudolf Tobiase päevad Hiiumaal. Esineb Laine Leichteri koolkond / Liina Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Liina

    1999-01-01

    3.juunil Estonias esietenduvast Mozarti ooperist "Don Giovanni". 28.-29.05 toimuvatest VII R. Tobiase päevadest, mis on pühendatud helilooja 126. sünniaastapäevale. 3.06 Mustpeade Majas toimuvast L. Leichteri juubelikontserdist

  16. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  17. Social inequalities in health care services utilisation after eight years of health care reforms: a cross-sectional study of Estonia, 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habicht, Jarno; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of

  18. Transformation of Estonia's industrial structure : Continued de-industrialisation or interlude in re-industrialisation? / Garri Raagmaa, Mihkel Laan, Antti Raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raagmaa, Garri, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Autorid analüüsivad Eesti tööstuse senisele arengule tuginedes võimalikke arengusuundi tulevikus. Tabelid ja diagramm. Vt. samas: Competitiveness of the Baltic states has improved; Skanska leaves Latvia and Lithuania but not from Estonia

  19. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  20. Housing Restitution and Privatisation: Both Catalysts and Obstacles to the Formation of Private Rental Housing in the Czech Republic and Estonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Kährik, A.; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 137-158 ISSN 1461-6718 R&D Projects: GA MMR WD-05-07-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Republic * Estonia * housing tenure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616718.2012.681574

  1. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  2. Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social protection mechanisms can reduce poverty and vulnerability, increase work and educational achievement, and promote economic growth. Formal social protection initiatives cover only a small proportion of the population in East Africa - those working in the formal sector. Vulnerable groups - such as the poor and ...

  3. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities. Directeur(s) : Eglal Rached, Eva Rathgeber, and David B. ... HarassMap et Uber Égypte nouent un partenariat pour sensibiliser la population à la question du harcèlement sexuel. L'organisation HarassMap, soutenue par le CRDI, ...

  4. Soft ware upgrade for Mobile Laboratories in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    In July-August 1998 the soft ware for controlling the measurements in the mobile laboratories have been upgraded. The mobile laboratories are sponsored by Danish east aid projects in cooperation with Rotaray Denmark.The equipment used is 4 L NaI(Tl) detectors mounted on the roof of the cars toget...

  5. Middle East political stability

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Henry Siegman asks whether the next US President can rescue a two-state solution to the Israel–Palestine conflict; Lakhdar Brahimi discusses Iran – war or peace in the Middle East?; Eric Rouleau assesses the Iranian nuclear threat; Walid Khadduri looks at concerns over the future of Iraq and regional implications.

  6. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  7. Fleet Readiness Center East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ability to take care of our Customers, our People, and our Business. WHAT'S NEW ON FACEBOOK? weather icon S o cial Media Navy Twitter US Navy Pinterest US Navy Instagram FRC East Facebook US Navy Google FRCE ADVERSE WEATHER INFO Severe Weather Number: 252-464-8333 Visit us on Facebook for up-to-date

  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  9. Udder pathogens and their resistance to antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orro Toomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of udder pathogens and their antibiotic resistance in Estonia during the years 2007-2009. Methods The bacteriological findings reported in this study originate from quarter milk samples collected from cows on Estonian dairy farms that had clinical or subclinical mastitis. The samples were submitted by local veterinarians to the Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory during 2007-2009. Milk samples were examined by conventional bacteriology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the disc diffusion test. Logistic regression with a random herd effect to control for clustering was used for statistical analysis. Results During the study period, 3058 clinical mastitis samples from 190 farms and 5146 subclinical mastitis samples from 274 farms were investigated. Positive results were found in 57% of the samples (4680 out of 8204, and the proportion did not differ according to year (p > 0.05. The proportion of bacteriologically negative samples was 22.3% and that of mixed growth was 20.6%. Streptococcus uberis (Str. uberis was the bacterium isolated most frequently (18.4% from cases of clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli (15.9% and Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae (11.9%. The bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis were mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (20% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (15.4%. The probability of isolating S. aureus from milk samples was significantly higher on farms that had fewer than 30 cows, when compared with farms that had more than 100 cows (p Str. agalactiae infection was found on farms with more than 600 cows (p = 0.034 compared with smaller farms. The proportion of S. aureus and CNS isolates that were resistant to penicillin was 61.4% and 38.5%, respectively. Among the E. coli isolates, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline resistance were observed in 24.3%, 15.6% and 13

  10. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  11. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  12. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-04

    ments, they actively advertise their readiness to enter 90GE0031A East Berlin A USSENWIRTSCHAFT a barter deal and they will accept it as long as...AG it comprises the following aspects: has set up two joint ventures in the USSR producing shoes; Adidas has one joint venture in Hungary.) Joint...administration until product development, advertising , and marketing. In the repayment of long-term credits. Consortiums addition, the Soviet firm is interested

  13. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  14. Milleks teatrilavale ajalugu? : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008 /

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008

  15. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  16. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  17. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  18. Making Distinctions on Autonomous Cultural Field: the Case of Small-scale Alternative Music Festival Organisers in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Mäe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give a sense of the activities of small-scale cultural practitioners in Estonia. Whereas Western societies experienced the powerful emergence of youth (subcultures and DIY ideology, as well as self-organised low scale cultural production in the 1960s, in Estonia all of these practices are relatively new and born over the last decades. This article discusses the Eastern European specifics of (subcultural production. The main concepts of this study are fields in cultural production and symbolic capital according to Pierre Bourdieu, with consideration of the recent elaborations in the field of (subcultural studies. Interpreting the interests, motives and attitudes that are the basis for the activities of the promoters, this paper addresses the subjects of mainstream/underground, independent/commercial and high culture/subculture, thereby contributing to the relevant discussion in subculture studies.The empirical part of the paper relies mainly on in-depth interviews conducted by the first author (2009, while the interviews conducted by the second author (2010 are supported by fieldwork on club cultures 2002-2003. The data have been analysed and systematised by qualitative data analysis methods, with the help of NVivo research software.While subcultures usually create symbolic boundaries using their distinctive style, music and ideological practices, according to this study, promoters tend to create ‘independent brands’ for the purposes of participation in the small-scale cultural field. These independent brands involve a mix of the promoters’ taste in music, which is communicated through the ‘brand’ to significant others (music critics, lay audience and friends, and constitute an important means for creating symbolic capital.

  19. The formation of ethnically mixed partnerships in Estonia: A stalling trend from a two-sided perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnically mixed partnerships are often regarded as the ultimate evidence of the integration of migrants and their descendants into their host society. A common finding in the literature is an increase in the occurrence of mixed partnerships across migrant generations. Objective: This study investigates the formation of minority-majority partnerships in Estonia, with special attention to the variation associated with the migrants' generation and their exposure to the majority population. Methods: The study uses pooled data from the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (FFS and the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS, and estimates proportional hazards models. Results: The experience of second-generation migrants indicates a stalling trend in the incidence of mixed partnerships between the majority population and migrant groups, which is rooted in contextual features. Apart from residential proximity, the study shows the salience of early acquisition of the host society language. Our results for the majority population highlight the role of international migration, which exposes host populations to mixed partnership formation. Conclusions: The results lend support to the view that the integration of migrant populations through mixed partnering is a lengthy process that stretches across several generations. A linguistically divided school system and residential segregation contribute to the pillarization of society. Contribution: By focussing on an Eastern European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of mixed unions in different socioeconomic and cultural settings. Estonia provides an interesting case as its migrant-origin minorities span several generations. The study underscores the importance of contextual factors for both the minority and majority populations.

  20. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  1. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF PRINTED CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ESTONIA. STRATEGY. METHODOLOGY. PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimo, Tiiu

    2006-12-01

    (different organisations. For reasons of the historical development considerable part of documentary heritage is also located outside Estonia (Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia, Russia etc.The projects of red books as well as different digitisation projects have been in practice for some years in all Estonian memory institutions. Libraries are pioneers in initiating collaborationprojects in digitisation. Due to the joint efforts of the National Library, the Archive Library of the Estonian Literature Museum and the Tallinn University Academic Library a big collection of old Estonian newspapers is available by internet. The project is titled DEA (Digitized Estonian Newspapers. The aim of the project Red Book of Estonian publications, 1535–1850 was to create a theoretical basis for elaborating criteria that would enable decision making and determination preservation priorities of the Estonian book heritage. At the moment there is not much collaboration between different types of memory institutions. The joint projects like DEA and Red Bookof Estonian Publications give hope that together difficult problems of preservation can be better solved and users will get better access to Estonian cultural heritage.

  2. MISR Views the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.'MISR', as it turns out, is the

  3. Field inventories in South-East Estonia in 2012 and 2013: archaeological monuments and sacred natural sites / Heiki Valk, Allar Haav, Anu-Liis Aunroos... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Muististe väljaselgitamine ja riikliku kaitse alla võtmine ei ole otseselt ühegi institutsiooni tööülesandeks. 2012. ja 2013. aastal toimus muististe väljaselgitamine Tartu Ülikooli arheoloogia kabineti eestvõttel Kagu-Eestis. Rootsiaegsetel kaartidel oleva info sidumiseks Eesti kaasaegse põhikaardiga töötati välja omaette metoodika. Välitööde käigus inventeeriti ka kuue kihelkonna looduslikud pühapaigad

  4. Excavations on the Hill Forts of South-East Estonia: Kureküla, Kõõru and Kuigatsi / Heiki Valk, Anti Lillak, Allar Haav, Tuuli Kurisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kuremäe linnamäe näol on tõenäoliselt tegemist vaid ajutiselt kasutusel olnud või lõpetamata jäänud linnusega. Savinõukillud ja väikesemahulised kaitseehitised lubavad arvata, et linnus kuulub I aastatuhande teise poolde. Kuigatsi linnamäel võib keraamika põhjal eristada kaht kasutusetappi: rooma rauaaeg ja viikingiaeg. Eriliseks leiuks on rooma rauaaegne pronksisulatuskoht

  5. Deriving Snow Cover Metrics for Alaska from MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily snow cover products provide an opportunity for determining snow onset and melt dates across broad geographic regions; however, cloud cover and polar darkness are limiting factors at higher latitudes. This study presents snow onset and melt dates for Alaska, portions of western Canada and the Russian Far East derived from Terra MODIS snow cover daily 500 m grid data (MOD10A1 and evaluates our method for filling data gaps caused by clouds or polar darkness. Pixels classified as cloud or no data were reclassified by: spatial filtering using neighboring pixel values; temporal filtering using pixel values for days before/after cloud cover; and snow-cycle filtering based on a time series assessment of a pixel’s position within snow accumulation, cover or melt periods. During the 2012 snow year, these gap-filling methods reduced cloud pixels from 27.7% to 3.1%. A total of 12 metrics (e.g., date of first and last snow, date of persistent snow cover and periods of intermittence for each pixel were calculated by snow year. A comparison of MODIS-derived snow onset and melt dates with in situ observations from 244 weather stations generally showed an early bias in MODIS-derived dates and an effect of increasing cloudiness exacerbating bias. Our results show that mean regional duration of seasonal snow cover is 179–311 days/year and that snow cover is often intermittent, with 41% of the area experiencing ≥2 snow-covered periods during a snow season. Other regional-scale patterns in the timing of snow onset and melt are evident in the yearly 500 m gridded products publically available at http://static.gina.alaska.edu/NPS_products/MODIS_snow/.

  6. Keeleliste elulugude uurimisvõimalusi: Dagmar Normeti mitmekeelne lapsepõlv Eestis. Possibilities of Research on Linguistic Biographies: Dagmar Normet, a Multilingual Childhood in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Verschik

    2012-04-01

    research is more rooted in social, cultural and historical context than the American tradition. The former views linguistic biographies not as isolated narratives but as narratives situated in certain sociolinguistic and cultural situations. Thus, a linguistic biography can be a source for historical sociolinguistics when a researcher cannot obtain naturalistic spoken data any longer, and all evidence is therefore indirect. One can ask, to what extent are linguistic biographies unique? It is clear that a certain socio-cultural context produces certain (linguistic biographical templates, for instance, immigration and learning a new language or a possible feeling of dislocation and language learning anxiety. Thus, a comparison of linguistic biographies would be necessary in a longer perspective. Linguistic biographies research is a new field in Estonia. So far historians and scholars in literary history/theory have studied autobiographies. Dagmar Normet’s (1921-2008 memoirs, although not language learning memoirs per se, provide an intriguing view into a multilingual childhood of the 1920s-1930s. The narrator starts from the first childhood memories of studying German in addition to Estonian and Russian that she already knows, proceeds through the school years with occasional leaps into the future, the Soviet occupation, and ends at the moment of escape from Estonia in 1941 before the Nazi occupation. This memoir is unique because the author is probably the only Estonian writer of Jewish decent. Life in and with several languages in Tallinn appears to be something extremely natural and it seems there is no anxiety attached to this. Learning a new language or transfer to a school with a different language of instruction is described in detail, but without a feeling of detachment or dislocation. This presents extremely valuable information concerning the “linguistic climate” of the time, multilingualism in Tallinn, the dynamics of former Baltic German elite and the

  7. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  8. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  9. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  10. Climatic variability of east Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerlengo, A.L.; Saadon, M.N.; Awang, M.; Somchit, H.; Rang, L.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to learn the variability of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and insolation in East Malaysia. The main results of our study are: (1) a gentle pressure gradient is observed at the east coast in the boreal winter, (2) smaller atmospheric pressure values are noted during the first inter-monsoon period all across East Malaysia, (3) lesser insolation values are observed in Sarawak and at the east coast during the boreal winter as compared to the boreal summer, and (4) a poleward increase of insolation is registered. (author)

  11. Field investigations of apparent optical properties of ice cover in Finnish and Estonian lakes in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field programme on light conditions in ice-covered lakes and optical properties of lake ice was performed in seven lakes of Finland and Estonia in February–April 2009. On the basis of irradiance measurements above and below ice, spectral reflectance and transmittance were determined for the ice sheet; time evolution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR transmittance was examined from irradiance recordings at several levels inside the ice sheet. Snow cover was the dominant factor for transmission of PAR into the lake water body. Reflectance was 0.74–0.92 in winter, going down to 0.18–0.22 in the melting season. The bulk attenuation coefficient of dry snow was 14–25 m–1; the level decreased as the spring was coming. The reflectance and bulk attenuation coefficient of snow-free ice were 0.1–0.4 and 1–5 m–1. Both were considerably smaller than those of snow cover. Seasonal evolution of light transmission was mainly due to snow melting. Snow and ice cover not only depress the PAR level in a lake but also influence the spectral and directional distribution of light.

  12. Environmental restoration of uranium contaminated sites in Estonia within the framework of IAEA project (RER/9/022) in 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratas, R.

    1997-01-01

    In Estonia there are several radioactively contaminated sites left from the military and uranium progressing activities by the former Soviet Union. Enhanced radiation levels are prevalent in the Paldiski area, a former nuclear submarine training centre; on the territory of the waste depository at Saku/Tammiku and at Sillamae, where a large depository of uranium milling tailings is situated. During the last two years considerable effort has been put into restoration of these sites. To start with, designing of reasonably achievable remediation projects have been taken up. Estonia has received large contributions from many western countries and organisations. Practical remediation work on contaminated areas, e.g. at Sillamae is, however, delayed due to lack of funds. (author)

  13. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  15. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  17. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  18. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  19. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  20. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  2. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  3. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  4. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  5. INTERNATIONALIZATION PLANNING : The German market analysis for Alkuvoima East Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Klimchuk, Sviatoslav

    2013-01-01

    The study is focused on estimating the potential of the digital marketing market in Germany, and formulating the recommendations for the small-sized Bulgarian-Finnish digital marketing agency Alkuvioma East Ltd. in respect of the company’s potential entry in the German market. The primary aim of the research is a comprehensive analysis of the market that covers the study of the market size, demand, competitors and customers. The company itself is also subjected to the analysis with partic...

  6. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  7. Exploration of the Karvinskiy formation covering in Beskidakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakoa, Z

    1980-01-01

    The Karvinskiy formation of coal-bearing carbon in the Upper Silesian basin was established by drilling wells in 1965 under the tectonic covers in Beskidakh. It forms a large eroded residual rock of 600 km/sup 2/ with industrial layers of rock coal. Work over the last few years has established the area over which the strata in the south are distributed, the position of the base, the new oil phenomena, the tectonic data of the southern region of the Upper Silesian basin. The rock coal fields were explored to define the borders of the mine fields of West Frenshtadt and East Frenshtadt. Eighteen coal layers were identified in the Karvinskiy formation. These belonged to 7 layer groups in the stratigraphy of the continental formations of Upper Silesian carbon, numbered 40 to 33. In the same mine fields, continental coal-bearing deposits of timber strata covering the Karvinskiy depression were discovered.

  8. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  9. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  10. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  11. Economy Over Security: Why Crises Fail to Impact Economic Behavior in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SECURITY: WHY CRISES FAIL TO IMPACT ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN EAST ASIA by Aaron R. Sipos December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Michael Glosny Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ECONOMY OVER SECURITY: WHY CRISES FAIL TO IMPACT ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN EAST...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This study examines changes in economic behavior in

  12. Interest Parity Conditions as Indicators of Financial Integration in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon de Brouwer

    1997-01-01

    Market participants and policymakers have a growing interest in the development of East Asian financial markets, and to the extent to which these markets are open and influenced by world markets. This paper examines the information contained in interest parity conditions about the international integration of a wide range of economies in East Asia. Legal restrictions on the capital account and tests of covered, uncovered and real interest parity are presented in some detail. Using standard re...

  13. Toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Minyou, E-mail: yemy@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Yingying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yu, Yi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yuejiang [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Bo; Fu, Jia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Du, Xuewei; Yin, Xianghui; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qiuping [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wan, Baonian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic, on the basis of a heating neutral beam injector (NBI), is constructed on EAST tokamak. Simulation of Spectra (SOS) code is used to design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. 30 spatial channels work simultaneously in recent experiment, which covers a radial region from 1.55 m to 2.30 m in the cross section. The CXRS has a radial resolution of 1–3.5 cm from core to edge. The acquisition time is typically 10 ms, limited by the poor photon statistics. The diagnostic can observe not only the normal C{sup 5+} emission line at 529.1 nm but also any interested wavelength in the range of 400–700 nm. In this work, a brief overview on the R&D and the instrument performance for the toroidal CXRS diagnostic is described, together with first results.

  14. Filterscope diagnostic system on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z.W.; Gao, W.; Zhang, L.; Huang, J.; Chen, Y.J.; Wu, C.R.; Zhang, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Filterscope diagnostic system, which is designed for monitoring the line emission in fusion plasma has been widely used on fusion devices such as DIII-D, NSTX, CDX-U, KSTAR etc. On EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), a filterscope diagnostic system has been mounted to observe the line emission and visible bremsstrahlung emission in plasma from discharge campaign of 2014. It plays a crucial role in studying Edge Localized Modes (ELM) and H-mode, thanks to its high temporal resolution (0.005ms) and good spatial resolution (∼2cm). Furthermore, multi-channel signals at up to 200kHz sampling rates can be digitized simultaneously. The wavelength covers He II (468.5nm), Li I (670.8nm), Li II (548.3nm), C III (465.0nm), O II (441.5nm), Mo I (386.4nm), W I (400.9nm) and visible bremsstrahlung radiation at 538nm besides Dα (656.1nm) and Dγ (433.9nm) with the corresponding wavelength filters. The new developed filterscope system was operating during the EAST 2014 fall experimental campaign and several types ELMs has been observed. (author)

  15. East-West gradient in semen quality in the Nordic-Baltic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Nermoen, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Denmark and Norway have a three-fold higher incidence of testicular cancer than Estonia and Finland. Groups of young men from Denmark, Norway, Finland and Estonia were investigated to elucidate whether semen parameters and other related parameters follow a gradient between these countries, as does...

  16. Cleveland Dam East Abutment : seepage control project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F.; Siu, D. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ahlfield, S.; Singh, N. [Klohn Crippen Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    North Vancouver's 91 meter high Cleveland Dam was built in the 1950s in a deep bedrock canyon to provide a reservoir for potable water to 18 municipalities. Flow in the concrete gravity dam is controlled by a gated spillway, 2 mid-level outlets and intakes and 2 low-level outlets. This paper describes the seepage control measures that were taken at the time of construction as well as the additional measures that were taken post construction to control piezometric levels, seepage and piping and slope instability in the East Abutment. At the time of construction, a till blanket was used to cover the upstream reservoir slope for 200 meters upstream of the dam. A single line grout curtain was used through the overburden from ground surface to bedrock for a distance of 166 meters from the dam to the East Abutment. Since construction, the safety of the dam has been compromised through changes in piezometric pressure, seepage and soil loss. Klohn Crippen Consultants designed a unique seepage control measure to address the instability risk. The project involved excavating 300,000 cubic meters of soil to form a stable slope and construction bench. A vertical wall was constructed to block seepage. The existing seepage control blanket was also extended by 260 meters. The social, environmental and technical issues that were encountered during the rehabilitation project are also discussed. The blanket extension construction has met design requirements and the abutment materials that are most susceptible to internal erosion have been covered by non-erodible blanket materials such as plastic and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). The project was completed on schedule and within budget and has greatly improved the long-term stability of the dam and public safety. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnee Billingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Methods: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became moreimportant in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

  18. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  19. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  20. The Effect of Gender and Ethnicity and their Intersection on Work Satisfaction and Earnings in Estonia, 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeni Hansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trends in the labour market position, defined in terms of three dimensions – earnings, perceived job security and overall job satisfaction – among four population groups in Estonia – Estonian men and women and Russian-speaking men and women. We explore how the labour market position these groups changed between 1993 and 2008. We used data from 1993 and 2008, collected in the population survey Work, Family and Leisure, designed by the Institute of International and Social Studies at Tallinn University. We carried out a two-step analysis: first, we conducted descriptive analysis to explore changes in the labour market situation of men and women of two ethnic groups in the period of 1993-2008; and second, we used models of multivariate analysis of variances to examine how gender, ethnicity and occupational status as well as the intersection of these variables are related to earnings, job security and job satisfaction.We found that Estonian men have emerged as the most successful group in the labour market, while the labour market position of Russian-speaking women is the most disadvantaged compared to other groups in terms of earnings, job security and job satisfaction. We suggest that these labour market inequalities could be increasing, and that the interaction of gender and ethnicity might become increasingly important in shaping labour market outcomes.

  1. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  2. Development of the reed bed in Matsalu wetland, Estonia: responses to neotectonic land uplift, sea level changes and human influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Meriste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reed bed development in Matsalu wetland and the Kasari River delta, Estonia, since the late 18th century using historical schemes, topographical maps and aerial photographs. Our aim was to understand the mechanisms controlling reed distribution in Matsalu wetland, the largest coastal wetland of the eastern Baltic Sea occupying an area of about 25 km2. Natural development of the reed bed in Matsalu Bay and the Kasari delta is mainly controlled by shoreline displacement due to post-glacial neotectonic land uplift. The dredging of the Kasari delta in the 1920s–1930s caused a rapid seaward migration of reed bed communities due to the dispersal of fragmented rhizomes on the shallow sea bottom and along the canal banks reaching Matsalu Bay, while the landward parts of the former wetland were occupied by meadow communities. The expansion of the reed bed started in between the 1951s and 1970s and a maximum extent of 27 km2 was gained by the late 1970s at the peak of eutrophication. In the last decades the reed bed development has been influenced by sea level rise and increased intensity of cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea, which has caused the deterioration of the reed bed that was weakened by eutrophication due to nutrient inflow from agricultural landscapes mainly in the 1960s–1980s.

  3. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  4. The Policies Concerning the Strength of Intellectual Property Rights Protection: The Choices for Estonia in Wider Context of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investment (FDI can be substitute for the contractual transfer of intellectual property rights in a situation where these rights are weakly protected. Hence, stronger intellectual property rights protection may reduce incentives for FDI. This is, however, only one line of reasoning. Stronger intellectual property protection can also increase motivation to invest into completely new products and processes. Thus, from the slightly different perspective FDI and strength of intellectual property protection can be seen as complementary. This duality of impact makes the search for efficient protection very difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to outline the policy choices open for Estonia in influencing the relative strength of intellectual property rights protection and its impact on FDI. The vital secondary research agenda by this concerns the influence of EU-membership on the autonomy of such policy choices. Given the fact that there exist European patents and patent registry, certain intellectual property rights protection measures and legislative practices are undoubtedly pre-determined by this embeddedness into EU-wide protection systems. The national level policies and enforcement issues may still vary.

  5. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  7. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-06-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  8. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  9. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  10. Nuclear power in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This editorial discusses the shifting dominance in the nuclear reactor technology from the USA to new leadership in East Asia. With the expanding economies and electricity demand, Design, construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants in east Asia will support nuclear engineers, technologist, manufacturing facilities, and potential weapons experts. In contrast, the cessation of construction of power reactors in the US is leading to deminished nuclear capabilities

  11. Covering and Reimbursing Telehealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers who are striving to achieve better health care, improved health outcomes and lower costs are considering new strategies and technologies. Telehealth is a tool that uses technology to provide health services remotely, and state leaders are looking to it now more than ever as a way to address workforce gaps and reach underserved patients. Among the challenges facing state lawmakers who are working to introduce or expand telehealth is how to handle covering patients and reimbursing providers.

  12. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  13. Coherence of land surface layout as intangible environmental resource (Vooremaa landscape protection area, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Karasov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vooremaa Landscape Protection Area provides a specimen of native Estonian agricultural lands, alternating with picturesque moraine lakes. The overall visual environment within this area was basically changed by glacial agents and, hereafter, by cultural activities, such as crop farming. Topography consists of about 100 drumlins (some of them are cultivated, as well as depressions, filled with lakes and covered by forests and grasslands. A rich combination of the mentioned factors determined the study area selection. There was accepted, that the harmony, or pleasing organization of distinguishable units of visual environment (with no attention to their colours or textures, but regarding their geographical meaning only, depends on the system effect: the more complexity of the overall system exceeds the algebraic sum of the complexity of its components, the more its organization does. In this way, some developments of information theory could be applied to the analysis of visual environment (from top view, similarly to the analysis of the text (considering units of land relief, land cover, and land cover relief, or a land surface in total, as the symbols of some alphabet, and their diversity within the floating circle – as words, consisting of the symbols. Since mentioned notions of organization and harmony are frequently implied in the concept of landscape coherence, the latter term was used as a fixed and well-known one in the landscape and environmental aesthetics. Hartley’s formula was used to compute the coherence of the land surface layout and the respective regionalization within the study area and surroundings. The effectiveness of the proposed method for representation of visual harmony was non-rigorously verified with transect of Google Street View panoramic photo series, while everyone is welcomed to use the Google Street View to compare the presented results with his own conclusions. There was found, that the proposed index

  14. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. East Cent. East Cent. Afr. J.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. ... collaboration in the writing and editing of Surgical Care at the District Hospital, ... increasing availability of computers and huge developments in software technology such ... Emergency Surgery ...

  15. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu, but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages

  16. An inplementation strategy for the utilization of wind energy in Estonia. Phase 1: Pre-feasibility study and project identification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility and project identification study with the purpose of investigating the possibilities for wind energy in Estonia and to recommend on possible actions, as outlined in Letters of Interest from the Estonian Ministries of Economy and Environment in 1995. Wind as source of energy in Estonia appears not yet to have been analyzed in detail. Available data indicates that wind can constitute a viable domestic source of energy, as average wind speeds of about 6 m/s (at 10 m) are reported at many coastal regions of Estonia. With state-of-the-art wind energy technology this means cost of wind produced electricity about 0.7-0.8 EEK/kWh - comparable to the cost of electricity from a modern coal-fired power plant. Two types of grids exist in these regions: On the mainland and on islands with sea cable grid connected wind turbines can be implemented. On islands without sea cable wind turbines can be connected to the diesel powered local grids. As a first step it is proposed to undertake the detailed planning and feasibility study of grid connected wind energy demonstrations in the framework of the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement. If the decision is made to implement this wind energy demonstration project, a certain proportion of grant money should be allocated for the demonstration. Subsequent steps in the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement should include the detailed planning and feasibility studies of autonomous wind energy demonstration and the associated capacity building. (EG)

  17. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werb Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU through syringe exchange programs (SEPs or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  18. Braids and coverings selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1989-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course taught by the author at the University of Maryland, USA. The lecture notes have been revised and augmented by examples. The work falls into two strands. The first two chapters develop the elementary theory of Artin Braid groups both geometrically and via homotopy theory, and discuss the link between knot theory and the combinatorics of braid groups through Markov's Theorem. The final two chapters give a detailed investigation of polynomial covering maps, which may be viewed as a homomorphism of the fundamental group of the base space into the Artin braid

  19. Eesti julgeoleku tagab üksnes usaldusväärsus : Vabariigi Presidendi Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995 / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1995-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 77 aastapäev. Kõne on ilmunud ka: Päevaleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 1, 6, pealkiri: Eelseisvad valimised kindlustagu poliitika järjepidevust; Eesti Sõnumid, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 3, pealkiri: "Meie raskemad ajad on nüüd tõepoolest selja taga"; Hommikuleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 2, 5, pealkiri: Raskemad ajad on seljataga; Postimees, 27. veebr., lk. 2, 6, pealkiri: President Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995; Meie Elu, 2. märts, lk. 10; Meie Kodu, 8. märts, lk. 5

  20. The beliefs in the inheritance of risk factors for suicide scale (BIRFSS): cross-cultural validation in Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.