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Sample records for covariant light-front approach

  1. Rotational covariance and light-front current matrix elements

    Keister, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Light-front current matrix elements for elastic scattering from hadrons with spin 1 or greater must satisfy a nontrivial constraint associated with the requirement of rotational covariance for the current operator. Using a model ρ meson as a prototype for hadronic quark models, this constraint and its implications are studied at both low and high momentum transfers. In the kinematic region appropriate for asymptotic QCD, helicity rules, together with the rotational covariance condition, yield an additional relation between the light-front current matrix elements

  2. Hamiltonian formalism at light front for two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics equivalent to lorentz-covariant approach

    Paston, S A; Prokhvatilov, E V

    2002-01-01

    The Hamiltonian, reproducing the results of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics in the Lorentz coordinates, is constructed on the light front. The procedure of bosonization and analysis of the boson perturbation theory in all the orders by the fermions mass are applied for this purpose. Besides the common terms, originating by the naive quantization on the light front, the obtained Hamiltonian contains an additional counterterm. It is proportional to the linear combination of the fermion zero modes (multiplied by a certain factor compensating the charge and fermion number). The coefficient before this counterterm has no ultraviolet divergence, depends on the value of the fermion condensate in the theta-vacuum and by the small fermion mass is linear by it

  3. Spin-1 particles with light-front approach

    de Melo J.P.B.C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the vector sector, i.e, mesons with spin-1, the electromagnetic form factors and anothers observables are calculated with the light-front approach. However, the light-front quantum field theory have some problems, for example, the rotational symmetry breaking. We solve that problem added the zero modes contribuition to the matrix elements of the electromagnetic current, besides the valence contribuition. We found that among the four independent matrix elements of the plus component in the light-front helicity basis only the 0 → 0 one carries zero mode contributions.

  4. Transverse Lattice Approach to Light-Front Hamiltonian QCD

    Dalley, S

    1999-01-01

    We describe a non-perturbative procedure for solving from first principles the light-front Hamiltonian problem of SU(N) pure gauge theory in D spacetime dimensions (D>2), based on enforcing Lorentz covariance of observables. A transverse lattice regulator and colour-dielectric link fields are employed, together with an associated effective potential. We argue that the light-front vacuum is necessarily trivial for large enough lattice spacing, and clarify why this leads to an Eguchi-Kawai dimensional reduction of observables to 1+1-dimensions in the infinite N limit. The procedure is then tested by explicit calculations for 2+1-dimensional SU(infinity) gauge theory, within a first approximation to the lattice effective potential. We identify a scaling trajectory which produces Lorentz covariant behaviour for the lightest glueballs. The predicted masses, in units of the measured string tension, are in agreement with recent results from conventional Euclidean lattice simulations. In addition, we obtain the poten...

  5. B{sub c} → B{sub sJ} form factors and B{sub c} decays into B{sub sJ} in covariant light-front approach

    Shi, Yu-Ji; Zhao, Zhen-Xing [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Wang, Wei [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We suggest to study the B{sub s} and its excitations B{sub sJ} in the B{sub c} decays. We calculate the B{sub c} → B{sub sJ} and B{sub c} → B{sub J} form factors within the covariant light-front quark model, where the B{sub sJ} and B{sub J} denote an s-wave or p-wave anti bs and anti bd meson, respectively. The form factors at q{sup 2} = 0 are directly computed while their q{sup 2}-distributions are obtained by extrapolation. The derived form factors are then used to study semileptonic B{sub c} → (B{sub sJ}, B{sub J}) anti lν decays, and nonleptonic B{sub c} → B{sub sJ}π. Branching fractions and polarizations are predicted in the standard model. We find that the branching fractions are sizable and might be accessible at the LHC experiment and future high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with a high luminosity at the Z-pole. The future experimental measurements are helpful to study the nonperturbative QCD dynamics in the presence of a heavy spectator and also of great value for the study of spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Branching fractions of semileptonic D and D{sub s} decays from the covariant light-front quark model

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Kang, Xian-Wei [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China)

    2017-09-15

    Based on the predictions of the relevant form factors from the covariant light-front quark model, we show the branching fractions for the D(D{sub s}) → (P, S, V, A) lν{sub l} (l = e or μ) decays, where P denotes the pseudoscalar meson, S the scalar meson with a mass above 1 GeV, V the vector meson and A the axial-vector one. Comparison with the available experimental results are made, and we find an excellent agreement. The predictions for other decay modes can be tested in a charm factory, e.g., the BESIII detector. The future measurements will definitely further enrich our knowledge of the hadronic transition form factors as well as the inner structure of the even-parity mesons (S and A). (orig.)

  7. Light-Front Hamiltonian Approach to the Bound-State Problem in Quantum Electrodynamics

    Jones, Billy D.

    1997-10-01

    Why is the study of the Lamb shift in hydrogen, which at the level of detail found in this paper was largely completed by Bethe in 1947, of any real interest today? While completing such a calculation using new techniques may be very interesting for formal and academic reasons, our primary motivation is to lay groundwork for precision bound-state calculations in QCD. The Lamb shift provides an excellent pedagogical tool for illustrating light-front Hamiltonian techniques, which are not widely known; but more importantly it presents three of the central dynamical and computational problems that we must face to make these techniques useful for solving QCD: How does a constituent picture emerge in a gauge field theory? How do bound-state energy scales emerge non-perturbatively? How does rotational symmetry emerge in a non-perturbative light-front calculation?

  8. Pauli-Villars regularization in nonperturbative Hamiltonian approach on the light front

    Malyshev, M. Yu., E-mail: mimalysh@yandex.ru; Paston, S. A.; Prokhvatilov, E. V.; Zubov, R. A.; Franke, V. A. [Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The advantage of Pauli-Villars regularization in quantum field theory quantized on the light front is explained. Simple examples of scalar λφ{sup 4} field theory and Yukawa-type model are used. We give also an example of nonperturbative calculation in the theory with Pauli-Villars fields, using for that a model of anharmonic oscillator modified by inclusion of ghost variables playing the role similar to Pauli-Villars fields.

  9. In-Medium K^+ Electromagnetic Form Factor with a Symmetric Vertex in a Light Front Approach

    Yabusaki, George H. S.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.; de Paula, Wayne; Tsushima, K.; Frederico, T.

    2018-05-01

    Using the light-front K^ +-Meson wave function based on a Bethe-Salpeter amplitude model for the Quark-Antiquark bound state, we study the Electromagnetic Form Factor (EMFF) of the K^ +-Meson in nuclear medium within the framework of light-front field theory. The K^ +-Meson model we adopt is well constrained by previous and recent studies to explain its properties in vacuum. The in-medium K^ +-Meson EMFF is evaluated for the plus-component of the electromagnetic current, J^+, in the Breit frame. In order to consistently incorporate the constituent up and antistrange Quarks of the K^ +-Meson immersed in symmetric nuclear matter, we use the Quark-Meson coupling model, which has been widely applied to various hadronic and nuclear phenomena in a nuclear medium with success. We predict the in-medium modification of the K^ +-Meson EMFF in symmetric nuclear matter. It is found that, after a fine tuning of the regulator mass, i.e. m_R = 0.600 GeV, the model is suitable to fit the available experimental data in vacuum within the theoretical uncertainties, and based on this we predict the in-medium modification of the K^ +-Meson EMFF.

  10. Light-Front QCD

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-11-30

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.

  11. Light-Front Holography and the Light-Front Schrodinger Equation

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy

    2012-08-15

    One of the most important nonperturbative methods for solving QCD is quantization at fixed light-front time {tau} = t+z=c - Dirac's 'Front Form'. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian predict the hadron spectrum and the eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions which describe hadron structure. More generally, we show that the valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrodinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. We outline a method for computing the required potential from first principles in QCD. The holographic mapping of gravity in AdS space to QCD, quantized at fixed light-front time, yields the same light front Schrodinger equation; in fact, the soft-wall AdS/QCD approach provides a model for the light-front potential which is color-confining and reproduces well the light-hadron spectrum. One also derives via light-front holography a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. The elastic and transition form factors of the pion and the nucleons are found to be well described in this framework. The light-front AdS/QCD holographic approach thus gives a frame-independent first approximation of the color-confining dynamics, spectroscopy, and excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark bound states in QCD.

  12. Statistical Physics and Light-Front Quantization

    Raufeisen, J

    2004-08-12

    Light-front quantization has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, particularly systems for which boost invariance is essential, such as the fireball created in a heavy ion collisions. In this paper the authors develop light-front field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to quantum chromodynamics. They construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and show that there are no zero-mode related problems when describing phase transitions. They then demonstrate a direct connection between densities in light-front thermal field theory and the parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments. The approach thus generalizes the concept of a parton distribution to finite temperature. In light-front quantization, the gauge-invariant Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and have a much simpler spinor structure than the equal-time fermion propagator. From the Green's function, the authors introduce the new concept of a light-front density matrix, whose matrix elements are related to forward and to off-diagonal parton distributions. Furthermore, they explain how thermodynamic quantities can be calculated in discretized light-cone quantization, which is applicable at high chemical potential and is not plagued by the fermion-doubling problems.

  13. New results in light-front phenomenology

    Brodsky, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The light-front quantization of gauge theories in light-cone gauge provides a frame-independent wavefunction representation of relativistic bound states, simple forms for current matrix elements, explicit unitarity, and a trivial vacuum. In this talk I review the theoretical methods and constraints which can be used to determine these central elements of QCD phenomenology. The freedom to choose the light-like quantization four-vector provides an explicitly covariant formulation of light-front quantization and can be used to determine the analytic structure of light-front wave functions and define a kinematical definition of angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N c supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in four-dimensional space-time has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes. String/gauge duality also predicts the QCD power-law behavior of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with arbitrary orbital angular momentum at high momentum transfer. The form of these near-conformal wavefunctions can be used as an initial ansatz for a variational treatment of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian. The light-front Fock-state wavefunctions encode the bound state properties of hadrons in terms of their quark and gluon degrees of freedom at the amplitude level. The nonperturbative Fock-state wavefunctions contain intrinsic gluons, and sea quarks at any scale Q with asymmetries such as s(x) ≠ s-bar(x), u-bar(x) ≠ d-bar(x). Intrinsic charm and bottom quarks appear at large x in the light-front wavefunctions since this minimizes the invariant mass and off-shellness of the higher Fock state. In the case of nuclei, the Fock state expansion contains 'hidden color' states which cannot be classified in terms of of nucleonic degrees of freedom. I also briefly review recent analyses which show that some

  14. Light front quantum chromodynamics: Towards phenomenology

    Light front dynamics; quantum chromodynamics; deep inelastic scattering. PACS Nos 11.10. ... What makes light front dynamics appealing from high energy phenomenology point of view? .... given in terms of Poincarй generators by. MВ = W P ...

  15. Light front field theory: an advanced primer

    Martinovic, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an elementary introduction to quantum field theory formulated in terms of Dirac's light front variables. In addition to general principles and methods, a few more specific topics and approaches based on the author's work will be discussed. Most of the discussion deals with massive two-dimensional models formulated in a finite spatial volume starting with a detailed comparison between quantization of massive free fields in the usual field theory and the light front (LF) quantization. We discuss basic properties such as relativistic invariance and causality. After the LF treatment of the soluble Federbush model, a LF approach to spontaneous symmetry breaking is explained and a simple gauge theory - the massive Schwinger model in various gauges is studied. A LF version of bosonization and the massive Thirring model are also discussed. A special chapter is devoted to the method of discretized light cone quantization and its application to calculations of the properties of quantum solitons. The problem of LF zero modes is illustrated with the example of the two/dimensional Yukawa model. Hamiltonian perturbation theory in the LF formulation is derived and applied to a few simple processes to demonstrate its advantages. As a byproduct, it is shown that the LF theory cannot be obtained as a 'light-like' limit of the usual field theory quantized on a initial space-like surface. A simple LF formulation of the Higgs mechanism is then given Since our intention was to provide a treatment of the light front quantization accessible to postgradual students, an effort was made to discuss most of the topics pedagogically and number of technical details and derivations are contained in the appendices (Author)

  16. Application of a Light-Front Coupled Cluster Method

    Chabysheva, S.S.; Hiller, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    As a test of the new light-front coupled-cluster method in a gauge theory, we apply it to the nonperturbative construction of the dressed-electron state in QED, for an arbitrary covariant gauge, and compute the electron's anomalous magnetic moment. The construction illustrates the spectator and Fock-sector independence of vertex and self-energy contributions and indicates resolution of the difficulties with uncanceled divergences that plague methods based on Fock-space truncation. (author)

  17. The 3He spectral function in light-front dynamics

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered for the extraction of the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers, where final state interactions are taken into account. The generalization of the analysis to a Poincaré covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  18. Nuclear Physics on the Light Front

    Miller, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    High energy scattering experiments involving nuclei are typically analyzed in terms of light front variables. The desire to provide realistic, relativistic wave functions expressed in terms of these variables led me to try to use light front dynamics to compute nuclear wave functions. The progress is summarized here.

  19. Taylor-Lagrange regularization scheme and light-front dynamics

    Grange, P.; Mathiot, J.-F.; Mutet, B.; Werner, E.

    2010-01-01

    The recently proposed renormalization scheme based on the definition of field operators as operator valued distributions acting on specific test functions is shown to be very convenient in explicit calculations of physical observables within the framework of light-front dynamics. We first recall the main properties of this procedure based on identities relating the test functions to their Taylor remainder of any order expressed in terms of Lagrange's formulae, hence the name given to this scheme. We thus show how it naturally applies to the calculation of state vectors of physical systems in the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. As an example, we consider the case of the Yukawa model in the simple two-body Fock state truncation.

  20. Double parton correlations in Light-Front constituent quark models

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double parton distribution functions (dPDF represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. They can be measured in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions and encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other. dPFDs are studied here in the valence quark region, by means of a constituent quark model, where two particle correlations are present without any additional prescription. This framework allows to understand the dynamical origin of the correlations and to clarify which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Use will be made of a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of the previous calculation. Transverse momentum correlations, due to the exact treatment of the boosts, are predicted and analyzed. The role of spin correlations is also shown. Due to the covariance of the approach, some symmetries of the dPDFs are seen unambigously. For the valence sector, also the study of the QCD evolution of the model results, which can be performed safely thanks to the property of good support, has been also completed.

  1. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Costa Rica U.

    2011-01-10

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its {beta}-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  2. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2011-01-01

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate ζ which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its β-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  3. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2003-03-25

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  4. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    Brodskey, Stanley

    2002-12-01

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  5. Electromagnetic form factors in the light-front dynamics

    Karmanov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the electromagnetic vertex of a nucleus (and of any bound system), expressed through the wave function in the light-front dynamics at relativistic values of momentum transfer, contains a contribution of nonphysical form factors which increases the total number of invariant form factors (for the deuteron from 3 up to 11). This fact explains an ambiguity in the form factors calculated previously. The physical and nonphysical form factors are covariantly separated. Explicit expressions for physical form factors of systems with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 through the vertex functions are obtained. (orig.)

  6. Light-front nuclear shell-model

    Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    I examine the effects of nuclear structure on high-energy, high-momentum transfer processes, specifically the EMC effect. For pedagogical reasons, a fictitious but simple two-body system consisting of two equal-mass particles interacting in a harmonic oscillator potential has been chosen. For this toy nucleus, I utilize a widely-used link between instant-form and light-front dynamics, formulating nuclear structure and deep-inelastic scattering consistently in the laboratory system. Binding effects are compared within conventional instant-form and light-front dynamical frameworks, with appreciable differences being found in the two cases. 20 refs

  7. Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach

    Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows for flexi......This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...

  8. Light-Front Dynamics in Hadron Physics

    Ji, C.R.; Bakker, B.L.G.; Choi, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Light-front dynamics(LFD) plays an important role in the analyses of relativistic few-body systems. As evidenced from the recent studies of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in hadron physics, a natural framework for a detailed study of hadron structures is LFD due to its direct application in

  9. QCD and Light-Front Holography

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2010-10-27

    The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The model predicts a zero-mass pion for zero-mass quarks and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number N. Light-Front Holography maps the amplitudes which are functions of the fifth dimension variable z of anti-de Sitter space to a corresponding hadron theory quantized on the light front. The resulting Lorentz-invariant relativistic light-front wave equations are functions of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. The result is to a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states, which in turn predict the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors. The theory implements chiral symmetry in a novel way: the effects of chiral symmetry breaking increase as one goes toward large interquark separation, consistent with spectroscopic data, and the the hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub g1} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms. A new perspective on quark and gluon condensates is also reviewed.

  10. QCD Phenomenology and Light-Front Wavefunctions

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2001-01-01

    A natural calculus for describing the bound-state structure of relativistic composite systems in quantum field theory is the light-front Fock expansion which encodes the properties of a hadrons in terms of a set of frame-independent n-particle wavefunctions. Light-front quantization in the doubly-transverse light-cone gauge has a number of remarkable advantages, including explicit unitarity, a physical Fock expansion, the absence of ghost degrees of freedom, and the decoupling properties needed to prove factorization theorems in high momentum transfer inclusive and exclusive reactions. A number of applications are discussed in these lectures, including semileptonic B decays, two-photon exclusive reactions, diffractive dissociation into jets, and deeply virtual Compton scattering. The relation of the intrinsic sea to the light-front wavefunctions is discussed. Light-front quantization can also be used in the Hamiltonian form to construct an event generator for high energy physics reactions at the amplitude level. The light-cone partition function, summed over exponentially weighted light-cone energies, has simple boost properties which may be useful for studies in heavy ion collisions. I also review recent work which shows that the structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton scattering are affected by final-state rescattering, thus modifying their connection to light-front probability distributions. In particular, the shadowing of nuclear structure functions is due to destructive interference effects from leading-twist diffraction of the virtual photon, physics not included in the nuclear light-cone wavefunctions

  11. Membrane dynamics in the intrinsic light-front coordinates

    Aragone, C.; Restuccia, A.; Torrealba, R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors study the dynamics of the membrane, using internal light-front (LF) coordinates. The set of constraints, although equivalent to the standard one, is different. The intrinsic LF gauge is defined. Four additional, alternative gauge-fixing conditions are analyzed. Two of them polynomialize the system, while the other two are convenient for studying the initial-value problem. In particular, one of them is also extrinsically (i.e., in the ambient space) light-front. In this gauge, the system is shown to be consistently reduced to attain a canonical form in terms of pure transverse variables. Two constraints on these variables still hold, clearly showing the presence, as they must, of D - 3 degrees of freedom. Finally, the initial-value problem in this intrinsic-extrinsic. LF gauge is solved. Although the paper is based on the first-order action, the LF-Hamiltonian approach is discussed too

  12. Photon polarization tensor in the light front field theory at zero and finite temperatures

    Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana; Strauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, light front quantized field theories have been successfully generalized to finite temperature. The light front frame was introduced by Dirac , and the quantization of field theories on the null-plane has found applications in many branches of physics. In order to obtain the thermal contribution, we consider the hard thermal loop approximation. This technique was developed by Braaten and Pisarski for the thermal quantum field theory at equal times and is particularly useful to extract the leading thermal contributions to the amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theories. In this work, we consider the light front quantum electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and evaluate the photon polarization tensor at one loop for both zero and finite temperatures. In the first case, we apply the dimensional regularization method to extract the finite contribution and find the transverse structure for the amplitude in terms of the light front coordinates. The result agrees with one-loop covariant calculation. For the thermal corrections, we generalize the hard thermal loop approximation to the light front and calculate the dominant temperature contribution to the polarization tensor, consistent with the Ward identity. In both zero as well as finite temperature calculations, we use the oblique light front coordinates. (author)

  13. Projecting the Bethe-Salpeter Equation onto the Light-Front and Back: A Short Review

    Frederico, T.; Salme, G.

    2011-01-01

    The technique of projecting the four-dimensional two-body Bethe-Salpeter equation onto the three-dimensional Light-Front hypersurface, combined with the quasi-potential approach, is briefly illustrated, by placing a particular emphasis on the relation between the projection method and the effective dynamics of the valence component of the Light-Front wave function. Some details on how to construct the Fock expansion of both (a) the Light-Front effective interaction and (b) the electromagnetic current operator, satisfying the proper Ward-Takahashi identity, will be presented, addressing the relevance of the Fock content in the operators living onto the Light-Front hypersurface. Finally, the generalization of the formalism to the three-particle case will be outlined. (author)

  14. Light-Front Holography, Light-Front Wavefunctions, and Novel QCD Phenomena

    Brodsky, S. J.; de Teramond, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Light-front holography is one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In spite of its present limitations, it provides important physical insights into the non-perturbative regime of QCD and its transition to the perturbative domain. This novel framework allows hadronic...... projected on the free Fock basis provides the complete set of valence and non-valence light-front Fock state wavefunctions Psi(n)/H(x(i), k(perpendicular to i), lambda(i)) which describe the hadron's momentum and spin distributions needed to compute the direct measures of hadron structure at the quark...

  15. Vector mesons on the light front

    Naito, K.; Maedan, S.; Itakura, K.

    2004-01-01

    We apply the light-front quantization to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the vector interaction, and compute vector meson's mass and light-cone wavefunction in the large N limit. Following the same procedure as in the previous analyses for scalar and pseudo-scalar mesons, we derive the bound-state equations of a qq-bar system in the vector channel. We include the lowest order effects of the vector interaction. The resulting transverse and longitudinal components of the bound-state equation look different from each other. But eventually after imposing an appropriate cutoff, one finds these two are identical, giving the same mass and the same (spin-independent) light-cone wavefunction. Mass of the vector meson decreases as one increases the strength of the vector interaction

  16. Light-front quantization of field theory

    Srivastava, Prem P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs.

  17. Light-front quantization of field theory

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs

  18. Light-Front Holography, Light-Front Wavefunctions, and Novel QCD Phenomena

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    Light-Front Holography is one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In spite of its present limitations it provides important physical insights into the nonperturbative regime of QCD and its transition to the perturbative domain. This novel framework allows hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The model leads to an effective confining light-front QCD Hamiltonian and a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound-state wavefunctions, and thus the fall-off as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The soft-wall holographic model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics - a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryons. The model predicts a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number n. The hadron eigensolutions projected on the free Fock basis provides the complete set of valence and non-valence light-front Fock state wavefunctions {Psi}{sub n/H} (x{sub i}, k{sub {perpendicular}i}, {lambda}{sub i}) which describe the hadron's momentum and spin distributions needed to compute the direct measures of hadron structure at the quark and gluon level, such as elastic and transition form factors, distribution amplitudes, structure functions, generalized parton distributions and transverse

  19. Novel Perspectives from Light-Front QCD, Super-Conformal Algebra, and Light-Front Holography

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Light-Front Quantization – Dirac’s “Front Form” – provides a physical, frame-independent formalism for hadron dynamics and structure. Observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes are defined from the hadronic LFWFs. One obtains new insights into the hadronic mass scale, the hadronic spectrum, and the functional form of the QCD running coupling in the nonperturbative domain using light-front holography. In addition, superconformal algebra leads to remarkable supersymmetric relations between mesons and baryons. I also discuss evidence that the antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is nonuniversal; i.e., flavor dependent, and why shadowing and antishadowing phenomena may be incompatible with the momentum and other sum rules for the nuclear parton distribution functions.

  20. AdS/QCD and Applications of Light-Front Holography

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; Cao, Fu-Guang; /Massey U.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    Light-Front Holography leads to a rigorous connection between hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in 3 + 1 physical space-time, thus providing a compelling physical interpretation of the AdS/CFT correspondence principle and AdS/QCD, a useful framework which describes the correspondence between theories in a modified AdS5 background and confining field theories in physical space-time. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this approach leads to a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time. The internal structure of hadrons is explicitly introduced and the angular momentum of the constituents plays a key role. We give an overview of the light-front holographic approach to strongly coupled QCD. In particular, we study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} M using light-front holographic methods. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}' mesons are also presented. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  1. Light-Front Dynamics in Hadron Physics

    Ji, C.-R.; Bakker, B.L.G.; Choi, H.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Light-front dynamics(LFD) plays an important role in the analyses of relativistic few-body systems. As evidenced from the recent studies of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in hadron physics, a natural framework for a detailed study of hadron structures is LFD due to its direct application in Minkowski space as well as its distinct feature of accounting for the vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theories. In the last few years, however, it has been emphasized that treacherous points such as LF singularities and zero-modes should be taken into account for successful LFD applications to hadron phenomenology. In this paper, we discuss a typical example of the contemporary relativistic hadron physics in which the fundamental issues should be taken into account for the successful application of LFD. In particular, we focus on the kinematic issue of GPDs in deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). Although this fundamental issue has been glossed over in the literature, it must be taken care of for the correct analysis of DVCS data. (author)

  2. Light-like noncommutativity, light-front quantization and new light on UV/IR mixing

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Tureanu, A.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the problem of quantizing field theories on noncommutative Moyal space-time with light-like noncommutativity. To tackle the issues arising from noncommuting and hence nonlocal time, we argue that for this case light-front quantization procedure should be employed. In this appropriate quantization scheme we perform the non-planar loop analysis for the light-like noncommutative field theories. One of the important and peculiar features of light-front quantization is that the UV cutoff of the light-cone Hamiltonian manifests itself as an IR cutoff for the light-cone momentum, p + . Due to this feature, the naive results of covariant quantization for the light-like case allude to the absence of the UV/IR mixing in the light-front quantization. However, by a careful analysis of non-planar loop integrals we show that this is not the case and the UV/IR mixing persists. In addition, we argue in favour of the perturbative unitarity of light-like noncommutative field theories in the light-front quantization scheme.

  3. Vector anomaly and practicality of light-front dynamics

    Chueng-Ryong Ji; Bakker, B.L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Light-front dynamics (LFD) is like sweeping dirt to a corner to make the rest of the space clean. This feature allows many practical applications of LFD to the phenomenology of particle physics. To strengthen the practicality of LFD, however, it is necessary to check where the dirt is piled and to find ways to handle the associate complications. In this presentation, we discuss an explicit example of a non-vanishing zero-mode contribution to physical amplitudes which has been regarded as one of the typical complications in LFD. In particular, we analyze the vector anomaly occurring in the calculation of the CP-even form factors of the elementary W ± gauge bosons and find that the zero-mode contribution to the helicity zero-to-zero amplitude for the W ± gauge bosons is crucial for the correct LFD calculations. Further, we confirm that the anomaly-free condition found in the analysis of the axial anomaly can also get rid of the vector anomaly in LFD as well as in the manifestly covariant calculations. Our findings in this work may provide a bottom-up fitness test not only to the LFD calculations but also to the theory itself, whether it is the standard model or any extension of the standard model. (author)

  4. Isovector meson-exchange currents in the light-front dynamics

    Desplanques, B.; Karmanov, V.A.; Mathiot, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    In the light-front dynamics, there is no pair term that plays the role of the dominant isovector pion exchange current. This current gives rise to the large and experimentally observed contribution to the deuteron electrodisintegration cross-section near threshold for pseudo-scalar πNN coupling. It is analytically shown that in leading 1/m order the amplitude in the light-front dynamics coincides, however, with the one given by the pair term. At high Q 2 , it consists of two equal parts. One comes from extra components of the deuteron and final state relativistic wave functions. The other results from the contact NNπγ interaction which appears in the light-front dynamics. This provides a transparent link between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  5. Light-front field theory in the description of hadrons

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the use of light-front field theory in the descriptions of hadrons. In particular, we clarify the confusion in the prevailing notion of the equivalence between the infinite momentum frame and the light-front dynamics and the advantage of the light-front dynamics in hadron physics. As an application, we present our recent work on the flavor asymmetry in the proton sea and identify the presence of the delta-function contributions associated with end-point singularities arising from the chiral effective theory calculation. The results pave the way for phenomenological applications of pion cloud models that are manifestly consistent with the chiral symmetry properties of QCD.

  6. Gluon cascades and amplitudes in light-front perturbation theory

    Cruz-Santiago, C.A.; Staśto, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We construct the gluon wave functions, fragmentation functions and scattering amplitudes within the light-front perturbation theory. Recursion relations on the light-front are constructed for the wave functions and fragmentation functions, which in the latter case are the light-front analogs of the Berends–Giele recursion relations. Using general relations between wave functions and scattering amplitudes it is demonstrated how to obtain the maximally-helicity violating amplitudes, and explicit verification of the results is based on simple examples.

  7. Light-front zero-mode contribution to the Ward Identity

    Sales, J.H.O.; Suzuki, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    In a covariant gauge we implicitly assume that the Green's function propagates information from one point of the space-time to another, so that the Green's function is responsible for the dynamics of the relativistic particle. In the light front form one would naively expect that this feature would be preserved. In this manner, the fermionic field propagator can be split into a propagating piece and a non-propagating ('contact') term. Since the latter ('contact') one does not propagate information, and therefore, supposedly can be discarded with no harm to the field dynamics we wanted to know what would be the impact of dropping it off. To do that, we investigated its role in the Ward identity in the light front. Here we use the terminology Ward identity to identify the limiting case of photon's zero momentum transfer in the vertex from the more general Ward-Takahashi identity with nonzero momentum transfer.

  8. Light-front quantization of the sine-Gordon model

    Burkardt, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how to modify the canonical light-front quantization of the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model such that the zero-mode problem of light-front quantization is avoided. The canonical sine-Gordon Lagrangian is replaced by an effective Lagrangian which does not lead to divergences as k + =(k 0 +k 1 )/ √2 →0. After canonically quantizing the effective Lagrangian, one obtains the effective light-front Hamiltonian which agrees with the naive light-front (LF) Hamiltonian, up to one additional renormalization. The spectrum of the effective LF Hamiltonian is determined using discrete light-cone quantization and agrees with results from equal-time quantization

  9. Poincare invariant algebra from instant to light-front quantization

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Mitchell, Chad

    2001-01-01

    We present the Poincare algebra interpolating between instant and light-front time quantizations. The angular momentum operators satisfying SU(2) algebra are constructed in an arbitrary interpolation angle and shown to be identical to the ordinary angular momentum and Leutwyler-Stern angular momentum in the instant and light-front quantization limits, respectively. The exchange of the dynamical role between the transverse angular mometum and the boost operators is manifest in our newly constructed algebra

  10. Zero modes in discretized light-front quantization

    Martinovic, E.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the role of bosonic zero modes in field-theoretical models quantized at the equal light-front time is reviewed. After a brief discussion of the main features of the light-front field theories - in particular the simplicity of the physical vacuum - the light-front canonical formalism for the quantum electrodynamics and the Yukawa model is sketched. The zero mode of Maskawa and Yamawaki is reviewed. Reasons for the appearance of the constrained and/or dynamical zero modes are explained along with the subtleties of the gauge fixing in presence of boundary conditions. Perturbative treatment of the corresponding constraint equations in the Yukawa model and quantum electrodynamics (3+1) is outlined. The next topic is the manifestation of the symmetry breaking in the light-front field theory. A pattern of multiple solutions to the zero-mode constraint equations replacing physical picture of multiple vacua of the conventionally quantized field theories is illustrated on an example of 2-dimensional theory. The importance of a (regularized) constrained zero mode of the pion field for the consistency of the Nambu-Goldstone phase of the discretized light-front linear a/model is demonstrated. Finally, a non-trivial physical vacuum based on the dynamical zero mode is constructed for the two-dimensional light-front quantum electrodynamics. (authors)

  11. Light-Front Holography and AdS/QCD Correspondence

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2008-04-23

    Light-Front Holography is a remarkable consequence of the correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical-space time. It allows string modes {Phi}(z) in the AdS fifth dimension to be precisely mapped to the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in terms of a specific light-front impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron. This mapping was originally obtained by matching the exact expression for electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding exact expression for the current matrix element using light-front theory in physical space-time. More recently we have shown that one obtains the identical holographic mapping using matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, thus providing an important consistency test and verification of holographic mapping from AdS to physical observables defined on the light-front. The resulting light-front Schrodinger equations predicted from AdS/QCD give a good representation of the observed meson and baryon spectra and give excellent phenomenological predictions for amplitudes such as electromagnetic form factors and decay constants.

  12. Recursion relations for multi-gluon off-shell amplitudes on the light-front and Wilson lines

    C. Cruz-Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the off-shell scattering amplitudes in the framework of the light-front perturbation theory. It is shown that the previously derived recursion relation between tree level off-shell amplitudes in this formalism actually resums whole classes of graphs into a Wilson line. More precisely, we establish a correspondence between the light-front methods for the computation of the off-shell amplitudes and the approach which makes use of the matrix elements of straight infinite Wilson lines, which are manifestly gauge invariant objects. Furthermore, since it is needed to explicitly verify the gauge invariance of light-front amplitudes, it is demonstrated that the Ward identities in this framework need additional instantaneous terms in the light-front graphs.

  13. Light-front QCD. II. Two-component theory

    Zhang, W.; Harindranath, A.

    1993-01-01

    The light-front gauge A a + =0 is known to be a convenient gauge in practical QCD calculations for short-distance behavior, but there are persistent concerns about its use because of its ''singular'' nature. The study of nonperturbative field theory quantizing on a light-front plane for hadronic bound states requires one to gain a priori systematic control of such gauge singularities. In the second paper of this series we study the two-component old-fashioned perturbation theory and various severe infrared divergences occurring in old-fashioned light-front Hamiltonian calculations for QCD. We also analyze the ultraviolet divergences associated with a large transverse momentum and examine three currently used regulators: an explicit transverse cutoff, transverse dimensional regularization, and a global cutoff. We discuss possible difficulties caused by the light-front gauge singularity in the applications of light-front QCD to both old-fashioned perturbative calculations for short-distance physics and upcoming nonperturbative investigations for hadronic bound states

  14. A New Approach for Nuclear Data Covariance and Sensitivity Generation

    Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Derrien, H.; Kawano, T.; Chadwick, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Covariance data are required to correctly assess uncertainties in design parameters in nuclear applications. The error estimation of calculated quantities relies on the nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries, such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B. The uncertainty files in the ENDF/B library are obtained from the analysis of experimental data and are stored as variance and covariance data. The computer code SAMMY is used in the analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. The data fitting of cross sections is based on generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes' theory) together with the resonance formalism described by R-matrix theory. Two approaches are used in SAMMY for the generation of resonance-parameter covariance data. In the evaluation process SAMMY generates a set of resonance parameters that fit the data, and, in addition, it also provides the resonance-parameter covariances. For existing resonance-parameter evaluations where no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, the alternative is to use an approach called the 'retroactive' resonance-parameter covariance generation. In the high-energy region the methodology for generating covariance data consists of least-squares fitting and model parameter adjustment. The least-squares fitting method calculates covariances directly from experimental data. The parameter adjustment method employs a nuclear model calculation such as the optical model and the Hauser-Feshbach model, and estimates a covariance for the nuclear model parameters. In this paper we describe the application of the retroactive method and the parameter adjustment method to generate covariance data for the gadolinium isotopes

  15. Light-front field theory in the description of hadrons

    Ji Chueng-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the use of light-front field theory in the descriptions of hadrons. In particular, we clarify the confusion in the prevailing notion of the equivalence between the infinite momentum frame and the light-front dynamics and the advantage of the light-front dynamics in hadron physics. As an application, we present our recent work on the flavor asymmetry in the proton sea and identify the presence of the delta-function contributions associated with end-point singularities arising from the chiral effective theory calculation. The results pave the way for phenomenological applications of pion cloud models that are manifestly consistent with the chiral symmetry properties of QCD.

  16. Light-front dynamics of Chern-Simons systems

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1994-10-01

    The Chern-Simons theory coupled to complex scalars is quantized on the light-front in the local light-cone gauge by constructing the self-consistent Hamiltonian theory. It is shown that no inconsistency arises on using two local gauge-fixing conditions in the Dirac procedure. The light-front Hamiltonian turns out to be simple and the framework may be useful to construct renormalized field theory of particles with fractional statistics (anyons). The theory is shown to be relativistic and the extra term in the transformation of the matter field under space rotations, interpreted in previous works as anomaly, is argued to be gauge artefact. (author). 20 refs

  17. Light-front view of the axial anomaly

    Ji, C.; Rey, S.

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by an apparent puzzle of the light-front vacua incompatible with the axial anomaly, we have considered the two-dimensional massless Schwinger model for an arbitrary interpolating angle of Hornbostel close-quote s interpolating quantization surface. By examining spectral deformation of the Dirac sea under an external electric field semiclassically, we have found that the axial anomaly is quantization angle independent. This indicates an intricate nontrivial vacuum structure present even in the light-front limit. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Vacuum Polarization Tensor for QED in the Light Front Gauge

    Suzuki, A.T.; Soriano, L.A.; Bolzan, J.D.; Sales, J.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    The use of light front coordinates in quantum field theories (QFT) always brought some problems and controversies. In this work we explore some aspects of its formalism with respect to the employment of dimensional regularization in the computation of the photon's self-energy at the one-loop level and how the fermion propagator has an important role in the outcoming results. (author)

  19. Covariance Partition Priors: A Bayesian Approach to Simultaneous Covariance Estimation for Longitudinal Data.

    Gaskins, J T; Daniels, M J

    2016-01-02

    The estimation of the covariance matrix is a key concern in the analysis of longitudinal data. When data consists of multiple groups, it is often assumed the covariance matrices are either equal across groups or are completely distinct. We seek methodology to allow borrowing of strength across potentially similar groups to improve estimation. To that end, we introduce a covariance partition prior which proposes a partition of the groups at each measurement time. Groups in the same set of the partition share dependence parameters for the distribution of the current measurement given the preceding ones, and the sequence of partitions is modeled as a Markov chain to encourage similar structure at nearby measurement times. This approach additionally encourages a lower-dimensional structure of the covariance matrices by shrinking the parameters of the Cholesky decomposition toward zero. We demonstrate the performance of our model through two simulation studies and the analysis of data from a depression study. This article includes Supplementary Material available online.

  20. QCD Phenomenology and Light-Front Wave Functions

    Brodsky, St.J.

    2001-01-01

    A natural calculus for describing the bound-state structure of relativistic composite systems in quantum field theory is the light-front Fock expansion which encodes the properties of a hadrons in terms of a set of frame-independent n-particle wave functions. Light-front quantization in the doubly-transverse light-cone gauge has a number of remarkable advantages, including explicit unitarity, a physical Fock expansion, the absence of ghost degrees of freedom, and the decoupling properties needed to prove factorization theorems in high momentum transfer inclusive and exclusive reactions. A number of applications are discussed in these lectures, including semileptonic B decays, two-photon exclusive reactions, diffractive dissociation into jets, and deeply virtual Compton scattering. The relation of the intrinsic sea to the light-front wave functions is discussed. Light-front quantization can also be used in the Hamiltonian form to construct an event generator for high energy physics reactions at the amplitude level. The light-cone partition function, summed over exponentially-weighted light-cone energies, has simple boost properties which may be useful for studies in heavy ion collisions. I also review recent work which shows that the structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton scattering are affected by final-state rescattering, thus modifying their connection to light-front probability distributions. In particular, the shadowing of nuclear structure functions is due to destructive interference effects from leading-twist diffraction of the virtual photon, physics not included in the nuclear light-cone wave functions. (author)

  1. Semileptonic Bc decays in the light-front quark model

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the exclusive semileptonic B c →(D,η c ,B,B s )lν l , η b →B c lν l (l=e,μ,τ) decays using the light-front quark model constrained by the variational principle for the QCD motivated effective Hamiltonian. The form factors f + (q 2 ) and f - (q 2 ) are obtained from the analytic continuation method in the q + =0 frame. While the form factor f + (q 2 ) is free from the zero mode, the form factor f - (q 2 ) is not free from the zero mode in the q + =0 frame. Using our effective method to relate the non-wave function vertex to the light-front valence wave function, we incorporate the zero-mode contribution as a convolution of zero-mode operator with the initial and final state wave functions.

  2. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale μ∝ 1 GeV; they also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions q_v(x) and δq_v(x). Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN). (orig.)

  3. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    Gutsche, Thomas [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Particle Physics, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile); Schmidt, Ivan [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale μ∝ 1 GeV; they also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions q{sub v}(x) and δq{sub v}(x). Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN). (orig.)

  4. Feynman versus Bakamjian-Thomas in light-front dynamics

    Araujo, W.R.B. de; Beyer, M.; Weber, H.J.; Frederico, T.

    1999-01-01

    We compare the Bakamjian-Thomas (BT) formulation of relativistic few-body systems with light-front field theories that maintain closer contact with Feynman diagrams. We find that Feynman diagrams distinguish Melosh rotations and other kinematical quantities belonging to various composite subsystem frames that correspond to different loop integrals. The BT formalism knows only the rest frame of the whole composite system, where everything is evaluated. (author)

  5. Light-front wave function of composite system with spin

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method to construct the relativistic wave function with spin on the light front is developed. The spin structure of the deuteron wave function in relativistic range is found. The calculation methods are illustrated by the calculation of elastic pd-scattering cross section. The consideration carried out is equivalent to the solution of the problem of taking into account the spins and angular momenta in the parton wave functions in the infinite momentum frame

  6. Higgs mechanism in light-front quantized field theory

    Srivastava, P P

    1993-12-31

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of continuous symmetry in light-front quantized scalar field theory is studied following the standard Dirac procedure for constrained dynamical systems. A non-local constraint is found to follow. The values of the constant backgrounds fields (zero modes) at the tree level, as a consequence, are shown to given by minimizing the light-front energy. The zero modes are shown to commute with the non-zero ones and the isovector built from them is seen to characterize a (non-perturbative) vacuum state and the corresponding physical sector. The infinite degeneracy of the vacuum is described by the continuum of the allowed orientations of this background isovector in the isospin space. The symmetry generators in the quantized field theory annihilate the vacuum is contrast to the case of equal-time quantization. Not all of them are conserved and the conserved ones determine the surviving symmetry of the quantum theory Lagrangian. The criteria for determining the background isovector and the counting of the number of Goldstone bosons goes as in the equal-time case. A demonstration in favour of the absence of Goldstone bosons in two dimensions is also found. Finally, is extended to an understanding of the Higgs mechanism in light-front frame. (author). 13 refs.

  7. Higgs mechanism in light-front quantized field theory

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of continuous symmetry in light-front quantized scalar field theory is studied following the standard Dirac procedure for constrained dynamical systems. A non-local constraint is found to follow. The values of the constant backgrounds fields (zero modes) at the tree level, as a consequence, are shown to given by minimizing the light-front energy. The zero modes are shown to commute with the non-zero ones and the isovector built from them is seen to characterize a (non-perturbative) vacuum state and the corresponding physical sector. The infinite degeneracy of the vacuum is described by the continuum of the allowed orientations of this background isovector in the isospin space. The symmetry generators in the quantized field theory annihilate the vacuum is contrast to the case of equal-time quantization. Not all of them are conserved and the conserved ones determine the surviving symmetry of the quantum theory Lagrangian. The criteria for determining the background isovector and the counting of the number of Goldstone bosons goes as in the equal-time case. A demonstration in favour of the absence of Goldstone bosons in two dimensions is also found. Finally, is extended to an understanding of the Higgs mechanism in light-front frame. (author). 13 refs

  8. Heavy and Heavy-Light Mesons in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Stadler, Alfred; Leitão, Sofia; Peña, M. T.; Biernat, Elmar P.

    2018-05-01

    The masses and vertex functions of heavy and heavy-light mesons, described as quark-antiquark bound states, are calculated with the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). We use a kernel with an adjustable mixture of Lorentz scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector linear confining interaction, together with a one-gluon-exchange kernel. A series of fits to the heavy and heavy-light meson spectrum were calculated, and we discuss what conclusions can be drawn from it, especially about the Lorentz structure of the kernel. We also apply the Brodsky-Huang-Lepage prescription to express the CST wave functions for heavy quarkonia in terms of light-front variables. They agree remarkably well with light-front wave functions obtained in the Hamiltonian basis light-front quantization approach, even in excited states.

  9. Meson Transition Form Factors in Light-Front Holographic QCD

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Cao, Fu-Guang; /Massey U.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2011-06-22

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction P{sub q{bar q}} = 0.5 is required; thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wavefunction need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks (anti-quarks) which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements, P{sub q{bar q}q{bar q}} {approx} 10%, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wavefunction. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} TFFs.

  10. Constraints and Hamiltonian in light-front quantized field theory

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self-consistent hamiltonian formulation of scalar theory on the null plane is constructed and quantized following the Dirac procedure. The theory contains also constraint equations which would give, if solved, to a nonlocal Hamiltonian. In contrast to the equal-time formulation we obtain a different description of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the continuum and the symmetry generators are found to annihilate the light-front vacuum. Two examples are given where the procedure cannot be applied self-consistently. The corresponding theories are known to be ill-defined from the equal-time quantization. (author)

  11. Light-front higher-spin theories in flat space

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Skvortsov, Evgeny

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the problem of interactions of higher-spin fields in flat space. We argue that all no-go theorems can be avoided by the light-cone approach, which results in more interaction vertices as compared to the usual covariant approaches. It is stressed that there exist two-derivative gravitational couplings of higher-spin fields. We show that some reincarnation of the equivalence principle still holds for higher-spin fields—the strength of gravitational interaction does not depend on spin. Moreover, it follows from the results by Metsaev that there exists a complete chiral higher-spin theory in four dimensions. We give a simple derivation of this theory and show that the four-point scattering amplitude vanishes. Also, we reconstruct the quartic vertex of the scalar field in the unitary higher-spin theory, which turns out to be perturbatively local.

  12. Light-front higher-spin theories in flat space

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Skvortsov, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the problem of interactions of higher-spin fields in flat space. We argue that all no-go theorems can be avoided by the light-cone approach, which results in more interaction vertices as compared to the usual covariant approaches. It is stressed that there exist two-derivative gravitational couplings of higher-spin fields. We show that some reincarnation of the equivalence principle still holds for higher-spin fields—the strength of gravitational interaction does not depend on spin. Moreover, it follows from the results by Metsaev that there exists a complete chiral higher-spin theory in four dimensions. We give a simple derivation of this theory and show that the four-point scattering amplitude vanishes. Also, we reconstruct the quartic vertex of the scalar field in the unitary higher-spin theory, which turns out to be perturbatively local. (paper)

  13. Quantum electrodynamics in the light-front Weyl gauge

    Przeszowski, J.; Naus, H.W.; Kalloniatis, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    We examine (3+1)-dimensional QED quantized in the open-quote open-quote front form close-quote close-quote with finite open-quote open-quote volume close-quote close-quote regularization, namely, in discretized light-cone quantization. Instead of the light-cone or Coulomb gauges, we impose the light-front Weyl gauge A - =0. The Dirac method is used to arrive at the quantum commutation relations for the independent variables. We apply open-quote open-quote quantum-mechanical gauge fixing close-quote close-quote to implement Gauss close-quote law, and derive the physical Hamiltonian in terms of unconstrained variables. As in the instant form, this Hamiltonian is invariant under global residual gauge transformations, namely, displacements. On the light cone the symmetry manifests itself quite differently. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. AdS/CFT and Light-Front QCD

    Brodsky, S

    2008-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently nonperturbative aspects of QCD such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection leads to AdS/CFT predictions for the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties. The LFWFs in turn predict decay constants and spin correlations, as well as dynamical quantities such as form factors, structure functions, generalized parton distributions, and exclusive scattering amplitudes. Relativistic light-front equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the fifth-dimensional theory and have remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. As specific examples we describe the behavior of the pion form factor in the space and time-like regions and determine the Dirac nucleon form factors in the space-like region. An extension to nonzero quark mass is used to determine hadronic distribution amplitudes of all mesons, heavy and light. We compare our results with the moments of the distribution amplitudes which have recently been computed from lattice gauge theory

  15. Theory and Experiment for Hadrons on the Light-Front

    Salme, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    LC2015 belongs to a Conference series that started in 1991 under the supervision of the International Light Cone Advisory Committee (ILCAC), with the aim of promoting the research towards a rigorous description of hadrons and nuclei, based on Light-Cone quantization methods. A strong relation with the experimental activity was always pursued and it will be emphasized in the next edition, in order to meet one of the main goals of the whole Light-Cone community "to assist in the development of crucial experimental tests of hadron facilities". The scientific program will feature invited as well as contributed talks, selected in collaboration with the Scientific Advisory Committee and the ILCAC. The main topics to be addressed are: * Hadron physics at present and future facilities; * Nonperturbative methods in quantum field theory * AdS/CFT: theory and applications * Light-front theories in QCD and QED * Relativistic methods for nuclear and hadronic structures * Few-body problems onto the Light cone * Lattice gau...

  16. Light-front realization of chiral symmetry breaking

    Itakura, Kazunori; Maedan, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a description of chiral symmetry breaking in the light-front (LF) formalism. Based on careful analyses of several modes, we give clear answers to the following three fundamental questions: (i) What is the difference between the LF chiral transformation and the ordinary chiral transformation? (ii) How does a gap equation for the chiral condensate emerge? (iii) What is the consequence of the coexistence of a nonzero chiral condensate and the trivial Fock vacuum? The answer to Question (i) is given through a classical analysis of each model. Question (ii) is answered based on our recognition of the importance of characteristic constraints, such as the zero-mode and fermionic constraints. Question (iii) is intimately related to another important problem, reconciliation of the nonzero chiral condensate ≠ 0 and the invariance of the vacuum under the LF chiral transformation Q 5 LF | 0> = 0. This and Question (iii) are understood in terms of the modified chiral transformation laws of the dependent variables. The characteristic ways in which the chiral symmetry breaking is realized are that the chiral charge Q 5 LF is no longer conserved and that the transformation of the scalar and pseudoscalar fields is modified. We also discuss other outcomes, such as the light-cone wave function of the pseudoscalar meson in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. (author)

  17. Light-front Ward-Takahashi identity for two-fermion systems

    Marinho, J. A. O.; Frederico, T.; Pace, E.; Salme, G.; Sauer, P. U.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a three-dimensional electromagnetic current operator within light-front dynamics that satisfies a light-front Ward-Takahashi identity for two-fermion systems. The light-front current operator is obtained by a quasipotential reduction of the four-dimensional current operator and acts on the light-front valence component of bound or scattering states. A relation between the light-front valence wave function and the four-dimensional Bethe-Salpeter amplitude both for bound or scattering states is also derived, such that the matrix elements of the four-dimensional current operator can be fully recovered from the corresponding light-front ones. The light-front current operator can be perturbatively calculated through a quasipotential expansion, and the divergence of the proposed current satisfies a Ward-Takahashi identity at any given order of the expansion. In the quasipotential expansion the instantaneous terms of the fermion propagator are accounted for by the effective interaction and two-body currents. We exemplify our theoretical construction in the Yukawa model in the ladder approximation, investigating in detail the current operator at the lowest nontrivial order of the quasipotential expansion of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The explicit realization of the light-front form of the Ward-Takahashi identity is verified. We also show the relevance of instantaneous terms and of the pair contribution to the two-body current and the Ward-Takahashi identity

  18. AdS/QCD and Applications of Light-Front Holography

    Brodsky, S. J.; Cao, F. G.; de Teramond, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Light-front holography leads to a rigorous connection between hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in (3+1)-dimensional physical space-time, thus providing a compelling physical interpretation of the Ad...

  19. Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra and other Advances in Light-Front QCD

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-05-01

    Light-front holography, together with superconformal algebra, have provided new insights into the physics of color confinement and the spectroscopy and dynamics of hadrons. As shown by de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the procedure of de Alfaro et al. to the frame-independent light-front Hamiltonian, it leads uniquely to a confining q \\bar{q} potential κ ^4 ζ ^2, where ζ ^2 is the light-front radial variable related in momentum space to the q \\bar{q} invariant mass. The same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography—the duality between the front form and AdS_5, the space of isometries of the conformal group—if one modifies the action of AdS_5 by the dilaton e^{κ ^2 z^2} in the fifth dimension z. When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions lead to a a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including supersymmetric relations between their masses and their wavefunctions. One also predicts hadronic light-front wavefunctions and observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and the distribution amplitudes. The mass scale κ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ_{\\overline{MS}} in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. The result is an effective coupling α _s(Q^2) defined at all momenta. The matching of the high and low momentum transfer regimes determines a scale Q_0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. I also discuss a number of applications of light-front phenomenology.

  20. The Covariance Adjustment Approaches for Combining Incomparable Cox Regressions Caused by Unbalanced Covariates Adjustment: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis Study

    Tania Dehesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Univariate meta-analysis (UM procedure, as a technique that provides a single overall result, has become increasingly popular. Neglecting the existence of other concomitant covariates in the models leads to loss of treatment efficiency. Our aim was proposing four new approximation approaches for the covariance matrix of the coefficients, which is not readily available for the multivariate generalized least square (MGLS method as a multivariate meta-analysis approach. Methods. We evaluated the efficiency of four new approaches including zero correlation (ZC, common correlation (CC, estimated correlation (EC, and multivariate multilevel correlation (MMC on the estimation bias, mean square error (MSE, and 95% probability coverage of the confidence interval (CI in the synthesis of Cox proportional hazard models coefficients in a simulation study. Result. Comparing the results of the simulation study on the MSE, bias, and CI of the estimated coefficients indicated that MMC approach was the most accurate procedure compared to EC, CC, and ZC procedures. The precision ranking of the four approaches according to all above settings was MMC ≥ EC ≥ CC ≥ ZC. Conclusion. This study highlights advantages of MGLS meta-analysis on UM approach. The results suggested the use of MMC procedure to overcome the lack of information for having a complete covariance matrix of the coefficients.

  1. The Covariance Adjustment Approaches for Combining Incomparable Cox Regressions Caused by Unbalanced Covariates Adjustment: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis Study.

    Dehesh, Tania; Zare, Najaf; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Univariate meta-analysis (UM) procedure, as a technique that provides a single overall result, has become increasingly popular. Neglecting the existence of other concomitant covariates in the models leads to loss of treatment efficiency. Our aim was proposing four new approximation approaches for the covariance matrix of the coefficients, which is not readily available for the multivariate generalized least square (MGLS) method as a multivariate meta-analysis approach. We evaluated the efficiency of four new approaches including zero correlation (ZC), common correlation (CC), estimated correlation (EC), and multivariate multilevel correlation (MMC) on the estimation bias, mean square error (MSE), and 95% probability coverage of the confidence interval (CI) in the synthesis of Cox proportional hazard models coefficients in a simulation study. Comparing the results of the simulation study on the MSE, bias, and CI of the estimated coefficients indicated that MMC approach was the most accurate procedure compared to EC, CC, and ZC procedures. The precision ranking of the four approaches according to all above settings was MMC ≥ EC ≥ CC ≥ ZC. This study highlights advantages of MGLS meta-analysis on UM approach. The results suggested the use of MMC procedure to overcome the lack of information for having a complete covariance matrix of the coefficients.

  2. Scaling for deuteron structure functions in a relativistic light-front model

    Polyzou, W.N.; Gloeckle, W.

    1996-01-01

    Scaling limits of the structure functions [B.D. Keister, Phys. Rev. C 37, 1765 (1988)], W 1 and W 2 , are studied in a relativistic model of the two-nucleon system. The relativistic model is defined by a unitary representation, U(Λ,a), of the Poincaracute e group which acts on the Hilbert space of two spinless nucleons. The representation is in Dirac close-quote s [P.A.M. Dirac, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 392 (1949)] light-front formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics and is designed to give the experimental deuteron mass and n-p scattering length. A model hadronic current operator that is conserved and covariant with respect to this representation is used to define the structure tensor. This work is the first step in a relativistic extension of the results of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. The nonrelativistic limit of the model is shown to be consistent with the nonrelativistic model of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. [D. Hueber et al. Phys. Rev. C 42, 2342 (1990)]. The relativistic and nonrelativistic scaling limits, for both Bjorken and y scaling are compared. The interpretation of y scaling in the relativistic model is studied critically. The standard interpretation of y scaling requires a soft wave function which is not realized in this model. The scaling limits in both the relativistic and nonrelativistic case are related to probability distributions associated with the target deuteron. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Semileptonic and radiative decays of the Bc meson in the light-front quark model

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the exclusive semileptonic B c →(D,η c ,B,B s )lν l , η b →B c lν l (l=e,μ,τ) decays using the light-front quark model constrained by the variational principle for the QCD-motivated effective Hamiltonian. The form factors f + (q 2 ) and f - (q 2 ) are obtained from the analytic continuation method in the q + =0 frame. While the form factor f + (q 2 ) is free from the zero mode, the form factor f - (q 2 ) is not free from the zero mode in the q + =0 frame. We quantify the zero-mode contributions to f - (q 2 ) for various semileptonic B c decays. Using our effective method to relate the non-wave-function vertex to the light-front valence wave function, we incorporate the zero-mode contribution as a convolution of the zero-mode operator with the initial and final state wave functions. Our results are then compared to the available experimental data and the results from other theoretical approaches. Since the prediction on the magnetic dipole B c *→B c +γ decay turns out to be very sensitive to the mass difference between B c * and B c mesons, the decay width Γ(B c *→B c γ) may help in determining the mass of B c * experimentally. Furthermore, we compare the results from the harmonic oscillator potential and the linear potential and identify the decay processes that are sensitive to the choice of confining potential. From the future experimental data on these sensitive processes, one may obtain more realistic information on the potential between the quark and antiquark in the heavy meson system.

  4. Perspectives of Light-Front Quantized Field Theory: Some New Results

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1999-08-13

    A review of some basic topics in the light-front (LF) quantization of relativistic field theory is made. It is argued that the LF quantization is equally appropriate as the conventional one and that they lead, assuming the microcausality principle, to the same physical content. This is confirmed in the studies on the LF of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), of the degenerate vacua in Schwinger model (SM) and Chiral SM (CSM), of the chiral boson theory, and of the QCD in covariant gauges among others. The discussion on the LF is more economical and more transparent than that found in the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The removal of the constraints on the LF phase space by following the Dirac method, in fact, results in a substantially reduced number of independent dynamical variables. Consequently, the descriptions of the physical Hilbert space and the vacuum structure, for example, become more tractable. In the context of the Dyson-Wick perturbation theory the relevant propagators in the front form theory are causal. The Wick rotation can then be performed to employ the Euclidean space integrals in momentum space. The lack of manifest covariance becomes tractable, and still more so if we employ, as discussed in the text, the Fourier transform of the fermionic field based on a special construction of the LF spinor. The fact that the hyperplanes x{sup {+-}} = 0 constitute characteristic surfaces of the hyperbolic partial differential equation is found irrelevant in the quantized theory; it seems sufficient to quantize the theory on one of the characteristic hyperplanes.

  5. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  6. Complete super-sample lensing covariance in the response approach

    Barreira, Alexandre; Krause, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-06-01

    We derive the complete super-sample covariance (SSC) of the matter and weak lensing convergence power spectra using the power spectrum response formalism to accurately describe the coupling of super- to sub-survey modes. The SSC term is completely characterized by the survey window function, the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the full first-order nonlinear power spectrum response function, which describes the response to super-survey density and tidal field perturbations. Generalized separate universe simulations can efficiently measure these responses in the nonlinear regime of structure formation, which is necessary for lensing applications. We derive the lensing SSC formulae for two cases: one under the Limber and flat-sky approximations, and a more general one that goes beyond the Limber approximation in the super-survey mode and is valid for curved sky applications. Quantitatively, we find that for sky fractions fsky ≈ 0.3 and a single source redshift at zS=1, the use of the flat-sky and Limber approximation underestimates the total SSC contribution by ≈ 10%. The contribution from super-survey tidal fields to the lensing SSC, which has not been included in cosmological analyses so far, is shown to represent about 5% of the total lensing covariance on multipoles l1,l2 gtrsim 300. The SSC is the dominant off-diagonal contribution to the total lensing covariance, making it appropriate to include these tidal terms and beyond flat-sky/Limber corrections in cosmic shear analyses.

  7. A chiral covariant approach to ρρ scattering

    Guelmez, D. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Meissner, U.G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Oller, J.A. [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Fisica, Murcia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We analyze vector meson-vector meson scattering in a unitarized chiral theory based on a chiral covariant framework restricted to ρρ intermediate states. We show that a pole assigned to the scalar meson f{sub 0}(1370) can be dynamically generated from the ρρ interaction, while this is not the case for the tensor meson f{sub 2}(1270) as found in earlier work. We show that the generation of the tensor state is untenable due to the extreme non-relativistic kinematics used before. We further consider the effects arising from the coupling of channels with different orbital angular momenta which are also important. We suggest to use the formalism outlined here to obtain more reliable results for the dynamical generation of resonances in the vector-vector interaction. (orig.)

  8. Developing the covariant Batalin-Vilkovisky approach to string theory

    Hata, H.; Zwiebach, B.

    1994-01-01

    In this work the authors investigate the variation of the string field action under changes of the string field vertices giving rise to different decompositions of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces. The authors establish that any such change in the string action arises from a field transformation canonical with respect to the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) antibracket and find the explicit form of the generator of the infinitesimal transformations. Two theories using different decompositions of moduli space are shown to yield the same gauge-fixed action upon use of different gauge-fixing conditions. The authors also elaborate on recent work on the covariant BV formalism, and emphasize the necessity of a measure in the space of two-dimensional field theories in order to extend a recent analysis of background independence to quantum string field theory. 22 refs., 2 figs

  9. Covariant approach of perturbations in Lovelock type brane gravity

    Bagatella-Flores, Norma; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Cruz, Miguel; Rojas, Efraín

    2016-12-01

    We develop a covariant scheme to describe the dynamics of small perturbations on Lovelock type extended objects propagating in a flat Minkowski spacetime. The higher-dimensional analogue of the Jacobi equation in this theory becomes a wave type equation for a scalar field Φ . Whithin this framework, we analyse the stability of membranes with a de Sitter geometry where we find that the Jacobi equation specializes to a Klein-Gordon (KG) equation for Φ possessing a tachyonic mass. This shows that, to some extent, these types of extended objects share the symmetries of the Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) action which is by no means coincidental because the DNG model is the simplest included in this type of gravity.

  10. Hamiltonian Light-Front Field Theory: Recent Progress and Tantalizing Prospects

    Vary, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental theories, such as quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics promise great predictive power addressing phenomena over vast scales from the microscopic to cosmic scales. However, new non-perturbative tools are required for physics to span from one scale to the next. I outline recent theoretical and computational progress to build these bridges and provide illustrative results for Hamiltonian Light Front Field Theory. One key area is our development of basis function approaches that cast the theory as a Hamiltonian matrix problem while preserving a maximal set of symmetries. Regulating the theory with an external field that can be removed to obtain the continuum limit offers additional possibilities as seen in an application to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. Recent progress capitalizes on algorithm and computer developments for setting up and solving very large sparse matrix eigenvalue problems. Matrices with dimensions of 20 billion basis states are now solved on leadership-class computers for their low-lying eigenstates and eigenfunctions. (author)

  11. Selected Topics in Light Front Field Theory and Applications to the High Energy Phenomena

    Kundu, Rajen

    1999-10-01

    In this thesis, we have presented some of the aspects of light-front (LF) field theory through their successful application in the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS). We have developed a LFQCD Hamiltonian description of the DIS structure functions starting from Bjorken-Johnson-Low limit of virtual forward Compton scattering amplitude and using LF current commutators. We worked in the LF gauge A^+=0 and used the old-fashioned LFQCD perturbation theory in our calculations. The importance of our work are summarized below. Our approach shares the intution of parton model and addresses directly the structure functions, which are experimental objects, instead of its moments as in OPE method. Moreover, it can potentially incorporate the non-perturbative contents of the structure functions as we have demonstrated by introducing a new factorization scheme. In the context of nucleonic helicity structure, the well known gauge fixed LF helicity operator is shown to provide consistent physical information and helps us defining new relevant structure functions. The anomalous dimensions relevant for the Q^2-evolution of such structure functions are calculated. Our study is important in establishing the equivalance of LF field theory and the usual equal-time one through perturbative calculations of the dressed parton structure functions reproducing the well known results. Also the importance of Gallilean boost symmetry in understanding the correctness of any higher order calculation using (x^+)-ordered LFQCD perturbation theory are emphasized.

  12. Gravitational form factors and angular momentum densities in light-front quark-diquark model

    Kumar, Narinder [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Sharma, Neetika [I K Gujral Punjab Technical University, Department of Physical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab (India); Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-12-15

    We investigate the gravitational form factors (GFFs) and the longitudinal momentum densities (p{sup +} densities) for proton in a light-front quark-diquark model. The light-front wave functions are constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. The contributions from both the scalar and the axial vector diquarks are considered here. The results are compared with the consequences of a parametrization of nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the light of recent MRST measurements of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and a soft-wall AdS/QCD model. The spatial distribution of angular momentum for up and down quarks inside the nucleon has been presented. At the density level, we illustrate different definitions of angular momentum explicitly for an up and down quark in the light-front quark-diquark model inspired by AdS/QCD. (orig.)

  13. Light Cone 2017 : Frontiers in Light Front Hadron Physics : Theory and Experiment.

    2018-01-01

    LC2017 belongs to a series of Light-Cone conferences, which started in 1991. Light Cone conferences are held each year under the auspices of the International Light Cone Advisory Committee (ILCAC) (http://www.ilcacinc.org). The main objective of the Light Cone conference series is to provide a timely update of the progress in light-front theory and its phenomenological applications. Light-front theory provides a suitable framework to calculate observables such as scattering amplitudes, decay rates, spin effects, parton distributions, and other hadronic observables. One of the themes of the conference will be the interface between theory and experiment in hadron physics. The main topics of the program are: o Hadron Physics at present and future colliders o Light Front Field Theory in QED and QCD o AdS/QCD, D Branes and Strings o Hadron Structure : TMDs, GPDs and PDFs o Lattice QCD o QCD at high temperature and density o Higher order QCD corrections

  14. Relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions

    Miller, Gerald A.; Tiburzi, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions is studied using models for which the four-dimensional solution of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function can be obtained. The popular prescription of defining the longitudinal momentum fraction using the instant-form free kinetic energy and third component of momentum is found to be incorrect except in the nonrelativistic limit. One may obtain light-front wave functions from rest-frame, instant-form wave functions by boosting the latter wave functions to the infinite momentum frame. Despite this difficulty, we prove a relation between certain integrals of the equal-time and light-front wave functions.

  15. {theta}-vacua in the light-front quantized Schwinger model

    Srivastava, Prem P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-09-01

    The light-front quantization of the bosonized Schwinger model is discussed in the continuum formulation. The proposal, successfully used earlier for describing the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the light-front, of separating first the scalar field into the dynamical condensate and the fluctuation fields before employing the standard Dirac method works here as well. Some topics on the front form theory are summarized in the Appendices and attention is drawn to the fact that the theory quantized, at x{sup +} seems already to carry information on equal x{sup -} commutators as well. (author). 21 refs.

  16. θ-vacua in the light-front quantized Schwinger model

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1996-09-01

    The light-front quantization of the bosonized Schwinger model is discussed in the continuum formulation. The proposal, successfully used earlier for describing the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the light-front, of separating first the scalar field into the dynamical condensate and the fluctuation fields before employing the standard Dirac method works here as well. Some topics on the front form theory are summarized in the Appendices and attention is drawn to the fact that the theory quantized, at x + seems already to carry information on equal x - commutators as well. (author). 21 refs

  17. Hadron spectroscopy and dynamics from light-front holography and conformal symmetry

    de Téramond Guy F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To a first semiclassical approximation one can reduce the multi-parton light-front problem in QCD to an effective one-dimensional quantum field theory, which encodes the fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian. This procedure leads to a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin which incorporates essential spectroscopic and non-perturbative dynamical features of hadron physics. The mass scale for confinement and higher dimensional holographic mapping to AdS space are also emergent properties of this framework.

  18. A Nakanishi-based model illustrating the covariant extension of the pion GPD overlap representation and its ambiguities

    Chouika, N.; Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.

    2018-05-01

    A systematic approach for the model building of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), based on their overlap representation within the DGLAP kinematic region and a further covariant extension to the ERBL one, is applied to the valence-quark pion's case, using light-front wave functions inspired by the Nakanishi representation of the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes (BSA). This simple but fruitful pion GPD model illustrates the general model building technique and, in addition, allows for the ambiguities related to the covariant extension, grounded on the Double Distribution (DD) representation, to be constrained by requiring a soft-pion theorem to be properly observed.

  19. The error and covariance structures of the mean approach model of pooled cross-section and time series data

    Nuamah, N.N.N.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper postulates the assumptions underlying the Mean Approach model and recasts the re-expressions of the normal equations of this model in partitioned matrices of covariances. These covariance structures have been analysed. (author). 16 refs

  20. On the chiral covariant approach to ρρ scattering

    Geng, Li-Sheng; Molina, Raquel; Oset, Eulogio

    2017-12-01

    We examine in detail a recent work (D. Gülmez, U. G. Meißner and J. A. Oller, Eur. Phys. J. C, 77: 460 (2017)), where improvements to make ρρ scattering relativistically covariant are made. The paper has the remarkable conclusion that the J=2 state disappears with a potential which is much more attractive than for J=0, where a bound state is found. We trace this abnormal conclusion to the fact that an “on-shell” factorization of the potential is done in a region where this potential is singular and develops a large discontinuous and unphysical imaginary part. A method is developed, evaluating the loops with full ρ propagators, and we show that they do not develop singularities and do not have an imaginary part below threshold. With this result for the loops we define an effective potential, which when used with the Bethe-Salpeter equation provides a state with J=2 around the energy of the f 2(1270). In addition, the coupling of the state to ρρ is evaluated and we find that this coupling and the T matrix around the energy of the bound state are remarkably similar to those obtained with a drastic approximation used previously, in which the q 2 terms of the propagators of the exchanged ρ mesons are dropped, once the cut-off in the ρρ loop function is tuned to reproduce the bound state at the same energy. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375024, 11522539), the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad and European FEDER funds (FIS2011-28853-C02-01, FIS2011- 28853-C02-02, FIS2014-57026-REDT, FIS2014-51948-C2- 1-P, FIS2014-51948-C2-2-P), the Generalitat Valenciana in the program Prometeo II-2014/068, We acknowledge the support of the European Community-Research Infrastructure Integrating Activity Study of Strongly Interacting Matter (acronym HadronPhysics3, Grant Agreement n. 283286) under the Seventh Framework Programme of the EU

  1. Nucleon momentum distribution in deuteron and other nuclei within the light-front dynamics method

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Ivanov, M.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Krumova, G.Z.; Hodgson, P.E.; Geramb, H.V. von

    2002-01-01

    The relativistic light-front dynamics (LFD) method has been shown to give a correct description of the most recent data for the deuteron monopole and quadrupole charge form factors obtained at the Jefferson Laboratory for elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of the squared momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The good agreement with the data is in contrast with the results of the existing nonrelativistic approaches. In this work we first make a complementary test of the LFD applying it to calculate another important characteristic, the nucleon momentum distribution n(q) of the deuteron, using six invariant functions f i (i=1,...,6) instead of two (S and D waves) in the nonrelativistic case. The comparison with the y-scaling data shows the decisive role of the function f 5 which at q≥500 MeV/c exceeds all other f functions (as well as the S and D waves) for the correct description of n(q) of the deuteron in the high-momentum region. Comparison with other calculations using S and D waves corresponding to various nucleon-nucleon potentials is made. Second, using clear indications that the high-momentum components of n(q) in heavier nuclei are related to those in the deuteron, we develop an approach within the natural orbital representation to calculate n(q) in (A,Z) nuclei on the basis of the deuteron momentum distribution. As examples, n(q) in 4 He, 12 C, and 56 Fe are calculated and good agreement with the y-scaling data is obtained

  2. A modified approach to estimating sample size for simple logistic regression with one continuous covariate.

    Novikov, I; Fund, N; Freedman, L S

    2010-01-15

    Different methods for the calculation of sample size for simple logistic regression (LR) with one normally distributed continuous covariate give different results. Sometimes the difference can be large. Furthermore, some methods require the user to specify the prevalence of cases when the covariate equals its population mean, rather than the more natural population prevalence. We focus on two commonly used methods and show through simulations that the power for a given sample size may differ substantially from the nominal value for one method, especially when the covariate effect is large, while the other method performs poorly if the user provides the population prevalence instead of the required parameter. We propose a modification of the method of Hsieh et al. that requires specification of the population prevalence and that employs Schouten's sample size formula for a t-test with unequal variances and group sizes. This approach appears to increase the accuracy of the sample size estimates for LR with one continuous covariate.

  3. Hard Thermal Loop approximation in the Light Front Quantum Field Theory

    Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we generalize the Hard Thermal Loop approximation (HTL) for the Thermal Light Front Quantum Field Theory. This technique was developed by Braaten e Pisarski [PRL. 63 (1989) 1129, Nucl. Phys. B337 (1990) 569], for the Thermal Quantum Field Theory at equal time and is particularly useful to solve problems of convergence of the amplitudes within Quantum Chromodynamics, caused by the inherently nonperturbative behavior. The HTL approximation satisfies simple Ward identities, is ultraviolet finite and gauge independent. Here we use the light front generalized coordinates (GLFC) proposed by one of us (V. S. Alves, Ashok Das, e Silvana Perez [PRD. 66, (2002) 125008]) and analyze the one loop amplitudes for the λφ3 theory and the Quantum Electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions at finite temperature in the HTL approximation. For the scalar theory, we evaluate the two-point function, recovering the usual dispersion relations. We also analyze the rotational invariance of the model. We then consider the Quantum Electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and calculate the polarization tensor and the vertex function at finite temperature in the HTL approximation. In future, our interest will be to apply the Generalized Light Front formalism to understand the confinement mechanism which occurs in the Quantum Chromodynamics. There is an expectation that the Light Front Quantum Field Theory formalism is more appropriate to study this problems. (author)

  4. Hard Thermal Loop approximation in the Light Front Quantum Field Theory

    Silva, Charles da Rocha [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Perez, Silvana [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this paper we generalize the Hard Thermal Loop approximation (HTL) for the Thermal Light Front Quantum Field Theory. This technique was developed by Braaten e Pisarski [PRL. 63 (1989) 1129, Nucl. Phys. B337 (1990) 569], for the Thermal Quantum Field Theory at equal time and is particularly useful to solve problems of convergence of the amplitudes within Quantum Chromodynamics, caused by the inherently nonperturbative behavior. The HTL approximation satisfies simple Ward identities, is ultraviolet finite and gauge independent. Here we use the light front generalized coordinates (GLFC) proposed by one of us (V. S. Alves, Ashok Das, e Silvana Perez [PRD. 66, (2002) 125008]) and analyze the one loop amplitudes for the {lambda}{phi}3 theory and the Quantum Electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions at finite temperature in the HTL approximation. For the scalar theory, we evaluate the two-point function, recovering the usual dispersion relations. We also analyze the rotational invariance of the model. We then consider the Quantum Electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and calculate the polarization tensor and the vertex function at finite temperature in the HTL approximation. In future, our interest will be to apply the Generalized Light Front formalism to understand the confinement mechanism which occurs in the Quantum Chromodynamics. There is an expectation that the Light Front Quantum Field Theory formalism is more appropriate to study this problems. (author)

  5. Nucleon-generalized parton distributions in the light-front quark model

    2016-01-12

    Jan 12, 2016 ... 1. Introduction. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) are the important set of parameters that give us ... The AdS/CFT is the correspondence between the string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter ... matching the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD and light-front QCD for EFFs of hadrons with arbitrary ...

  6. AdS/QCD, Light-Front Holography, and Sublimated Gluons

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    The gauge/gravity duality leads to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian - 'Light-Front Holography', which provides a Lorentz-invariant first-approximation to QCD, and successfully describes the spectroscopy of light-quark meson and baryons, their elastic and transition form factors, and other hadronic properties. The bound-state Schroedinger and Dirac equations of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model predict linear Regge trajectories which have the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. Light-front holography connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta} in 3+1 space at fixed light-front time. A key feature is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons - the relativistic analogs of the Schroedinger wavefunctions of atomic physics which allow one to compute form factors, transversity distributions, spin properties of the valence quarks, jet hadronization, and other hadronic observables. One thus obtains a one-parameter color-confining model for hadron physics at the amplitude level. AdS/QCD also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function with an infrared fixed point which agrees with the effective coupling a{sub g1} (Q{sup 2}) extracted from measurements of the Bjorken sum rule below Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. This is consistent with a flux-tube interpretation of QCD where soft gluons with virtualities Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2} are sublimated into a color-confining potential for quarks. We discuss a number of phenomenological hadronic properties which support this picture.

  7. Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory

    Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2017-03-01

    We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3 , the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED and QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.

  8. Leading Twist TMDs in a Light-Front Quark-Diquark Model for Proton

    Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2018-05-01

    We present p_{\\perp } variation (fixed x) of the leading-twist T-even transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) of a proton in a light-front quark-diquark model at μ ^2=2.4 and 20 GeV^2. The quark densities for unpolarized and transversely polarized proton are also presented. We observe a Soffer bound for TMDs in this model.

  9. In-medium pion valence distributions in a light-front model

    Melo, J.P.B.C. de, E-mail: joao.mello@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Tsushima, K. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ahmed, I. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); National Center for Physics, Quaidi-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2017-03-10

    Pion valence distributions in nuclear medium and vacuum are studied in a light-front constituent quark model. The in-medium input for studying the pion properties is calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. We find that the in-medium pion valence distribution, as well as the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  10. Relativistic two-and three-particle scattering equations using instant and light-front dynamics

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for two particles in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum we derive three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constraints of unitarity and relativity, both employing the light-front and instant-form variables. The equations we arrive at are those first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar, and are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence we show how to perform and relate identical dynamical calculation using these two equations. We extends this procedure to the case of three particles interacting via two-particle separable potentials. Using light-front and instant form variables we suggest a couple of three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of two and three-particle unitarity and relativity. The three-particle light-front equation is shown to be approximately related by a transformation of variables to one of the instant-form three-particle equations. (author)

  11. The vacuum structure of light-front φ41+1-theory

    Heinzl, T.; Stern, C.; Werner, E.; Zellermann, B.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the vacuum structure of φ 4 -theory in 1+1 dimensions quantised on the light-front x + =0. To this end, one has to solve a non-linear, operator-valued constraint equation. It expresses that mode of the field operator having longitudinal light-front momentum equal to zero, as a function of all the other modes in the theory. We analyse whether this zero mode can lead to a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of the field φ and thus to spontaneous symmetry breaking. In perturbation theory, we get no symmetry breaking. If we solve the constraint, however, non-perturbatively, within a mean-field type Fock ansatz, the situation changes: while the vacuum state itself remains trivial, we find a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value above a critical coupling. Exactly the same result is obtained within a light-front Tamm-Dancoff approximation, if the renormalisation is done in the correct way. (orig.). With 1 fig

  12. An Adaptive Approach to Mitigate Background Covariance Limitations in the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Song, Hajoon

    2010-07-01

    A new approach is proposed to address the background covariance limitations arising from undersampled ensembles and unaccounted model errors in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The method enhances the representativeness of the EnKF ensemble by augmenting it with new members chosen adaptively to add missing information that prevents the EnKF from fully fitting the data to the ensemble. The vectors to be added are obtained by back projecting the residuals of the observation misfits from the EnKF analysis step onto the state space. The back projection is done using an optimal interpolation (OI) scheme based on an estimated covariance of the subspace missing from the ensemble. In the experiments reported here, the OI uses a preselected stationary background covariance matrix, as in the hybrid EnKF–three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) approach, but the resulting correction is included as a new ensemble member instead of being added to all existing ensemble members. The adaptive approach is tested with the Lorenz-96 model. The hybrid EnKF–3DVAR is used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the adaptive approach. Assimilation experiments suggest that the new adaptive scheme significantly improves the EnKF behavior when it suffers from small size ensembles and neglected model errors. It was further found to be competitive with the hybrid EnKF–3DVAR approach, depending on ensemble size and data coverage.

  13. Analysis of stock investment selection based on CAPM using covariance and genetic algorithm approach

    Sukono; Susanti, D.; Najmia, M.; Lesmana, E.; Napitupulu, H.; Supian, S.; Putra, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Investment is one of the economic growth factors of countries, especially in Indonesia. Stocks is a form of investment, which is liquid. In determining the stock investment decisions which need to be considered by investors is to choose stocks that can generate maximum returns with a minimum risk level. Therefore, we need to know how to allocate the capital which may give the optimal benefit. This study discusses the issue of stock investment based on CAPM which is estimated using covariance and Genetic Algorithm approach. It is assumed that the stocks analyzed follow the CAPM model. To do the estimation of beta parameter on CAPM equation is done by two approach, first is to be represented by covariance approach, and second with genetic algorithm optimization. As a numerical illustration, in this paper analyzed ten stocks traded on the capital market in Indonesia. The results of the analysis show that estimation of beta parameters using covariance and genetic algorithm approach, give the same decision, that is, six underpriced stocks with buying decision, and four overpriced stocks with a sales decision. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the results can be used as a consideration for investors buying six under-priced stocks, and selling four overpriced stocks.

  14. Shrinkage covariance matrix approach based on robust trimmed mean in gene sets detection

    Karjanto, Suryaefiza; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed; Ghani, Nor Azura Md; Aripin, Rasimah; Yusop, Noorezatty Mohd

    2015-02-01

    Microarray involves of placing an orderly arrangement of thousands of gene sequences in a grid on a suitable surface. The technology has made a novelty discovery since its development and obtained an increasing attention among researchers. The widespread of microarray technology is largely due to its ability to perform simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes in a massively parallel manner in one experiment. Hence, it provides valuable knowledge on gene interaction and function. The microarray data set typically consists of tens of thousands of genes (variables) from just dozens of samples due to various constraints. Therefore, the sample covariance matrix in Hotelling's T2 statistic is not positive definite and become singular, thus it cannot be inverted. In this research, the Hotelling's T2 statistic is combined with a shrinkage approach as an alternative estimation to estimate the covariance matrix to detect significant gene sets. The use of shrinkage covariance matrix overcomes the singularity problem by converting an unbiased to an improved biased estimator of covariance matrix. Robust trimmed mean is integrated into the shrinkage matrix to reduce the influence of outliers and consequently increases its efficiency. The performance of the proposed method is measured using several simulation designs. The results are expected to outperform existing techniques in many tested conditions.

  15. Universality of Generalized Parton Distributions in Light-Front Holographic QCD

    de Téramond, Guy F.; Liu, Tianbo; Sufian, Raza Sabbir; Dosch, Hans Günter; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deur, Alexandre; Hlfhs Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The structure of generalized parton distributions is determined from light-front holographic QCD up to a universal reparametrization function w (x ) which incorporates Regge behavior at small x and inclusive counting rules at x →1 . A simple ansatz for w (x ) that fulfills these physics constraints with a single-parameter results in precise descriptions of both the nucleon and the pion quark distribution functions in comparison with global fits. The analytic structure of the amplitudes leads to a connection with the Veneziano model and hence to a nontrivial connection with Regge theory and the hadron spectrum.

  16. Semiparametric approach for non-monotone missing covariates in a parametric regression model

    Sinha, Samiran

    2014-02-26

    Missing covariate data often arise in biomedical studies, and analysis of such data that ignores subjects with incomplete information may lead to inefficient and possibly biased estimates. A great deal of attention has been paid to handling a single missing covariate or a monotone pattern of missing data when the missingness mechanism is missing at random. In this article, we propose a semiparametric method for handling non-monotone patterns of missing data. The proposed method relies on the assumption that the missingness mechanism of a variable does not depend on the missing variable itself but may depend on the other missing variables. This mechanism is somewhat less general than the completely non-ignorable mechanism but is sometimes more flexible than the missing at random mechanism where the missingness mechansim is allowed to depend only on the completely observed variables. The proposed approach is robust to misspecification of the distribution of the missing covariates, and the proposed mechanism helps to nullify (or reduce) the problems due to non-identifiability that result from the non-ignorable missingness mechanism. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator are derived. Finite sample performance is assessed through simulation studies. Finally, for the purpose of illustration we analyze an endometrial cancer dataset and a hip fracture dataset.

  17. Evaluation of digital soil mapping approaches with large sets of environmental covariates

    Nussbaum, Madlene; Spiess, Kay; Baltensweiler, Andri; Grob, Urs; Keller, Armin; Greiner, Lucie; Schaepman, Michael E.; Papritz, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The spatial assessment of soil functions requires maps of basic soil properties. Unfortunately, these are either missing for many regions or are not available at the desired spatial resolution or down to the required soil depth. The field-based generation of large soil datasets and conventional soil maps remains costly. Meanwhile, legacy soil data and comprehensive sets of spatial environmental data are available for many regions. Digital soil mapping (DSM) approaches relating soil data (responses) to environmental data (covariates) face the challenge of building statistical models from large sets of covariates originating, for example, from airborne imaging spectroscopy or multi-scale terrain analysis. We evaluated six approaches for DSM in three study regions in Switzerland (Berne, Greifensee, ZH forest) by mapping the effective soil depth available to plants (SD), pH, soil organic matter (SOM), effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), clay, silt, gravel content and fine fraction bulk density for four soil depths (totalling 48 responses). Models were built from 300-500 environmental covariates by selecting linear models through (1) grouped lasso and (2) an ad hoc stepwise procedure for robust external-drift kriging (georob). For (3) geoadditive models we selected penalized smoothing spline terms by component-wise gradient boosting (geoGAM). We further used two tree-based methods: (4) boosted regression trees (BRTs) and (5) random forest (RF). Lastly, we computed (6) weighted model averages (MAs) from the predictions obtained from methods 1-5. Lasso, georob and geoGAM successfully selected strongly reduced sets of covariates (subsets of 3-6 % of all covariates). Differences in predictive performance, tested on independent validation data, were mostly small and did not reveal a single best method for 48 responses. Nevertheless, RF was often the best among methods 1-5 (28 of 48 responses), but was outcompeted by MA for 14 of these 28 responses. RF tended to over

  18. Cloud-Based DDoS HTTP Attack Detection Using Covariance Matrix Approach

    Abdulaziz Aborujilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this era of technology, cloud computing technology has become essential part of the IT services used the daily life. In this regard, website hosting services are gradually moving to the cloud. This adds new valued feature to the cloud-based websites and at the same time introduces new threats for such services. DDoS attack is one such serious threat. Covariance matrix approach is used in this article to detect such attacks. The results were encouraging, according to confusion matrix and ROC descriptors.

  19. Form factors of ηc in light-front quark model

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lih, Chong-Chung

    2013-01-01

    We study the form factors of the η c meson in the light-front quark model. We explicitly show that the transition form factor of η c → γ * γ as a function of the momentum transfer is consistent with the experimental data by the BaBar collaboration, while the decay constant of η c is found to be f η c = 230.5 +52.2 -61.0 and 303.6 +115.2 -116.4 MeV for η c ∝ c anti c by using two η c → γγ decay widths of 5.3 ± 0.5 and 7.2 ± 2.1 keV, given by Particle Data Group and Lattice QCD calculation, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Form factors of {eta}{sub c} in light-front quark model

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Lih, Chong-Chung [Shu-Zen College of Medicine and Management, Department of Optometry, Kaohsiung Hsien (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China)

    2013-08-15

    We study the form factors of the {eta}{sub c} meson in the light-front quark model. We explicitly show that the transition form factor of {eta}{sub c} {yields} {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} as a function of the momentum transfer is consistent with the experimental data by the BaBar collaboration, while the decay constant of {eta}{sub c} is found to be f{sub {eta}{sub c}} = 230.5{sup +52.2}{sub -61.0} and 303.6{sup +115.2}{sub -116.4} MeV for {eta}{sub c} {proportional_to} c anti c by using two {eta}{sub c} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay widths of 5.3 {+-} 0.5 and 7.2 {+-} 2.1 keV, given by Particle Data Group and Lattice QCD calculation, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Semileptonic decays of B and D mesons in the light-front formalism

    Jaus, W.

    1990-01-01

    The light-front formalism is used to present a relativistic calculation of form factors for semileptonic D and B decays in the constituent quark model. The quark-antiquark wave functions of the mesons can be obtained, in principle, from an analysis of the meson spectrum, but are approximated in this work by harmonic-oscillator wave functions. The predictions of the model are consistent with the experimental data for B decays. The Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) matrix element |V cs | is determined by a comparison of the experimental and theoretical rates for D 0 →K - e + ν, and is consistent with a unitary KM matrix for three families. The predictions for D→K * transitions are in conflict with the data

  2. Some heavy vector and tensor meson decay constants in light-front quark model

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [Chongqing Jiaotong University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); Lih, Chong-Chung [National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); Shu-Zen College of Medicine and Management, Department of Optometry, Kaohsiung Hsien (China); Xia, Chuanhui [Chongqing Jiaotong University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China)

    2016-06-15

    We study the decay constants (f{sub M}) of the heavy vector (D{sup *}, D{sub s}{sup *}, B{sup *}, B{sub s}{sup *}, B{sub c}{sup *}) and tensor (D{sub 2}{sup *}, D{sub s2}{sup *}, B{sub 2}{sup *}, B{sub s2}{sup *}) mesons in the light-front quarkmodel.With the known pseudoscalar meson decay constants of f{sub D}, f{sub Ds}, f{sub B}, f{sub Bs}, and f{sub Bc} as the input parameters to determine the light-front meson wave functions, we obtain f{sub D{sup *},D{sub s{sup *}B{sup *}B{sub s{sup *},B{sub c{sup *}}}}} = (252.0{sub -11.6}{sup +13.8}, 318.3{sub -12.6}{sup +15.3}, 201.9{sub -41.4}{sup +43.2}, 244.2 ± 7.0, 473.4 ± 18.2) and (264.9{sub -9.5}{sup +10.2}, 330.9{sub -9.0}{sup +9.9}, 220.2{sub -46.2}{sup +49.1}, 265.7 ± 8.0, 487.6 ± 19.2) MeV with Gaussian and power-law wave functions, respectively, while we have f{sub D{sub 2{sup *},D{sub s{sub 2{sup *}B{sub 2{sup *}B{sub s{sub 2{sup *}}}}}}}} = (143.6{sub -21.8}{sup +24.9}, 209.5{sub -24.2}{sup +29.1}, 80.9{sub -27.7}{sup +33.8}, 109.7{sub -15.0}{sup +15.7}) MeV with only Gaussian wave functions. (orig.)

  3. A multidimensional approach to understanding the potential risk factors and covariates of adult picky eating.

    Ellis, Jordan M; Schenk, Rebecca R; Galloway, Amy T; Zickgraf, Hana F; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M

    2018-06-01

    Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables. A structural equation modeling procedure tested a series of regression models that included BMI and disordered eating behaviors as covariates. SEM modeling indicated that retrospective reports of greater parental pressure to eat, higher disgust sensitivity, lower PE age of onset, and experiencing an aversive food event were associated with general adult PE behavior. Results also indicated parental encouragement of healthy eating may be a protective factor, and that men endorsed higher levels of adult PE. Exploratory analyses indicated that cross-sectional predictors and covariates were differentially related to specific aspects of PE as measured by the APEQ subscales. Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relating covariant and canonical approaches to triangulated models of quantum gravity

    Arnsdorf, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relation between covariant and canonical approaches to quantum gravity and BF theory. We will focus on the dynamical triangulation and spin-foam models, which have in common that they can be defined in terms of sums over spacetime triangulations. Our aim is to show how we can recover these covariant models from a canonical framework by providing two regularizations of the projector onto the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint. This link is important for the understanding of the dynamics of quantum gravity. In particular, we will see how in the simplest dynamical triangulation model we can recover the Hamiltonian constraint via our definition of the projector. Our discussion of spin-foam models will show how the elementary spin-network moves in loop quantum gravity, which were originally assumed to describe the Hamiltonian constraint action, are in fact related to the time-evolution generated by the constraint. We also show that the Immirzi parameter is important for the understanding of a continuum limit of the theory

  5. Generalized Lagrangian Path Approach to Manifestly-Covariant Quantum Gravity Theory

    Massimo Tessarotto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A trajectory-based representation for the quantum theory of the gravitational field is formulated. This is achieved in terms of a covariant Generalized Lagrangian-Path (GLP approach which relies on a suitable statistical representation of Bohmian Lagrangian trajectories, referred to here as GLP-representation. The result is established in the framework of the manifestly-covariant quantum gravity theory (CQG-theory proposed recently and the related CQG-wave equation advancing in proper-time the quantum state associated with massive gravitons. Generally non-stationary analytical solutions for the CQG-wave equation with non-vanishing cosmological constant are determined in such a framework, which exhibit Gaussian-like probability densities that are non-dispersive in proper-time. As a remarkable outcome of the theory achieved by implementing these analytical solutions, the existence of an emergent gravity phenomenon is proven to hold. Accordingly, it is shown that a mean-field background space-time metric tensor can be expressed in terms of a suitable statistical average of stochastic fluctuations of the quantum gravitational field whose quantum-wave dynamics is described by GLP trajectories.

  6. Non-Perturbative QCD Coupling and Beta Function from Light Front Holography

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-05-26

    The light-front holographic mapping of classical gravity in AdS space, modified by a positive-sign dilaton background, leads to a non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q{sup 2}). It agrees with hadron physics data extracted from different observables, such as the effective charge defined by the Bjorken sum rule, as well as with the predictions of models with built-in confinement and lattice simulations. It also displays a transition from perturbative to nonperturbative conformal regimes at a momentum scale {approx} 1 GeV. The resulting {beta}-function appears to capture the essential characteristics of the full {beta}-function of QCD, thus giving further support to the application of the gauge/gravity duality to the confining dynamics of strongly coupled QCD. Commensurate scale relations relate observables to each other without scheme or scale ambiguity. In this paper we extrapolate these relations to the nonperturbative domain, thus extending the range of predictions based on {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q{sup 2}).

  7. Decay constants and radiative decays of heavy mesons in light-front quark model

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic dipole decays V→Pγ of various heavy-flavored mesons such as (D,D*,D s ,D s *,η c ,J/ψ) and (B,B*,B s ,B s *,η b ,Υ) using the light-front quark model constrained by the variational principle for the QCD-motivated effective Hamiltonian. The momentum dependent form factors F VP (q 2 ) for V→Pγ* decays are obtained in the q + =0 frame and then analytically continued to the timelike region by changing q perpendicular to iq perpendicular in the form factors. The coupling constant g VPγ for real photon case is then obtained in the limit as q 2 →0, i.e. g VPγ =F VP (q 2 =0). The weak decay constants of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons are also calculated. Our numerical results for the decay constants and radiative decay widths for the heavy-flavored mesons are overall in good agreement with the available experimental data as well as other theoretical model calculations

  8. Non-Perturbative QCD Coupling and Beta Function from Light Front Holography

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    The light-front holographic mapping of classical gravity in AdS space, modified by a positive-sign dilaton background, leads to a non-perturbative effective coupling α s AdS (Q 2 ). It agrees with hadron physics data extracted from different observables, such as the effective charge defined by the Bjorken sum rule, as well as with the predictions of models with built-in confinement and lattice simulations. It also displays a transition from perturbative to nonperturbative conformal regimes at a momentum scale ∼ 1 GeV. The resulting β-function appears to capture the essential characteristics of the full β-function of QCD, thus giving further support to the application of the gauge/gravity duality to the confining dynamics of strongly coupled QCD. Commensurate scale relations relate observables to each other without scheme or scale ambiguity. In this paper we extrapolate these relations to the nonperturbative domain, thus extending the range of predictions based on α s AdS (Q 2 ).

  9. Symmetries for Light-Front Quantization of Yukawa Model with Renormalization

    Żochowski, Jan; Przeszowski, Jerzy A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we discuss the Yukawa model with the extra term of self-interacting scalar field in D=1+3 dimensions. We present the method of derivation the light-front commutators and anti-commutators from the Heisenberg equations induced by the kinematical generating operator of the translation P+. Mentioned Heisenberg equations are the starting point for obtaining this algebra of the (anti-) commutators. Some discrepancies between existing and proposed method of quantization are revealed. The Lorentz and the CPT symmetry, together with some features of the quantum theory were applied to obtain the two-point Wightman function for the free fermions. Moreover, these Wightman functions were computed especially without referring to the Fock expansion. The Gaussian effective potential for the Yukawa model was found in the terms of the Wightman functions. It was regularized by the space-like point-splitting method. The coupling constants within the model were redefined. The optimum mass parameters remained regularization independent. Finally, the Gaussian effective potential was renormalized.

  10. Evaluation of Approaches to Deal with Low-Frequency Nuisance Covariates in Population Pharmacokinetic Analyses.

    Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies include occurrences of rare variables, like genotypes, which due to their frequency and strength render their effects difficult to estimate from a dataset. Variables that influence the estimated value of a model-based parameter are termed covariates. It is often difficult to determine if such an effect is significant, since type I error can be inflated when the covariate is rare. Their presence may have either an insubstantial effect on the parameters of interest, hence are ignorable, or conversely they may be influential and therefore non-ignorable. In the case that these covariate effects cannot be estimated due to power and are non-ignorable, then these are considered nuisance, in that they have to be considered but due to type 1 error are of limited interest. This study assesses methods of handling nuisance covariate effects. The specific objectives include (1) calibrating the frequency of a covariate that is associated with type 1 error inflation, (2) calibrating its strength that renders it non-ignorable and (3) evaluating methods for handling these non-ignorable covariates in a nonlinear mixed effects model setting. Type 1 error was determined for the Wald test. Methods considered for handling the nuisance covariate effects were case deletion, Box-Cox transformation and inclusion of a specific fixed effects parameter. Non-ignorable nuisance covariates were found to be effectively handled through addition of a fixed effect parameter.

  11. A Systematic Approach for Identifying Level-1 Error Covariance Structures in Latent Growth Modeling

    Ding, Cherng G.; Jane, Ten-Der; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Lin, Hang-Rung; Shen, Chih-Kang

    2017-01-01

    It has been pointed out in the literature that misspecification of the level-1 error covariance structure in latent growth modeling (LGM) has detrimental impacts on the inferences about growth parameters. Since correct covariance structure is difficult to specify by theory, the identification needs to rely on a specification search, which,…

  12. Superstring elastic scattering at √s≥1019 GeV. The covariant loop calculus approach

    Bellini, A.; Cristofano, G.; Fabbrichesi, M.; Roland, K.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX

    1990-01-01

    We study quantum gravity by considering the elastic scattering of two on-shell string ground states in the large s, fixed t asymptotic limit. The amplitude is computed by means of the covariant loop calculus which turns out to be a powerful method in the study of such a Regge regime. The leading contribution in powers of s is shown to factorize at any g-loop order in a product of g+1 tree amplitudes times the expectation value of a factorized operator. The cumulative effect of these contributions - once it has been resummed - restores unitarity in the theory and gives a deflection angle in agreement with the linear approximation to general relativity. In the process, it is possible to determine the normalization dictated by unitarity of all terms in the topological expansion. Next, the first sub-leading contribution is calculated at the two-loop order, the so-called H-diagram. A resummation of such terms gives rise to the first non-linear correction in the deflection angle. Our results are in agreement with previous work by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano in the framework of Regge-Gribov techniques. The correspondence between the two approaches is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ4 theory in light-front field theory

    Bender, C.M.; Pinsky, S.; van de Sande, B.

    1993-01-01

    We study spontaneous symmetry breaking in (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory using the light-front formulation of field theory. Since the physical vacuum is always the same as the perturbative vacuum in light-front field theory the fields must develop a vacuum expectation value through the zero-mode components of the field. We solve the nonlinear operator equation for the zero mode in the one-mode approximation. We find that spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs at λ critical =4π(3+ √3 )μ 2 , which is consistent with the value λ critical =54.27μ 2 obtained in the equal-time theory. We calculate the vacuum expectation value as a function of the coupling constant in the broken phase both numerically and analytically using the δ expansion. We find two equivalent broken phases. Finally we show that the energy levels of the system have the expected behavior for the broken phase

  14. Light-front quantized field theory (an introduction): spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dirac procedure is used to construct the Hamiltonian formulation of the scalar field theory on the light-front. The theory is quantized and the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the front form and the instant form dynamics are compared. The phase transition in (φ 4 )2 theory is also discussed and found to be of the second order. (author). 36 refs

  15. Counterterms in Gravity in the Light-Front Formulation and a D=2 Conformal-like Symmetry in Gravity

    Bengtsson, Anders K. H.; Brink, Lars; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss gravity in the light-front formulation (light-cone gauge) and show how possible counterterms arise. We find that Poincare invariance is not enough to find the three-point counterterms uniquely. Higher-spin fields can intrude and mimic three-point higher derivative gravity terms. To select the correct term we have to use the remaining reparametrization invariance that exists after the gauge choice. We finally sketch how the corresponding programme for N=8 Supergravity ...

  16. Light-front quantized field theory: (an introduction). Spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    The field theory quantized on the light-front is compared with the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The arguments based on the micro causality principle would imply that the light-front field theory may become nonlocal with respect to the longitudinal coordinate even though the corresponding equal-time formulation is local. This is found to be the case for the scalar theory. The conventional instant form theory is sometimes required to be constrained by invoking external physical considerations; the analogous conditions seem to be already built in the theory on the light-front. In spite of the different mechanisms of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the two forms of dynamics they result in the same physical content. The phase transition in (φ 4 ) 2 theory is also discussed. The symmetric vacuum state for vanishingly small couplings is found to turn into an unstable symmetric one when the coupling is increased and may result in a phase transition of the second order in contrast to the first order transition concluded from the usual variational methods. (author)

  17. Convergence of the Light-Front Coupled-Cluster Method in Scalar Yukawa Theory

    Usselman, Austin

    We use Fock-state expansions and the Light-Front Coupled-Cluster (LFCC) method to study mass eigenvalue problems in quantum field theory. Specifically, we study convergence of the method in scalar Yukawa theory. In this theory, a single charged particle is surrounded by a cloud of neutral particles. The charged particle can create or annihilate neutral particles, causing the n-particle state to depend on the n + 1 and n - 1-particle state. Fock state expansion leads to an infinite set of coupled equations where truncation is required. The wave functions for the particle states are expanded in a basis of symmetric polynomials and a generalized eigenvalue problem is solved for the mass eigenvalue. The mass eigenvalue problem is solved for multiple values for the coupling strength while the number of particle states and polynomial basis order are increased. Convergence of the mass eigenvalue solutions is then obtained. Three mass ratios between the charged particle and neutral particles were studied. This includes a massive charged particle, equal masses and massive neutral particles. Relative probability between states can also be explored for more detailed understanding of the process of convergence with respect to the number of Fock sectors. The reliance on higher order particle states depended on how large the mass of the charge particle was. The higher the mass of the charged particle, the more the system depended on higher order particle states. The LFCC method solves this same mass eigenvalue problem using an exponential operator. This exponential operator can then be truncated instead to form a finite system of equations that can be solved using a built in system solver provided in most computational environments, such as MatLab and Mathematica. First approximation in the LFCC method allows for only one particle to be created by the new operator and proved to be not powerful enough to match the Fock state expansion. The second order approximation allowed one

  18. Approaches for the generation of a covariance matrix for the Cf-252 fission-neutron spectrum

    Mannhart, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief retrospective glance is cast at the situation, the evaluation of the Cf-252 neutron spectrum with a complete covariance matrix based on the results of integral experiments is proposed. The different steps already taken in such an evaluation and work in progress are reviewed. It is shown that special attention should be given to the normalization of the neutron spectrum which must be reflected in the covariance matrix. The result of the least-squares adjustment procedure applied can easily be combined with the results of direct spectrum measurements and should be regarded as the first step in a new evaluation of the Cf-252 fission-neutron spectrum. (author)

  19. Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation

    West, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs

  20. Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation

    West, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs. (LEW)

  1. Covariant density functional theory for decay of deformed proton emitters: A self-consistent approach

    L.S. Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Proton radioactivity from deformed nuclei is described for the first time by a self-consistent calculation based on covariant relativistic density functionals derived from meson exchange and point coupling models. The calculation provides an important new test to these interactions at the limits of stability, since the mixing of different angular momenta in the single particle wave functions is probed.

  2. A Powerful Approach to Estimating Annotation-Stratified Genetic Covariance via GWAS Summary Statistics.

    Lu, Qiongshi; Li, Boyang; Ou, Derek; Erlendsdottir, Margret; Powles, Ryan L; Jiang, Tony; Hu, Yiming; Chang, David; Jin, Chentian; Dai, Wei; He, Qidu; Liu, Zefeng; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-12-07

    Despite the success of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on complex traits, our understanding of their genetic architecture is far from complete. Jointly modeling multiple traits' genetic profiles has provided insights into the shared genetic basis of many complex traits. However, large-scale inference sets a high bar for both statistical power and biological interpretability. Here we introduce a principled framework to estimate annotation-stratified genetic covariance between traits using GWAS summary statistics. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, we demonstrate that our method provides accurate covariance estimates, thereby enabling researchers to dissect both the shared and distinct genetic architecture across traits to better understand their etiologies. Among 50 complex traits with publicly accessible GWAS summary statistics (N total ≈ 4.5 million), we identified more than 170 pairs with statistically significant genetic covariance. In particular, we found strong genetic covariance between late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two major neurodegenerative diseases, in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high minor allele frequencies and in SNPs located in the predicted functional genome. Joint analysis of LOAD, ALS, and other traits highlights LOAD's correlation with cognitive traits and hints at an autoimmune component for ALS. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of two Minkowski-space approaches to heavy quarkonia

    Leitao, Sofia; Biernat, Elmar P. [Universidade de Lisboa, CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Li, Yang [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames, IA (United States); College of William and Mary, Department of Physics, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames, IA (United States); Pena, M.T. [Universidade de Lisboa, CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Universidade de Lisboa, CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Evora, Departamento de Fisica, Evora (Portugal)

    2017-10-15

    In this work we compare mass spectra and decay constants obtained from two recent, independent, and fully relativistic approaches to the quarkonium bound-state problem: the Basis Light-Front Quantization approach, where light-front wave functions are naturally formulated; and, the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST), based on a reorganization of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Even though conceptually different, both solutions are obtained in Minkowski space. Comparisons of decay constants for more than ten states of charmonium and bottomonium show favorable agreement between the two approaches as well as with experiment where available. We also apply the Brodsky-Huang-Lepage prescription to convert the CST amplitudes into functions of light-front variables. This provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the similarities and differences at the level of the wave functions. Several qualitative features are observed in remarkable agreement between the two approaches even for the rarely addressed excited states. Leading-twist distribution amplitudes as well as parton distribution functions of heavy quarkonia are also analyzed. (orig.)

  4. Implementation of the NMR CHEmical Shift Covariance Analysis (CHESCA): A Chemical Biologist's Approach to Allostery.

    Boulton, Stephen; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Ahmed, Rashik; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Mapping allosteric sites is emerging as one of the central challenges in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is ideally suited to map allosteric sites, given its ability to sense at atomic resolution the dynamics underlying allostery. Here, we focus specifically on the NMR CHEmical Shift Covariance Analysis (CHESCA), in which allosteric systems are interrogated through a targeted library of perturbations (e.g., mutations and/or analogs of the allosteric effector ligand). The atomic resolution readout for the response to such perturbation library is provided by NMR chemical shifts. These are then subject to statistical correlation and covariance analyses resulting in clusters of allosterically coupled residues that exhibit concerted responses to the common set of perturbations. This chapter provides a description of how each step in the CHESCA is implemented, starting from the selection of the perturbation library and ending with an overview of different clustering options.

  5. Hamiltonian approach to GR - Part 1: covariant theory of classical gravity

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    A challenging issue in General Relativity concerns the determination of the manifestly covariant continuum Hamiltonian structure underlying the Einstein field equations and the related formulation of the corresponding covariant Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The task is achieved by adopting a synchronous variational principle requiring distinction between the prescribed deterministic metric tensor \\widehat{g}(r)≡ { \\widehat{g}_{μ ν }(r)} solution of the Einstein field equations which determines the geometry of the background space-time and suitable variational fields x≡ { g,π } obeying an appropriate set of continuum Hamilton equations, referred to here as GR-Hamilton equations. It is shown that a prerequisite for reaching such a goal is that of casting the same equations in evolutionary form by means of a Lagrangian parametrization for a suitably reduced canonical state. As a result, the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory is established in manifestly covariant form. Physical implications of the theory are discussed. These include the investigation of the structural stability of the GR-Hamilton equations with respect to vacuum solutions of the Einstein equations, assuming that wave-like perturbations are governed by the canonical evolution equations.

  6. Hamiltonian approach to GR. Pt. 1. Covariant theory of classical gravity

    Cremaschini, Claudio [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Center for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [University of Trieste, Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, Trieste (Italy); Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    A challenging issue in General Relativity concerns the determination of the manifestly covariant continuum Hamiltonian structure underlying the Einstein field equations and the related formulation of the corresponding covariant Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The task is achieved by adopting a synchronous variational principle requiring distinction between the prescribed deterministic metric tensor g(r) ≡ {g_μ_ν(r)} solution of the Einstein field equations which determines the geometry of the background space-time and suitable variational fields x ≡ {g,π} obeying an appropriate set of continuum Hamilton equations, referred to here as GR-Hamilton equations. It is shown that a prerequisite for reaching such a goal is that of casting the same equations in evolutionary form by means of a Lagrangian parametrization for a suitably reduced canonical state. As a result, the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory is established in manifestly covariant form. Physical implications of the theory are discussed. These include the investigation of the structural stability of the GR-Hamilton equations with respect to vacuum solutions of the Einstein equations, assuming that wave-like perturbations are governed by the canonical evolution equations. (orig.)

  7. Investigations into light-front interactions for massless fields (I): non-constructibility of higher spin quartic amplitudes

    Bengtsson, Anders K.H. [Academy of Textiles, Engineering and Economics, University of Borås,Allégatan 1, SE-50190 Borås (Sweden)

    2016-12-27

    The dynamical commutators of the light-front Poincaré algebra yield first order differential equations in the p{sup +} momenta for the interaction vertex operators. The homogeneous solution to the equation for the quartic vertex is studied. Consequences as regards the constructibility assumption of quartic higher spin amplitudes from cubic amplitudes are discussed. The existence of quartic contact interactions unrelated to cubic interactions by Poincaré symmetry indicates that the higher spin S-matrix is not constructible. Thus quartic amplitude based no-go results derived by BCFW recursion for Minkowski higher spin massless fields may be circumvented.

  8. Light-front quark model analysis of the exclusive rare Bc→D(s)(l+l-,νlνl) decays

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the exclusive rare B c →D (s) ν l ν l and B→D (s) l + l - (l=e, μ, τ) decays within the standard model and the light-front quark model constrained by the variational principle for the QCD-motivated effective Hamiltonian. The form factors f ± (q 2 ) and f T (q 2 ) are obtained from the analytic continuation method in the q + =0 frame. While the form factors f + (q 2 ) and f T (q 2 ) are free from the zero mode, the form factor f - (q 2 ) is not free from the zero mode in the q + =0 frame. We discuss the covariance (i.e. frame independence) of our model calculation and quantify the zero-mode contributions to f - (q 2 ) for B c →D (s) decays. The branching ratios and the longitudinal lepton polarization asymmetries are calculated with and without the long-distance contributions. Our numerical results for the nonresonant branching ratios for and B c →D(D s )l + l - are in the order of 10 -8 (10 -7 ) and 10 -9 (10 -8 ), respectively. The averaged values of the lepton polarization asymmetries obtained from the linear (harmonic oscillator) potential parameters are found to be -0.99 (-0.99) for B c →Dμ + μ - and -0.16 (-0.15) for B c →Dτ + τ - , and -0.98 (-0.98) for B c →D s μ + μ - and -0.14 (-0.12) for B c →D s τ + τ - , respectively.

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ4 theory in light-front field theory. II

    Pinsky, S.S.; van de Sande, B.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory in light-front field theory using a Tamm-Dancoff truncation. We show that, even though light-front field theory has a simple vacuum state which is an eigenstate of the full Hamiltonian, the field can develop a nonzero vacuum expectation value. This occurs because the zero mode of the field must satisfy an operator-valued constraint equation. In the context of (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory we present solutions to the constraint equation using a Tamm-Dancoff truncation to a finite number of particles and modes. We study the behavior of the zero mode as a function of coupling and Fock space truncation. The zero mode introduces new interactions into the Hamiltonian which breaks the Z 2 symmetry of the theory when the coupling is stronger than the critical coupling. We investigate the energy spectrum in the symmetric and broken phases, show that the theory does not break down in the vicinity of the critical coupling, and discuss the connection to perturbation theory. Finally, we study the spectrum of the field φ and show that, in the broken phase, the field is localized away from φ=0 as one would expect from equal-time calculations. We explicitly show that tunneling occurs

  10. Hamiltonian approach to GR. Pt. 2. Covariant theory of quantum gravity

    Cremaschini, Claudio [Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Center for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [University of Trieste, Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, Trieste (Italy); Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    A non-perturbative quantum field theory of General Relativity is presented which leads to a new realization of the theory of covariant quantum gravity (CQG-theory). The treatment is founded on the recently identified Hamiltonian structure associated with the classical space-time, i.e., the corresponding manifestly covariant Hamilton equations and the related Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The quantum Hamiltonian operator and the CQG-wave equation for the corresponding CQG-state and wave function are realized in 4-scalar form. The new quantum wave equation is shown to be equivalent to a set of quantum hydrodynamic equations which warrant the consistency with the classical GR Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the semiclassical limit. A perturbative approximation scheme is developed, which permits the adoption of the harmonic oscillator approximation for the treatment of the Hamiltonian potential. As an application of the theory, the stationary vacuum CQG-wave equation is studied, yielding a stationary equation for the CQG-state in terms of the 4-scalar invariant-energy eigenvalue associated with the corresponding approximate quantum Hamiltonian operator. The conditions for the existence of a discrete invariant-energy spectrum are pointed out. This yields a possible estimate for the graviton mass together with a new interpretation about the quantum origin of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  11. Covariant Transform

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  12. Towards pure spinor type covariant description of supermembrane - an approach from the double spinor formalism

    Aisaka, Yuri; Kazama, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    In a previous work, we have constructed a reparametrization invariant worldsheet action from which one can derive the super-Poincare covariant pure spinor formalism for the superstring at the fully quantum level. The main idea was the doubling of the spinor degrees of freedom in the Green-Schwarz formulation together with the introduction of a new compensating local fermionic symmetry. In this paper, we extend this 'double spinor' formalism to the case of the supermembrane in 11 dimensions at the classical level. The basic scheme works in parallel with the string case and we are able to construct the closed algebra of first class constraints which governs the entire dynamics of the system. A notable difference from the string case is that this algebra is first order reducible and the associated BRST operator must be constructed accordingly. The remaining problems which need to be solved for the quantization will also be discussed

  13. Dissociation between judgments and outcome-expectancy measures in covariation learning: a signal detection theory approach.

    Perales, José C; Catena, Andrés; Shanks, David R; González, José A

    2005-09-01

    A number of studies using trial-by-trial learning tasks have shown that judgments of covariation between a cue c and an outcome o deviate from normative metrics. Parameters based on trial-by-trial predictions were estimated from signal detection theory (SDT) in a standard causal learning task. Results showed that manipulations of P(c) when contingency (deltaP) was held constant did not affect participants' ability to predict the appearance of the outcome (d') but had a significant effect on response criterion (c) and numerical causal judgments. The association between criterion c and judgment was further demonstrated in 2 experiments in which the criterion was directly manipulated by linking payoffs to the predictive responses made by learners. In all cases, the more liberal the criterion c was, the higher judgments were. The results imply that the mechanisms underlying the elaboration of judgments and those involved in the elaboration of predictive responses are partially dissociable.

  14. Exploring the bulk in AdS /CFT : A covariant approach

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2017-03-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and it may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "light-cone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic renormalization group flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse graining over both large distances and long time scales.

  15. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    Estrada-Jimenez, S [Licenciaturas en Fisica y en Matematicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas Calle 4a Ote. Nte. 1428, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, H [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey Via del Conocimiento 201, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (PIIT) Autopista nueva al Aeropuerto km 9.5, Lote 1, Manzana 29, cp. 66600 Apodaca Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Ramirez, C [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2008-07-02

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

  16. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-01-01

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced

  17. Comparison of numerical approaches to solve a Poincare-covariant Faddeev equation

    Alkofer, R.; Eichmann, G.; Krassnigg, A.; Schwinzerl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The quark core of Baryons can be described with the help of the numerical solution of the Poincare-Faddeev equation. Hereby the used elements, as e.g. the quark propagator are taken from non-perturbative studies of Landau gauge QCD. Different numerical approaches to solve in this way the relativistic three quark problem are compared and benchmarked results for the efficiency of different algorithms are presented. (author)

  18. Bound-state problem in the light-front Tamm-Dancoff approximation: Numerical study in 1+1 dimensions

    Harindranath, A.; Perry, R.J.; Shigemitsu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical solutions to the two-fermion bound-state problem in the (1+1)-dimensional Yukawa model are presented within the lowest-order light-front Tamm-Dancoff approximation (i.e., keeping only two-fermion and two-fermion--one-boson sectors). Our motivation is twofold. First, we want to understand the dynamics of the model from the very-weak-coupling domain, where the system is governed by nonrelativistic dynamics, to moderate and strong-coupling domains where retardation and self-energy effects become important. Second, we want to develop techniques for solving coupled Tamm-Dancoff integral equations, in particular, methods that can be generalized to higher-order Tamm-Dancoff approximations. To achieve the first goal we first simplify the problem considerably (from a numerical point of view) by the explicit elimination of the higher Fock-space sector. The resulting integral equation, whose kernel depends upon the invariant mass of the state, is solved for the coupling constant, for a given set of the invariant mass and fermion and boson mass parameters. To achieve the second goal we solve the coupled set of equations using both basis functions and direct-discretization techniques. Results from these more general techniques are compared with the explicit-elimination method

  19. Nuclear charge-exchange excitations in a self-consistent covariant approach

    Liang, Haozhao

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, charge-exchange excitations in nuclei become one of the central topics in nuclear physics and astrophysics. Basically, a systematic pattern of the energy and collectivity of these excitations could provide direct information on the spin and isospin properties of the in-medium nuclear interaction, and the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Furthermore, a basic and critical quantity in nuclear structure, neutron skin thickness, can be determined indirectly by the sum rule of spin-dipole resonances (SDR) or the excitation energy spacing between the isobaric analog states (IAS) and Gamow-Teller resonances (GTR). More generally, charge-exchange excitations allow one to attack other kinds of problems outside the realm of nuclear structure, like the description of neutron star and supernova evolutions, the β-decay of nuclei which lie on the r-process path of stellar nucleosynthesis, and the neutrino-nucleus cross sections. They also play an essential role in extracting the value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element V ud via the nuclear 0 + → 0 + superallowed Fermi β decays. For all these reasons, it is important to develop the microscopic theories of charge-exchange excitations and it is the main motivation of the present work. In this work, a fully self-consistent charge-exchange relativistic random phase approximation (RPA) based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach is established. Its self-consistency is verified by the so-called IAS check. This approach is then applied to investigate the nuclear spin-isospin resonances, isospin symmetry-breaking corrections for the superallowed β decays, and the charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections. For two important spin-isospin resonances, GTR and SDR, it is shown that a very satisfactory agreement with the experimental data can be obtained without any readjustment of the energy functional. Furthermore, the isoscalar mesons are found to play an essential role in spin

  20. Study of the in-medium nucleon electromagnetic form factors using a light-front nucleon wave function combined with the quark-meson coupling model

    de Araújo, W. R. B.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.; Tsushima, K.

    2018-02-01

    We study the nucleon electromagnetic (EM) form factors in symmetric nuclear matter as well as in vacuum within a light-front approach using the in-medium inputs calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. The same in-medium quark properties are used as those used for the study of in-medium pion properties. The zero of the proton EM form factor ratio in vacuum, the electric to magnetic form factor ratio μpGEp (Q2) /GMp (Q2) (Q2 = -q2 > 0 with q being the four-momentum transfer), is determined including the latest experimental data by implementing a hard constituent quark component in the nucleon wave function. A reasonable fit is achieved for the ratio μpGEp (Q2) /GMp (Q2) in vacuum, and we predict that the Q02 value to cross the zero of the ratio to be about 15 GeV2. In addition the double ratio data of the proton EM form factors in 4He and H nuclei, [GEp4He (Q2) /G4HeMp (Q2) ] / [GEp1H (Q2) /GMp1H (Q2) ], extracted by the polarized (e → ,e‧ p →) scattering experiment on 4He at JLab, are well described. We also predict that the Q02 value satisfying μpGEp (Q02) /GMp (Q0 2) = 0 in symmetric nuclear matter, shifts to a smaller value as increasing nuclear matter density, which reflects the facts that the faster falloff of GEp (Q2) as increasing Q2 and the increase of the proton mean-square charge radius. Furthermore, we calculate the neutron EM form factor double ratio in symmetric nuclear matter for 0.1 neutron double ratio is enhanced relative to that in vacuum, while for the proton it is quenched, and agrees with an existing theoretical prediction.

  1. Invariance of Parent Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis Approach

    Gomez, Rapson

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study used the mean and covariance structures analysis approach to examine the equality or invariance of ratings of the 18 ADHD symptoms. Method: 783 Australian and 928 Malaysian parents provided ratings for an ADHD rating scale. Invariance was tested across these groups (Comparison 1), and North European Australian (n = 623) and…

  2. Contributions to Large Covariance and Inverse Covariance Matrices Estimation

    Kang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of covariance matrix and its inverse is of great importance in multivariate statistics with broad applications such as dimension reduction, portfolio optimization, linear discriminant analysis and gene expression analysis. However, accurate estimation of covariance or inverse covariance matrices is challenging due to the positive definiteness constraint and large number of parameters, especially in the high-dimensional cases. In this thesis, I develop several approaches for estimat...

  3. Combining sap flow and eddy covariance approaches to derive stomatal and non-stomatal O3 fluxes in a forest stand

    Nunn, A.J.; Cieslik, S.; Metzger, U.; Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal O 3 fluxes to a mixed beech/spruce stand (Fagus sylvatica/Picea abies) in Central Europe were determined using two different approaches. The sap flow technique yielded the tree-level transpiration, whereas the eddy covariance method provided the stand-level evapotranspiration. Both data were then converted into stomatal ozone fluxes, exemplifying this novel concept for July 2007. Sap flow-based stomatal O 3 flux was 33% of the total O 3 flux, whereas derivation from evapotranspiration rates in combination with the Penman-Monteith algorithm amounted to 47%. In addition to this proportional difference, the sap flow-based assessment yielded lower levels of stomatal O 3 flux and reflected stomatal regulation rather than O 3 exposure, paralleling the daily courses of canopy conductance for water vapor and eddy covariance-based total stand-level O 3 flux. The demonstrated combination of sap flow and eddy covariance approaches supports the development of O 3 risk assessment in forests from O 3 exposure towards flux-based concepts. - Combined tree sap flow and eddy covariance-based methodologies yield stomatal O 3 flux as 33% in total stand flux.

  4. HSQC-1,n-ADEQUATE: a new approach to long-range 13C-13C correlation by covariance processing.

    Martin, Gary E; Hilton, Bruce D; Willcott, M Robert; Blinov, Kirill A

    2011-10-01

    Long-range, two-dimensional heteronuclear shift correlation NMR methods play a pivotal role in the assembly of novel molecular structures. The well-established GHMBC method is a high-sensitivity mainstay technique, affording connectivity information via (n)J(CH) coupling pathways. Unfortunately, there is no simple way of determining the value of n and hence no way of differentiating two-bond from three- and occasionally four-bond correlations. Three-bond correlations, however, generally predominate. Recent work has shown that the unsymmetrical indirect covariance or generalized indirect covariance processing of multiplicity edited GHSQC and 1,1-ADEQUATE spectra provides high-sensitivity access to a (13)C-(13) C connectivity map in the form of an HSQC-1,1-ADEQUATE spectrum. Covariance processing of these data allows the 1,1-ADEQUATE connectivity information to be exploited with the inherent sensitivity of the GHSQC spectrum rather than the intrinsically lower sensitivity of the 1,1-ADEQUATE spectrum itself. Data acquisition times and/or sample size can be substantially reduced when covariance processing is to be employed. In an extension of that work, 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra can likewise be subjected to covariance processing to afford high-sensitivity access to the equivalent of (4)J(CH) GHMBC connectivity information. The method is illustrated using strychnine as a model compound. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition (EED) analysis of dissimilarity and covariance matrix obtained from total synchronous fluorescence spectral (TSFS) data sets of herbal preparations: Optimizing the classification approach

    Tarai, Madhumita; Kumar, Keshav; Divya, O.; Bairi, Partha; Mishra, Kishor Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The present work compares the dissimilarity and covariance based unsupervised chemometric classification approaches by taking the total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data sets acquired for the cumin and non-cumin based herbal preparations. The conventional decomposition method involves eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the covariance of the data set and finds the factors that can explain the overall major sources of variation present in the data set. The conventional approach does this irrespective of the fact that the samples belong to intrinsically different groups and hence leads to poor class separation. The present work shows that classification of such samples can be optimized by performing the eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition on the pair-wise dissimilarity matrix.

  6. Eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition (EED) analysis of dissimilarity and covariance matrix obtained from total synchronous fluorescence spectral (TSFS) data sets of herbal preparations: Optimizing the classification approach.

    Tarai, Madhumita; Kumar, Keshav; Divya, O; Bairi, Partha; Mishra, Kishor Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-05

    The present work compares the dissimilarity and covariance based unsupervised chemometric classification approaches by taking the total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data sets acquired for the cumin and non-cumin based herbal preparations. The conventional decomposition method involves eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the covariance of the data set and finds the factors that can explain the overall major sources of variation present in the data set. The conventional approach does this irrespective of the fact that the samples belong to intrinsically different groups and hence leads to poor class separation. The present work shows that classification of such samples can be optimized by performing the eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition on the pair-wise dissimilarity matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological and Biogeochemical Impacts of Internal Waves on Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems: Testing Eddy Covariance and Isotope Approaches, Iriomote, Japan

    Wyatt, A. S. J.; Miyajima, T.; Leichter, J.; Naruse, T.; Kuwae, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Satoh, N.; Nagata, T.

    2016-02-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) occur in the `twilight zone' of decreasing light between 30 - 150 m water depth where they may be protected or damped from disturbances impacting shallower reefs. However insufficient information is available on the environmental conditions that support MCE to allow us to understand and conserve these `deep water refugia'. For instance, nutrient inputs and recycling have rarely been quantified over MCE, but deeper reefs may differ fundamentally to that of shallow counterparts due to the reduction in light and increasing use of oceanic nutrients at the base of the food web, leading to increased reliance on heterotrophy over autotrophy at species and ecosystem levels and stronger links to oceanic processes. For instance, due to their depth relative to typical water column density stratification, MCE are particularly likely to experience internal wave forcing, the significance of which should vary spatially depending on aspect and exposure. In this study we are focusing on MCE occurring along a continuum of oceanic-exposure along Funauki Bay on the west coast of Iriomote, Japan. Here our preliminary observations indicate that ocean-exposed MCE are subject to semi-diurnal temperature oscillations of up to 4 C during summer (range 23 - 29 deg C), while inner bay MCE occur at shallower depths in more turbid but stable environments. This continuum of oceanic exposure is ideal for testing a range of approaches for quantifying the relative ecological and biogeochemical influence of internal waves. Stable isotope analyses (SIA) are a particularly useful tool for understanding functional links between oceanic processes, local-scale nutrient cycling, and trophic ecology, with results from shallow reefs showing they likely function along a continuum of reliance on external inputs versus internal recycling depending on the degree of oceanic exposure. Although challenging to implement in deep water habitats, the combination of SIA with compound

  8. Solvable light-front model of the electromagnetic form factor of the relativistic two-body bound state in 1+1 dimensions

    Mankiewicz, L.; Sawicki, M.

    1989-01-01

    Within a relativistically correct yet analytically solvable model of light-front quantum mechanics we construct the electromagnetic form factor of the two-body bound state and we study the validity of the static approximation to the full form factor. Upon comparison of full form factors calculated for different values of binding energy we observe an unexpected effect that for very strongly bound states further increase in binding leads to an increase in the size of the bound system. A similar effect is found for another quantum-mechanical model of relativistic dynamics

  9. Resolving the SELEX--LHCb Double-Charm Baryon Conflict: The Impact of Intrinsic Heavy-Quark Hadroproduction and Supersymmetric Light-Front Holographic QCD

    Brodsky, Stanley [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show that the intrinsic heavy-quark QCD mechanism for the hadroproduction of heavy hadrons at large $x_F$ can resolve the apparent conflict between measurements of double-charm baryons by the SELEX fixed-target experiment and the LHCb experiment at the LHC collider. We show that both experiments are compatible, and that both results can be correct. The observed spectroscopy of double-charm hadrons is in agreement with the predictions of supersymmetric light front holographic QCD.

  10. Chiral Schwinger model with the Faddeevian regularization in the light-front frame: construction of the gauge-invariant theory through the Stueckelberg term, Hamiltonian and BRST formulations

    Kulshreshtha, U.

    1998-01-01

    A chiral Schwinger model with the Faddeevian regularization a la Mitra is studied in the light-front frame. The front-form theory is found to be gauge-non-invariant. The Hamiltonian formulation of this gauge-non-invariant theory is first investigated and then the Stueckelberg term for this theory is constructed. Finally, the Hamiltonian and BRST formulations of the resulting gauge-invariant theory, obtained by the inclusion of the Stueckelberg term in the action of the above gauge-non-invariant theory, are investigated with some specific gauge choices. (orig.)

  11. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  12. Structural Analysis of Covariance and Correlation Matrices.

    Joreskog, Karl G.

    1978-01-01

    A general approach to analysis of covariance structures is considered, in which the variances and covariances or correlations of the observed variables are directly expressed in terms of the parameters of interest. The statistical problems of identification, estimation and testing of such covariance or correlation structures are discussed.…

  13. The Bayesian Covariance Lasso.

    Khondker, Zakaria S; Zhu, Hongtu; Chu, Haitao; Lin, Weili; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of sparse covariance matrices and their inverse subject to positive definiteness constraints has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. The abundance of high-dimensional data, where the sample size ( n ) is less than the dimension ( d ), requires shrinkage estimation methods since the maximum likelihood estimator is not positive definite in this case. Furthermore, when n is larger than d but not sufficiently larger, shrinkage estimation is more stable than maximum likelihood as it reduces the condition number of the precision matrix. Frequentist methods have utilized penalized likelihood methods, whereas Bayesian approaches rely on matrix decompositions or Wishart priors for shrinkage. In this paper we propose a new method, called the Bayesian Covariance Lasso (BCLASSO), for the shrinkage estimation of a precision (covariance) matrix. We consider a class of priors for the precision matrix that leads to the popular frequentist penalties as special cases, develop a Bayes estimator for the precision matrix, and propose an efficient sampling scheme that does not precalculate boundaries for positive definiteness. The proposed method is permutation invariant and performs shrinkage and estimation simultaneously for non-full rank data. Simulations show that the proposed BCLASSO performs similarly as frequentist methods for non-full rank data.

  14. Monitoring gas and heat emissions at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA based on a combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach

    Lewicki, J. L.; Kelly, P. J.; Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. G.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2017-11-01

    .1, respectively, on average) were invariant during the measurement period and fell within the range of values measured in direct fumarole gas samples. The soil gas H2O/CO2 end member ratios ( 15-30) were variable and low relative to the fumarole end member, likely resulting from water vapor loss during cooling and condensation in the shallow subsurface, whereas the CO2/H2S end member ratio was high ( 160), presumably related to transport of CO2-dominated soil gas emissions mixed with trace fumarolic emissions to the Multi-GAS station. Nighttime eddy covariance ratios of H2O to CO2 flux were typically between the soil gas and fumarole end member H2O/CO2 ratios defined by Multi-GAS measurements. Overall, the combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach provides a powerful tool for quasi-continuous measurements of gas and heat emissions for improved volcano-hydrothermal monitoring.

  15. Monitoring gas and heat emissions at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA based on a combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kelly, Peter; Bergfeld, Deborah; Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2017-01-01

    fumarole H2O/CO2 and CO2/H2S end member ratios (101.7 and 27.1, respectively, on average) were invariant during the measurement period and fell within the range of values measured in direct fumarole gas samples. The soil gas H2O/CO2end member ratios (~ 15–30) were variable and low relative to the fumarole end member, likely resulting from water vapor loss during cooling and condensation in the shallow subsurface, whereas the CO2/H2S end member ratio was high (~ 160), presumably related to transport of CO2-dominated soil gas emissions mixed with trace fumarolic emissions to the Multi-GAS station. Nighttime eddy covariance ratios of H2O to CO2 flux were typically between the soil gas and fumarole end member H2O/CO2 ratios defined by Multi-GAS measurements. Overall, the combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach provides a powerful tool for quasi-continuous measurements of gas and heat emissions for improved volcano-hydrothermal monitoring.

  16. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, May 2014

    Aliberti, G.; Archier, P.; Dunn, M.; Dupont, E.; Hill, I.; ); Garcia, A.; Hursin, M.; Pelloni, S.; Ivanova, T.; Kodeli, I.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Touran, N.; Wenming, Wang; Yokoyama, K.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. This document is the proceedings of the second Subgroup meeting, held at the NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, on 13 May 2014. It comprises a Summary Record of the meeting and all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Welcome: Review of actions (M. Salvatores); B - Inter-comparison of sensitivity coefficients: 1 - Sensitivity Computation with Monte Carlo Methods (T. Ivanova); 2 - Sensitivity analysis of FLATTOP-Pu (I. Kodeli); 3 - Sensitivity coefficients by means of SERPENT-2 (S. Pelloni); 4 - Demonstration - Database for ICSBEP (DICE) and Database and Analysis Tool for IRPhE (IDAT) (I. Hill); C - Specific new experiments: 1 - PROTEUS FDWR-II (HCLWR) program summary (M. Hursin); 2 - STEK and SEG Experiments, M. Salvatores 3 - Experiments related to "2"3"5U, "2"3"8U, "5"6Fe and "2"3Na, G. Palmiotti); 4 - Validation of Iron Cross Sections against ASPIS Experiments (JEF/DOC-420) (I. Kodeli); 5 - Benchmark analysis of Iron Cross-sections (EFFDOC-1221) (I. Kodeli 6 - Integral Beta-effective Measurements (K. Yokoyama on behalf of M. Ishikawa); D - Adjustment results: 1 - Impacts of Covariance Data and Interpretation of Adjustment Trends of ADJ2010, (K. Yokoyama); 2 - Revised Recommendations from ADJ2010 Adjustment (K. Yokoyama); 3 - Comparisons and Discussions on Adjustment trends from JEFF (CEA) (P. Archier); 4 - Feedback on CIELO Isotopes from ENDF/B-VII.0 Adjustment (G. Palmiotti); 5 - Demonstration - Plot comparisons of participants' results (E

  17. Spacelike and timelike form factors for ω→πγ* and K*→Kγ* in the light-front quark model

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2008-01-01

    We investigate space- and timelike form factors for ω→πγ* and K*→Kγ* decays using the light-front quark model constrained by the variational principle for the QCD-motivated effective Hamiltonian. The momentum dependent spacelike form factors are obtained in the q + =0 frame and then analytically continued to the timelike region. Our prediction for the timelike form factor F ωπ (q 2 ) is in good agreement with the experimental data. We also find that the spacelike form factor F K* ± K ± (Q 2 ) for charged kaons encounters a zero because of the negative interference between the two currents to the quark and the antiquark.

  18. Poincare covariance and κ-Minkowski spacetime

    Dabrowski, Ludwik; Piacitelli, Gherardo

    2011-01-01

    A fully Poincare covariant model is constructed as an extension of the κ-Minkowski spacetime. Covariance is implemented by a unitary representation of the Poincare group, and thus complies with the original Wigner approach to quantum symmetries. This provides yet another example (besides the DFR model), where Poincare covariance is realised a la Wigner in the presence of two characteristic dimensionful parameters: the light speed and the Planck length. In other words, a Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) framework may well be realised without deforming the meaning of 'Poincare covariance'. -- Highlights: → We construct a 4d model of noncommuting coordinates (quantum spacetime). → The coordinates are fully covariant under the undeformed Poincare group. → Covariance a la Wigner holds in presence of two dimensionful parameters. → Hence we are not forced to deform covariance (e.g. as quantum groups). → The underlying κ-Minkowski model is unphysical; covariantisation does not cure this.

  19. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, November 2014

    Aufiero, Manuele; Ivanov, Evgeny; Hoefer, Axel; Yokoyama, Kenji; Da Cruz, Dirceu Ferreira; KODELI, Ivan-Alexander; Hursin, Mathieu; Pelloni, Sandro; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Barnes, Andrew; Cabellos De Francisco, Oscar; ); Ivanova, Tatiana; )

    2014-11-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. This document is the proceedings of the third formal Subgroup meeting held at the NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, on 27-28 November 2014. It comprises a Summary Record of the meeting and all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Sensitivity methods: 1 - Perturbation/sensitivity calculations with Serpent (M. Aufiero); 2 - Comparison of deterministic and Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis of SNEAK-7A and FLATTOP-Pu Benchmarks (I. Kodeli); B - Integral experiments: 1 - PROTEUS experiments: selected experiments sensitivity profiles and availability, (M. Hursin, M. Salvatores - PROTEUS Experiments, HCLWR configurations); 2 - SINBAD Benchmark Database and FNS/JAEA Liquid Oxygen TOF Experiment Analysis (I. Kodeli); 3 - STEK experiment Opportunity for Validation of Fission Products Nuclear Data (D. Da Cruz); 4 - SEG (tailored adjoint flux shapes) (M. Savatores - comments) 5 - IPPE transmission experiments (Fe, 238 U) (T. Ivanova); 6 - RPI semi-integral (Fe, 238 U) (G. Palmiotti - comments); 7 - New experiments, e.g. in connection with the new NSC Expert Group on 'Improvement of Integral Experiments Data for Minor Actinide Management' (G. Palmiotti - Some comments from the Expert Group) 8 - Additional PSI adjustment studies accounting for nonlinearity (S. Pelloni); 9 - Adjustment methodology issues (G. Palmiotti); C - Am-241 and fission product issues: 1 - Am-241 validation for criticality-safety calculations (A. Barnes - Visio

  20. Eddy covariance measurements with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry: a new approach to chemically resolved aerosol fluxes

    D. K. Farmer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although laboratory studies show that biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs yield substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA, production of biogenic SOA as indicated by upward fluxes has not been conclusively observed over forests. Further, while aerosols are known to deposit to surfaces, few techniques exist to provide chemically-resolved particle deposition fluxes. To better constrain aerosol sources and sinks, we have developed a new technique to directly measure fluxes of chemically-resolved submicron aerosols using the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS in a new, fast eddy covariance mode. This approach takes advantage of the instrument's ability to quantitatively identify both organic and inorganic components, including ammonium, sulphate and nitrate, at a temporal resolution of several Hz. The new approach has been successfully deployed over a temperate ponderosa pine plantation in California during the BEARPEX-2007 campaign, providing both total and chemically resolved non-refractory (NR PM1 fluxes. Average deposition velocities for total NR-PM1 aerosol at noon were 2.05 ± 0.04 mm s−1. Using a high resolution measurement of the NH2+ and NH3+ fragments, we demonstrate the first eddy covariance flux measurements of particulate ammonium, which show a noon-time deposition velocity of 1.9 ± 0.7 mm s−1 and are dominated by deposition of ammonium sulphate.

  1. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, December 2016

    Cabellos, Oscar; ); PELLONI, Sandro; Ivanov, Evgeny; Sobes, Vladimir; Fukushima, M.; Yokoyama, Kenji; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Kodeli, Ivo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. This document is the proceedings of the eighth Subgroup 39 meeting, held at the OECD NEA, Boulogne-Billancourt, France, on 1-2 December 2016. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Presentations: Welcome and actions review (Oscar CABELLOS); B - Methods: - Detailed comparison of Progressive Incremental Adjustment (PIA) sequence results involving adjustments of spectral indices and coolant density effects on the basis of the SG33 benchmark (Sandro PELLONI); - ND assessment alternatives: Validation matrix vs XS adjustment (Evgeny IVANOV); - Implementation of Resonance Parameter Sensitivity Coefficients Calculation in CE TSUNAMI-3D (Vladimir SOBES); C - Experiment analysis, sensitivity calculations and benchmarks: - Benchmark tests of ENDF/B-VIII.0 beta 1 using sodium void reactivity worth of FCA-XXVII-1 assembly (M. FUKUSHIMA, Kenji YOKOYAMA); D - Adjustments: - Cross-section adjustment based on JENDL-4.0 using new experiments on the basis of the SG33 benchmark (Kenji YOKOYAMA); - Comparison of adjustment trends with the Cielo evaluation (Sandro PELLONI); - Expanded adjustment in support of CIELO initiative (Giuseppe PALMIOTTI); - First preliminary results of the adjustment exercise using ASPIS Fe88 and SNEAK-7A/7B k_e_f_f and b_e_f_f benchmarks (Ivo KODELI); E - Future actions, deliverables: - Discussion on future of SG39 and possible new subgroup (Giuseppe PALMIOTTI); - WPEC sub-group proposal: Investigation of Covariance Data in

  2. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, May 2015

    Wang, Wenming; Yokoyama, Kenji; Kim, Do Heon; Kodeli, Ivan-Alexander; Hursin, Mathieu; Pelloni, Sandro; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Touran, Nicholas; Cabellos De Francisco, Oscar; )

    2015-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. This document is the proceedings of the fourth Subgroup meeting, held at the NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, on 19-20 May 2015. It comprises a Summary Record of the meeting, two papers on deliverables and all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: 1 - Status of Deliverables: '1. Methodology' (K. Yokoyama); 2 - Status of Deliverables: '2. Comments on covariance data' (K. Yokoyama); 3 - PROTEUS HCLWR Experiments (M. Hursin); 4 - Preliminary UQ Efforts for TWR Design (N. Touran); 5 - Potential use of beta-eff and other benchmark for adjustment (I. Kodeli); 6 - k_e_f_f uncertainties for a simple case of Am"2"4"1 using different codes and evaluated files (I. Kodeli); 7 - k_e_f_f uncertainties for a simple case of Am"2"4"1 using TSUNAMI (O. Cabellos); 8 - REWIND: Ranking Experiments by Weighting to Improve Nuclear Data (G. Palmiotti); 9 - Recent analysis on NUDUNA/MOCABA applications to reactor physics parameters (E. Castro); 10 - INL exploratory study for SEG (A. Hummel); 11 - The Development of Nuclear Data Adjustment Code at CNDC (H. Wu); 12 - SG39 Perspectives (M. Salvatores). A list of issues and actions conclude the document

  3. Covariance evaluation system

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Shibata, Keiichi.

    1997-09-01

    A covariance evaluation system for the evaluated nuclear data library was established. The parameter estimation method and the least squares method with a spline function are used to generate the covariance data. Uncertainties of nuclear reaction model parameters are estimated from experimental data uncertainties, then the covariance of the evaluated cross sections is calculated by means of error propagation. Computer programs ELIESE-3, EGNASH4, ECIS, and CASTHY are used. Covariances of 238 U reaction cross sections were calculated with this system. (author)

  4. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...

  5. Covariant canonical quantization of fields and Bohmian mechanics

    Nikolic, H.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a manifestly covariant canonical method of field quantization based on the classical De Donder-Weyl covariant canonical formulation of field theory. Owing to covariance, the space and time arguments of fields are treated on an equal footing. To achieve both covariance and consistency with standard non-covariant canonical quantization of fields in Minkowski spacetime, it is necessary to adopt a covariant Bohmian formulation of quantum field theory. A preferred foliation of spacetime emerges dynamically owing to a purely quantum effect. The application to a simple time-reparametrization invariant system and quantum gravity is discussed and compared with the conventional non-covariant Wheeler-DeWitt approach. (orig.)

  6. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  7. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  8. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, December 2015

    Cabellos, Oscar; De Saint Jean, Cyrille; Hursin, Mathieu; Pelloni, Sandro; Ivanov, Evgeny; Kodeli, Ivan; Leconte, Pierre; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Sobes, Vladimir; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. This document is the proceedings of the fifth formal Subgroup 39 meeting held at the Institute Curie, Paris, France, on 4 December 2015. It comprises a Summary Record of the meeting, and all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Sensitivity methods: - 1: Short update on deliverables (K. Yokoyama); - 2: Does one shot Bayesian is equivalent to successive update? Bayesian inference: some matrix linear algebra (C. De Saint Jean); - 3: Progress in Methodology (G. Palmiotti); - SG39-3: Use of PIA approach. Possible application to neutron propagation experiments (S. Pelloni); - 4: Update on sensitivity coefficient methods (E. Ivanov); - 5: Stress test for U-235 fission (H. Wu); - 6: Methods and approaches development at ORNL for providing feedback from integral benchmark experiments for improvement of nuclear data files (V. Sobes); B - Integral experiments: - 7a: Update on SEG analysis (G. Palmiotti); - 7b:Status of MANTRA (G. Palmiotti); - 7c: Possible new experiments at NRAD (G. Palmiotti); - 8: B-eff experiments (I. Kodeli); - 9: On going CEA activities related to dedicated integral experiments for nuclear date validation in the Fast energy range (P. Leconte); - 10: PROTEUS Experiments: an update (M. Hursin); - 11: Short updates on neutron propagation experiments, STEK, CIELO status (O. Cabellos)

  9. A jackknife approach to quantifying single-trial correlation between covariance-based metrics undefined on a single-trial basis.

    Richter, Craig G; Thompson, William H; Bosman, Conrado A; Fries, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The quantification of covariance between neuronal activities (functional connectivity) requires the observation of correlated changes and therefore multiple observations. The strength of such neuronal correlations may itself undergo moment-by-moment fluctuations, which might e.g. lead to fluctuations in single-trial metrics such as reaction time (RT), or may co-fluctuate with the correlation between activity in other brain areas. Yet, quantifying the relation between moment-by-moment co-fluctuations in neuronal correlations is precluded by the fact that neuronal correlations are not defined per single observation. The proposed solution quantifies this relation by first calculating neuronal correlations for all leave-one-out subsamples (i.e. the jackknife replications of all observations) and then correlating these values. Because the correlation is calculated between jackknife replications, we address this approach as jackknife correlation (JC). First, we demonstrate the equivalence of JC to conventional correlation for simulated paired data that are defined per observation and therefore allow the calculation of conventional correlation. While the JC recovers the conventional correlation precisely, alternative approaches, like sorting-and-binning, result in detrimental effects of the analysis parameters. We then explore the case of relating two spectral correlation metrics, like coherence, that require multiple observation epochs, where the only viable alternative analysis approaches are based on some form of epoch subdivision, which results in reduced spectral resolution and poor spectral estimators. We show that JC outperforms these approaches, particularly for short epoch lengths, without sacrificing any spectral resolution. Finally, we note that the JC can be applied to relate fluctuations in any smooth metric that is not defined on single observations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  11. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics (MCTP), University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-30

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  12. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  13. Brownian distance covariance

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  14. Position Error Covariance Matrix Validation and Correction

    Frisbee, Joe, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In order to calculate operationally accurate collision probabilities, the position error covariance matrices predicted at times of closest approach must be sufficiently accurate representations of the position uncertainties. This presentation will discuss why the Gaussian distribution is a reasonable expectation for the position uncertainty and how this assumed distribution type is used in the validation and correction of position error covariance matrices.

  15. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, May 2016

    Herman, Michal Wladyslaw; Cabellos De Francisco, Oscar; Beck, Bret; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Grudzevich, Oleg T.; Salvatores, Massimo; Chadwick, Mark; Pelloni, Sandro; Diez De La Obra, Carlos Javier; Wu, Haicheng; Sobes, Vladimir; Rearden, Bradley T.; Yokoyama, Kenji; Hursin, Mathieu; Penttila, Heikki; Kodeli, Ivan-Alexander; Plevnik, Lucijan; Plompen, Arjan; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Leal, Luiz Carlos; Aufiero, Manuele; Fiorito, Luca; Hummel, Andrew; Siefman, Daniel; Leconte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This document is the proceedings of the seventh formal Subgroup 39 meeting and of the Joint SG39+SG40 Session held at the NEA, OECD Conference Center, Paris, France on 10-11 May 2016. It comprises a Summary Record of the meeting, and all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Welcome and actions review (Oscar CABELLOS); B - Methods: - XGPT: uncertainty propagation and data assimilation from continuous energy covariance matrix and resonance parameters covariances (Manuele AUFIERO); - Optimal experiment utilization (REWINDing PIA), (G. Palmiotti); C - Experiment analysis, sensitivity calculations and benchmarks: - Tripoli-4 analysis of SEG experiments (Andrew HUMMEL); - Tripoli-4 analysis of BERENICE experiments (P. DUFAY, Cyrille DE SAINT JEAN); - Preparation of sensitivities of k-eff, beta-eff and shielding benchmarks for adjustment exercise (Ivo KODELI); - SA and

  16. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    (annual temperature sensitivity larger than short-term temperature sensitivity). Results suggested also that, for both approaches, regressions based on soil temperature gave more robust results than those based on air temperature. Furthermore, the comparison showed that the night-time and the daytime approaches give disagreeing pictures of TER inter annual variability which suggested that the choice of the approach is critical in order to correctly depict TER inter annual variability. Finally, at this stage, TER inter annual variability cannot be explained by variability of climatic conditions. References Reichstein M., Falge E., Baldocchi D., Papale D., Aubinet M., Berbigier P., Bernhofer C., Buchmann N., Gilmanov T., Granier A., Grunwald T., Havrankova K., Ilvesniemi H., Janous D., Knohl A., Laurila T., Lohila A., Loustau D., Matteucci G., Meyers T., Miglietta F., Ourcival J.M., Pumpanen J., Rambal S., Rotenberg E., Sanz M., Tenhunen J., Seufert G., Vaccari F., Vesala T., Yakir D., Valentini R., 2005. On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm. Global Change Biology, 11, 1424-1439. Wohlfahrt G., Anfang C., Bahn M., Haslwanter A., Newesely C., Schmitt M., Drösler M., Pfadenhauer J. and Cernusca A., 2005a. Quantifying nighttime ecosystem respiration of a meadow using eddy covariance, chambers and modelling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 128, 141-162. Wohlfahrt G., Bahn M., Haslwanter A., Newesely C., Cernusca A., 2005b. Estimation of daytime ecosystem respiration to determine gross primary production of a mountain meadow. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130, 13-25.

  17. Covariance and sensitivity data generation at ORNL

    Leal, L. C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N. M.; Alpan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Covariance data are required to assess uncertainties in design parameters in several nuclear applications. The error estimation of calculated quantities relies on the nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries, such as the US Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, ENDF/B. The uncertainty files in the ENDF/B library are obtained from the analysis of experimental data and are stored as variance and covariance data. In this paper we address the generation of covariance data in the resonance region done with the computer code SAMMY. SAMMY is used in the evaluation of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. The data fitting of cross sections is based on the generalised least-squares formalism (Bayesian theory) together with the resonance formalism described by R-matrix theory. Two approaches are used in SAMMY for the generation of resonance parameter covariance data. In the evaluation process SAMMY generates a set of resonance parameters that fit the data, and, it provides the resonance parameter covariances. For resonance parameter evaluations where there are no resonance parameter covariance data available, the alternative is to use an approach called the 'retroactive' resonance parameter covariance generation. In this paper, we describe the application of the retroactive covariance generation approach for the gadolinium isotopes. (authors)

  18. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Vayatis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the 85 Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations

  19. Covariant w∞ gravity

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.

  20. A jackknife approach to quantifying single-trial correlation between covariance-based metrics undefined on a single-trial basis

    Richter, C.G.; Thompson, W.H.; Bosman, C.A.; Fries, P.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of covariance between neuronal activities (functional connectivity) requires the observation of correlated changes and therefore multiple observations. The strength of such neuronal correlations may itself undergo moment-by-moment fluctuations, which might e.g. lead to

  1. Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. SG39 meeting, November 2013

    De Saint Jean, C.; Dupont, E.; ); Dyrda, J.; Hursin, M.; Pelloni, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Ivanov, E.; Ivanova, T.; Kim, D.H.; Ee, Y.O.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, L.; Leichtle, D.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Pronyaev, V.; Simakov, S.; )

    2013-11-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. This document is the proceedings of the first formal Subgroup 39 meeting held at the NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, on 28-29 November 2013. It comprises a Summary Record of the meeting and all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Recent data adjustments performances and trends: 1 - Recommendations from ADJ2010 adjustment (M. Ishikawa); 2 - Feedback on CIELO isotopes from ENDF/B-VII.0 adjustment (G. Palmiotti); 3 - Sensitivity and uncertainty results on FLATTOP-Pu (I. Kodeli); 4 - SG33 benchmark: Comparative adjustment results (S. Pelloni) 5 - Integral benchmarks for data assimilation: selection of a consistent set and establishment of integral correlations (E. Ivanov); 6 - PROTEUS experimental data (M. Hursin); 7 - Additional information on High Conversion Light Water Reactor (HCLWR aka FDWR-II) experiments (14 January 2014); 8 - Data assimilation of benchmark experiments for homogenous thermal/epithermal uranium systems (J. Dyrda); B - Methodology issues: 1 - Adjustment methodology issues (G. Palmiotti); 2 - Marginalisation, methodology issues and nuclear data parameter adjustment (C. De Saint Jean); 3 - Nuclear data parameter adjustment (G. Palmiotti). A list of issues and actions conclude the document

  2. Are your covariates under control? How normalization can re-introduce covariate effects.

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-04-30

    Many statistical tests rely on the assumption that the residuals of a model are normally distributed. Rank-based inverse normal transformation (INT) of the dependent variable is one of the most popular approaches to satisfy the normality assumption. When covariates are included in the analysis, a common approach is to first adjust for the covariates and then normalize the residuals. This study investigated the effect of regressing covariates against the dependent variable and then applying rank-based INT to the residuals. The correlation between the dependent variable and covariates at each stage of processing was assessed. An alternative approach was tested in which rank-based INT was applied to the dependent variable before regressing covariates. Analyses based on both simulated and real data examples demonstrated that applying rank-based INT to the dependent variable residuals after regressing out covariates re-introduces a linear correlation between the dependent variable and covariates, increasing type-I errors and reducing power. On the other hand, when rank-based INT was applied prior to controlling for covariate effects, residuals were normally distributed and linearly uncorrelated with covariates. This latter approach is therefore recommended in situations were normality of the dependent variable is required.

  3. Covariant representations of nuclear *-algebras

    Moore, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Extensions of the Csup(*)-algebra theory for covariant representations to nuclear *-algebra are considered. Irreducible covariant representations are essentially unique, an invariant state produces a covariant representation with stable vacuum, and the usual relation between ergodic states and covariant representations holds. There exist construction and decomposition theorems and a possible relation between derivations and covariant representations

  4. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-10-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  5. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  6. Covariance data processing code. ERRORJ

    Kosako, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    The covariance data processing code, ERRORJ, was developed to process the covariance data of JENDL-3.2. ERRORJ has the processing functions of covariance data for cross sections including resonance parameters, angular distribution and energy distribution. (author)

  7. High-dimensional covariance estimation with high-dimensional data

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Methods for estimating sparse and large covariance matrices Covariance and correlation matrices play fundamental roles in every aspect of the analysis of multivariate data collected from a variety of fields including business and economics, health care, engineering, and environmental and physical sciences. High-Dimensional Covariance Estimation provides accessible and comprehensive coverage of the classical and modern approaches for estimating covariance matrices as well as their applications to the rapidly developing areas lying at the intersection of statistics and mac

  8. Covariance Bell inequalities

    Pozsgay, Victor; Hirsch, Flavien; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    We introduce Bell inequalities based on covariance, one of the most common measures of correlation. Explicit examples are discussed, and violations in quantum theory are demonstrated. A crucial feature of these covariance Bell inequalities is their nonlinearity; this has nontrivial consequences for the derivation of their local bound, which is not reached by deterministic local correlations. For our simplest inequality, we derive analytically tight bounds for both local and quantum correlations. An interesting application of covariance Bell inequalities is that they can act as "shared randomness witnesses": specifically, the value of the Bell expression gives device-independent lower bounds on both the dimension and the entropy of the shared random variable in a local model.

  9. Bayesian hierarchical model for large-scale covariance matrix estimation.

    Zhu, Dongxiao; Hero, Alfred O

    2007-12-01

    Many bioinformatics problems implicitly depend on estimating large-scale covariance matrix. The traditional approaches tend to give rise to high variance and low accuracy due to "overfitting." We cast the large-scale covariance matrix estimation problem into the Bayesian hierarchical model framework, and introduce dependency between covariance parameters. We demonstrate the advantages of our approaches over the traditional approaches using simulations and OMICS data analysis.

  10. The covariant chiral ring

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-23

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  11. Dimension from covariance matrices.

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  12. Lorentz covariant theory of gravitation

    Fagundes, H.V.

    1974-12-01

    An alternative method for the calculation of second order effects, like the secular shift of Mercury's perihelium is developed. This method uses the basic ideas of thirring combined with the more mathematical approach of Feyman. In the case of a static source, the treatment used is greatly simplified. Besides, Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann's Lagrangian for a system of two particles and spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions of two particles with classical spin, ie, internal angular momentum in Moller's sense, are obtained from the Lorentz covariant theory

  13. Covariate analysis of bivariate survival data

    Bennett, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The methods developed are used to analyze the effects of covariates on bivariate survival data when censoring and ties are present. The proposed method provides models for bivariate survival data that include differential covariate effects and censored observations. The proposed models are based on an extension of the univariate Buckley-James estimators which replace censored data points by their expected values, conditional on the censoring time and the covariates. For the bivariate situation, it is necessary to determine the expectation of the failure times for one component conditional on the failure or censoring time of the other component. Two different methods have been developed to estimate these expectations. In the semiparametric approach these expectations are determined from a modification of Burke's estimate of the bivariate empirical survival function. In the parametric approach censored data points are also replaced by their conditional expected values where the expected values are determined from a specified parametric distribution. The model estimation will be based on the revised data set, comprised of uncensored components and expected values for the censored components. The variance-covariance matrix for the estimated covariate parameters has also been derived for both the semiparametric and parametric methods. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed by these methods. The two outcome variables are post-partum amenorrhea and breastfeeding; education and parity were used as the covariates. Both the covariate parameter estimates and the variance-covariance estimates for the semiparametric and parametric models will be compared. In addition, a multivariate test statistic was used in the semiparametric model to examine contrasts. The significance of the statistic was determined from a bootstrap distribution of the test statistic.

  14. Comparative Analyses of Phenotypic Trait Covariation within and among Populations.

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W

    2017-10-01

    Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways. We use a trait-performance-fitness framework to classify and organize trait relationships into three general classes, address which ones more likely generate trait covariation among individuals in a population, and review how selection shapes phenotypic covariation. We generate predictions about how trait covariance changes within and among populations as a result of trait relationships and in response to selection and consider how these can be tested with comparative data. Careful comparisons of covariation patterns can narrow the set of hypothesized processes that cause trait covariation when the form of the trait relationship and how it responds to selection yield clear predictions about patterns of trait covariation. We discuss the opportunities and limitations of comparative approaches to evaluate hypotheses about the evolutionary causes and consequences of trait covariation and highlight the importance of evaluating patterns within populations replicated in the same and in different selective environments. Explicit hypotheses about trait relationships are key to generating effective predictions about phenotype and its evolution using covariance data.

  15. Covariant field equations in supergravity

    Vanhecke, Bram [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium); Ghent University, Faculty of Physics, Gent (Belgium); Proeyen, Antoine van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-12-15

    Covariance is a useful property for handling supergravity theories. In this paper, we prove a covariance property of supergravity field equations: under reasonable conditions, field equations of supergravity are covariant modulo other field equations. We prove that for any supergravity there exist such covariant equations of motion, other than the regular equations of motion, that are equivalent to the latter. The relations that we find between field equations and their covariant form can be used to obtain multiplets of field equations. In practice, the covariant field equations are easily found by simply covariantizing the ordinary field equations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Covariant field equations in supergravity

    Vanhecke, Bram; Proeyen, Antoine van

    2017-01-01

    Covariance is a useful property for handling supergravity theories. In this paper, we prove a covariance property of supergravity field equations: under reasonable conditions, field equations of supergravity are covariant modulo other field equations. We prove that for any supergravity there exist such covariant equations of motion, other than the regular equations of motion, that are equivalent to the latter. The relations that we find between field equations and their covariant form can be used to obtain multiplets of field equations. In practice, the covariant field equations are easily found by simply covariantizing the ordinary field equations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Generally covariant gauge theories

    Capovilla, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of generally covariant gauge theories in four space-time dimensions is investigated. The field variables are taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection 1-form and a scalar density. Modulo an important degeneracy, complex [euclidean] vacuum general relativity corresponds to a special case in this class. A canonical analysis of the generally covariant gauge theories with the same gauge group as general relativity shows that they describe two degrees of freedom per space point, qualifying therefore as a new set of neighbors of general relativity. The modification of the algebra of the constraints with respect to the general relativity case is computed; this is used in addressing the question of how general relativity stands out from its neighbors. (orig.)

  18. Covariant perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes

    Clarkson, Chris A; Barrett, Richard K

    2003-01-01

    We present a new covariant and gauge-invariant perturbation formalism for dealing with spacetimes having spherical symmetry (or some preferred spatial direction) in the background, and apply it to the case of gravitational wave propagation in a Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime. The 1 + 3 covariant approach is extended to a '1 + 1 + 2 covariant sheet' formalism by introducing a radial unit vector in addition to the timelike congruence, and decomposing all covariant quantities with respect to this. The background Schwarzschild solution is discussed and a covariant characterization is given. We give the full first-order system of linearized 1 + 1 + 2 covariant equations, and we show how, by introducing (time and spherical) harmonic functions, these may be reduced to a system of first-order ordinary differential equations and algebraic constraints for the 1 + 1 + 2 variables which may be solved straightforwardly. We show how both odd- and even-parity perturbations may be unified by the discovery of a covariant, frame- and gauge-invariant, transverse-traceless tensor describing gravitational waves, which satisfies a covariant wave equation equivalent to the Regge-Wheeler equation for both even- and odd-parity perturbations. We show how the Zerilli equation may be derived from this tensor, and derive a similar transverse-traceless tensor equation equivalent to this equation. The so-called special quasinormal modes with purely imaginary frequency emerge naturally. The significance of the degrees of freedom in the choice of the two frame vectors is discussed, and we demonstrate that, for a certain frame choice, the underlying dynamics is governed purely by the Regge-Wheeler tensor. The two transverse-traceless Weyl tensors which carry the curvature of gravitational waves are discussed, and we give the closed system of four first-order ordinary differential equations describing their propagation. Finally, we consider the extension of this work to the study of

  19. Lorentz Covariance of Langevin Equation

    Koide, T.; Denicol, G.S.; Kodama, T.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic covariance of a Langevin type equation is discussed. The requirement of Lorentz invariance generates an entanglement between the force and noise terms so that the noise itself should not be a covariant quantity. (author)

  20. Distance covariance for stochastic processes

    Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    The distance covariance of two random vectors is a measure of their dependence. The empirical distance covariance and correlation can be used as statistical tools for testing whether two random vectors are independent. We propose an analog of the distance covariance for two stochastic processes...

  1. Spatiotemporal noise covariance estimation from limited empirical magnetoencephalographic data

    Jun, Sung C; Plis, Sergey M; Ranken, Doug M; Schmidt, David M

    2006-01-01

    The performance of parametric magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) source localization approaches can be degraded by the use of poor background noise covariance estimates. In general, estimation of the noise covariance for spatiotemporal analysis is difficult mainly due to the limited noise information available. Furthermore, its estimation requires a large amount of storage and a one-time but very large (and sometimes intractable) calculation or its inverse. To overcome these difficulties, noise covariance models consisting of one pair or a sum of multi-pairs of Kronecker products of spatial covariance and temporal covariance have been proposed. However, these approaches cannot be applied when the noise information is very limited, i.e., the amount of noise information is less than the degrees of freedom of the noise covariance models. A common example of this is when only averaged noise data are available for a limited prestimulus region (typically at most a few hundred milliseconds duration). For such cases, a diagonal spatiotemporal noise covariance model consisting of sensor variances with no spatial or temporal correlation has been the common choice for spatiotemporal analysis. In this work, we propose a different noise covariance model which consists of diagonal spatial noise covariance and Toeplitz temporal noise covariance. It can easily be estimated from limited noise information, and no time-consuming optimization and data-processing are required. Thus, it can be used as an alternative choice when one-pair or multi-pair noise covariance models cannot be estimated due to lack of noise information. To verify its capability we used Bayesian inference dipole analysis and a number of simulated and empirical datasets. We compared this covariance model with other existing covariance models such as conventional diagonal covariance, one-pair and multi-pair noise covariance models, when noise information is sufficient to estimate them. We

  2. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of covariance realism is to properly size a primary object's covariance in order to add validity to the calculation of the probability of collision. The covariance realism technique in this paper consists of three parts: collection/calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics. An empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) method is employed to determine if a covariance is properly sized by comparing the empirical distribution of Mahalanobis distance calculations to the hypothesized parent 3-DoF chi-squared distribution. To realistically size a covariance for collision probability calculations, this study uses a state noise compensation algorithm that adds process noise to the definitive epoch covariance to account for uncertainty in the force model. Process noise is added until the GOF tests pass a group significance level threshold. The results of this study indicate that when outliers attributed to persistently high or extreme levels of solar activity are removed, the aforementioned covariance realism compensation method produces a tuned covariance with up to 80 to 90% of the covariance propagation timespan passing (against a 60% minimum passing threshold) the GOF tests-a quite satisfactory and useful result.

  3. Approximate methods for derivation of covariance data

    Tagesen, S.

    1992-01-01

    Several approaches for the derivation of covariance information for evaluated nuclear data files (EFF2 and ENDF/B-VI) have been developed and used at IRK and ORNL respectively. Considerations, governing the choice of a distinct method depending on the quantity and quality of available data are presented, advantages/disadvantages are discussed and examples of results are given

  4. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides and efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit 2- and 3- loop results derived using analytic geometry (1 loop is known to be ok). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various non-trivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  5. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides an efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit two- and three-loop results derived using analytic geometry (one loop is known to be okay). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various nontrivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  6. Cross-covariance functions for multivariate geostatistics

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-05-01

    Continuously indexed datasets with multiple variables have become ubiquitous in the geophysical, ecological, environmental and climate sciences, and pose substantial analysis challenges to scientists and statisticians. For many years, scientists developed models that aimed at capturing the spatial behavior for an individual process; only within the last few decades has it become commonplace to model multiple processes jointly. The key difficulty is in specifying the cross-covariance function, that is, the function responsible for the relationship between distinct variables. Indeed, these cross-covariance functions must be chosen to be consistent with marginal covariance functions in such a way that the second-order structure always yields a nonnegative definite covariance matrix. We review the main approaches to building cross-covariance models, including the linear model of coregionalization, convolution methods, the multivariate Matérn and nonstationary and space-time extensions of these among others. We additionally cover specialized constructions, including those designed for asymmetry, compact support and spherical domains, with a review of physics-constrained models. We illustrate select models on a bivariate regional climate model output example for temperature and pressure, along with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature observational dataset; we compare models by likelihood value as well as via cross-validation co-kriging studies. The article closes with a discussion of unsolved problems. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2015.

  7. Cross-covariance functions for multivariate geostatistics

    Genton, Marc G.; Kleiber, William

    2015-01-01

    Continuously indexed datasets with multiple variables have become ubiquitous in the geophysical, ecological, environmental and climate sciences, and pose substantial analysis challenges to scientists and statisticians. For many years, scientists developed models that aimed at capturing the spatial behavior for an individual process; only within the last few decades has it become commonplace to model multiple processes jointly. The key difficulty is in specifying the cross-covariance function, that is, the function responsible for the relationship between distinct variables. Indeed, these cross-covariance functions must be chosen to be consistent with marginal covariance functions in such a way that the second-order structure always yields a nonnegative definite covariance matrix. We review the main approaches to building cross-covariance models, including the linear model of coregionalization, convolution methods, the multivariate Matérn and nonstationary and space-time extensions of these among others. We additionally cover specialized constructions, including those designed for asymmetry, compact support and spherical domains, with a review of physics-constrained models. We illustrate select models on a bivariate regional climate model output example for temperature and pressure, along with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature observational dataset; we compare models by likelihood value as well as via cross-validation co-kriging studies. The article closes with a discussion of unsolved problems. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2015.

  8. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    Ginelli, Francesco; Politi, Antonio; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi–Pasta–Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  9. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  10. Networks of myelin covariance.

    Melie-Garcia, Lester; Slater, David; Ruef, Anne; Sanabria-Diaz, Gretel; Preisig, Martin; Kherif, Ferath; Draganski, Bogdan; Lutti, Antoine

    2018-04-01

    Networks of anatomical covariance have been widely used to study connectivity patterns in both normal and pathological brains based on the concurrent changes of morphometric measures (i.e., cortical thickness) between brain structures across subjects (Evans, ). However, the existence of networks of microstructural changes within brain tissue has been largely unexplored so far. In this article, we studied in vivo the concurrent myelination processes among brain anatomical structures that gathered together emerge to form nonrandom networks. We name these "networks of myelin covariance" (Myelin-Nets). The Myelin-Nets were built from quantitative Magnetization Transfer data-an in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of myelin content. The synchronicity of the variations in myelin content between anatomical regions was measured by computing the Pearson's correlation coefficient. We were especially interested in elucidating the effect of age on the topological organization of the Myelin-Nets. We therefore selected two age groups: Young-Age (20-31 years old) and Old-Age (60-71 years old) and a pool of participants from 48 to 87 years old for a Myelin-Nets aging trajectory study. We found that the topological organization of the Myelin-Nets is strongly shaped by aging processes. The global myelin correlation strength, between homologous regions and locally in different brain lobes, showed a significant dependence on age. Interestingly, we also showed that the aging process modulates the resilience of the Myelin-Nets to damage of principal network structures. In summary, this work sheds light on the organizational principles driving myelination and myelin degeneration in brain gray matter and how such patterns are modulated by aging. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impact of the 235U Covariance Data in Benchmark Calculations

    Leal, Luiz C.; Mueller, D.; Arbanas, G.; Wiarda, D.; Derrien, H.

    2008-01-01

    The error estimation for calculated quantities relies on nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). The uncertainty files (covariance matrices) in the ENDF/B library are generally obtained from analysis of experimental data. In the resonance region, the computer code SAMMY is used for analyses of experimental data and generation of resonance parameters. In addition to resonance parameters evaluation, SAMMY also generates resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCM). SAMMY uses the generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes method) together with the resonance formalism (R-matrix theory) for analysis of experimental data. Two approaches are available for creation of resonance-parameter covariance data. (1) During the data-evaluation process, SAMMY generates both a set of resonance parameters that fit the experimental data and the associated resonance-parameter covariance matrix. (2) For existing resonance-parameter evaluations for which no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, SAMMY can retroactively create a resonance-parameter covariance matrix. The retroactive method was used to generate covariance data for 235U. The resulting 235U covariance matrix was then used as input to the PUFF-IV code, which processed the covariance data into multigroup form, and to the TSUNAMI code, which calculated the uncertainty in the multiplication factor due to uncertainty in the experimental cross sections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of the 235U covariance data in calculations of critical benchmark systems

  12. COVARIANCE ASSISTED SCREENING AND ESTIMATION.

    Ke, By Tracy; Jin, Jiashun; Fan, Jianqing

    2014-11-01

    Consider a linear model Y = X β + z , where X = X n,p and z ~ N (0, I n ). The vector β is unknown and it is of interest to separate its nonzero coordinates from the zero ones (i.e., variable selection). Motivated by examples in long-memory time series (Fan and Yao, 2003) and the change-point problem (Bhattacharya, 1994), we are primarily interested in the case where the Gram matrix G = X ' X is non-sparse but sparsifiable by a finite order linear filter. We focus on the regime where signals are both rare and weak so that successful variable selection is very challenging but is still possible. We approach this problem by a new procedure called the Covariance Assisted Screening and Estimation (CASE). CASE first uses a linear filtering to reduce the original setting to a new regression model where the corresponding Gram (covariance) matrix is sparse. The new covariance matrix induces a sparse graph, which guides us to conduct multivariate screening without visiting all the submodels. By interacting with the signal sparsity, the graph enables us to decompose the original problem into many separated small-size subproblems (if only we know where they are!). Linear filtering also induces a so-called problem of information leakage , which can be overcome by the newly introduced patching technique. Together, these give rise to CASE, which is a two-stage Screen and Clean (Fan and Song, 2010; Wasserman and Roeder, 2009) procedure, where we first identify candidates of these submodels by patching and screening , and then re-examine each candidate to remove false positives. For any procedure β̂ for variable selection, we measure the performance by the minimax Hamming distance between the sign vectors of β̂ and β. We show that in a broad class of situations where the Gram matrix is non-sparse but sparsifiable, CASE achieves the optimal rate of convergence. The results are successfully applied to long-memory time series and the change-point model.

  13. General Galilei Covariant Gaussian Maps

    Gasbarri, Giulio; Toroš, Marko; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    We characterize general non-Markovian Gaussian maps which are covariant under Galilean transformations. In particular, we consider translational and Galilean covariant maps and show that they reduce to the known Holevo result in the Markovian limit. We apply the results to discuss measures of macroscopicity based on classicalization maps, specifically addressing dissipation, Galilean covariance and non-Markovianity. We further suggest a possible generalization of the macroscopicity measure defined by Nimmrichter and Hornberger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 16 (2013)].

  14. Fast Computing for Distance Covariance

    Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...

  15. On the bilinear covariants associated to mass dimension one spinors

    Silva, J.M.H. da; Villalobos, C.H.C.; Rogerio, R.J.B. [DFQ, UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Scatena, E. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina-CEE, Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we approach the issue of Clifford algebra basis deformation, allowing for bilinear covariants associated to Elko spinors which satisfy the Fierz-Pauli-Kofink identities. We present a complete analysis of covariance, taking into account the involved dual structure associated to Elko spinors. Moreover, the possible generalizations to the recently presented new dual structure are performed. (orig.)

  16. Grassland gross carbon dioxide uptake based on an improved model tree ensemble approach considering human interventions: global estimation and covariation with climate.

    Liang, Wei; Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Weibin; Li, Shuai; Jin, Zhao; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Bojie; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Jianwu; Li, Junyi; Su, Huimin

    2017-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems act as a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and provide vital ecosystem services for many species. However, these low-productivity and water-limited ecosystems are sensitive and vulnerable to climate perturbations and human intervention, the latter of which is often not considered due to lack of spatial information regarding the grassland management. Here by the application of a model tree ensemble (MTE-GRASS) trained on local eddy covariance data and using as predictors gridded climate and management intensity field (grazing and cutting), we first provide an estimate of global grassland gross primary production (GPP). GPP from our study compares well (modeling efficiency NSE = 0.85 spatial; NSE between 0.69 and 0.94 interannual) with that from flux measurement. Global grassland GPP was on average 11 ± 0.31 Pg C yr -1 and exhibited significantly increasing trend at both annual and seasonal scales, with an annual increase of 0.023 Pg C (0.2%) from 1982 to 2011. Meanwhile, we found that at both annual and seasonal scale, the trend (except for northern summer) and interannual variability of the GPP are primarily driven by arid/semiarid ecosystems, the latter of which is due to the larger variation in precipitation. Grasslands in arid/semiarid regions have a stronger (33 g C m -2  yr -1 /100 mm) and faster (0- to 1-month time lag) response to precipitation than those in other regions. Although globally spatial gradients (71%) and interannual changes (51%) in GPP were mainly driven by precipitation, where most regions with arid/semiarid climate zone, temperature and radiation together shared half of GPP variability, which is mainly distributed in the high-latitude or cold regions. Our findings and the results of other studies suggest the overwhelming importance of arid/semiarid regions as a control on grassland ecosystems carbon cycle. Similarly, under the projected future climate change, grassland ecosystems in these regions will

  17. Unravelling spatiotemporal tree-ring signals in Mediterranean oaks: a variance-covariance modelling approach of carbon and oxygen isotope ratios.

    Shestakova, Tatiana A; Aguilera, Mònica; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Identifying how physiological responses are structured across environmental gradients is critical to understanding in what manner ecological factors determine tree performance. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of signal strength of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) and oxygen isotope composition (δ(18)O) for three deciduous oaks (Quercus faginea (Lam.), Q. humilis Mill. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and one evergreen oak (Q. ilex L.) co-occurring in Mediterranean forests along an aridity gradient. We hypothesized that contrasting strategies in response to drought would lead to differential climate sensitivities between functional groups. Such differential sensitivities could result in a contrasting imprint on stable isotopes, depending on whether the spatial or temporal organization of tree-ring signals was analysed. To test these hypotheses, we proposed a mixed modelling framework to group isotopic records into potentially homogeneous subsets according to taxonomic or geographical criteria. To this end, carbon and oxygen isotopes were modelled through different variance-covariance structures for the variability among years (at the temporal level) or sites (at the spatial level). Signal-strength parameters were estimated from the outcome of selected models. We found striking differences between deciduous and evergreen oaks in the organization of their temporal and spatial signals. Therefore, the relationships with climate were examined independently for each functional group. While Q. ilex exhibited a large spatial dependence of isotopic signals on the temperature regime, deciduous oaks showed a greater dependence on precipitation, confirming their higher susceptibility to drought. Such contrasting responses to drought among oak types were also observed at the temporal level (interannual variability), with stronger associations with growing-season water availability in deciduous oaks. Thus, our results indicate that Mediterranean deciduous

  18. Using machine learning to assess covariate balance in matching studies.

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of matching approaches in observational studies, investigators typically present summary statistics for each observed pre-intervention covariate, with the objective of showing that matching reduces the difference in means (or proportions) between groups to as close to zero as possible. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to distinguish between study groups based on their distributions of the covariates using a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA). Assessing covariate balance using ODA as compared with the conventional method has several key advantages: the ability to ascertain how individuals self-select based on optimal (maximum-accuracy) cut-points on the covariates; the application to any variable metric and number of groups; its insensitivity to skewed data or outliers; and the use of accuracy measures that can be widely applied to all analyses. Moreover, ODA accepts analytic weights, thereby extending the assessment of covariate balance to any study design where weights are used for covariate adjustment. By comparing the two approaches using empirical data, we are able to demonstrate that using measures of classification accuracy as balance diagnostics produces highly consistent results to those obtained via the conventional approach (in our matched-pairs example, ODA revealed a weak statistically significant relationship not detected by the conventional approach). Thus, investigators should consider ODA as a robust complement, or perhaps alternative, to the conventional approach for assessing covariate balance in matching studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  20. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  1. Applications of two-body Dirac equations to the meson spectrum with three versus two covariant interactions, SU(3) mixing, and comparison to a quasipotential approach

    Crater, Horace W.; Schiermeyer, James

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper, Crater and Van Alstine applied the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics to quark-antiquark bound states using a relativistic extention of the Adler-Piran potential and compared their spectral results to those from other approaches which also considered meson spectroscopy as a whole and not in parts. In this paper, we explore in more detail the differences and similarities in an important subset of those approaches, the quasipotential approach. In the earlier paper, the transformation properties of the quark-antiquark potentials were limited to a scalar and an electromagnetic-like four-vector, with the former accounting for the confining aspects of the overall potential, and the latter the short range portion. The static Adler-Piran potential was first given an invariant form and then apportioned between those two different types of potentials. Here, we make a change in this apportionment that leads to a substantial improvement in the resultant spectroscopy by including a timelike confining vector potential over and above the scalar confining one and the electromagnetic-like vector potential. Our fit includes 19 more mesons than the earlier results and we modify the scalar portion of the potential in such a way that allows this formalism to account for the isoscalar mesons η and η ' not included in the previous work. Continuing the comparisons of formalisms and spectral results made in the previous paper with other approaches to meson spectroscopy, we examine in this paper the quasipotential approach of Ebert, Faustov, and Galkin.

  2. Networks of myelin covariance

    Slater, David; Ruef, Anne; Sanabria‐Diaz, Gretel; Preisig, Martin; Kherif, Ferath; Draganski, Bogdan; Lutti, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Networks of anatomical covariance have been widely used to study connectivity patterns in both normal and pathological brains based on the concurrent changes of morphometric measures (i.e., cortical thickness) between brain structures across subjects (Evans, 2013). However, the existence of networks of microstructural changes within brain tissue has been largely unexplored so far. In this article, we studied in vivo the concurrent myelination processes among brain anatomical structures that gathered together emerge to form nonrandom networks. We name these “networks of myelin covariance” (Myelin‐Nets). The Myelin‐Nets were built from quantitative Magnetization Transfer data—an in‐vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of myelin content. The synchronicity of the variations in myelin content between anatomical regions was measured by computing the Pearson's correlation coefficient. We were especially interested in elucidating the effect of age on the topological organization of the Myelin‐Nets. We therefore selected two age groups: Young‐Age (20–31 years old) and Old‐Age (60–71 years old) and a pool of participants from 48 to 87 years old for a Myelin‐Nets aging trajectory study. We found that the topological organization of the Myelin‐Nets is strongly shaped by aging processes. The global myelin correlation strength, between homologous regions and locally in different brain lobes, showed a significant dependence on age. Interestingly, we also showed that the aging process modulates the resilience of the Myelin‐Nets to damage of principal network structures. In summary, this work sheds light on the organizational principles driving myelination and myelin degeneration in brain gray matter and how such patterns are modulated by aging. PMID:29271053

  3. Visualization and assessment of spatio-temporal covariance properties

    Huang, Huang; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    approach that constructs test functions using the cross-covariances from time series observed at each pair of spatial locations. These test functions of temporal lags summarize the properties of separability or symmetry for the given spatial pairs. We use

  4. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  5. Covariance matrices of experimental data

    Perey, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    A complete statement of the uncertainties in data is given by its covariance matrix. It is shown how the covariance matrix of data can be generated using the information available to obtain their standard deviations. Determination of resonance energies by the time-of-flight method is used as an example. The procedure for combining data when the covariance matrix is non-diagonal is given. The method is illustrated by means of examples taken from the recent literature to obtain an estimate of the energy of the first resonance in carbon and for five resonances of 238 U

  6. Evaluation and processing of covariance data

    Wagner, M.

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings of a specialists'meeting on evaluation and processing of covariance data is divided into 4 parts bearing on: part 1- Needs for evaluated covariance data (2 Papers), part 2- generation of covariance data (15 Papers), part 3- Processing of covariance files (2 Papers), part 4-Experience in the use of evaluated covariance data (2 Papers)

  7. On Galilean covariant quantum mechanics

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1991-08-01

    Formalism exhibiting the Galilean covariance of wave mechanics is proposed. A new notion of quantum mechanical forces is introduced. The formalism is illustrated on the example of the harmonic oscillator. (author)

  8. Precomputing Process Noise Covariance for Onboard Sequential Filters

    Olson, Corwin G.; Russell, Ryan P.; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2017-01-01

    Process noise is often used in estimation filters to account for unmodeled and mismodeled accelerations in the dynamics. The process noise covariance acts to inflate the state covariance over propagation intervals, increasing the uncertainty in the state. In scenarios where the acceleration errors change significantly over time, the standard process noise covariance approach can fail to provide effective representation of the state and its uncertainty. Consider covariance analysis techniques provide a method to precompute a process noise covariance profile along a reference trajectory using known model parameter uncertainties. The process noise covariance profile allows significantly improved state estimation and uncertainty representation over the traditional formulation. As a result, estimation performance on par with the consider filter is achieved for trajectories near the reference trajectory without the additional computational cost of the consider filter. The new formulation also has the potential to significantly reduce the trial-and-error tuning currently required of navigation analysts. A linear estimation problem as described in several previous consider covariance analysis studies is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the precomputed process noise covariance, as well as a nonlinear descent scenario at the asteroid Bennu with optical navigation.

  9. Development of covariance capabilities in EMPIRE code

    Herman,M.; Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-06-24

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  10. Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF

  11. Graphical representation of covariant-contravariant modal formulae

    Miguel Palomino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Covariant-contravariant simulation is a combination of standard (covariant simulation, its contravariant counterpart and bisimulation. We have previously studied its logical characterization by means of the covariant-contravariant modal logic. Moreover, we have investigated the relationships between this model and that of modal transition systems, where two kinds of transitions (the so-called may and must transitions were combined in order to obtain a simple framework to express a notion of refinement over state-transition models. In a classic paper, Boudol and Larsen established a precise connection between the graphical approach, by means of modal transition systems, and the logical approach, based on Hennessy-Milner logic without negation, to system specification. They obtained a (graphical representation theorem proving that a formula can be represented by a term if, and only if, it is consistent and prime. We show in this paper that the formulae from the covariant-contravariant modal logic that admit a "graphical" representation by means of processes, modulo the covariant-contravariant simulation preorder, are also the consistent and prime ones. In order to obtain the desired graphical representation result, we first restrict ourselves to the case of covariant-contravariant systems without bivariant actions. Bivariant actions can be incorporated later by means of an encoding that splits each bivariant action into its covariant and its contravariant parts.

  12. Impact of the 235U covariance data in benchmark calculations

    Leal, Luiz; Mueller, Don; Arbanas, Goran; Wiarda, Dorothea; Derrien, Herve

    2008-01-01

    The error estimation for calculated quantities relies on nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). The uncertainty files (covariance matrices) in the ENDF/B library are generally obtained from analysis of experimental data. In the resonance region, the computer code SAMMY is used for analyses of experimental data and generation of resonance parameters. In addition to resonance parameters evaluation, SAMMY also generates resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCM). SAMMY uses the generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes' method) together with the resonance formalism (R-matrix theory) for analysis of experimental data. Two approaches are available for creation of resonance-parameter covariance data. (1) During the data-evaluation process, SAMMY generates both a set of resonance parameters that fit the experimental data and the associated resonance-parameter covariance matrix. (2) For existing resonance-parameter evaluations for which no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, SAMMY can retroactively create a resonance-parameter covariance matrix. The retroactive method was used to generate covariance data for 235 U. The resulting 235 U covariance matrix was then used as input to the PUFF-IV code, which processed the covariance data into multigroup form, and to the TSUNAMI code, which calculated the uncertainty in the multiplication factor due to uncertainty in the experimental cross sections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of the 235 U covariance data in calculations of critical benchmark systems. (authors)

  13. Optimal covariance selection for estimation using graphical models

    Vichik, Sergey; Oshman, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem encountered when trying to estimate a Gaussian random field using a distributed estimation approach based on Gaussian graphical models. Because of constraints imposed by estimation tools used in Gaussian graphical models, the a priori covariance of the random field is constrained to embed conditional independence constraints among a significant number of variables. The problem is, then: given the (unconstrained) a priori covariance of the random field, and the conditiona...

  14. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topol...

  15. Covariant electrodynamics in linear media: Optical metric

    Thompson, Robert T.

    2018-03-01

    While the postulate of covariance of Maxwell's equations for all inertial observers led Einstein to special relativity, it was the further demand of general covariance—form invariance under general coordinate transformations, including between accelerating frames—that led to general relativity. Several lines of inquiry over the past two decades, notably the development of metamaterial-based transformation optics, has spurred a greater interest in the role of geometry and space-time covariance for electrodynamics in ponderable media. I develop a generally covariant, coordinate-free framework for electrodynamics in general dielectric media residing in curved background space-times. In particular, I derive a relation for the spatial medium parameters measured by an arbitrary timelike observer. In terms of those medium parameters I derive an explicit expression for the pseudo-Finslerian optical metric of birefringent media and show how it reduces to a pseudo-Riemannian optical metric for nonbirefringent media. This formulation provides a basis for a unified approach to ray and congruence tracing through media in curved space-times that may smoothly vary among positively refracting, negatively refracting, and vacuum.

  16. GLq(N)-covariant quantum algebras and covariant differential calculus

    Isaev, A.P.; Pyatov, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    GL q (N)-covariant quantum algebras with generators satisfying quadratic polynomial relations are considered. It is that, up to some innessential arbitrariness, there are only two kinds of such quantum algebras, namely, the algebras with q-deformed commutation and q-deformed anticommutation relations. 25 refs

  17. GLq(N)-covariant quantum algebras and covariant differential calculus

    Isaev, A.P.; Pyatov, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We consider GL q (N)-covariant quantum algebras with generators satisfying quadratic polynomial relations. We show that, up to some inessential arbitrariness, there are only two kinds of such quantum algebras, namely, the algebras with q-deformed commutation and q-deformed anticommutation relations. The connection with the bicovariant differential calculus on the linear quantum groups is discussed. (orig.)

  18. A class of covariate-dependent spatiotemporal covariance functions

    Reich, Brian J; Eidsvik, Jo; Guindani, Michele; Nail, Amy J; Schmidt, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    In geostatistics, it is common to model spatially distributed phenomena through an underlying stationary and isotropic spatial process. However, these assumptions are often untenable in practice because of the influence of local effects in the correlation structure. Therefore, it has been of prolonged interest in the literature to provide flexible and effective ways to model non-stationarity in the spatial effects. Arguably, due to the local nature of the problem, we might envision that the correlation structure would be highly dependent on local characteristics of the domain of study, namely the latitude, longitude and altitude of the observation sites, as well as other locally defined covariate information. In this work, we provide a flexible and computationally feasible way for allowing the correlation structure of the underlying processes to depend on local covariate information. We discuss the properties of the induced covariance functions and discuss methods to assess its dependence on local covariate information by means of a simulation study and the analysis of data observed at ozone-monitoring stations in the Southeast United States. PMID:24772199

  19. Cosmic censorship conjecture revisited: covariantly

    Hamid, Aymen I M; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of the trapped region using a frame independent semi-tetrad covariant formalism for general locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. We covariantly prove some important geometrical results for the apparent horizon, and state the necessary and sufficient conditions for a singularity to be locally naked. These conditions bring out, for the first time in a quantitative and transparent manner, the importance of the Weyl curvature in deforming and delaying the trapped region during continual gravitational collapse, making the central singularity locally visible. (paper)

  20. Covariance matrix estimation for stationary time series

    Xiao, Han; Wu, Wei Biao

    2011-01-01

    We obtain a sharp convergence rate for banded covariance matrix estimates of stationary processes. A precise order of magnitude is derived for spectral radius of sample covariance matrices. We also consider a thresholded covariance matrix estimator that can better characterize sparsity if the true covariance matrix is sparse. As our main tool, we implement Toeplitz [Math. Ann. 70 (1911) 351–376] idea and relate eigenvalues of covariance matrices to the spectral densities or Fourier transforms...

  1. Covariant Gauss law commutator anomaly

    Dunne, G.V.; Trugenberger, C.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1990-01-01

    Using a (fixed-time) hamiltonian formalism we derive a covariant form for the anomaly in the commutator algebra of Gauss law generators for chiral fermions interacting with a dynamical non-abelian gauge field in 3+1 dimensions. (orig.)

  2. Covariant gauges for constrained systems

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Khvedelidze, A.M.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The method of constructing of extended phase space for singular theories which permits the consideration of covariant gauges without the introducing of a ghost fields, is proposed. The extension of the phase space is carried out by the identification of the initial theory with an equivalent theory with higher derivatives and applying to it the Ostrogradsky method of Hamiltonian description. 7 refs

  3. Uncertainty covariances in robotics applications

    Smith, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The application of uncertainty covariance matrices in the analysis of robot trajectory errors is explored. First, relevant statistical concepts are reviewed briefly. Then, a simple, hypothetical robot model is considered to illustrate methods for error propagation and performance test data evaluation. The importance of including error correlations is emphasized

  4. Cosmology of a covariant Galilean field.

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2010-09-10

    We study the cosmology of a covariant scalar field respecting a Galilean symmetry in flat space-time. We show the existence of a tracker solution that finally approaches a de Sitter fixed point responsible for cosmic acceleration today. The viable region of model parameters is clarified by deriving conditions under which ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of scalar and tensor perturbations are absent. The field equation of state exhibits a peculiar phantomlike behavior along the tracker, which allows a possibility to observationally distinguish the Galileon gravity from the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant.

  5. On the Galilean covariance of classical mechanics

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1991-08-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single interacting particle is described. In this scheme constitutive relations defining forces are rejected and acting forces are determined by some fundamental differential equations. It is shown that total energy of the interacting particle transforms under Galilean transformations differently from the kinetic energy. The statement is illustrated on the exactly solvable examples of the harmonic oscillator and the case of constant forces and also, in the suitable version of the perturbation theory, for the anharmonic oscillator. (author)

  6. Visualization and assessment of spatio-temporal covariance properties

    Huang, Huang

    2017-11-23

    Spatio-temporal covariances are important for describing the spatio-temporal variability of underlying random fields in geostatistical data. For second-order stationary random fields, there exist subclasses of covariance functions that assume a simpler spatio-temporal dependence structure with separability and full symmetry. However, it is challenging to visualize and assess separability and full symmetry from spatio-temporal observations. In this work, we propose a functional data analysis approach that constructs test functions using the cross-covariances from time series observed at each pair of spatial locations. These test functions of temporal lags summarize the properties of separability or symmetry for the given spatial pairs. We use functional boxplots to visualize the functional median and the variability of the test functions, where the extent of departure from zero at all temporal lags indicates the degree of non-separability or asymmetry. We also develop a rank-based nonparametric testing procedure for assessing the significance of the non-separability or asymmetry. Essentially, the proposed methods only require the analysis of temporal covariance functions. Thus, a major advantage over existing approaches is that there is no need to estimate any covariance matrix for selected spatio-temporal lags. The performances of the proposed methods are examined by simulations with various commonly used spatio-temporal covariance models. To illustrate our methods in practical applications, we apply it to real datasets, including weather station data and climate model outputs.

  7. Real-time probabilistic covariance tracking with efficient model update.

    Wu, Yi; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Jinqiao; Lu, Hanqing; Wang, Jun; Ling, Haibin; Blasch, Erik; Bai, Li

    2012-05-01

    The recently proposed covariance region descriptor has been proven robust and versatile for a modest computational cost. The covariance matrix enables efficient fusion of different types of features, where the spatial and statistical properties, as well as their correlation, are characterized. The similarity between two covariance descriptors is measured on Riemannian manifolds. Based on the same metric but with a probabilistic framework, we propose a novel tracking approach on Riemannian manifolds with a novel incremental covariance tensor learning (ICTL). To address the appearance variations, ICTL incrementally learns a low-dimensional covariance tensor representation and efficiently adapts online to appearance changes of the target with only O(1) computational complexity, resulting in a real-time performance. The covariance-based representation and the ICTL are then combined with the particle filter framework to allow better handling of background clutter, as well as the temporary occlusions. We test the proposed probabilistic ICTL tracker on numerous benchmark sequences involving different types of challenges including occlusions and variations in illumination, scale, and pose. The proposed approach demonstrates excellent real-time performance, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in comparison with several previously proposed trackers.

  8. Empirical Likelihood in Nonignorable Covariate-Missing Data Problems.

    Xie, Yanmei; Zhang, Biao

    2017-04-20

    Missing covariate data occurs often in regression analysis, which frequently arises in the health and social sciences as well as in survey sampling. We study methods for the analysis of a nonignorable covariate-missing data problem in an assumed conditional mean function when some covariates are completely observed but other covariates are missing for some subjects. We adopt the semiparametric perspective of Bartlett et al. (Improving upon the efficiency of complete case analysis when covariates are MNAR. Biostatistics 2014;15:719-30) on regression analyses with nonignorable missing covariates, in which they have introduced the use of two working models, the working probability model of missingness and the working conditional score model. In this paper, we study an empirical likelihood approach to nonignorable covariate-missing data problems with the objective of effectively utilizing the two working models in the analysis of covariate-missing data. We propose a unified approach to constructing a system of unbiased estimating equations, where there are more equations than unknown parameters of interest. One useful feature of these unbiased estimating equations is that they naturally incorporate the incomplete data into the data analysis, making it possible to seek efficient estimation of the parameter of interest even when the working regression function is not specified to be the optimal regression function. We apply the general methodology of empirical likelihood to optimally combine these unbiased estimating equations. We propose three maximum empirical likelihood estimators of the underlying regression parameters and compare their efficiencies with other existing competitors. We present a simulation study to compare the finite-sample performance of various methods with respect to bias, efficiency, and robustness to model misspecification. The proposed empirical likelihood method is also illustrated by an analysis of a data set from the US National Health and

  9. Group covariance and metrical theory

    Halpern, L.

    1983-01-01

    The a priori introduction of a Lie group of transformations into a physical theory has often proved to be useful; it usually serves to describe special simplified conditions before a general theory can be worked out. Newton's assumptions of absolute space and time are examples where the Euclidian group and translation group have been introduced. These groups were extended to the Galilei group and modified in the special theory of relativity to the Poincare group to describe physics under the given conditions covariantly in the simplest way. The criticism of the a priori character leads to the formulation of the general theory of relativity. The general metric theory does not really give preference to a particular invariance group - even the principle of equivalence can be adapted to a whole family of groups. The physical laws covariantly inserted into the metric space are however adapted to the Poincare group. 8 references

  10. Hierarchical multivariate covariance analysis of metabolic connectivity.

    Carbonell, Felix; Charil, Arnaud; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C; Bedell, Barry J

    2014-12-01

    Conventional brain connectivity analysis is typically based on the assessment of interregional correlations. Given that correlation coefficients are derived from both covariance and variance, group differences in covariance may be obscured by differences in the variance terms. To facilitate a comprehensive assessment of connectivity, we propose a unified statistical framework that interrogates the individual terms of the correlation coefficient. We have evaluated the utility of this method for metabolic connectivity analysis using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. As an illustrative example of the utility of this approach, we examined metabolic connectivity in angular gyrus and precuneus seed regions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with low and high β-amyloid burdens. This new multivariate method allowed us to identify alterations in the metabolic connectome, which would not have been detected using classic seed-based correlation analysis. Ultimately, this novel approach should be extensible to brain network analysis and broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  11. Phenotypic covariance at species' borders.

    Caley, M Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T

    2013-05-28

    Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species' borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species' borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future.

  12. Covariant description of Hamiltonian form for field dynamics

    Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Hamiltonian form of field dynamics is developed on a space-like hypersurface in space-time. A covariant Poisson bracket on the space-like hypersurface is defined and it plays a key role to describe every algebraic relation into a covariant form. It is shown that the Poisson bracket has the same symplectic structure that was brought in the covariant symplectic approach. An identity invariant under the canonical transformations is obtained. The identity follows a canonical equation in which the interaction Hamiltonian density generates a deformation of the space-like hypersurface. The equation just corresponds to the Yang-Feldman equation in the Heisenberg pictures in quantum field theory. By converting the covariant Poisson bracket on the space-like hypersurface to four-dimensional commutator, we can pass over to quantum field theory in the Heisenberg picture without spoiling the explicit relativistic covariance. As an example the canonical QCD is displayed in a covariant way on a space-like hypersurface

  13. Anomalous current from the covariant Wigner function

    Prokhorov, George; Teryaev, Oleg

    2018-04-01

    We consider accelerated and rotating media of weakly interacting fermions in local thermodynamic equilibrium on the basis of kinetic approach. Kinetic properties of such media can be described by covariant Wigner function incorporating the relativistic distribution functions of particles with spin. We obtain the formulae for axial current by summation of the terms of all orders of thermal vorticity tensor, chemical potential, both for massive and massless particles. In the massless limit all the terms of fourth and higher orders of vorticity and third order of chemical potential and temperature equal zero. It is shown, that axial current gets a topological component along the 4-acceleration vector. The similarity between different approaches to baryon polarization is established.

  14. Nonparametric Bayesian models for a spatial covariance.

    Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step in the analysis of spatial data is to estimate the spatial correlation function that determines the relationship between a spatial process at two locations. The standard approach to selecting the appropriate correlation function is to use prior knowledge or exploratory analysis, such as a variogram analysis, to select the correct parametric correlation function. Rather that selecting a particular parametric correlation function, we treat the covariance function as an unknown function to be estimated from the data. We propose a flexible prior for the correlation function to provide robustness to the choice of correlation function. We specify the prior for the correlation function using spectral methods and the Dirichlet process prior, which is a common prior for an unknown distribution function. Our model does not require Gaussian data or spatial locations on a regular grid. The approach is demonstrated using a simulation study as well as an analysis of California air pollution data.

  15. Simultaneous genetic analysis of longitudinal means and covariance structure in the simplex model using twin data

    Dolan, C.V.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    D. Soerbom's (1974, 1976) simplex model approach to simultaneous analysis of means and covariance structure was applied to analysis of means observed in a single group. The present approach to the simultaneous biometric analysis of covariance and mean structure is based on the testable assumption

  16. Modeling Covariance Breakdowns in Multivariate GARCH

    Jin, Xin; Maheu, John M

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible way of modeling dynamic heterogeneous covariance breakdowns in multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) models. During periods of normal market activity, volatility dynamics are governed by an MGARCH specification. A covariance breakdown is any significant temporary deviation of the conditional covariance matrix from its implied MGARCH dynamics. This is captured through a flexible stochastic component that allows for changes in the conditional variances, covariances and impl...

  17. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  18. Construction of covariance matrix for experimental data

    Liu Tingjin; Zhang Jianhua

    1992-01-01

    For evaluators and experimenters, the information is complete only in the case when the covariance matrix is given. The covariance matrix of the indirectly measured data has been constructed and discussed. As an example, the covariance matrix of 23 Na(n, 2n) cross section is constructed. A reasonable result is obtained

  19. On an extension of covariance

    Sebestyen, A.

    1975-07-01

    The principle of covariance is extended to coordinates corresponding to internal degrees of freedom. The conditions for a system to be isolated are given. It is shown how internal forces arise in such systems. Equations for internal fields are derived. By an interpretation of the generalized coordinates based on group theory it is shown how particles of the ordinary sense enter into the model and as a simple application the gravitational interaction of two pointlike particles is considered and the shift of the perihelion is deduced. (Sz.Z.)

  20. Covariant gauges at finite temperature

    Landshoff, Peter V

    1992-01-01

    A prescription is presented for real-time finite-temperature perturbation theory in covariant gauges, in which only the two physical degrees of freedom of the gauge-field propagator acquire thermal parts. The propagators for the unphysical degrees of freedom of the gauge field, and for the Faddeev-Popov ghost field, are independent of temperature. This prescription is applied to the calculation of the one-loop gluon self-energy and the two-loop interaction pressure, and is found to be simpler to use than the conventional one.

  1. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  2. Some Algorithms for the Conditional Mean Vector and Covariance Matrix

    John F. Monahan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider here the problem of computing the mean vector and covariance matrix for a conditional normal distribution, considering especially a sequence of problems where the conditioning variables are changing. The sweep operator provides one simple general approach that is easy to implement and update. A second, more goal-oriented general method avoids explicit computation of the vector and matrix, while enabling easy evaluation of the conditional density for likelihood computation or easy generation from the conditional distribution. The covariance structure that arises from the special case of an ARMA(p, q time series can be exploited for substantial improvements in computational efficiency.

  3. ICTP lectures on covariant quantization of the superstring

    Berkovits, N.

    2003-01-01

    These ICTP Trieste lecture notes review the pure spinor approach to quantizing the superstring with manifest D=10 super-Poincare invariance. The first section discusses covariant quantization of the superparticle and gives a new proof of equivalence with the Brink-Schwarz superparticle. The second section discusses the superstring in a flat background and shows how to construct vertex operators and compute tree amplitudes in a manifestly super-Poincare covariant manner. And the third section discusses quantization of the superstring in curved backgrounds which can include Ramond-Ramond flux. (author)

  4. ICTP lectures on covariant quantization of the superstring

    Berkovits, N [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-08-15

    These ICTP Trieste lecture notes review the pure spinor approach to quantizing the superstring with manifest D=10 super-Poincare invariance. The first section discusses covariant quantization of the superparticle and gives a new proof of equivalence with the Brink-Schwarz superparticle. The second section discusses the superstring in a flat background and shows how to construct vertex operators and compute tree amplitudes in a manifestly super-Poincare covariant manner. And the third section discusses quantization of the superstring in curved backgrounds which can include Ramond-Ramond flux. (author)

  5. Fast Component Pursuit for Large-Scale Inverse Covariance Estimation.

    Han, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-08-01

    The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for the Gaussian graphical model, which is also known as the inverse covariance estimation problem, has gained increasing interest recently. Most existing works assume that inverse covariance estimators contain sparse structure and then construct models with the ℓ 1 regularization. In this paper, different from existing works, we study the inverse covariance estimation problem from another perspective by efficiently modeling the low-rank structure in the inverse covariance, which is assumed to be a combination of a low-rank part and a diagonal matrix. One motivation for this assumption is that the low-rank structure is common in many applications including the climate and financial analysis, and another one is that such assumption can reduce the computational complexity when computing its inverse. Specifically, we propose an efficient COmponent Pursuit (COP) method to obtain the low-rank part, where each component can be sparse. For optimization, the COP method greedily learns a rank-one component in each iteration by maximizing the log-likelihood. Moreover, the COP algorithm enjoys several appealing properties including the existence of an efficient solution in each iteration and the theoretical guarantee on the convergence of this greedy approach. Experiments on large-scale synthetic and real-world datasets including thousands of millions variables show that the COP method is faster than the state-of-the-art techniques for the inverse covariance estimation problem when achieving comparable log-likelihood on test data.

  6. Non-Critical Covariant Superstrings

    Grassi, P A

    2005-01-01

    We construct a covariant description of non-critical superstrings in even dimensions. We construct explicitly supersymmetric hybrid type variables in a linear dilaton background, and study an underlying N=2 twisted superconformal algebra structure. We find similarities between non-critical superstrings in 2n+2 dimensions and critical superstrings compactified on CY_(4-n) manifolds. We study the spectrum of the non-critical strings, and in particular the Ramond-Ramond massless fields. We use the supersymmetric variables to construct the non-critical superstrings sigma-model action in curved target space backgrounds with coupling to the Ramond-Ramond fields. We consider as an example non-critical type IIA strings on AdS_2 background with Ramond-Ramond 2-form flux.

  7. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    State estimation techniques serve effectively to provide mean state estimates. However, the state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques suffer from some degree of lack of confidence in their ability to adequately describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. A specific problem with the traditional form of state error covariance matrices is that they represent only a mapping of the assumed observation error characteristics into the state space. Any errors that arise from other sources (environment modeling, precision, etc.) are not directly represented in a traditional, theoretical state error covariance matrix. Consider that an actual observation contains only measurement error and that an estimated observation contains all other errors, known and unknown. It then follows that a measurement residual (the difference between expected and observed measurements) contains all errors for that measurement. Therefore, a direct and appropriate inclusion of the actual measurement residuals in the state error covariance matrix will result in an empirical state error covariance matrix. This empirical state error covariance matrix will fully account for the error in the state estimate. By way of a literal reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted least squares estimation algorithm, it is possible to arrive at an appropriate, and formally correct, empirical state error covariance matrix. The first specific step of the method is to use the average form of the weighted measurement residual variance performance index rather than its usual total weighted residual form. Next it is helpful to interpret the solution to the normal equations as the average of a collection of sample vectors drawn from a hypothetical parent population. From here, using a standard statistical analysis approach, it directly follows as to how to determine the standard empirical state error covariance matrix. This matrix will contain the total uncertainty in the

  8. Structural Covariance Networks in Children with Autism or ADHD.

    Bethlehem, R A I; Romero-Garcia, R; Mak, E; Bullmore, E T; Baron-Cohen, S

    2017-08-01

    While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69). Regional cortical thickness was used to construct the structural covariance networks. This was analysed in a theoretical framework examining potential differences in long and short-range connectivity, with a specific focus on relation between central graph measures and cortical thickness. We found convergence between autism and ADHD, where both conditions show an overall decrease in CT covariance with increased Euclidean distance between centroids compared with a NT population. The 2 conditions also show divergence. Namely, there is less modular overlap between the 2 conditions than there is between each condition and the NT group. The ADHD group also showed reduced cortical thickness and lower degree in hub regions than the autism group. Lastly, the ADHD group also showed reduced wiring costs compared with the autism groups. Our results indicate a need for taking an integrated approach when considering highly comorbid conditions such as autism and ADHD. Furthermore, autism and ADHD both showed alterations in the relation between inter-regional covariance and centroid distance, where both groups show a steeper decline in covariance as a function of distance. The 2 groups also diverge on modular organization, cortical thickness of hub regions and wiring cost of the covariance network. Thus, on some network features the

  9. Spatio-Temporal Audio Enhancement Based on IAA Noise Covariance Matrix Estimates

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    A method for estimating the noise covariance matrix in a mul- tichannel setup is proposed. The method is based on the iter- ative adaptive approach (IAA), which only needs short seg- ments of data to estimate the covariance matrix. Therefore, the method can be used for fast varying signals....... The method is based on an assumption of the desired signal being harmonic, which is used for estimating the noise covariance matrix from the covariance matrix of the observed signal. The noise co- variance estimate is used in the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) filter and compared...

  10. Improvement of covariance data for fast reactors

    Shibata, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-02-01

    We estimated covariances of the JENDL-3.2 data on the nuclides and reactions needed to analyze fast-reactor cores for the past three years, and produced covariance files. The present work was undertaken to re-examine the covariance files and to make some improvements. The covariances improved are the ones for the inelastic scattering cross section of 16 O, the total cross section of 23 Na, the fission cross section of 235 U, the capture cross section of 238 U, and the resolved resonance parameters for 238 U. Moreover, the covariances of 233 U data were newly estimated by the present work. The covariances obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format. (author)

  11. Cross-covariance functions for multivariate random fields based on latent dimensions

    Apanasovich, T. V.

    2010-02-16

    The problem of constructing valid parametric cross-covariance functions is challenging. We propose a simple methodology, based on latent dimensions and existing covariance models for univariate random fields, to develop flexible, interpretable and computationally feasible classes of cross-covariance functions in closed form. We focus on spatio-temporal cross-covariance functions that can be nonseparable, asymmetric and can have different covariance structures, for instance different smoothness parameters, in each component. We discuss estimation of these models and perform a small simulation study to demonstrate our approach. We illustrate our methodology on a trivariate spatio-temporal pollution dataset from California and demonstrate that our cross-covariance performs better than other competing models. © 2010 Biometrika Trust.

  12. A cautionary note on generalized linear models for covariance of unbalanced longitudinal data

    Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-03-01

    Missing data in longitudinal studies can create enormous challenges in data analysis when coupled with the positive-definiteness constraint on a covariance matrix. For complete balanced data, the Cholesky decomposition of a covariance matrix makes it possible to remove the positive-definiteness constraint and use a generalized linear model setup to jointly model the mean and covariance using covariates (Pourahmadi, 2000). However, this approach may not be directly applicable when the longitudinal data are unbalanced, as coherent regression models for the dependence across all times and subjects may not exist. Within the existing generalized linear model framework, we show how to overcome this and other challenges by embedding the covariance matrix of the observed data for each subject in a larger covariance matrix and employing the familiar EM algorithm to compute the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and their standard errors. We illustrate and assess the methodology using real data sets and simulations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. ANL Critical Assembly Covariance Matrix Generation - Addendum

    McKnight, Richard D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grimm, Karl N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-13

    In March 2012, a report was issued on covariance matrices for Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) critical experiments. That report detailed the theory behind the calculation of covariance matrices and the methodology used to determine the matrices for a set of 33 ANL experimental set-ups. Since that time, three new experiments have been evaluated and approved. This report essentially updates the previous report by adding in these new experiments to the preceding covariance matrix structure.

  14. Neutron spectrum adjustment. The role of covariances

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron spectrum adjustment method is shortly reviewed. Practical example dealing with power reactor pressure vessel exposure rates determination is analysed. Adjusted exposure rates are found only slightly affected by the covariances of measured reaction rates and activation cross sections, while the multigroup spectra covariances were found important. Approximate spectra covariance matrices, as suggested in Astm E944-89, were found useful but care is advised if they are applied in adjustments of spectra at locations without dosimetry. (author) [sl

  15. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  16. Competing risks and time-dependent covariates

    Cortese, Giuliana; Andersen, Per K

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent covariates are frequently encountered in regression analysis for event history data and competing risks. They are often essential predictors, which cannot be substituted by time-fixed covariates. This study briefly recalls the different types of time-dependent covariates......, as classified by Kalbfleisch and Prentice [The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data, Wiley, New York, 2002] with the intent of clarifying their role and emphasizing the limitations in standard survival models and in the competing risks setting. If random (internal) time-dependent covariates...

  17. Activities of covariance utilization working group

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a interest in the calculational uncertainties induced by nuclear data uncertainties in the neutronics design of advanced nuclear system. The covariance nuclear data is absolutely essential for the uncertainty analysis. In the latest version of JENDL, JENDL-4.0, the covariance data for many nuclides, especially actinide nuclides, was substantialy enhanced. The growing interest in the uncertainty analysis and the covariance data has led to the organisation of the working group for covariance utilization under the JENDL committee. (author)

  18. General covariance and quantum theory

    Mashhoon, B.

    1986-01-01

    The extension of the principle of relativity to general coordinate systems is based on the hypothesis that an accelerated observer is locally equivalent to a hypothetical inertial observer with the same velocity as the noninertial observer. This hypothesis of locality is expected to be valid for classical particle phenomena as well as for classical wave phenomena but only in the short-wavelength approximation. The generally covariant theory is therefore expected to be in conflict with the quantum theory which is based on wave-particle duality. This is explicitly demonstrated for the frequency of electromagnetic radiation measured by a uniformly rotating observer. The standard Doppler formula is shown to be valid only in the geometric optics approximation. A new definition for the frequency is proposed, and the resulting formula for the frequency measured by the rotating observer is shown to be consistent with expectations based on the classical theory of electrons. A tentative quantum theory is developed on the basis of the generalization of the Bohr frequency condition to include accelerated observers. The description of the causal sequence of events is assumed to be independent of the motion of the observer. Furthermore, the quantum hypothesis is supposed to be valid for all observers. The implications of this theory are critically examined. The new formula for frequency, which is still based on the hypothesis of locality, leads to the observation of negative energy quanta by the rotating observer and is therefore in conflict with the quantum theory

  19. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

  20. Fitting direct covariance structures by the MSTRUCT modeling language of the CALIS procedure.

    Yung, Yiu-Fai; Browne, Michael W; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness and flexibility of the general structural equation modelling (SEM) approach to fitting direct covariance patterns or structures (as opposed to fitting implied covariance structures from functional relationships among variables). In particular, the MSTRUCT modelling language (or syntax) of the CALIS procedure (SAS/STAT version 9.22 or later: SAS Institute, 2010) is used to illustrate the SEM approach. The MSTRUCT modelling language supports a direct covariance pattern specification of each covariance element. It also supports the input of additional independent and dependent parameters. Model tests, fit statistics, estimates, and their standard errors are then produced under the general SEM framework. By using numerical and computational examples, the following tests of basic covariance patterns are illustrated: sphericity, compound symmetry, and multiple-group covariance patterns. Specification and testing of two complex correlation structures, the circumplex pattern and the composite direct product models with or without composite errors and scales, are also illustrated by the MSTRUCT syntax. It is concluded that the SEM approach offers a general and flexible modelling of direct covariance and correlation patterns. In conjunction with the use of SAS macros, the MSTRUCT syntax provides an easy-to-use interface for specifying and fitting complex covariance and correlation structures, even when the number of variables or parameters becomes large. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Parameters of the covariance function of galaxies

    Fesenko, B.I.; Onuchina, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    The two-point angular covariance functions for two samples of galaxies are considered using quick methods of analysis. It is concluded that in the previous investigations the amplitude of the covariance function in the Lick counts was overestimated and the rate of decrease of the function underestimated

  2. Covariance Function for Nearshore Wave Assimilation Systems

    2018-01-30

    which is applicable for any spectral wave model. The four dimensional variational (4DVar) assimilation methods are based on the mathematical ...covariance can be modeled by a parameterized Gaussian function, for nearshore wave assimilation applications , the covariance function depends primarily on...SPECTRAL ACTION DENSITY, RESPECTIVELY. ............................ 5 FIGURE 2. TOP ROW: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WAVE-FIELD PROPERTIES AT THE

  3. Treatment Effects with Many Covariates and Heteroskedasticity

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Newey, Whitney K.

    The linear regression model is widely used in empirical work in Economics. Researchers often include many covariates in their linear model specification in an attempt to control for confounders. We give inference methods that allow for many covariates and heteroskedasticity. Our results...

  4. ARMA Cholesky Factor Models for the Covariance Matrix of Linear Models.

    Lee, Keunbaik; Baek, Changryong; Daniels, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    In longitudinal studies, serial dependence of repeated outcomes must be taken into account to make correct inferences on covariate effects. As such, care must be taken in modeling the covariance matrix. However, estimation of the covariance matrix is challenging because there are many parameters in the matrix and the estimated covariance matrix should be positive definite. To overcomes these limitations, two Cholesky decomposition approaches have been proposed: modified Cholesky decomposition for autoregressive (AR) structure and moving average Cholesky decomposition for moving average (MA) structure, respectively. However, the correlations of repeated outcomes are often not captured parsimoniously using either approach separately. In this paper, we propose a class of flexible, nonstationary, heteroscedastic models that exploits the structure allowed by combining the AR and MA modeling of the covariance matrix that we denote as ARMACD. We analyze a recent lung cancer study to illustrate the power of our proposed methods.

  5. On the algebraic structure of covariant anomalies and covariant Schwinger terms

    Kelnhofer, G.

    1992-01-01

    A cohomological characterization of covariant anomalies and covariant Schwinger terms in an anomalous Yang-Mills theory is formulated and w ill be geometrically interpreted. The BRS and anti-BRS transformations are defined as purely differential geometric objects. Finally the covariant descent equations are formulated within this context. (author)

  6. On estimating cosmology-dependent covariance matrices

    Morrison, Christopher B.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a statistical model to estimate the covariance matrix of matter tracer two-point correlation functions with cosmological simulations. Assuming a fixed number of cosmological simulation runs, we describe how to build a 'statistical emulator' of the two-point function covariance over a specified range of input cosmological parameters. Because the simulation runs with different cosmological models help to constrain the form of the covariance, we predict that the cosmology-dependent covariance may be estimated with a comparable number of simulations as would be needed to estimate the covariance for fixed cosmology. Our framework is a necessary first step in planning a simulations campaign for analyzing the next generation of cosmological surveys

  7. Covariance descriptor fusion for target detection

    Cukur, Huseyin; Binol, Hamidullah; Bal, Abdullah; Yavuz, Fatih

    2016-05-01

    Target detection is one of the most important topics for military or civilian applications. In order to address such detection tasks, hyperspectral imaging sensors provide useful images data containing both spatial and spectral information. Target detection has various challenging scenarios for hyperspectral images. To overcome these challenges, covariance descriptor presents many advantages. Detection capability of the conventional covariance descriptor technique can be improved by fusion methods. In this paper, hyperspectral bands are clustered according to inter-bands correlation. Target detection is then realized by fusion of covariance descriptor results based on the band clusters. The proposed combination technique is denoted Covariance Descriptor Fusion (CDF). The efficiency of the CDF is evaluated by applying to hyperspectral imagery to detect man-made objects. The obtained results show that the CDF presents better performance than the conventional covariance descriptor.

  8. Semiparametric estimation of covariance matrices for longitudinal data.

    Fan, Jianqing; Wu, Yichao

    2008-12-01

    Estimation of longitudinal data covariance structure poses significant challenges because the data are usually collected at irregular time points. A viable semiparametric model for covariance matrices was proposed in Fan, Huang and Li (2007) that allows one to estimate the variance function nonparametrically and to estimate the correlation function parametrically via aggregating information from irregular and sparse data points within each subject. However, the asymptotic properties of their quasi-maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE) of parameters in the covariance model are largely unknown. In the current work, we address this problem in the context of more general models for the conditional mean function including parametric, nonparametric, or semi-parametric. We also consider the possibility of rough mean regression function and introduce the difference-based method to reduce biases in the context of varying-coefficient partially linear mean regression models. This provides a more robust estimator of the covariance function under a wider range of situations. Under some technical conditions, consistency and asymptotic normality are obtained for the QMLE of the parameters in the correlation function. Simulation studies and a real data example are used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  9. Globally covering a-priori regional gravity covariance models

    D. Arabelos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity anomaly data generated using Wenzel’s GPM98A model complete to degree 1800, from which OSU91A has been subtracted, have been used to estimate covariance functions for a set of globally covering equal-area blocks of size 22.5° × 22.5° at Equator, having a 2.5° overlap. For each block an analytic covariance function model was determined. The models are based on 4 parameters: the depth to the Bjerhammar sphere (determines correlation, the free-air gravity anomaly variance, a scale factor of the OSU91A error degree-variances and a maximal summation index, N, of the error degree-variances. The depth of Bjerhammar-sphere varies from -134km to nearly zero, N varies from 360 to 40, the scale factor from 0.03 to 38.0 and the gravity variance from 1081 to 24(10µms-22. The parameters are interpreted in terms of the quality of the data used to construct OSU91A and GPM98A and general conditions such as the occurrence of mountain chains. The variation of the parameters show that it is necessary to use regional covariance models in order to obtain a realistic signal to noise ratio in global applications.Key words. GOCE mission, Covariance function, Spacewise approach`

  10. Quantum corrections for the cubic Galileon in the covariant language

    Saltas, Ippocratis D. [Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Vitagliano, Vincenzo, E-mail: isaltas@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: vincenzo.vitagliano@ist.utl.pt [Multidisciplinary Center for Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-01

    We present for the first time an explicit exposition of quantum corrections within the cubic Galileon theory including the effect of quantum gravity, in a background- and gauge-invariant manner, employing the field-reparametrisation approach of the covariant effective action at 1-loop. We show that the consideration of gravitational effects in combination with the non-linear derivative structure of the theory reveals new interactions at the perturbative level, which manifest themselves as higher-operators in the associated effective action, which' relevance is controlled by appropriate ratios of the cosmological vacuum and the Galileon mass scale. The significance and concept of the covariant approach in this context is discussed, while all calculations are explicitly presented.

  11. Application of the cross section covariance data to fast reactor core design

    Sugino, Kazuteru

    2013-01-01

    In order to contribute to the validation of the cross-section covariance data, an equality was investigated between uncertainties of core characteristics evaluated by the conventional mock-up experimental approach and the current uncertainty quantification one. (author)

  12. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    Heras, Jose A

    2009-01-01

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations

  13. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    Heras, Jose A [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Mexico D. F. 01210 (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations.

  14. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Assirati, J.L.M.; Gitman, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  15. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  16. Structural covariance networks in the mouse brain.

    Pagani, Marco; Bifone, Angelo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of networks of correlation between regional gray matter volume as measured across subjects in a group of individuals has been consistently described in several human studies, an approach termed structural covariance MRI (scMRI). Complementary to prevalent brain mapping modalities like functional and diffusion-weighted imaging, the approach can provide precious insights into the mutual influence of trophic and plastic processes in health and pathological states. To investigate whether analogous scMRI networks are present in lower mammal species amenable to genetic and experimental manipulation such as the laboratory mouse, we employed high resolution morphoanatomical MRI in a large cohort of genetically-homogeneous wild-type mice (C57Bl6/J) and mapped scMRI networks using a seed-based approach. We show that the mouse brain exhibits robust homotopic scMRI networks in both primary and associative cortices, a finding corroborated by independent component analyses of cortical volumes. Subcortical structures also showed highly symmetric inter-hemispheric correlations, with evidence of distributed antero-posterior networks in diencephalic regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed six identifiable clusters of cortical and sub-cortical regions corresponding to previously described neuroanatomical systems. Our work documents the presence of homotopic cortical and subcortical scMRI networks in the mouse brain, thus supporting the use of this species to investigate the elusive biological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of scMRI network development and its derangement in neuropathological states. The identification of scMRI networks in genetically homogeneous inbred mice is consistent with the emerging view of a key role of environmental factors in shaping these correlational networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Super-sample covariance approximations and partial sky coverage

    Lacasa, Fabien; Lima, Marcos; Aguena, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Super-sample covariance (SSC) is the dominant source of statistical error on large scale structure (LSS) observables for both current and future galaxy surveys. In this work, we concentrate on the SSC of cluster counts, also known as sample variance, which is particularly useful for the self-calibration of the cluster observable-mass relation; our approach can similarly be applied to other observables, such as galaxy clustering and lensing shear. We first examined the accuracy of two analytical approximations proposed in the literature for the flat sky limit, finding that they are accurate at the 15% and 30-35% level, respectively, for covariances of counts in the same redshift bin. We then developed a harmonic expansion formalism that allows for the prediction of SSC in an arbitrary survey mask geometry, such as large sky areas of current and future surveys. We show analytically and numerically that this formalism recovers the full sky and flat sky limits present in the literature. We then present an efficient numerical implementation of the formalism, which allows fast and easy runs of covariance predictions when the survey mask is modified. We applied our method to a mask that is broadly similar to the Dark Energy Survey footprint, finding a non-negligible negative cross-z covariance, i.e. redshift bins are anti-correlated. We also examined the case of data removal from holes due to, for example bright stars, quality cuts, or systematic removals, and find that this does not have noticeable effects on the structure of the SSC matrix, only rescaling its amplitude by the effective survey area. These advances enable analytical covariances of LSS observables to be computed for current and future galaxy surveys, which cover large areas of the sky where the flat sky approximation fails.

  18. Coincidence and covariance data acquisition in photoelectron and -ion spectroscopy. II. Analysis and applications

    Mikosch, Jochen; Patchkovskii, Serguei

    2013-10-01

    We use an analytical theory of noisy Poisson processes, developed in the preceding companion publication, to compare coincidence and covariance measurement approaches in photoelectron and -ion spectroscopy. For non-unit detection efficiencies, coincidence data acquisition (DAQ) suffers from false coincidences. The rate of false coincidences grows quadratically with the rate of elementary ionization events. To minimize false coincidences for rare event outcomes, very low event rates may hence be required. Coincidence measurements exhibit high tolerance to noise introduced by unstable experimental conditions. Covariance DAQ on the other hand is free of systematic errors as long as stable experimental conditions are maintained. In the presence of noise, all channels in a covariance measurement become correlated. Under favourable conditions, covariance DAQ may allow orders of magnitude reduction in measurement times. Finally, we use experimental data for strong-field ionization of 1,3-butadiene to illustrate how fluctuations in experimental conditions can contaminate a covariance measurement, and how such contamination can be detected.

  19. Students’ Covariational Reasoning in Solving Integrals’ Problems

    Harini, N. V.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    Covariational reasoning plays an important role to indicate quantities vary in learning calculus. This study investigates students’ covariational reasoning during their studies concerning two covarying quantities in integral problem. Six undergraduate students were chosen to solve problems that involved interpreting and representing how quantities change in tandem. Interviews were conducted to reveal the students’ reasoning while solving covariational problems. The result emphasizes that undergraduate students were able to construct the relation of dependent variables that changes in tandem with the independent variable. However, students faced difficulty in forming images of continuously changing rates and could not accurately apply the concept of integrals. These findings suggest that learning calculus should be increased emphasis on coordinating images of two quantities changing in tandem about instantaneously rate of change and to promote conceptual knowledge in integral techniques.

  20. Covariant Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry

    Geyer, B.; Gitman, D. M.; Lavrov, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    A short rewiev of covariant quantization methods based on BRST-antiBRST symmetry is given. In particular problems of correct definition of Sp(2) symmetric quantization scheme known as triplectic quantization are considered.

  1. Covariant extensions and the nonsymmetric unified field

    Borchsenius, K.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of generally covariant extension of Lorentz invariant field equations, by means of covariant derivatives extracted from the nonsymmetric unified field, is considered. It is shown that the contracted curvature tensor can be expressed in terms of a covariant gauge derivative which contains the gauge derivative corresponding to minimal coupling, if the universal constant p, characterizing the nonsymmetric theory, is fixed in terms of Planck's constant and the elementary quantum of charge. By this choice the spinor representation of the linear connection becomes closely related to the spinor affinity used by Infeld and Van Der Waerden (Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. Kl.; 9:380 (1933)) in their generally covariant formulation of Dirac's equation. (author)

  2. Covariance Spectroscopy for Fissile Material Detection

    Trainham, Rusty; Tinsley, Jim; Hurley, Paul; Keegan, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear fission produces multiple prompt neutrons and gammas at each fission event. The resulting daughter nuclei continue to emit delayed radiation as neutrons boil off, beta decay occurs, etc. All of the radiations are causally connected, and therefore correlated. The correlations are generally positive, but when different decay channels compete, so that some radiations tend to exclude others, negative correlations could also be observed. A similar problem of reduced complexity is that of cascades radiation, whereby a simple radioactive decay produces two or more correlated gamma rays at each decay. Covariance is the usual means for measuring correlation, and techniques of covariance mapping may be useful to produce distinct signatures of special nuclear materials (SNM). A covariance measurement can also be used to filter data streams because uncorrelated signals are largely rejected. The technique is generally more effective than a coincidence measurement. In this poster, we concentrate on cascades and the covariance filtering problem

  3. Covariant amplitudes in Polyakov string theory

    Aoyama, H.; Dhar, A.; Namazie, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A manifestly Lorentz-covariant and reparametrization-invariant procedure for computing string amplitudes using Polyakov's formulation is described. Both bosonic and superstring theories are dealt with. The computation of string amplitudes is greatly facilitated by this formalism. (orig.)

  4. Covariance upperbound controllers for networked control systems

    Ko, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with designing covariance upperbound controllers for a linear system that can be used in a networked control environment in which control laws are calculated in a remote controller and transmitted through a shared communication link to the plant. In order to compensate for possible packet losses during the transmission, two different techniques are often employed: the zero-input and the hold-input strategy. These use zero input and the latest control input, respectively, when a packet is lost. For each strategy, we synthesize a class of output covariance upperbound controllers for a given covariance upperbound and a packet loss probability. Existence conditions of the covariance upperbound controller are also provided for each strategy. Through numerical examples, performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of feasibility of implementing the controllers

  5. Covariance data evaluation for experimental data

    Liu Tingjin

    1993-01-01

    Some methods and codes have been developed and utilized for covariance data evaluation of experimental data, including parameter analysis, physical analysis, Spline fitting etc.. These methods and codes can be used in many different cases

  6. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  7. Laser Covariance Vibrometry for Unsymmetrical Mode Detection

    Kobold, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    Simulated cross - spectral covariance (CSC) from optical return from simulated surface vibration indicates CW phase modulation may be an appropriate phenomenology for adequate classification of vehicles by structural mode...

  8. Error Covariance Estimation of Mesoscale Data Assimilation

    Xu, Qin

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to explore and develop new methods of error covariance estimation that will provide necessary statistical descriptions of prediction and observation errors for mesoscale data assimilation...

  9. The generally covariant locality principle - a new paradigm for local quantum field theory

    Brunetti, R.; Fredenhagen, K.; Verch, R.

    2002-05-01

    A new approach to the model-independent description of quantum field theories will be introduced in the present work. The main feature of this new approach is to incorporate in a local sense the principle of general covariance of general relativity, thus giving rise to the concept of a locally covariant quantum field theory. Such locally covariant quantum field theories will be described mathematically in terms of covariant functors between the categories, on one side, of globally hyperbolic spacetimes with isometric embeddings as morphisms and, on the other side, of *-algebras with unital injective *-endomorphisms as morphisms. Moreover, locally covariant quantum fields can be described in this framework as natural transformations between certain functors. The usual Haag-Kastler framework of nets of operator-algebras over a fixed spacetime background-manifold, together with covariant automorphic actions of the isometry-group of the background spacetime, can be re-gained from this new approach as a special case. Examples of this new approach are also outlined. In case that a locally covariant quantum field theory obeys the time-slice axiom, one can naturally associate to it certain automorphic actions, called ''relative Cauchy-evolutions'', which describe the dynamical reaction of the quantum field theory to a local change of spacetime background metrics. The functional derivative of a relative Cauchy-evolution with respect to the spacetime metric is found to be a divergence-free quantity which has, as will be demonstrated in an example, the significance of an energy-momentum tensor for the locally covariant quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss the functorial properties of state spaces of locally covariant quantum field theories that entail the validity of the principle of local definiteness. (orig.)

  10. Heteroscedasticity resistant robust covariance matrix estimator

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 27 (2010), s. 33-49 ISSN 1212-074X Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Regression * Covariance matrix * Heteroscedasticity * Resistant Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/visek-heteroscedasticity resistant robust covariance matrix estimator.pdf

  11. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-01-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation

  12. Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product

    Zet, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.

  13. Covariant phase difference observables in quantum mechanics

    Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Covariant phase difference observables are determined in two different ways, by a direct computation and by a group theoretical method. A characterization of phase difference observables which can be expressed as the difference of two phase observables is given. The classical limits of such phase difference observables are determined and the Pegg-Barnett phase difference distribution is obtained from the phase difference representation. The relation of Ban's theory to the covariant phase theories is exhibited

  14. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  15. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-05

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  16. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  17. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  18. Multi-level restricted maximum likelihood covariance estimation and kriging for large non-gridded spatial datasets

    Castrillon, Julio

    2015-11-10

    We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic parameters of the model are filtered out thus enabling the estimation of the covariance parameters to be decoupled from the deterministic component. Moreover, the multi-level covariance matrix of the contrasts exhibit fast decay that is dependent on the smoothness of the covariance function. Due to the fast decay of the multi-level covariance matrix coefficients only a small set is computed with a level dependent criterion. We demonstrate our approach on problems of up to 512,000 observations with a Matérn covariance function and highly irregular placements of the observations. In addition, these problems are numerically unstable and hard to solve with traditional methods.

  19. Econometric analysis of realised covariation: high frequency covariance, regression and correlation in financial economics

    Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen; Neil Shephard

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses multivariate high frequency financial data using realised covariation. We provide a new asymptotic distribution theory for standard methods such as regression, correlation analysis and covariance. It will be based on a fixed interval of time (e.g. a day or week), allowing the number of high frequency returns during this period to go to infinity. Our analysis allows us to study how high frequency correlations, regressions and covariances change through time. In particular w...

  20. A special covariance structure for random coefficient models with both between and within covariates

    Riedel, K.S.

    1990-07-01

    We review random coefficient (RC) models in linear regression and propose a bias correction to the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator. Asymmptotic expansion of the ML equations are given when the between individual variance is much larger or smaller than the variance from within individual fluctuations. The standard model assumes all but one covariate varies within each individual, (we denote the within covariates by vector χ 1 ). We consider random coefficient models where some of the covariates do not vary in any single individual (we denote the between covariates by vector χ 0 ). The regression coefficients, vector β k , can only be estimated in the subspace X k of X. Thus the number of individuals necessary to estimate vector β and the covariance matrix Δ of vector β increases significantly in the presence of more than one between covariate. When the number of individuals is sufficient to estimate vector β but not the entire matrix Δ , additional assumptions must be imposed on the structure of Δ. A simple reduced model is that the between component of vector β is fixed and only the within component varies randomly. This model fails because it is not invariant under linear coordinate transformations and it can significantly overestimate the variance of new observations. We propose a covariance structure for Δ without these difficulties by first projecting the within covariates onto the space perpendicular to be between covariates. (orig.)

  1. Missing continuous outcomes under covariate dependent missingness in cluster randomised trials.

    Hossain, Anower; Diaz-Ordaz, Karla; Bartlett, Jonathan W

    2017-06-01

    Attrition is a common occurrence in cluster randomised trials which leads to missing outcome data. Two approaches for analysing such trials are cluster-level analysis and individual-level analysis. This paper compares the performance of unadjusted cluster-level analysis, baseline covariate adjusted cluster-level analysis and linear mixed model analysis, under baseline covariate dependent missingness in continuous outcomes, in terms of bias, average estimated standard error and coverage probability. The methods of complete records analysis and multiple imputation are used to handle the missing outcome data. We considered four scenarios, with the missingness mechanism and baseline covariate effect on outcome either the same or different between intervention groups. We show that both unadjusted cluster-level analysis and baseline covariate adjusted cluster-level analysis give unbiased estimates of the intervention effect only if both intervention groups have the same missingness mechanisms and there is no interaction between baseline covariate and intervention group. Linear mixed model and multiple imputation give unbiased estimates under all four considered scenarios, provided that an interaction of intervention and baseline covariate is included in the model when appropriate. Cluster mean imputation has been proposed as a valid approach for handling missing outcomes in cluster randomised trials. We show that cluster mean imputation only gives unbiased estimates when missingness mechanism is the same between the intervention groups and there is no interaction between baseline covariate and intervention group. Multiple imputation shows overcoverage for small number of clusters in each intervention group.

  2. Meta-analytical synthesis of regression coefficients under different categorization scheme of continuous covariates.

    Yoneoka, Daisuke; Henmi, Masayuki

    2017-11-30

    Recently, the number of clinical prediction models sharing the same regression task has increased in the medical literature. However, evidence synthesis methodologies that use the results of these regression models have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in meta-analysis settings where only regression coefficients are available. One of the difficulties lies in the differences between the categorization schemes of continuous covariates across different studies. In general, categorization methods using cutoff values are study specific across available models, even if they focus on the same covariates of interest. Differences in the categorization of covariates could lead to serious bias in the estimated regression coefficients and thus in subsequent syntheses. To tackle this issue, we developed synthesis methods for linear regression models with different categorization schemes of covariates. A 2-step approach to aggregate the regression coefficient estimates is proposed. The first step is to estimate the joint distribution of covariates by introducing a latent sampling distribution, which uses one set of individual participant data to estimate the marginal distribution of covariates with categorization. The second step is to use a nonlinear mixed-effects model with correction terms for the bias due to categorization to estimate the overall regression coefficients. Especially in terms of precision, numerical simulations show that our approach outperforms conventional methods, which only use studies with common covariates or ignore the differences between categorization schemes. The method developed in this study is also applied to a series of WHO epidemiologic studies on white blood cell counts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

    2017-04-25

    In this paper the focus is on subsampling as well as reconstructing the second-order statistics of signals residing on nodes of arbitrary undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals may be obtained by graph filtering zero-mean white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum whose shape is determined by the frequency response of the graph filter. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms an important component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks such as Wiener prediction or inpainting on graphs. The central result of this paper is that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the second-order statistics of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, and more importantly, without any spectral priors. To this end, both a nonparametric approach as well as parametric approaches including moving average and autoregressive models for the graph power spectrum are considered. The results specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non-parametric and the moving average models, whereas a particular subsampling scheme that allows linear estimation for the autoregressive model is proposed. Numerical experiments on synthetic as well as real datasets related to climatology and processing handwritten digits are provided to demonstrate the developed theory.

  4. Multiple Imputation of a Randomly Censored Covariate Improves Logistic Regression Analysis.

    Atem, Folefac D; Qian, Jing; Maye, Jacqueline E; Johnson, Keith A; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Randomly censored covariates arise frequently in epidemiologic studies. The most commonly used methods, including complete case and single imputation or substitution, suffer from inefficiency and bias. They make strong parametric assumptions or they consider limit of detection censoring only. We employ multiple imputation, in conjunction with semi-parametric modeling of the censored covariate, to overcome these shortcomings and to facilitate robust estimation. We develop a multiple imputation approach for randomly censored covariates within the framework of a logistic regression model. We use the non-parametric estimate of the covariate distribution or the semiparametric Cox model estimate in the presence of additional covariates in the model. We evaluate this procedure in simulations, and compare its operating characteristics to those from the complete case analysis and a survival regression approach. We apply the procedures to an Alzheimer's study of the association between amyloid positivity and maternal age of onset of dementia. Multiple imputation achieves lower standard errors and higher power than the complete case approach under heavy and moderate censoring and is comparable under light censoring. The survival regression approach achieves the highest power among all procedures, but does not produce interpretable estimates of association. Multiple imputation offers a favorable alternative to complete case analysis and ad hoc substitution methods in the presence of randomly censored covariates within the framework of logistic regression.

  5. Are Low-order Covariance Estimates Useful in Error Analyses?

    Baker, D. F.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric trace gas inversions, using modeled atmospheric transport to infer surface sources and sinks from measured concentrations, are most commonly done using least-squares techniques that return not only an estimate of the state (the surface fluxes) but also the covariance matrix describing the uncertainty in that estimate. Besides allowing one to place error bars around the estimate, the covariance matrix may be used in simulation studies to learn what uncertainties would be expected from various hypothetical observing strategies. This error analysis capability is routinely used in designing instrumentation, measurement campaigns, and satellite observing strategies. For example, Rayner, et al (2002) examined the ability of satellite-based column-integrated CO2 measurements to constrain monthly-average CO2 fluxes for about 100 emission regions using this approach. Exact solutions for both state vector and covariance matrix become computationally infeasible, however, when the surface fluxes are solved at finer resolution (e.g., daily in time, under 500 km in space). It is precisely at these finer scales, however, that one would hope to be able to estimate fluxes using high-density satellite measurements. Non-exact estimation methods such as variational data assimilation or the ensemble Kalman filter could be used, but they achieve their computational savings by obtaining an only approximate state estimate and a low-order approximation of the true covariance. One would like to be able to use this covariance matrix to do the same sort of error analyses as are done with the full-rank covariance, but is it correct to do so? Here we compare uncertainties and `information content' derived from full-rank covariance matrices obtained from a direct, batch least squares inversion to those from the incomplete-rank covariance matrices given by a variational data assimilation approach solved with a variable metric minimization technique (the Broyden-Fletcher- Goldfarb

  6. Nuclear data covariances in the Indian context

    Ganesan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of covariances is recognized as an important part of several ongoing nuclear data science activities, since 2007, in the Nuclear Data Physics Centre of India (NDPCI). A Phase-1 project in collaboration with the Statistics department in Manipal University, Karnataka (Prof. K.M. Prasad and Prof. S. Nair) on nuclear data covariances was executed successfully during 2007-2011 period. In Phase-I, the NDPCI has conducted three national Theme meetings sponsored by the DAE-BRNS in 2008, 2010 and 2013 on nuclear data covariances. In Phase-1, the emphasis was on a thorough basic understanding of the concept of covariances including assigning uncertainties to experimental data in terms of partial errors and micro correlations, through a study and a detailed discussion of open literature. Towards the end of Phase-1, measurements and a first time covariance analysis of cross-sections for 58 Ni (n, p) 58 Co reaction measured in Mumbai Pelletron accelerator using 7 Li (p,n) reactions as neutron source in the MeV energy region were performed under a PhD programme on nuclear data covariances in which enrolled are two students, Shri B.S. Shivashankar and Ms. Shanti Sheela. India is also successfully evolving a team of young researchers to code nuclear data of uncertainties, with the perspectives on covariances, in the IAEA-EXFOR format. A Phase-II DAE-BRNS-NDPCI proposal of project at Manipal has been submitted and the proposal is undergoing a peer-review at this time. In Phase-2, modern nuclear data evaluation techniques that including covariances will be further studied as a research and development effort, as a first time effort. These efforts include the use of techniques such as that of the Kalman filter. Presently, a 48 hours lecture series on treatment of errors and their propagation is being formulated under auspices of the Homi Bhabha National Institute. The talk describes the progress achieved thus far in the learning curve of the above-mentioned and exciting

  7. Research Article Comparing covariance matrices: random skewers method compared to the common principal components model

    James M. Cheverud

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of covariance patterns are becoming more common as interest in the evolution of relationships between traits and in the evolutionary phenotypic diversification of clades have grown. We present parallel analyses of covariance matrix similarity for cranial traits in 14 New World Monkey genera using the Random Skewers (RS, T-statistics, and Common Principal Components (CPC approaches. We find that the CPC approach is very powerful in that with adequate sample sizes, it can be used to detect significant differences in matrix structure, even between matrices that are virtually identical in their evolutionary properties, as indicated by the RS results. We suggest that in many instances the assumption that population covariance matrices are identical be rejected out of hand. The more interesting and relevant question is, How similar are two covariance matrices with respect to their predicted evolutionary responses? This issue is addressed by the random skewers method described here.

  8. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  9. Form of the manifestly covariant Lagrangian

    Johns, Oliver Davis

    1985-10-01

    The preferred form for the manifestly covariant Lagrangian function of a single, charged particle in a given electromagnetic field is the subject of some disagreement in the textbooks. Some authors use a ``homogeneous'' Lagrangian and others use a ``modified'' form in which the covariant Hamiltonian function is made to be nonzero. We argue in favor of the ``homogeneous'' form. We show that the covariant Lagrangian theories can be understood only if one is careful to distinguish quantities evaluated on the varied (in the sense of the calculus of variations) world lines from quantities evaluated on the unvaried world lines. By making this distinction, we are able to derive the Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations from the ``homogeneous'' Lagrangian, even though the covariant Hamiltonian function is identically zero on all world lines. The derivation of the Klein-Gordon equation in particular gives Lagrangian theoretical support to the derivations found in standard quantum texts, and is also shown to be consistent with the Feynman path-integral method. We conclude that the ``homogeneous'' Lagrangian is a completely adequate basis for covariant Lagrangian theory both in classical and quantum mechanics. The article also explores the analogy with the Fermat theorem of optics, and illustrates a simple invariant notation for the Lagrangian and other four-vector equations.

  10. Convex Banding of the Covariance Matrix.

    Bien, Jacob; Bunea, Florentina; Xiao, Luo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new sparse estimator of the covariance matrix for high-dimensional models in which the variables have a known ordering. Our estimator, which is the solution to a convex optimization problem, is equivalently expressed as an estimator which tapers the sample covariance matrix by a Toeplitz, sparsely-banded, data-adaptive matrix. As a result of this adaptivity, the convex banding estimator enjoys theoretical optimality properties not attained by previous banding or tapered estimators. In particular, our convex banding estimator is minimax rate adaptive in Frobenius and operator norms, up to log factors, over commonly-studied classes of covariance matrices, and over more general classes. Furthermore, it correctly recovers the bandwidth when the true covariance is exactly banded. Our convex formulation admits a simple and efficient algorithm. Empirical studies demonstrate its practical effectiveness and illustrate that our exactly-banded estimator works well even when the true covariance matrix is only close to a banded matrix, confirming our theoretical results. Our method compares favorably with all existing methods, in terms of accuracy and speed. We illustrate the practical merits of the convex banding estimator by showing that it can be used to improve the performance of discriminant analysis for classifying sound recordings.

  11. Lagged PM2.5 effects in mortality time series: Critical impact of covariate model

    The two most common approaches to modeling the effects of air pollution on mortality are the Harvard and the Johns Hopkins (NMMAPS) approaches. These two approaches, which use different sets of covariates, result in dissimilar estimates of the effect of lagged fine particulate ma...

  12. Structural covariance of brain region volumes is associated with both structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity.

    Yee, Yohan; Fernandes, Darren J; French, Leon; Ellegood, Jacob; Cahill, Lindsay S; Vousden, Dulcie A; Spencer Noakes, Leigh; Scholz, Jan; van Eede, Matthijs C; Nieman, Brian J; Sled, John G; Lerch, Jason P

    2018-05-18

    An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI. We then used a seed-based approach and determined, for 108 different seed regions across the brain and using mouse gene expression and connectivity data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the variation in structural covariance data that could be explained by distance to seed, transcriptomic similarity to seed, and connectivity to seed. We found that overall, correlations in structure volumes hierarchically clustered into distinct anatomical systems, similar to findings from other studies and similar to other types of networks in the brain, including structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity networks. Across seeds, this structural covariance was significantly explained by distance (17% of the variation, up to a maximum of 49% for structural covariance to the visceral area of the cortex), transcriptomic similarity (13% of the variation, up to maximum of 28% for structural covariance to the primary visual area) and connectivity (15% of the variation, up to a maximum of 36% for structural covariance to the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla) of covarying structures. Together, distance, connectivity, and transcriptomic similarity explained 37% of structural covariance, up to a maximum of 63% for structural covariance to the

  13. The relation between operator and path integral covariant quantizations of the Green-Schwarz superstring

    Nissimov, E.; Pacheva, S.; Solomon, S.

    1989-02-01

    By further study of the geometry of the harmonic superspace constraints, we make explicit the relation between the operator and path integral approaches to the manifestly covariant harmonic superstring. In particular we find the correct complete set of functionally independent gauge symmetries for the auxiliary variables and identify the ones corresponding to the harmonic superfield postulate in the operator formalism. Then, we deduce in a systematic way the lagrangian path integral from the well defined covariant hamiltonian formulation of the GS superstring. (authors)

  14. Progress on Nuclear Data Covariances: AFCI-1.2 Covariance Library

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Herman, M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Pigni, M.T.; Talou, P.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Young, P.G

    2009-01-01

    Improved neutron cross section covariances were produced for 110 materials including 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Improved covariances were organized into AFCI-1.2 covariance library in 33-energy groups, from 10 -5 eV to 19.6 MeV. BNL contributed improved covariance data for the following materials: 23 Na and 55 Mn where more detailed evaluation was done; improvements in major structural materials 52 Cr, 56 Fe and 58 Ni; improved estimates for remaining structural materials and fission products; improved covariances for 14 minor actinides, and estimates of mubar covariances for 23 Na and 56 Fe. LANL contributed improved covariance data for 235 U and 239 Pu including prompt neutron fission spectra and completely new evaluation for 240 Pu. New R-matrix evaluation for 16 O including mubar covariances is under completion. BNL assembled the library and performed basic testing using improved procedures including inspection of uncertainty and correlation plots for each material. The AFCI-1.2 library was released to ANL and INL in August 2009.

  15. ACORNS, Covariance and Correlation Matrix Diagonalization

    Szondi, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program allows the user to verify the different types of covariance/correlation matrices used in the activation neutron spectrometry. 2 - Method of solution: The program performs the diagonalization of the input covariance/relative covariance/correlation matrices. The Eigen values are then analyzed to determine the rank of the matrices. If the Eigen vectors of the pertinent correlation matrix have also been calculated, the program can perform a complete factor analysis (generation of the factor matrix and its rotation in Kaiser's 'varimax' sense to select the origin of the correlations). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrix size is limited to 60 on PDP and to 100 on IBM PC/AT

  16. Estimation of Fuzzy Measures Using Covariance Matrices in Gaussian Mixtures

    Nishchal K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel computational approach for estimating fuzzy measures directly from Gaussian mixtures model (GMM. The mixture components of GMM provide the membership functions for the input-output fuzzy sets. By treating consequent part as a function of fuzzy measures, we derived its coefficients from the covariance matrices found directly from GMM and the defuzzified output constructed from both the premise and consequent parts of the nonadditive fuzzy rules that takes the form of Choquet integral. The computational burden involved with the solution of λ-measure is minimized using Q-measure. The fuzzy model whose fuzzy measures were computed using covariance matrices found in GMM has been successfully applied on two benchmark problems and one real-time electric load data of Indian utility. The performance of the resulting model for many experimental studies including the above-mentioned application is found to be better and comparable to recent available fuzzy models. The main contribution of this paper is the estimation of fuzzy measures efficiently and directly from covariance matrices found in GMM, avoiding the computational burden greatly while learning them iteratively and solving polynomial equations of order of the number of input-output variables.

  17. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainty: Exact or with covariances

    van Veen D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct methods of propagation for basic nuclear data uncertainties to large scale systems will be presented and compared. The “Total Monte Carlo” method is using a statistical ensemble of nuclear data libraries randomly generated by means of a Monte Carlo approach with the TALYS system. These libraries are then directly used in a large number of reactor calculations (for instance with MCNP after which the exact probability distribution for the reactor parameter is obtained. The second method makes use of available covariance files and can be done in a single reactor calculation (by using the perturbation method. In this exercise, both methods are using consistent sets of data files, which implies that covariance files used in the second method are directly obtained from the randomly generated nuclear data libraries from the first method. This is a unique and straightforward comparison allowing to directly apprehend advantages and drawbacks of each method. Comparisons for different reactions and criticality-safety benchmarks from 19F to actinides will be presented. We can thus conclude whether current methods for using covariance data are good enough or not.

  18. Ab initio Hamiltonian approach to light nuclei and quantum field theory

    Vary, James P.

    2009-01-01

    A basis-function approach that has proven successful for solving the nonrelativistic strongly interacting nuclear many-body problem and appears promising for solving relativistic field theory in a light-front Hamiltonian framework is presented. Both conventional nuclear manybody theory and light-front field theory face common issues within the Hamiltonian approach - i.e. how to; (1) define the Hamiltonian; (2) renormalize to a finite space; (3) solve for non-perturbative observables, preserving as many symmetries as possible; and (4) take the continuum limit. Each of these challenges requires a substantial undertaking but appears solvable. Advances in computational physics, both algorithms and parallel computers, have proven essential to the recent progress. I will present results that illustrate the recent advances and indicate the path forward to ever more realistic applications

  19. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  20. The covariant entropy bound in gravitational collapse

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the covariant entropy bound in the context of gravitational collapse. First, we discuss critically the heuristic arguments advanced by Bousso. Then we solve the problem through an exact model: a Tolman-Bondi dust shell collapsing into a Schwarzschild black hole. After the collapse, a new black hole with a larger mass is formed. The horizon, L, of the old black hole then terminates at the singularity. We show that the entropy crossing L does not exceed a quarter of the area of the old horizon. Therefore, the covariant entropy bound is satisfied in this process. (author)

  1. Remarks on Bousso's covariant entropy bound

    Mayo, A E

    2002-01-01

    Bousso's covariant entropy bound is put to the test in the context of a non-singular cosmological solution of general relativity found by Bekenstein. Although the model complies with every assumption made in Bousso's original conjecture, the entropy bound is violated due to the occurrence of negative energy density associated with the interaction of some the matter components in the model. We demonstrate how this property allows for the test model to 'elude' a proof of Bousso's conjecture which was given recently by Flanagan, Marolf and Wald. This corroborates the view that the covariant entropy bound should be applied only to stable systems for which every matter component carries positive energy density.

  2. Covariant n2-plet mass formulas

    Davidson, A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a generalized internal symmetry group analogous to the Lorentz group, we have constructed a covariant n 2 -plet mass operator. This operator is built as a scalar matrix in the (n;n*) representation, and its SU(n) breaking parameters are identified as intrinsic boost ones. Its basic properties are: covariance, Hermiticity, positivity, charge conjugation, quark contents, and a self-consistent n 2 -1, 1 mixing. The GMO and the Okubo formulas are obtained by considering two different limits of the same generalized mass formula

  3. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.

    Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.

  4. Bayesian source term determination with unknown covariance of measurements

    Belal, Alkomiet; Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2017-04-01

    Determination of a source term of release of a hazardous material into the atmosphere is a very important task for emergency response. We are concerned with the problem of estimation of the source term in the conventional linear inverse problem, y = Mx, where the relationship between the vector of observations y is described using the source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the unknown source term x. Since the system is typically ill-conditioned, the problem is recast as an optimization problem minR,B(y - Mx)TR-1(y - Mx) + xTB-1x. The first term minimizes the error of the measurements with covariance matrix R, and the second term is a regularization of the source term. There are different types of regularization arising for different choices of matrices R and B, for example, Tikhonov regularization assumes covariance matrix B as the identity matrix multiplied by scalar parameter. In this contribution, we adopt a Bayesian approach to make inference on the unknown source term x as well as unknown R and B. We assume prior on x to be a Gaussian with zero mean and unknown diagonal covariance matrix B. The covariance matrix of the likelihood R is also unknown. We consider two potential choices of the structure of the matrix R. First is the diagonal matrix and the second is a locally correlated structure using information on topology of the measuring network. Since the inference of the model is intractable, iterative variational Bayes algorithm is used for simultaneous estimation of all model parameters. The practical usefulness of our contribution is demonstrated on an application of the resulting algorithm to real data from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases by Inverse Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling (STRADI).

  5. Activities on covariance estimation in Japanese Nuclear Data Committee

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Described are activities on covariance estimation in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Covariances are obtained from measurements by using the least-squares methods. A simultaneous evaluation was performed to deduce covariances of fission cross sections of U and Pu isotopes. A code system, KALMAN, is used to estimate covariances of nuclear model calculations from uncertainties in model parameters. (author)

  6. Further Evaluation of Covariate Analysis using Empirical Bayes Estimates in Population Pharmacokinetics: the Perception of Shrinkage and Likelihood Ratio Test.

    Xu, Xu Steven; Yuan, Min; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Yan; Xu, Jinfeng; Pinheiro, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Covariate analysis based on population pharmacokinetics (PPK) is used to identify clinically relevant factors. The likelihood ratio test (LRT) based on nonlinear mixed effect model fits is currently recommended for covariate identification, whereas individual empirical Bayesian estimates (EBEs) are considered unreliable due to the presence of shrinkage. The objectives of this research were to investigate the type I error for LRT and EBE approaches, to confirm the similarity of power between the LRT and EBE approaches from a previous report and to explore the influence of shrinkage on LRT and EBE inferences. Using an oral one-compartment PK model with a single covariate impacting on clearance, we conducted a wide range of simulations according to a two-way factorial design. The results revealed that the EBE-based regression not only provided almost identical power for detecting a covariate effect, but also controlled the false positive rate better than the LRT approach. Shrinkage of EBEs is likely not the root cause for decrease in power or inflated false positive rate although the size of the covariate effect tends to be underestimated at high shrinkage. In summary, contrary to the current recommendations, EBEs may be a better choice for statistical tests in PPK covariate analysis compared to LRT. We proposed a three-step covariate modeling approach for population PK analysis to utilize the advantages of EBEs while overcoming their shortcomings, which allows not only markedly reducing the run time for population PK analysis, but also providing more accurate covariate tests.

  7. Structural whole-brain covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus: Associations with age and memory.

    Nordin, Kristin; Persson, Jonas; Stening, Eva; Herlitz, Agneta; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2018-02-01

    The hippocampus (HC) interacts with distributed brain regions to support memory and shows significant volume reductions in aging, but little is known about age effects on hippocampal whole-brain structural covariance. It is also unclear whether the anterior and posterior HC show similar or distinct patterns of whole-brain covariance and to what extent these are related to memory functions organized along the hippocampal longitudinal axis. Using the multivariate approach partial least squares, we assessed structural whole-brain covariance of the HC in addition to regional volume, in young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 221), and assessed associations with episodic and spatial memory. Based on findings of sex differences in both memory and brain aging, we further considered sex as a potential modulating factor of age effects. There were two main covariance patterns: one capturing common anterior and posterior covariance, and one differentiating the two regions by capturing anterior-specific covariance only. These patterns were differentially related to associative memory while unrelated to measures of single-item memory and spatial memory. Although patterns were qualitatively comparable across age groups, participants' expression of both patterns decreased with age, independently of sex. The results suggest that the organization of hippocampal structural whole-brain covariance remains stable across age, but that the integrity of these networks decreases as the brain undergoes age-related alterations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  9. Zero curvature conditions and conformal covariance

    Akemann, G.; Grimm, R.

    1992-05-01

    Two-dimensional zero curvature conditions were investigated in detail, with special emphasis on conformal properties, and the appearance of covariant higher order differential operators constructed in terms of a projective connection was elucidated. The analysis is based on the Kostant decomposition of simple Lie algebras in terms of representations with respect to their 'principal' SL(2) subalgebra. (author) 27 refs

  10. On superfield covariant quantization in general coordinates

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P. Yu.; Tomazelli, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a natural extension of the BRST-antiBRST superfield covariant scheme in general coordinates. Thus, the coordinate dependence of the basic tensor fields and scalar density of the formalism is extended from the base supermanifold to the complete set of superfield variables. (orig.)

  11. On superfield covariant quantization in general coordinates

    Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, S.P (Brazil); Moshin, P. Yu. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, S.P (Brazil); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomazelli, J.L. [UNESP, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Campus de Guaratingueta (Brazil)

    2005-12-01

    We propose a natural extension of the BRST-antiBRST superfield covariant scheme in general coordinates. Thus, the coordinate dependence of the basic tensor fields and scalar density of the formalism is extended from the base supermanifold to the complete set of superfield variables. (orig.)

  12. Covariant field theory of closed superstrings

    Siopsis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors construct covariant field theories of both type-II and heterotic strings. Toroidal compactification is also considered. The interaction vertices are based on Witten's vertex representing three strings interacting at the mid-point. For closed strings, the authors thus obtain a bilocal interaction

  13. Conformally covariant composite operators in quantum chromodynamics

    Craigie, N.S.; Dobrev, V.K.; Todorov, I.T.

    1983-03-01

    Conformal covariance is shown to determine renormalization properties of composite operators in QCD and in the C 6 3 -model at the one-loop level. Its relevance to higher order (renormalization group improved) perturbative calculations in the short distance limit is also discussed. Light cone operator product expansions and spectral representations for wave functions in QCD are derived. (author)

  14. Soft covariant gauges on the lattice

    Henty, D.S.; Oliveira, O.; Parrinello, C.; Ryan, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (UKQCD Collaboration)

    1996-12-01

    We present an exploratory study of a one-parameter family of covariant, nonperturbative lattice gauge-fixing conditions that can be implemented through a simple Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate that at the numerical level the procedure is feasible, and as a first application we examine the gauge dependence of the gluon propagator. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Covariant differential calculus on the quantum hyperplane

    Wess, J.

    1991-01-01

    We develop a differential calculus on the quantum hyperplane covariant with respect to the action of the quantum group GL q (n). This is a concrete example of noncommutative differential geometry. We describe the general constraints for a noncommutative differential calculus and verify that the example given here satisfies all these constraints. We also discuss briefly the integration over the quantum plane. (orig.)

  16. Covariant single-hole optical potential

    Kam, J. de

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation a covariant optical potential model is constructed for scattering processes of mesons from nuclei in which the meson interacts repeatedly with one of the target nucleons. The nuclear binding interactions in the intermediate scattering state are consistently taken into account. In particular for pions and K - projectiles this is important in view of the strong energy dependence of the elementary projectile-nucleon amplitude. Furthermore, this optical potential satisfies unitarity and relativistic covariance. The starting point in our discussion is the three-body model for the optical potential. To obtain a practical covariant theory I formulate the three-body model as a relativistic quasi two-body problem. Expressions for the transition interactions and propagators in the quasi two-body equations are found by imposing the correct s-channel unitarity relations and by using dispersion integrals. This is done in such a way that the correct non-relativistic limit is obtained, avoiding clustering problems. Corrections to the quasi two-body treatment from the Pauli principle and the required ground-state exclusion are taken into account. The covariant equations that we arrive at are amenable to practical calculations. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear realization of general covariance group

    Hamamoto, Shinji

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the theory resulting from the nonlinear realization of general covariance group is analysed. We discuss the general form of free Lagrangian for Goldstone fields, and propose as a special choice one reasonable form which is shown to describe a gravitational theory with massless tensor graviton and massive vector tordion. (author)

  18. Covariant quantum mechanics on a null plane

    Leutwyler, H.; Stern, J.

    1977-03-01

    Lorentz invariance implies that the null plane wave functions factorize into a kinematical part describing the motion of the system as a whole and an inner wave function that involves the specific dynamical properties of the system - in complete correspondence with the non-relativistic situation. Covariance is equivalent to an angular condition which admits non-trivial solutions

  19. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-11-30

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  20. Optimal covariate designs theory and applications

    Das, Premadhis; Mandal, Nripes Kumar; Sinha, Bikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book primarily addresses the optimality aspects of covariate designs. A covariate model is a combination of ANOVA and regression models. Optimal estimation of the parameters of the model using a suitable choice of designs is of great importance; as such choices allow experimenters to extract maximum information for the unknown model parameters. The main emphasis of this monograph is to start with an assumed covariate model in combination with some standard ANOVA set-ups such as CRD, RBD, BIBD, GDD, BTIBD, BPEBD, cross-over, multi-factor, split-plot and strip-plot designs, treatment control designs, etc. and discuss the nature and availability of optimal covariate designs. In some situations, optimal estimations of both ANOVA and the regression parameters are provided. Global optimality and D-optimality criteria are mainly used in selecting the design. The standard optimality results of both discrete and continuous set-ups have been adapted, and several novel combinatorial techniques have been applied for...

  1. Asymptotics for the minimum covariance determinant estimator

    Butler, R.W.; Davies, P.L.; Jhun, M.

    1993-01-01

    Consistency is shown for the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimators of multivariate location and scale and asymptotic normality is shown for the former. The proofs are made possible by showing a separating ellipsoid property for the MCD subset of observations. An analogous property is shown

  2. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank

  3. Partial covariance based functional connectivity computation using Ledoit-Wolf covariance regularization.

    Brier, Matthew R; Mitra, Anish; McCarthy, John E; Ances, Beau M; Snyder, Abraham Z

    2015-11-01

    Functional connectivity refers to shared signals among brain regions and is typically assessed in a task free state. Functional connectivity commonly is quantified between signal pairs using Pearson correlation. However, resting-state fMRI is a multivariate process exhibiting a complicated covariance structure. Partial covariance assesses the unique variance shared between two brain regions excluding any widely shared variance, hence is appropriate for the analysis of multivariate fMRI datasets. However, calculation of partial covariance requires inversion of the covariance matrix, which, in most functional connectivity studies, is not invertible owing to rank deficiency. Here we apply Ledoit-Wolf shrinkage (L2 regularization) to invert the high dimensional BOLD covariance matrix. We investigate the network organization and brain-state dependence of partial covariance-based functional connectivity. Although RSNs are conventionally defined in terms of shared variance, removal of widely shared variance, surprisingly, improved the separation of RSNs in a spring embedded graphical model. This result suggests that pair-wise unique shared variance plays a heretofore unrecognized role in RSN covariance organization. In addition, application of partial correlation to fMRI data acquired in the eyes open vs. eyes closed states revealed focal changes in uniquely shared variance between the thalamus and visual cortices. This result suggests that partial correlation of resting state BOLD time series reflect functional processes in addition to structural connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ENDF-6 File 30: Data covariances obtained from parameter covariances and sensitivities

    Muir, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    File 30 is provided as a means of describing the covariances of tabulated cross sections, multiplicities, and energy-angle distributions that result from propagating the covariances of a set of underlying parameters (for example, the input parameters of a nuclear-model code), using an evaluator-supplied set of parameter covariances and sensitivities. Whenever nuclear data are evaluated primarily through the application of nuclear models, the covariances of the resulting data can be described very adequately, and compactly, by specifying the covariance matrix for the underlying nuclear parameters, along with a set of sensitivity coefficients giving the rate of change of each nuclear datum of interest with respect to each of the model parameters. Although motivated primarily by these applications of nuclear theory, use of File 30 is not restricted to any one particular evaluation methodology. It can be used to describe data covariances of any origin, so long as they can be formally separated into a set of parameters with specified covariances and a set of data sensitivities

  5. Hawking radiation, effective actions and covariant boundary conditions

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-01

    From an appropriate expression for the effective action, the Hawking radiation from charged black holes is derived, using only covariant boundary conditions at the event horizon. The connection of our approach with the Unruh vacuum and the recent analysis [S.P. Robinson, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 011303, (gr-qc/0502074); S. Iso, H. Umetsu, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 151302, (hep-th/0602146); R. Banerjee, S. Kulkarni, (arXiv: 0707.2449 [hep-th])] of Hawking radiation using anomalies is established

  6. Covariant solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Williams, A.G.; Kusaka, K.; Simpson, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    There is a need for covariant solutions of bound state equations in order to construct realistic QCD based models of mesons and baryons. Furthermore, we ideally need to know the structure of these bound states in all kinematical regimes, which makes a direct solution in Minkowski space (without any 3-dimensional reductions) desirable. The Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) for bound states in scalar theories is reformulated and solved for arbitrary scattering kernels in terms of a generalized spectral representation directly in Minkowski space. This differs from the conventional Euclidean approach, where the BSE can only be solved in ladder approximation after a Wick rotation. (author)

  7. Nucleon Mass from a Covariant Three-Quark Faddeev Equation

    Eichmann, G.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Nicmorus, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first study of the nucleon where the full Poincare-covariant structure of the three-quark amplitude is implemented in the Faddeev equation. We employ an interaction kernel which is consistent with contemporary studies of meson properties and aspects of chiral symmetry and its dynamical breaking, thus yielding a comprehensive approach to hadron physics. The resulting current-mass evolution of the nucleon mass compares well with lattice data and deviates only by ∼5% from the quark-diquark result obtained in previous studies.

  8. 1+3 covariant cosmic microwave background anisotropies I: Algebraic relations for mode and multipole expansions

    Gebbie, Tim; Ellis, G.F.R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers systematically extending a 1+3 covariant and gauge-invariant treatment of kinetic theory in curved space-times to a treatment of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies arising from inhomogeneities in the early universe. The present paper deals with algebraic issues, both generically and in the context of models linearised about Robertson-Walker geometries. The approach represents radiation anisotropies by projected symmetric and trace-free tensors. The angular correlation functions for the mode coefficients are found in terms of these quantities, following the Wilson-Silk approach, but derived and dealt with in 1+3 covariant and gauge-invariant form. The covariant multipole and mode-expanded angular correlation functions are related to the usual treatments in the literature. The 1+3 covariant and gauge-invariant mode expansion is related to the coordinate approach by linking the Legendre functions to the projected symmetric trace-free representation, using a covariant addition theorem for the tensors to generate the Legendre polynomial recursion relation. This paper lays the foundation for further papers in the series, which use this formalism in a covariant and gauge-invariant approach to developing solutions of the Boltzmann and Liouville equations for the cosmic microwave background before and after decoupling, thus providing a unified covariant and gauge-invariant derivation of the variety of approaches to cosmic microwave background anisotropies in the current literature, as well as a basis for extension of the theory to include nonlinearities

  9. Econometric analysis of realized covariation: high frequency based covariance, regression, and correlation in financial economics

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses multivariate high frequency financial data using realized covariation. We provide a new asymptotic distribution theory for standard methods such as regression, correlation analysis, and covariance. It will be based on a fixed interval of time (e.g., a day or week), allowing...... the number of high frequency returns during this period to go to infinity. Our analysis allows us to study how high frequency correlations, regressions, and covariances change through time. In particular we provide confidence intervals for each of these quantities....

  10. Linear Regression with a Randomly Censored Covariate: Application to an Alzheimer's Study.

    Atem, Folefac D; Qian, Jing; Maye, Jacqueline E; Johnson, Keith A; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    The association between maternal age of onset of dementia and amyloid deposition (measured by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging) in cognitively normal older offspring is of interest. In a regression model for amyloid, special methods are required due to the random right censoring of the covariate of maternal age of onset of dementia. Prior literature has proposed methods to address the problem of censoring due to assay limit of detection, but not random censoring. We propose imputation methods and a survival regression method that do not require parametric assumptions about the distribution of the censored covariate. Existing imputation methods address missing covariates, but not right censored covariates. In simulation studies, we compare these methods to the simple, but inefficient complete case analysis, and to thresholding approaches. We apply the methods to the Alzheimer's study.

  11. QED on curved background and on manifolds with boundaries: Unitarity versus covariance

    Vassilevich, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Some recent results show that the covariant path integral and the integral over physical degrees of freedom give contradicting results on curved background and on manifolds with boundaries. This looks like a conflict between unitarity and covariance. We argue that this effect is due to the use of non-covariant measure on the space of physical degrees of freedom. Starting with the reduced phase space path integral and using covariant measure throughout computations we recover standard path integral in the Lorentz gauge and the Moss and Poletti BRST-invariant boundary conditions. We also demonstrate by direct calculations that in the approach based on Gaussian path integral on the space of physical degrees of freedom some basic symmetries are broken. (author). 39 refs

  12. Accounting for covariate measurement error in a Cox model analysis of recurrence of depression.

    Liu, K; Mazumdar, S; Stone, R A; Dew, M A; Houck, P R; Reynolds, C F

    2001-01-01

    When a covariate measured with error is used as a predictor in a survival analysis using the Cox model, the parameter estimate is usually biased. In clinical research, covariates measured without error such as treatment procedure or sex are often used in conjunction with a covariate measured with error. In a randomized clinical trial of two types of treatments, we account for the measurement error in the covariate, log-transformed total rapid eye movement (REM) activity counts, in a Cox model analysis of the time to recurrence of major depression in an elderly population. Regression calibration and two variants of a likelihood-based approach are used to account for measurement error. The likelihood-based approach is extended to account for the correlation between replicate measures of the covariate. Using the replicate data decreases the standard error of the parameter estimate for log(total REM) counts while maintaining the bias reduction of the estimate. We conclude that covariate measurement error and the correlation between replicates can affect results in a Cox model analysis and should be accounted for. In the depression data, these methods render comparable results that have less bias than the results when measurement error is ignored.

  13. Multilevel covariance regression with correlated random effects in the mean and variance structure.

    Quintero, Adrian; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2017-09-01

    Multivariate regression methods generally assume a constant covariance matrix for the observations. In case a heteroscedastic model is needed, the parametric and nonparametric covariance regression approaches can be restrictive in the literature. We propose a multilevel regression model for the mean and covariance structure, including random intercepts in both components and allowing for correlation between them. The implied conditional covariance function can be different across clusters as a result of the random effect in the variance structure. In addition, allowing for correlation between the random intercepts in the mean and covariance makes the model convenient for skewedly distributed responses. Furthermore, it permits us to analyse directly the relation between the mean response level and the variability in each cluster. Parameter estimation is carried out via Gibbs sampling. We compare the performance of our model to other covariance modelling approaches in a simulation study. Finally, the proposed model is applied to the RN4CAST dataset to identify the variables that impact burnout of nurses in Belgium. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of covariant Schwinger terms in anomalous gauge theories

    Kelnhofer, G.

    1991-01-01

    A functional integral method is used to determine equal time commutators between the covariant currents and the covariant Gauss-law operators in theories which are affected by an anomaly. By using a differential geometrical setup we show how the derivation of consistent- and covariant Schwinger terms can be understood on an equal footing. We find a modified consistency condition for the covariant anomaly. As a by-product the Bardeen-Zumino functional, which relates consistent and covariant anomalies, can be interpreted as connection on a certain line bundle over all gauge potentials. Finally the covariant commutator anomalies are calculated for the two- and four dimensional case. (orig.)

  15. Paragrassmann analysis and covariant quantum algebras

    Filippov, A.T.; Isaev, A.P.; Kurdikov, A.B.; Pyatov, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    This report is devoted to the consideration from the algebraic point of view the paragrassmann algebras with one and many paragrassmann generators Θ i , Θ p+1 i = 0. We construct the paragrassmann versions of the Heisenberg algebra. For the special case, this algebra is nothing but the algebra for coordinates and derivatives considered in the context of covariant differential calculus on quantum hyperplane. The parameter of deformation q in our case is (p+1)-root of unity. Our construction is nondegenerate only for even p. Taking bilinear combinations of paragrassmann derivatives and coordinates we realize generators for the covariant quantum algebras as tensor products of (p+1) x (p+1) matrices. (orig./HSI)

  16. Covariant holography of a tachyonic accelerating universe

    Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Madrid (Spain); University of Portsmouth, Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    We apply the holographic principle to a flat dark energy dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with a tachyon scalar field with constant equation of state w = p/ρ, both for w > -1 and w < -1. By using a geometrical covariant procedure, which allows the construction of holographic hypersurfaces, we have obtained for each case the position of the preferred screen and have then compared these with those obtained by using the holographic dark energy model with the future event horizon as the infrared cutoff. In the phantom scenario, one of the two obtained holographic screens is placed on the big rip hypersurface, both for the covariant holographic formalism and the holographic phantom model. It is also analyzed whether the existence of these preferred screens allows a mathematically consistent formulation of fundamental theories based on the existence of an S-matrix at infinite distances. (orig.)

  17. On covariance structure in noisy, big data

    Paffenroth, Randy C.; Nong, Ryan; Du Toit, Philip C.

    2013-09-01

    Herein we describe theory and algorithms for detecting covariance structures in large, noisy data sets. Our work uses ideas from matrix completion and robust principal component analysis to detect the presence of low-rank covariance matrices, even when the data is noisy, distorted by large corruptions, and only partially observed. In fact, the ability to handle partial observations combined with ideas from randomized algorithms for matrix decomposition enables us to produce asymptotically fast algorithms. Herein we will provide numerical demonstrations of the methods and their convergence properties. While such methods have applicability to many problems, including mathematical finance, crime analysis, and other large-scale sensor fusion problems, our inspiration arises from applying these methods in the context of cyber network intrusion detection.

  18. Twisted covariant noncommutative self-dual gravity

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-01-01

    A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The formulation for constructing twisted noncommutative Yang-Mills theories is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the θ expansion in terms of the tetrad and some extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in θ for the Plebanski action is explicitly obtained.

  19. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  20. Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings

    Zachos, C.

    1985-01-01

    The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs

  1. Covariant derivatives of the Berezin transform

    Engliš, Miroslav; Otáhalová, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 363, č. 10 (2011), s. 5111-5129 ISSN 0002-9947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Keywords : Berezin transform * Berezin symbol * covariant derivative Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2011 http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2011-363-10/S0002-9947-2011-05111-1/home.html

  2. Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings

    Zachos, C.

    1985-01-01

    The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs.

  3. Covariance expressions for eigenvalue and eigenvector problems

    Liounis, Andrew J.

    There are a number of important scientific and engineering problems whose solutions take the form of an eigenvalue--eigenvector problem. Some notable examples include solutions to linear systems of ordinary differential equations, controllability of linear systems, finite element analysis, chemical kinetics, fitting ellipses to noisy data, and optimal estimation of attitude from unit vectors. In many of these problems, having knowledge of the eigenvalue and eigenvector Jacobians is either necessary or is nearly as important as having the solution itself. For instance, Jacobians are necessary to find the uncertainty in a computed eigenvalue or eigenvector estimate. This uncertainty, which is usually represented as a covariance matrix, has been well studied for problems similar to the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem, such as singular value decomposition. There has been substantially less research on the covariance of an optimal estimate originating from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. In this thesis we develop two general expressions for the Jacobians of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to the elements of their parent matrix. The expressions developed make use of only the parent matrix and the eigenvalue and eigenvector pair under consideration. In addition, they are applicable to any general matrix (including complex valued matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors) as long as the eigenvalues are simple. Alongside this, we develop expressions that determine the uncertainty in a vector estimate obtained from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem given the uncertainty of the terms of the matrix. The Jacobian expressions developed are numerically validated with forward finite, differencing and the covariance expressions are validated using Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, the results from this work are used to determine covariance expressions for a variety of estimation problem examples and are also applied to the design of a dynamical system.

  4. Linear Covariance Analysis for a Lunar Lander

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bhatt, Sagar; Fritz, Matthew; Woffinden, David; May, Darryl; Braden, Ellen; Hannan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A next-generation lunar lander Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system, which includes a state-of-the-art optical sensor suite, is proposed in a concept design cycle. The design goal is to allow the lander to softly land within the prescribed landing precision. The achievement of this precision landing requirement depends on proper selection of the sensor suite. In this paper, a robust sensor selection procedure is demonstrated using a Linear Covariance (LinCov) analysis tool developed by Draper.

  5. The covariant formulation of f ( T ) gravity

    Krššák, Martin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the well-known problem of frame dependence and violation of local Lorentz invariance in the usual formulation of f ( T ) gravity is a consequence of neglecting the role of spin connection. We re-formulate f ( T ) gravity starting from, instead of the ‘pure tetrad’ teleparallel gravity, the covariant teleparallel gravity, using both the tetrad and the spin connection as dynamical variables, resulting in a fully covariant, consistent, and frame-independent version of f ( T ) gravity, which does not suffer from the notorious problems of the usual, pure tetrad, f ( T ) theory. We present the method to extract solutions for the most physically important cases, such as the Minkowski, the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) and the spherically symmetric ones. We show that in covariant f ( T ) gravity we are allowed to use an arbitrary tetrad in an arbitrary coordinate system along with the corresponding spin connection, resulting always in the same physically relevant field equations. (paper)

  6. SG39 Deliverables. Comments on Covariance Data

    Yokoyama, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The covariance matrix of a scattered data set, x_i (i=1,n), must be symmetric and positive-definite. As one of WPEC/SG39 contributions to the SG40/CIELO project, several comments or recommendations on the covariance data are described here from the viewpoint of nuclear-data users. To make the comments concrete and useful for nuclear-data evaluators, the covariance data of the latest evaluated nuclear data library, JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are treated here as the representative materials. The surveyed nuclides are five isotopes that are most important for fast reactor application. The nuclides, reactions and energy regions dealt with are followings: Pu-239: fission (2.5∼10 keV) and capture (2.5∼10 keV), U-235: fission (500 eV∼10 keV) and capture (500 eV∼30 keV), U-238: fission (1∼10 MeV), capture (below 20 keV, 20∼150 keV), inelastic (above 100 keV) and elastic (above 20 keV), Fe-56: elastic (below 850 keV) and average scattering cosine (above 10 keV), and, Na-23: capture (600 eV∼600 keV), inelastic (above 1 MeV) and elastic (around 2 keV)

  7. Multi-level restricted maximum likelihood covariance estimation and kriging for large non-gridded spatial datasets

    Castrillon, Julio; Genton, Marc G.; Yokota, Rio

    2015-01-01

    We develop a multi-level restricted Gaussian maximum likelihood method for estimating the covariance function parameters and computing the best unbiased predictor. Our approach produces a new set of multi-level contrasts where the deterministic

  8. Modeling and Forecasting (Un)Reliable Realized Covariances for More Reliable Financial Decisions

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Quaedvlieg, Rogier

    We propose a new framework for modeling and forecasting common financial risks based on (un)reliable realized covariance measures constructed from high-frequency intraday data. Our new approach explicitly incorporates the effect of measurement errors and time-varying attenuation biases into the c......We propose a new framework for modeling and forecasting common financial risks based on (un)reliable realized covariance measures constructed from high-frequency intraday data. Our new approach explicitly incorporates the effect of measurement errors and time-varying attenuation biases...

  9. An Adaptive Estimation of Forecast Error Covariance Parameters for Kalman Filtering Data Assimilation

    Xiaogu ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive estimation of forecast error covariance matrices is proposed for Kalman filtering data assimilation. A forecast error covariance matrix is initially estimated using an ensemble of perturbation forecasts. This initially estimated matrix is then adjusted with scale parameters that are adaptively estimated by minimizing -2log-likelihood of observed-minus-forecast residuals. The proposed approach could be applied to Kalman filtering data assimilation with imperfect models when the model error statistics are not known. A simple nonlinear model (Burgers' equation model) is used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  10. Matérn-based nonstationary cross-covariance models for global processes

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2014-07-01

    Many spatial processes in environmental applications, such as climate variables and climate model errors on a global scale, exhibit complex nonstationary dependence structure, in not only their marginal covariance but also their cross-covariance. Flexible cross-covariance models for processes on a global scale are critical for an accurate description of each spatial process as well as the cross-dependences between them and also for improved predictions. We propose various ways to produce cross-covariance models, based on the Matérn covariance model class, that are suitable for describing prominent nonstationary characteristics of the global processes. In particular, we seek nonstationary versions of Matérn covariance models whose smoothness parameters vary over space, coupled with a differential operators approach for modeling large-scale nonstationarity. We compare their performance to the performance of some existing models in terms of the aic and spatial predictions in two applications: joint modeling of surface temperature and precipitation, and joint modeling of errors in climate model ensembles. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  11. A class of Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on a sphere

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2015-02-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. There have been noticeable advancements in developing parametric covariance models for spatial and spatio-temporal data with various applications to environmental problems. However, literature on covariance models for processes defined on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance as a distance metric is still sparse, due to its mathematical difficulties. It is known that the popular Matérn covariance function, with smoothness parameter greater than 0.5, is not valid for processes on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance. We introduce an approach to produce Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on the surface of a sphere that are valid with great circle distance. The resulting model is isotropic and positive definite on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance, with a natural extension for nonstationarity case. We present extensive numerical comparisons of our model, with a Matérn covariance model using great circle distance as well as chordal distance. We apply our new covariance model class to sea level pressure data, known to be smooth compared to other climate variables, from the CMIP5 climate model outputs.

  12. A class of Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on a sphere

    Jeong, Jaehong; Jun, Mikyoung

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. There have been noticeable advancements in developing parametric covariance models for spatial and spatio-temporal data with various applications to environmental problems. However, literature on covariance models for processes defined on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance as a distance metric is still sparse, due to its mathematical difficulties. It is known that the popular Matérn covariance function, with smoothness parameter greater than 0.5, is not valid for processes on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance. We introduce an approach to produce Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on the surface of a sphere that are valid with great circle distance. The resulting model is isotropic and positive definite on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance, with a natural extension for nonstationarity case. We present extensive numerical comparisons of our model, with a Matérn covariance model using great circle distance as well as chordal distance. We apply our new covariance model class to sea level pressure data, known to be smooth compared to other climate variables, from the CMIP5 climate model outputs.

  13. Mapping structural covariance networks of facial emotion recognition in early psychosis: A pilot study.

    Buchy, Lisa; Barbato, Mariapaola; Makowski, Carolina; Bray, Signe; MacMaster, Frank P; Deighton, Stephanie; Addington, Jean

    2017-11-01

    People with psychosis show deficits recognizing facial emotions and disrupted activation in the underlying neural circuitry. We evaluated associations between facial emotion recognition and cortical thickness using a correlation-based approach to map structural covariance networks across the brain. Fifteen people with an early psychosis provided magnetic resonance scans and completed the Penn Emotion Recognition and Differentiation tasks. Fifteen historical controls provided magnetic resonance scans. Cortical thickness was computed using CIVET and analyzed with linear models. Seed-based structural covariance analysis was done using the mapping anatomical correlations across the cerebral cortex methodology. To map structural covariance networks involved in facial emotion recognition, the right somatosensory cortex and bilateral fusiform face areas were selected as seeds. Statistics were run in SurfStat. Findings showed increased cortical covariance between the right fusiform face region seed and right orbitofrontal cortex in controls than early psychosis subjects. Facial emotion recognition scores were not significantly associated with thickness in any region. A negative effect of Penn Differentiation scores on cortical covariance was seen between the left fusiform face area seed and right superior parietal lobule in early psychosis subjects. Results suggest that facial emotion recognition ability is related to covariance in a temporal-parietal network in early psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermions in light front transverse lattice quantum chromodynamics

    Ur(x-aˆr)]}. (3). After eliminating the constraint fields we arrive at the transverse lattice Hamiltonian. P. =P. 1 +P. 2 ,. (4) where P. 1 arises from the elimination of ψ (hence sensitive to how fermions are put on the transverse lattice) and P. 2 contains Wilson plaquette term and the terms arising from the elimination of A . Explicitly.

  15. An introduction to covariant quantum gravity and asymptotic safety

    Percacci, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in the covariant formulation of quantum gravity. Developed in the 1960s by Feynman and DeWitt, by the 1980s this approach seemed to lead nowhere due to perturbative non-renormalizability. The possibility of non-perturbative renormalizability or "asymptotic safety," originally suggested by Weinberg but largely ignored for two decades, was revived towards the end of the century by technical progress in the field of the renormalization group. It is now a very active field of research, providing an alternative to other approaches to quantum gravity. Written by one of the early contributors to this subject, this book provides a gentle introduction to the relevant ideas and calculational techniques. Several explicit calculations gradually bring the reader close to the current frontier of research. The main difficulties and present lines of development are also outlined.

  16. Flexible Bayesian Dynamic Modeling of Covariance and Correlation Matrices

    Lan, Shiwei; Holbrook, Andrew; Fortin, Norbert J.; Ombao, Hernando; Shahbaba, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Modeling covariance (and correlation) matrices is a challenging problem due to the large dimensionality and positive-definiteness constraint. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian framework based on decomposing the covariance matrix

  17. ERRORJ. Covariance processing code. Version 2.2

    Chiba, Go

    2004-07-01

    ERRORJ is the covariance processing code that can produce covariance data of multi-group cross sections, which are essential for uncertainty analyses of nuclear parameters, such as neutron multiplication factor. The ERRORJ code can process the covariance data of cross sections including resonance parameters, angular and energy distributions of secondary neutrons. Those covariance data cannot be processed by the other covariance processing codes. ERRORJ has been modified and the version 2.2 has been developed. This document describes the modifications and how to use. The main topics of the modifications are as follows. Non-diagonal elements of covariance matrices are calculated in the resonance energy region. Option for high-speed calculation is implemented. Perturbation amount is optimized in a sensitivity calculation. Effect of the resonance self-shielding on covariance of multi-group cross section can be considered. It is possible to read a compact covariance format proposed by N.M. Larson. (author)

  18. New perspective in covariance evaluation for nuclear data

    Kanda, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of nuclear data evaluation have been highly developed during the past decade, especially after introducing the concept of covariance. This makes it utmost important how to evaluate covariance matrices for nuclear data. It can be said that covariance evaluation is just the nuclear data evaluation, because the covariance matrix has quantitatively decisive function in current evaluation methods. The covariance primarily represents experimental uncertainties. However, correlation of individual uncertainties between different data must be taken into account and it can not be conducted without detailed physical considerations on experimental conditions. This procedure depends on the evaluator and the estimated covariance does also. The mathematical properties of the covariance have been intensively discussed. Their physical properties should be studied to apply it to the nuclear data evaluation, and then, in this report, are reviewed to give the base for further development of the covariance application. (orig.)

  19. Exploring treatment by covariate interactions using subgroup analysis and meta-regression in cochrane reviews: a review of recent practice.

    Sarah Donegan

    Full Text Available Treatment by covariate interactions can be explored in reviews using interaction analyses (e.g., subgroup analysis. Such analyses can provide information on how the covariate modifies the treatment effect and is an important methodological approach for personalising medicine. Guidance exists regarding how to apply such analyses but little is known about whether authors follow the guidance.Using published recommendations, we developed criteria to assess how well interaction analyses were designed, applied, interpreted, and reported. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched (8th August 2013. We applied the criteria to the most recently published review, with an accessible protocol, for each Cochrane Review Group. We excluded review updates, diagnostic test accuracy reviews, withdrawn reviews, and overviews of reviews. Data were summarised regarding reviews, covariates, and analyses.Each of the 52 included reviews planned or did interaction analyses; 51 reviews (98% planned analyses and 33 reviews (63% applied analyses. The type of analysis planned and the type subsequently applied (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analysis was discrepant in 24 reviews (46%. No review reported how or why each covariate had been chosen; 22 reviews (42% did state each covariate a priori in the protocol but no review identified each post-hoc covariate as such. Eleven reviews (21% mentioned five covariates or less. One review reported planning to use a method to detect interactions (i.e., interaction test for each covariate; another review reported applying the method for each covariate. Regarding interpretation, only one review reported whether an interaction was detected for each covariate and no review discussed the importance, or plausibility, of the results, or the possibility of confounding for each covariate.Interaction analyses in Cochrane Reviews can be substantially improved. The proposed criteria can be used to help guide the reporting and

  20. Covariant differential calculus on quantum spheres of odd dimension

    Welk, M.

    1998-01-01

    Covariant differential calculus on the quantum spheres S q 2N-1 is studied. Two classification results for covariant first order differential calculi are proved. As an important step towards a description of the noncommutative geometry of the quantum spheres, a framework of covariant differential calculus is established, including first and higher order calculi and a symmetry concept. (author)

  1. On the covariance matrices in the evaluated nuclear data

    Corcuera, R.P.

    1983-05-01

    The implications of the uncertainties of nuclear data on reactor calculations are shown. The concept of variance, covariance and correlation are expressed first by intuitive definitions and then through statistical theory. The format of the covariance data for ENDF/B is explained and the formulas to obtain the multigroup covariances are given. (Author) [pt

  2. Evaluation of covariance in theoretical calculation of nuclear data

    Kikuchi, Yasuyuki

    1981-01-01

    Covariances of the cross sections are discussed on the statistical model calculations. Two categories of covariance are discussed: One is caused by the model approximation and the other by the errors in the model parameters. As an example, the covariances are calculated for 100 Ru. (author)

  3. Covariate Imbalance and Precision in Measuring Treatment Effects

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2011-01-01

    Covariate adjustment can increase the precision of estimates by removing unexplained variance from the error in randomized experiments, although chance covariate imbalance tends to counteract the improvement in precision. The author develops an easy measure to examine chance covariate imbalance in randomization by standardizing the average…

  4. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  5. Evaluation of covariance for 238U cross sections

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Yukinori

    1995-01-01

    Covariances of 238 U are generated using analytic functions for representation of the cross sections. The covariances of the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions are derived with a spline function, while the covariances of the total and the inelastic scattering cross section are estimated with a linearized nuclear model calculation. (author)

  6. MATXTST, Basic Operations for Covariance Matrices

    Geraldo, Luiz P.; Smith, Donald

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MATXTST and MATXTST1 perform the following operations for a covariance matrix: - test for singularity; - test for positive definiteness; - compute the inverse if the matrix is non-singular; - compute the determinant; - determine the number of positive, negative, and zero eigenvalues; - examine all possible 3 X 3 cross correlations within a sub-matrix corresponding to a leading principal minor which is non-positive definite. While the two programs utilize the same input, the calculational procedures employed are somewhat different and their functions are complementary. The available input options include: i) the full covariance matrix, ii) the basic variables plus the relative covariance matrix, or iii) uncertainties in the basic variables plus the correlation matrix. 2 - Method of solution: MATXTST employs LINPACK subroutines SPOFA and SPODI to test for positive definiteness and to perform further optional calculations. Subroutine SPOFA factors a symmetric matrix M using the Cholesky algorithm to determine the elements of a matrix R which satisfies the relation M=R'R, where R' is the transposed matrix of R. Each leading principal minor of M is tested until the first one is found which is not positive definite. MATXTST1 uses LINPACK subroutines SSICO, SSIFA, and SSIDI to estimate whether the matrix is near to singularity or not (SSICO), and to perform the matrix diagonalization process (SSIFA). The algorithm used in SSIFA is generalization of the Method of Lagrange Reduction. SSIDI is used to compute the determinant and inertia of the matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrices of sizes up to 50 X 50 elements can be treated by present versions of the programs

  7. Structural Equation Models in a Redundancy Analysis Framework With Covariates.

    Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio; Vittadini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    A recent method to specify and fit structural equation modeling in the Redundancy Analysis framework based on so-called Extended Redundancy Analysis (ERA) has been proposed in the literature. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites, estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables. However, in the presence of direct effects linking exogenous and endogenous variables, or concomitant indicators, the composite scores are estimated by ignoring the presence of the specified direct effects. To fit structural equation models, we propose a new specification and estimation method, called Generalized Redundancy Analysis (GRA), allowing us to specify and fit a variety of relationships among composites, endogenous variables, and external covariates. The proposed methodology extends the ERA method, using a more suitable specification and estimation algorithm, by allowing for covariates that affect endogenous indicators indirectly through the composites and/or directly. To illustrate the advantages of GRA over ERA we propose a simulation study of small samples. Moreover, we propose an application aimed at estimating the impact of formal human capital on the initial earnings of graduates of an Italian university, utilizing a structural model consistent with well-established economic theory.

  8. Repairable system analysis in presence of covariates and random effects

    Giorgio, M.; Guida, M.; Pulcini, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the failure pattern of repairable systems in presence of explained and unexplained heterogeneity. The failure pattern of each system is described by a Power Law Process. Part of the heterogeneity among the patterns is explained through the use of a covariate, and the residual unexplained heterogeneity (random effects) is modeled via a joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters. The proposed approach is applied to a real set of failure time data of powertrain systems mounted on 33 buses employed in urban and suburban routes. Moreover, the joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters estimated from the data is used as an informative prior to make Bayesian inference on the future failure process of a generic system belonging to the same population and employed in an urban or suburban route under randomly chosen working conditions. - Highlights: • We describe the failure process of buses powertrain system subject to heterogeneity. • Heterogeneity due to different service types is explained by a covariate. • Random effect is modeled through a joint pdf on failure process parameters. • The powertrain reliability under new future operating conditions is estimated

  9. A full scale approximation of covariance functions for large spatial data sets

    Sang, Huiyan

    2011-10-10

    Gaussian process models have been widely used in spatial statistics but face tremendous computational challenges for very large data sets. The model fitting and spatial prediction of such models typically require O(n 3) operations for a data set of size n. Various approximations of the covariance functions have been introduced to reduce the computational cost. However, most existing approximations cannot simultaneously capture both the large- and the small-scale spatial dependence. A new approximation scheme is developed to provide a high quality approximation to the covariance function at both the large and the small spatial scales. The new approximation is the summation of two parts: a reduced rank covariance and a compactly supported covariance obtained by tapering the covariance of the residual of the reduced rank approximation. Whereas the former part mainly captures the large-scale spatial variation, the latter part captures the small-scale, local variation that is unexplained by the former part. By combining the reduced rank representation and sparse matrix techniques, our approach allows for efficient computation for maximum likelihood estimation, spatial prediction and Bayesian inference. We illustrate the new approach with simulated and real data sets. © 2011 Royal Statistical Society.

  10. Covariance approximation for large multivariate spatial data sets with an application to multiple climate model errors

    Sang, Huiyan

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the cross-correlations across multiple climate model errors. We build a Bayesian hierarchical model that accounts for the spatial dependence of individual models as well as cross-covariances across different climate models. Our method allows for a nonseparable and nonstationary cross-covariance structure. We also present a covariance approximation approach to facilitate the computation in the modeling and analysis of very large multivariate spatial data sets. The covariance approximation consists of two parts: a reduced-rank part to capture the large-scale spatial dependence, and a sparse covariance matrix to correct the small-scale dependence error induced by the reduced rank approximation. We pay special attention to the case that the second part of the approximation has a block-diagonal structure. Simulation results of model fitting and prediction show substantial improvement of the proposed approximation over the predictive process approximation and the independent blocks analysis. We then apply our computational approach to the joint statistical modeling of multiple climate model errors. © 2012 Institute of Mathematical Statistics.

  11. A multivariate multilevel Gaussian model with a mixed effects structure in the mean and covariance part.

    Li, Baoyue; Bruyneel, Luk; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2014-05-20

    A traditional Gaussian hierarchical model assumes a nested multilevel structure for the mean and a constant variance at each level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate multilevel factor model that assumes a multilevel structure for both the mean and the covariance matrix. That is, in addition to a multilevel structure for the mean we also assume that the covariance matrix depends on covariates and random effects. This allows to explore whether the covariance structure depends on the values of the higher levels and as such models heterogeneity in the variances and correlation structure of the multivariate outcome across the higher level values. The approach is applied to the three-dimensional vector of burnout measurements collected on nurses in a large European study to answer the research question whether the covariance matrix of the outcomes depends on recorded system-level features in the organization of nursing care, but also on not-recorded factors that vary with countries, hospitals, and nursing units. Simulations illustrate the performance of our modeling approach. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Disruption of structural covariance networks for language in autism is modulated by verbal ability.

    Sharda, Megha; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Evans, Alan C; Singh, Nandini C

    2016-03-01

    The presence of widespread speech and language deficits is a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These impairments have often been attributed to altered connections between brain regions. Recent developments in anatomical correlation-based approaches to map structural covariance offer an effective way of studying such connections in vivo. In this study, we employed such a structural covariance network (SCN)-based approach to investigate the integrity of anatomical networks in fronto-temporal brain regions of twenty children with ASD compared to an age and gender-matched control group of twenty-two children. Our findings reflected large-scale disruption of inter and intrahemispheric covariance in left frontal SCNs in the ASD group compared to controls, but no differences in right fronto-temporal SCNs. Interhemispheric covariance in left-seeded networks was further found to be modulated by verbal ability of the participants irrespective of autism diagnosis, suggesting that language function might be related to the strength of interhemispheric structural covariance between frontal regions. Additionally, regional cortical thickening was observed in right frontal and left posterior regions, which was predicted by decreasing symptom severity and increasing verbal ability in ASD. These findings unify reports of regional differences in cortical morphology in ASD. They also suggest that reduced left hemisphere asymmetry and increased frontal growth may not only reflect neurodevelopmental aberrations but also compensatory mechanisms.

  13. A full scale approximation of covariance functions for large spatial data sets

    Sang, Huiyan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2011-01-01

    Gaussian process models have been widely used in spatial statistics but face tremendous computational challenges for very large data sets. The model fitting and spatial prediction of such models typically require O(n 3) operations for a data set of size n. Various approximations of the covariance functions have been introduced to reduce the computational cost. However, most existing approximations cannot simultaneously capture both the large- and the small-scale spatial dependence. A new approximation scheme is developed to provide a high quality approximation to the covariance function at both the large and the small spatial scales. The new approximation is the summation of two parts: a reduced rank covariance and a compactly supported covariance obtained by tapering the covariance of the residual of the reduced rank approximation. Whereas the former part mainly captures the large-scale spatial variation, the latter part captures the small-scale, local variation that is unexplained by the former part. By combining the reduced rank representation and sparse matrix techniques, our approach allows for efficient computation for maximum likelihood estimation, spatial prediction and Bayesian inference. We illustrate the new approach with simulated and real data sets. © 2011 Royal Statistical Society.

  14. Non-evaluation applications for covariance matrices

    Smith, D.L.

    1982-05-01

    The possibility for application of covariance matrix techniques to a variety of common research problems other than formal data evaluation are demonstrated by means of several examples. These examples deal with such matters as fitting spectral data, deriving uncertainty estimates for results calculated from experimental data, obtaining the best values for plurally-measured quantities, and methods for analysis of cross section errors based on properties of the experiment. The examples deal with realistic situations encountered in the laboratory, and they are treated in sufficient detail to enable a careful reader to extrapolate the methods to related problems.

  15. Covariant, chirally symmetric, confining model of mesons

    Gross, F.; Milana, J.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce a new model of mesons as quark-antiquark bound states. The model is covariant, confining, and chirally symmetric. Our equations give an analytic solution for a zero-mass pseudoscalar bound state in the case of exact chiral symmetry, and also reduce to the familiar, highly successful nonrelativistic linear potential models in the limit of heavy-quark mass and lightly bound systems. In this fashion we are constructing a unified description of all the mesons from the π through the Υ. Numerical solutions for other cases are also presented

  16. Covariant differential complexes of quantum linear groups

    Isaev, A.P.; Pyatov, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the possible covariant external algebra structures for Cartan's 1-forms (Ω) on G L q (N) and S L q (N). Our starting point is that Ω s realize an adjoint representation of quantum group and all monomials of Ω s possess the unique ordering. For the obtained external algebras we define the differential mapping d possessing the usual nilpotence condition, and the generally deformed version of Leibnitz rules. The status of the known examples of G L q (N)-differential calculi in the proposed classification scheme and the problems of S L q (N)-reduction are discussed. (author.). 26 refs

  17. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  18. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  19. Agnostic Estimation of Mean and Covariance

    Lai, Kevin A.; Rao, Anup B.; Vempala, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the mean and covariance of a distribution from iid samples in $\\mathbb{R}^n$, in the presence of an $\\eta$ fraction of malicious noise; this is in contrast to much recent work where the noise itself is assumed to be from a distribution of known type. The agnostic problem includes many interesting special cases, e.g., learning the parameters of a single Gaussian (or finding the best-fit Gaussian) when $\\eta$ fraction of data is adversarially corrupted, agn...

  20. Determination of covariant Schwinger terms in anomalous gauge theories

    Kelnhofer, G.

    1991-01-01

    A functional integral method is used to determine equal time commutators between the covariant currents and the covariant Gauss-law operators in theories which are affected by an anomaly. By using a differential geometrical setup we show how the derivation of consistent- and covariant Schwinger terms can be understood on an equal footing. We find a modified consistency condition for the covariant anomaly. As a by-product the Bardeen-Zumino functional, which relates consistent and covariant anomalies, can be interpreted as connection on a certain line bundle over all gauge potentials. Finally the commutator anomalies are calculated for the two- and four dimensional case. (Author) 13 refs

  1. ERRORJ. Covariance processing code system for JENDL. Version 2

    Chiba, Gou

    2003-09-01

    ERRORJ is the covariance processing code system for Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL) that can produce group-averaged covariance data to apply it to the uncertainty analysis of nuclear characteristics. ERRORJ can treat the covariance data for cross sections including resonance parameters as well as angular distributions and energy distributions of secondary neutrons which could not be dealt with by former covariance processing codes. In addition, ERRORJ can treat various forms of multi-group cross section and produce multi-group covariance file with various formats. This document describes an outline of ERRORJ and how to use it. (author)

  2. Piecewise linear regression splines with hyperbolic covariates

    Cologne, John B.; Sposto, Richard

    1992-09-01

    Consider the problem of fitting a curve to data that exhibit a multiphase linear response with smooth transitions between phases. We propose substituting hyperbolas as covariates in piecewise linear regression splines to obtain curves that are smoothly joined. The method provides an intuitive and easy way to extend the two-phase linear hyperbolic response model of Griffiths and Miller and Watts and Bacon to accommodate more than two linear segments. The resulting regression spline with hyperbolic covariates may be fit by nonlinear regression methods to estimate the degree of curvature between adjoining linear segments. The added complexity of fitting nonlinear, as opposed to linear, regression models is not great. The extra effort is particularly worthwhile when investigators are unwilling to assume that the slope of the response changes abruptly at the join points. We can also estimate the join points (the values of the abscissas where the linear segments would intersect if extrapolated) if their number and approximate locations may be presumed known. An example using data on changing age at menarche in a cohort of Japanese women illustrates the use of the method for exploratory data analysis. (author)

  3. Bias-Corrected Estimation of Noncentrality Parameters of Covariance Structure Models

    Raykov, Tenko

    2005-01-01

    A bias-corrected estimator of noncentrality parameters of covariance structure models is discussed. The approach represents an application of the bootstrap methodology for purposes of bias correction, and utilizes the relation between average of resample conventional noncentrality parameter estimates and their sample counterpart. The…

  4. Sparse Covariance Matrix Estimation by DCA-Based Algorithms.

    Phan, Duy Nhat; Le Thi, Hoai An; Dinh, Tao Pham

    2017-11-01

    This letter proposes a novel approach using the [Formula: see text]-norm regularization for the sparse covariance matrix estimation (SCME) problem. The objective function of SCME problem is composed of a nonconvex part and the [Formula: see text] term, which is discontinuous and difficult to tackle. Appropriate DC (difference of convex functions) approximations of [Formula: see text]-norm are used that result in approximation SCME problems that are still nonconvex. DC programming and DCA (DC algorithm), powerful tools in nonconvex programming framework, are investigated. Two DC formulations are proposed and corresponding DCA schemes developed. Two applications of the SCME problem that are considered are classification via sparse quadratic discriminant analysis and portfolio optimization. A careful empirical experiment is performed through simulated and real data sets to study the performance of the proposed algorithms. Numerical results showed their efficiency and their superiority compared with seven state-of-the-art methods.

  5. A FORMALISM FOR COVARIANT POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSPORT BY RAY TRACING

    Gammie, Charles F.; Leung, Po Kin

    2012-01-01

    We write down a covariant formalism for polarized radiative transfer appropriate for ray tracing through a turbulent plasma. The polarized radiation field is represented by the polarization tensor (coherency matrix) N αβ ≡ (a α k a* β k ), where a k is a Fourier coefficient for the vector potential. Using Maxwell's equations, the Liouville-Vlasov equation, and the WKB approximation, we show that the transport equation in vacuo is k μ ∇ μ N αβ = 0. We show that this is equivalent to Broderick and Blandford's formalism based on invariant Stokes parameters and a rotation coefficient, and suggest a modification that may reduce truncation error in some situations. Finally, we write down several alternative approaches to integrating the transfer equation.

  6. Hopf-algebraic renormalization of QED in the linear covariant gauge

    Kißler, Henry, E-mail: kissler@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2016-09-15

    In the context of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED) with a linear covariant gauge fixing, the connection between the counterterm and the Hopf-algebraic approach to renormalization is examined. The coproduct formula of Green’s functions contains two invariant charges, which give rise to different renormalization group functions. All formulas are tested by explicit computations to third loop order. The possibility of a finite electron self-energy by fixing a generalized linear covariant gauge is discussed. An analysis of subdivergences leads to the conclusion that such a gauge only exists in quenched QED.

  7. Covariant solution of the three-quark problem in quantum field theory: the nucleon

    Nicmorus D.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide details on a recent solution of the nucleon’s covariant Faddeev equation in an explicit three-quark approach. The full Poincaré-covariant structure of the three-quark amplitude is implemented through an orthogonal basis obtained from a partial-wave decomposition. We employ a rainbow-ladder gluon exchange kernel which allows for a comparison with meson Bethe-Salpeter and baryon quark-diquark studies. We describe the construction of the three-quark amplitude in full detail and compare it to a notation widespread in recent publications. Finally, we discuss first numerical results for the nucleon’s amplitude.

  8. Covariant Density Functionals: time-odd channel investigated

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2009-01-01

    The description of exotic nuclear systems and phenomena requires a detailed understanding of all channels of density functional theories. The role of time-odd mean fields, their evidence in experiment, and an accurate description of these fields are subject of current interest. Recent studies advanced the understanding of these fields in energy density functional theories based on the Skyrme force [1,2]. Time-odd mean fields are related to nuclear magnetism in covariant density functional (CDF) theories [3]. They arise from space-like components of vector mesons and Lorentz invariance requires that their coupling strengths are identical to that of time-like components. There were only few limited efforts to understand the role of time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory [4,5]. For example, the microscopic role of nuclear magnetism and its impact on rotational properties of nuclei has been studied in Ref. [5]. It is known that time-odd mean fields modify the angular momentum content of the single-particle orbitals and thus the moments of inertia, effective alignments, alignment gains at the band crossings and other physical observables. We aim on more detailed and systematic understanding of the role of time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory. This investigation covers both rotating and non-rotating systems. It is shown that contrary to the Skyrme energy density functionals time-odd mean fields of CDF theory always provide additional binding in the systems with broken time-reversal symmetry (rotating nuclei, odd mass nuclei). This additional binding increases with spin and has its maximum exactly at the terminating state [6], where it can reach several MeV. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the properties of rotating systems has been studied in a systematic way (as a function of particle number and deformation) across the nuclear chart [7]. In addition, this contribution extends these studies to non-rotating systems such as

  9. Managing distance and covariate information with point-based clustering

    Peter A. Whigham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic perspectives of disease and the human condition often involve point-based observations and questions of clustering or dispersion within a spatial context. These problems involve a finite set of point observations and are constrained by a larger, but finite, set of locations where the observations could occur. Developing a rigorous method for pattern analysis in this context requires handling spatial covariates, a method for constrained finite spatial clustering, and addressing bias in geographic distance measures. An approach, based on Ripley’s K and applied to the problem of clustering with deliberate self-harm (DSH, is presented. Methods Point-based Monte-Carlo simulation of Ripley’s K, accounting for socio-economic deprivation and sources of distance measurement bias, was developed to estimate clustering of DSH at a range of spatial scales. A rotated Minkowski L1 distance metric allowed variation in physical distance and clustering to be assessed. Self-harm data was derived from an audit of 2 years’ emergency hospital presentations (n = 136 in a New Zealand town (population ~50,000. Study area was defined by residential (housing land parcels representing a finite set of possible point addresses. Results Area-based deprivation was spatially correlated. Accounting for deprivation and distance bias showed evidence for clustering of DSH for spatial scales up to 500 m with a one-sided 95 % CI, suggesting that social contagion may be present for this urban cohort. Conclusions Many problems involve finite locations in geographic space that require estimates of distance-based clustering at many scales. A Monte-Carlo approach to Ripley’s K, incorporating covariates and models for distance bias, are crucial when assessing health-related clustering. The case study showed that social network structure defined at the neighbourhood level may account for aspects of neighbourhood clustering of DSH. Accounting for

  10. Evaluated Nuclear Data Covariances: The Journey From ENDF/B-VII.0 to ENDF/B-VII.1

    Smith, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest from data users on applications that utilize the uncertainties of evaluated nuclear reaction data has stimulated the data evaluation community to focus on producing covariance data to a far greater extent than ever before. Although some uncertainty information has been available in the ENDF/B libraries since the 1970's, this content has been fairly limited in scope, the quality quite variable, and the use of covariance data confined to only a few application areas. Today, covariance data are more widely and extensively utilized than ever before in neutron dosimetry, in advanced fission reactor design studies, in nuclear criticality safety assessments, in national security applications, and even in certain fusion energy applications. The main problem that now faces the ENDF/B evaluator community is that of providing covariances that are adequate both in quantity and quality to meet the requirements of contemporary nuclear data users in a timely manner. In broad terms, the approach pursued during the past several years has been to purge any legacy covariance information contained in ENDF/B-VI.8 that was judged to be subpar, to include in ENDF/B-VII.0 (released in 2006) only those covariance data deemed then to be of reasonable quality for contemporary applications, and to subsequently devote as much effort as the available time and resources allowed to producing additional covariance data of suitable scope and quality for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII.1. Considerable attention has also been devoted during the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0 to examining and improving the methods used to produce covariance data from thermal energies up to the highest energies addressed in the ENDF/B library, to processing these data in a robust fashion so that they can be utilized readily in contemporary nuclear applications, and to developing convenient covariance data visualization capabilities. Other papers included in this issue discuss in considerable

  11. Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization II

    Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre

    2003-03-01

    Recent studies inspired by results from random matrix theory (Galluccio et al.: Physica A 259 (1998) 449; Laloux et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1467; Risk 12 (3) (1999) 69; Plerou et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1471) found that covariance matrices determined from empirical financial time series appear to contain such a high amount of noise that their structure can essentially be regarded as random. This seems, however, to be in contradiction with the fundamental role played by covariance matrices in finance, which constitute the pillars of modern investment theory and have also gained industry-wide applications in risk management. Our paper is an attempt to resolve this embarrassing paradox. The key observation is that the effect of noise strongly depends on the ratio r= n/ T, where n is the size of the portfolio and T the length of the available time series. On the basis of numerical experiments and analytic results for some toy portfolio models we show that for relatively large values of r (e.g. 0.6) noise does, indeed, have the pronounced effect suggested by Galluccio et al. (1998), Laloux et al. (1999) and Plerou et al. (1999) and illustrated later by Laloux et al. (Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 3 (2000) 391), Plerou et al. (Phys. Rev. E, e-print cond-mat/0108023) and Rosenow et al. (Europhys. Lett., e-print cond-mat/0111537) in a portfolio optimization context, while for smaller r (around 0.2 or below), the error due to noise drops to acceptable levels. Since the length of available time series is for obvious reasons limited in any practical application, any bound imposed on the noise-induced error translates into a bound on the size of the portfolio. In a related set of experiments we find that the effect of noise depends also on whether the problem arises in asset allocation or in a risk measurement context: if covariance matrices are used simply for measuring the risk of portfolios with a fixed composition rather than as inputs to optimization, the

  12. Meson form factors and covariant three-dimensional formulation of composite model

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach is developed which is applied in the framework of the relativistic quark model to obtain explicit expressions for meson form factors in terms of covariant wave functions of the two-quark system. These wave functions obey the two-particle quasipotential equation in which the relative motion of quarks is singled out in a covariant way. The exact form of the wave functions is found using the transition to the relativistic configurational representation with the help of the harmonic analysis on the Lorentz group instead of the usual Fourier expansion and then solving the relativistic difference equation thus obtained. The expressions found for form factors are transformed into the three-dimensional covariant form which is a direct geometrical relativistic generalization of analogous expressions of the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and provides the decrease of the meson form factor by the Fsub(π)(t) approximately t -1 law as -t infinity, in the Coulomb field

  13. Promotion time cure rate model with nonparametric form of covariate effects.

    Chen, Tianlei; Du, Pang

    2018-05-10

    Survival data with a cured portion are commonly seen in clinical trials. Motivated from a biological interpretation of cancer metastasis, promotion time cure model is a popular alternative to the mixture cure rate model for analyzing such data. The existing promotion cure models all assume a restrictive parametric form of covariate effects, which can be incorrectly specified especially at the exploratory stage. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric approach to modeling the covariate effects under the framework of promotion time cure model. The covariate effect function is estimated by smoothing splines via the optimization of a penalized profile likelihood. Point-wise interval estimates are also derived from the Bayesian interpretation of the penalized profile likelihood. Asymptotic convergence rates are established for the proposed estimates. Simulations show excellent performance of the proposed nonparametric method, which is then applied to a melanoma study. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Computing more proper covariances of energy dependent nuclear data

    Vanhanen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper. • We provide methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances in ENDF-6 format. • We propose methods to find nearby more proper covariances. • The methods can be used as a part of a quality assurance program. - Abstract: We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper in the sense that the covariances are positive, i.e., its eigenvalues are non-negative, and consistent with respect to the sum rules of nuclear data. For the ENDF-6 format covariances we present methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances. These methods would be useful as a part of a quality assurance program. We also propose methods that can be used to find nearby more proper energy dependent covariances. These methods can be used to remove unphysical components, while preserving most of the physical components. We consider several different senses in which the nearness can be measured. These methods could be useful if a re-evaluation of improper covariances is not feasible. Two practical examples are processed and analyzed. These demonstrate some of the properties of the methods. We also demonstrate that the ENDF-6 format covariances of linearly dependent nuclear data should usually be encoded with the derivation rules.

  15. Development of covariance date for fast reactor cores. 3

    Shibata, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Akira

    1999-03-01

    Covariances have been estimated for nuclear data contained in JENDL-3.2. As for Cr and Ni, the physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. In a case where evaluated data were based on experimental data, the covariances were estimated from the same experimental data. For cross section that had been evaluated by nuclear model calculations, the same model was applied to generate the covariances. The covariances obtained were compiled into ENDF-6 format files. The covariances, which had been prepared by the previous fiscal year, were re-examined, and some improvements were performed. Parts of Fe and 235 U covariances were updated. Covariances of nu-p and nu-d for 241 Pu and of fission neutron spectra for 233,235,238 U and 239,240 Pu were newly added to data files. (author)

  16. Bio-Optical Data Assimilation With Observational Error Covariance Derived From an Ensemble of Satellite Images

    Shulman, Igor; Gould, Richard W.; Frolov, Sergey; McCarthy, Sean; Penta, Brad; Anderson, Stephanie; Sakalaukus, Peter

    2018-03-01

    An ensemble-based approach to specify observational error covariance in the data assimilation of satellite bio-optical properties is proposed. The observational error covariance is derived from statistical properties of the generated ensemble of satellite MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll (Chl) images. The proposed observational error covariance is used in the Optimal Interpolation scheme for the assimilation of MODIS-Aqua Chl observations. The forecast error covariance is specified in the subspace of the multivariate (bio-optical, physical) empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) estimated from a month-long model run. The assimilation of surface MODIS-Aqua Chl improved surface and subsurface model Chl predictions. Comparisons with surface and subsurface water samples demonstrate that data assimilation run with the proposed observational error covariance has higher RMSE than the data assimilation run with "optimistic" assumption about observational errors (10% of the ensemble mean), but has smaller or comparable RMSE than data assimilation run with an assumption that observational errors equal to 35% of the ensemble mean (the target error for satellite data product for chlorophyll). Also, with the assimilation of the MODIS-Aqua Chl data, the RMSE between observed and model-predicted fractions of diatoms to the total phytoplankton is reduced by a factor of two in comparison to the nonassimilative run.

  17. On Reducing the Effect of Covariate Factors in Gait Recognition: A Classifier Ensemble Method.

    Guan, Yu; Li, Chang-Tsun; Roli, Fabio

    2015-07-01

    Robust human gait recognition is challenging because of the presence of covariate factors such as carrying condition, clothing, walking surface, etc. In this paper, we model the effect of covariates as an unknown partial feature corruption problem. Since the locations of corruptions may differ for different query gaits, relevant features may become irrelevant when walking condition changes. In this case, it is difficult to train one fixed classifier that is robust to a large number of different covariates. To tackle this problem, we propose a classifier ensemble method based on the random subspace Method (RSM) and majority voting (MV). Its theoretical basis suggests it is insensitive to locations of corrupted features, and thus can generalize well to a large number of covariates. We also extend this method by proposing two strategies, i.e, local enhancing (LE) and hybrid decision-level fusion (HDF) to suppress the ratio of false votes to true votes (before MV). The performance of our approach is competitive against the most challenging covariates like clothing, walking surface, and elapsed time. We evaluate our method on the USF dataset and OU-ISIR-B dataset, and it has much higher performance than other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  18. Synthesis of linear regression coefficients by recovering the within-study covariance matrix from summary statistics.

    Yoneoka, Daisuke; Henmi, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the number of regression models has dramatically increased in several academic fields. However, within the context of meta-analysis, synthesis methods for such models have not been developed in a commensurate trend. One of the difficulties hindering the development is the disparity in sets of covariates among literature models. If the sets of covariates differ across models, interpretation of coefficients will differ, thereby making it difficult to synthesize them. Moreover, previous synthesis methods for regression models, such as multivariate meta-analysis, often have problems because covariance matrix of coefficients (i.e. within-study correlations) or individual patient data are not necessarily available. This study, therefore, proposes a brief explanation regarding a method to synthesize linear regression models under different covariate sets by using a generalized least squares method involving bias correction terms. Especially, we also propose an approach to recover (at most) threecorrelations of covariates, which is required for the calculation of the bias term without individual patient data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Covariant non-commutative space–time

    Jonathan J. Heckman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a covariant non-commutative deformation of 3+1-dimensional conformal field theory. The deformation introduces a short-distance scale ℓp, and thus breaks scale invariance, but preserves all space–time isometries. The non-commutative algebra is defined on space–times with non-zero constant curvature, i.e. dS4 or AdS4. The construction makes essential use of the representation of CFT tensor operators as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization tensor. The polarization tensor takes active part in the non-commutative algebra, which for dS4 takes the form of so(5,1, while for AdS4 it assembles into so(4,2. The structure of the non-commutative correlation functions hints that the deformed theory contains gravitational interactions and a Regge-like trajectory of higher spin excitations.

  20. Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2008-01-01

    We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

  1. Covariant Derivatives and the Renormalization Group Equation

    Dolan, Brian P.

    The renormalization group equation for N-point correlation functions can be interpreted in a geometrical manner as an equation for Lie transport of amplitudes in the space of couplings. The vector field generating the diffeomorphism has components given by the β functions of the theory. It is argued that this simple picture requires modification whenever any one of the points at which the amplitude is evaluated becomes close to any other. This modification necessitates the introduction of a connection on the space of couplings and new terms appear in the renormalization group equation involving covariant derivatives of the β function and the curvature associated with the connection. It is shown how the connection is related to the operator product expansion coefficients, but there remains an arbitrariness in its definition.

  2. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs

  3. Covariant formulation of scalar-torsion gravity

    Hohmann, Manuel; Järv, Laur; Ualikhanova, Ulbossyn

    2018-05-01

    We consider a generalized teleparallel theory of gravitation, where the action contains an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar and a scalar field, f (T ,ϕ ) , thus encompassing the cases of f (T ) gravity and a nonminimally coupled scalar field as subclasses. The action is manifestly Lorentz invariant when besides the tetrad one allows for a flat but nontrivial spin connection. We derive the field equations and demonstrate how the antisymmetric part of the tetrad equations is automatically satisfied when the spin connection equation holds. The spin connection equation is a vital part of the covariant formulation, since it determines the spin connection associated with a given tetrad. We discuss how the spin connection equation can be solved in general and provide the cosmological and spherically symmetric examples. Finally, we generalize the theory to an arbitrary number of scalar fields.

  4. Bayesian Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Data with Random Effects Covariates from Longitudinal Measurements

    Ryu, Duchwan

    2010-09-28

    We consider nonparametric regression analysis in a generalized linear model (GLM) framework for data with covariates that are the subject-specific random effects of longitudinal measurements. The usual assumption that the effects of the longitudinal covariate processes are linear in the GLM may be unrealistic and if this happens it can cast doubt on the inference of observed covariate effects. Allowing the regression functions to be unknown, we propose to apply Bayesian nonparametric methods including cubic smoothing splines or P-splines for the possible nonlinearity and use an additive model in this complex setting. To improve computational efficiency, we propose the use of data-augmentation schemes. The approach allows flexible covariance structures for the random effects and within-subject measurement errors of the longitudinal processes. The posterior model space is explored through a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler. The proposed methods are illustrated and compared to other approaches, the "naive" approach and the regression calibration, via simulations and by an application that investigates the relationship between obesity in adulthood and childhood growth curves. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Introduction to covariant formulation of superstring (field) theory

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses covariant formulation of superstring theories based on BRS invariance. New formulation of superstring was constructed by Green and Schwarz in the light-cone gauge first and then a covariant action was discovered. The covariant action has some interesting geometrical interpretation, however, covariant quantizations are difficult to perform because of existence of local supersymmetries. Introducing extra variables into the action, a modified action has been proposed. However, it would be difficult to prescribe constraints to define a physical subspace, or to reproduce the correct physical spectrum. Hence the old formulation, i.e., the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond (NSR) model for covariant quantization is used. The author begins by quantizing the NSR model in a covariant way using BRS charges. Then the author discusses the field theory of (free) superstring

  6. The method of covariant symbols in curved space-time

    Salcedo, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagonal matrix elements of pseudodifferential operators are needed in order to compute effective Lagrangians and currents. For this purpose the method of symbols is often used, which however lacks manifest covariance. In this work the method of covariant symbols, introduced by Pletnev and Banin, is extended to curved space-time with arbitrary gauge and coordinate connections. For the Riemannian connection we compute the covariant symbols corresponding to external fields, the covariant derivative and the Laplacian, to fourth order in a covariant derivative expansion. This allows one to obtain the covariant symbol of general operators to the same order. The procedure is illustrated by computing the diagonal matrix element of a nontrivial operator to second order. Applications of the method are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Physical properties of the Schur complement of local covariance matrices

    Haruna, L F; Oliveira, M C de

    2007-01-01

    General properties of global covariance matrices representing bipartite Gaussian states can be decomposed into properties of local covariance matrices and their Schur complements. We demonstrate that given a bipartite Gaussian state ρ 12 described by a 4 x 4 covariance matrix V, the Schur complement of a local covariance submatrix V 1 of it can be interpreted as a new covariance matrix representing a Gaussian operator of party 1 conditioned to local parity measurements on party 2. The connection with a partial parity measurement over a bipartite quantum state and the determination of the reduced Wigner function is given and an operational process of parity measurement is developed. Generalization of this procedure to an n-partite Gaussian state is given, and it is demonstrated that the n - 1 system state conditioned to a partial parity projection is given by a covariance matrix such that its 2 x 2 block elements are Schur complements of special local matrices

  8. Covariance Based Pre-Filters and Screening Criteria for Conjunction Analysis

    George, E., Chan, K.

    2012-09-01

    Several relationships are developed relating object size, initial covariance and range at closest approach to probability of collision. These relationships address the following questions: - Given the objects' initial covariance and combined hard body size, what is the maximum possible value of the probability of collision (Pc)? - Given the objects' initial covariance, what is the maximum combined hard body radius for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? - Given the objects' initial covariance and the combined hard body radius, what is the minimum miss distance for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? - Given the objects' initial covariance and the miss distance, what is the maximum combined hard body radius for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? The first relationship above allows the elimination of object pairs from conjunction analysis (CA) on the basis of the initial covariance and hard-body sizes of the objects. The application of this pre-filter to present day catalogs with estimated covariance results in the elimination of approximately 35% of object pairs as unable to ever conjunct with a probability of collision exceeding 1x10-6. Because Pc is directly proportional to object size and inversely proportional to covariance size, this pre-filter will have a significantly larger impact on future catalogs, which are expected to contain a much larger fraction of small debris tracked only by a limited subset of available sensors. This relationship also provides a mathematically rigorous basis for eliminating objects from analysis entirely based on element set age or quality - a practice commonly done by rough rules of thumb today. Further, these relations can be used to determine the required geometric screening radius for all objects. This analysis reveals the screening volumes for small objects are much larger than needed, while the screening volumes for

  9. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  10. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C): Assessing Item Recovery and Differential Item Functioning for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model

    Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…

  11. A general field-covariant formulation of quantum field theory

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2013-01-01

    In all nontrivial cases renormalization, as it is usually formulated, is not a change of integration variables in the functional integral, plus parameter redefinitions, but a set of replacements, of actions and/or field variables and parameters. Because of this, we cannot write simple identities relating bare and renormalized generating functionals, or generating functionals before and after nonlinear changes of field variables. In this paper we investigate this issue and work out a general field-covariant approach to quantum field theory, which allows us to treat all perturbative changes of field variables, including the relation between bare and renormalized fields, as true changes of variables in the functional integral, under which the functionals Z and W=lnZ behave as scalars. We investigate the relation between composite fields and changes of field variables, and we show that, if J are the sources coupled to the elementary fields, all changes of field variables can be expressed as J-dependent redefinitions of the sources L coupled to the composite fields. We also work out the relation between the renormalization of variable-changes and the renormalization of composite fields. Using our transformation rules it is possible to derive the renormalization of a theory in a new variable frame from the renormalization in the old variable frame, without having to calculate it anew. We define several approaches, useful for different purposes, in particular a linear approach where all variable changes are described as linear source redefinitions. We include a number of explicit examples. (orig.)

  12. Large-region acoustic source mapping using a movable array and sparse covariance fitting.

    Zhao, Shengkui; Tuna, Cagdas; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Tho; Jones, Douglas L

    2017-01-01

    Large-region acoustic source mapping is important for city-scale noise monitoring. Approaches using a single-position measurement scheme to scan large regions using small arrays cannot provide clean acoustic source maps, while deploying large arrays spanning the entire region of interest is prohibitively expensive. A multiple-position measurement scheme is applied to scan large regions at multiple spatial positions using a movable array of small size. Based on the multiple-position measurement scheme, a sparse-constrained multiple-position vectorized covariance matrix fitting approach is presented. In the proposed approach, the overall sample covariance matrix of the incoherent virtual array is first estimated using the multiple-position array data and then vectorized using the Khatri-Rao (KR) product. A linear model is then constructed for fitting the vectorized covariance matrix and a sparse-constrained reconstruction algorithm is proposed for recovering source powers from the model. The user parameter settings are discussed. The proposed approach is tested on a 30 m × 40 m region and a 60 m × 40 m region using simulated and measured data. Much cleaner acoustic source maps and lower sound pressure level errors are obtained compared to the beamforming approaches and the previous sparse approach [Zhao, Tuna, Nguyen, and Jones, Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2016)].

  13. Some remarks on general covariance of quantum theory

    Schmutzer, E.

    1977-01-01

    If one accepts Einstein's general principle of relativity (covariance principle) also for the sphere of microphysics (quantum, mechanics, quantum field theory, theory of elemtary particles), one has to ask how far the fundamental laws of traditional quantum physics fulfil this principle. Attention is here drawn to a series of papers that have appeared during the last years, in which the author criticized the usual scheme of quantum theory (Heisenberg picture, Schroedinger picture etc.) and presented a new foundation of the basic laws of quantum physics, obeying the 'principle of fundamental covariance' (Einstein's covariance principle in space-time and covariance principle in Hilbert space of quantum operators and states). (author)

  14. How much do genetic covariances alter the rate of adaptation?

    Agrawal, Aneil F; Stinchcombe, John R

    2009-03-22

    Genetically correlated traits do not evolve independently, and the covariances between traits affect the rate at which a population adapts to a specified selection regime. To measure the impact of genetic covariances on the rate of adaptation, we compare the rate fitness increases given the observed G matrix to the expected rate if all the covariances in the G matrix are set to zero. Using data from the literature, we estimate the effect of genetic covariances in real populations. We find no net tendency for covariances to constrain the rate of adaptation, though the quality and heterogeneity of the data limit the certainty of this result. There are some examples in which covariances strongly constrain the rate of adaptation but these are balanced by counter examples in which covariances facilitate the rate of adaptation; in many cases, covariances have little or no effect. We also discuss how our metric can be used to identify traits or suites of traits whose genetic covariances to other traits have a particularly large impact on the rate of adaptation.

  15. Summary report of technical meeting on neutron cross section covariances

    Trkov, A.; Smith, D.L.; Capote Noy, R.

    2011-01-01

    A summary is given of the Technical Meeting on Neutron Cross Section Covariances. The meeting goal was to assess covariance data needs and recommend appropriate methodologies to address those needs. Discussions on covariance data focused on three general topics: 1) Resonance and unresolved resonance regions; 2) Fast neutron region; and 3) Users' perspective: benchmarks' uncertainty and reactor dosimetry. A number of recommendations for further work were generated and the important work that remains to be done in the field of covariances was identified. (author)

  16. Covariant theory of gravitation in the framework of special relativity

    Vieira, R. S.; Brentan, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we study the magnetic effects of gravity in the framework of special relativity. Imposing covariance of the gravitational force with respect to the Lorentz transformations, we show from a thought experiment that a magnetic-like force must be present whenever two or more bodies are in motion. The exact expression for this gravitomagnetic force is then derived purely from special relativity and the consequences of such a covariant theory are developed. For instance, we show that the gravitomagnetic fields satisfy a system of differential equations similar to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics. This implies that the gravitational waves spread out with the speed of light in a flat spacetime, which is in agreement with the recent results concerning the gravitational waves detection. We also propose that the vector potential can be associated with the interaction momentum in the same way as the scalar potential is usually associated with the interaction energy. Other topics are also discussed, for example, the transformation laws for the fields, the energy and momentum stored in the gravitomagnetic fields, the invariance of the gravitational mass and so on. We remark that is not our intention here to propose an alternative theory of gravitation but, rather, only a first approximation for the gravitational phenomena, so that it can be applied whenever the gravitational force can be regarded as an ordinary effective force field and special relativity can be used with safety. To make this point clear we present briefly a comparison between our approach and that based on the (linearized) Einstein's theory. Finally, we remark that although we have assumed nothing from the electromagnetic theory, we found that gravity and electricity share many properties in common -these similarities, in fact, are just a requirement of special relativity that must apply to any physically acceptable force field.

  17. Multisample adjusted U-statistics that account for confounding covariates.

    Satten, Glen A; Kong, Maiying; Datta, Somnath

    2018-06-19

    Multisample U-statistics encompass a wide class of test statistics that allow the comparison of 2 or more distributions. U-statistics are especially powerful because they can be applied to both numeric and nonnumeric data, eg, ordinal and categorical data where a pairwise similarity or distance-like measure between categories is available. However, when comparing the distribution of a variable across 2 or more groups, observed differences may be due to confounding covariates. For example, in a case-control study, the distribution of exposure in cases may differ from that in controls entirely because of variables that are related to both exposure and case status and are distributed differently among case and control participants. We propose to use individually reweighted data (ie, using the stratification score for retrospective data or the propensity score for prospective data) to construct adjusted U-statistics that can test the equality of distributions across 2 (or more) groups in the presence of confounding covariates. Asymptotic normality of our adjusted U-statistics is established and a closed form expression of their asymptotic variance is presented. The utility of our approach is demonstrated through simulation studies, as well as in an analysis of data from a case-control study conducted among African-Americans, comparing whether the similarity in haplotypes (ie, sets of adjacent genetic loci inherited from the same parent) occurring in a case and a control participant differs from the similarity in haplotypes occurring in 2 control participants. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Object Tracking Using Adaptive Covariance Descriptor and Clustering-Based Model Updating for Visual Surveillance

    Lei Qin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for tracking an arbitrary object in video sequences for visual surveillance. The first contribution of this work is an automatic feature extraction method that is able to extract compact discriminative features from a feature pool before computing the region covariance descriptor. As the feature extraction method is adaptive to a specific object of interest, we refer to the region covariance descriptor computed using the extracted features as the adaptive covariance descriptor. The second contribution is to propose a weakly supervised method for updating the object appearance model during tracking. The method performs a mean-shift clustering procedure among the tracking result samples accumulated during a period of time and selects a group of reliable samples for updating the object appearance model. As such, the object appearance model is kept up-to-date and is prevented from contamination even in case of tracking mistakes. We conducted comparing experiments on real-world video sequences, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. The tracking system that integrates the adaptive covariance descriptor and the clustering-based model updating method accomplished stable object tracking on challenging video sequences.

  19. Language Ability Predicts Cortical Structure and Covariance in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Sharda, Megha; Foster, Nicholas E V; Tryfon, Ana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A R; Ouimet, Tia; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Evans, Alan C; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Lerch, Jason P; Lewis, John D; Hyde, Krista L

    2017-03-01

    There is significant clinical heterogeneity in language and communication abilities of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, no consistent pathology regarding the relationship of these abilities to brain structure has emerged. Recent developments in anatomical correlation-based approaches to map structural covariance networks (SCNs), combined with detailed behavioral characterization, offer an alternative for studying these relationships. In this study, such an approach was used to study the integrity of SCNs of cortical thickness and surface area associated with language and communication, in 46 high-functioning, school-age children with ASD compared with 50 matched, typically developing controls (all males) with IQ > 75. Findings showed that there was alteration of cortical structure and disruption of fronto-temporal cortical covariance in ASD compared with controls. Furthermore, in an analysis of a subset of ASD participants, alterations in both cortical structure and covariance were modulated by structural language ability of the participants, but not communicative function. These findings indicate that structural language abilities are related to altered fronto-temporal cortical covariance in ASD, much more than symptom severity or cognitive ability. They also support the importance of better characterizing ASD samples while studying brain structure and for better understanding individual differences in language and communication abilities in ASD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Early grey matter changes in structural covariance networks in Huntington's disease.

    Coppen, Emma M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Roos, Raymund A C

    2016-01-01

    Progressive subcortical changes are known to occur in Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Less is known about the occurrence and cohesion of whole brain grey matter changes in HD. We aimed to detect network integrity changes in grey matter structural covariance networks and examined relationships with clinical assessments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data of premanifest HD ( n  = 30), HD patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) was used to identify ten structural covariance networks based on a novel technique using the co-variation of grey matter with independent component analysis in FSL. Group differences were studied controlling for age and gender. To explore whether our approach is effective in examining grey matter changes, regional voxel-based analysis was additionally performed. Premanifest HD and HD patients showed decreased network integrity in two networks compared to controls. One network included the caudate nucleus, precuneous and anterior cingulate cortex (in HD p  covariance might be a sensitive approach to reveal early grey matter changes, especially for premanifest HD.

  1. A covariant formulation of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory on the light cone (fields with spin)

    Atakishiev, N.M.; Mir-Kasimov, R.M.; Nagiyev, Sh.M.

    1978-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory on the light cone, developed earlier, is extended to the case of particles with spin. The singularities accompanying each field theory in light-front variables are removed by the introduction of an infinite number of counterterms of a new type, which can be included into the interaction Hamiltonian. A three-dimensional diagram technique is formulated, which is applied to calculate the fermion self-energy in the lowest order of perturbation theory

  2. Smooth individual level covariates adjustment in disease mapping.

    Huque, Md Hamidul; Anderson, Craig; Walton, Richard; Woolford, Samuel; Ryan, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Spatial models for disease mapping should ideally account for covariates measured both at individual and area levels. The newly available "indiCAR" model fits the popular conditional autoregresssive (CAR) model by accommodating both individual and group level covariates while adjusting for spatial correlation in the disease rates. This algorithm has been shown to be effective but assumes log-linear associations between individual level covariates and outcome. In many studies, the relationship between individual level covariates and the outcome may be non-log-linear, and methods to track such nonlinearity between individual level covariate and outcome in spatial regression modeling are not well developed. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, smooth-indiCAR, to fit an extension to the popular conditional autoregresssive model that can accommodate both linear and nonlinear individual level covariate effects while adjusting for group level covariates and spatial correlation in the disease rates. In this formulation, the effect of a continuous individual level covariate is accommodated via penalized splines. We describe a two-step estimation procedure to obtain reliable estimates of individual and group level covariate effects where both individual and group level covariate effects are estimated separately. This distributed computing framework enhances its application in the Big Data domain with a large number of individual/group level covariates. We evaluate the performance of smooth-indiCAR through simulation. Our results indicate that the smooth-indiCAR method provides reliable estimates of all regression and random effect parameters. We illustrate our proposed methodology with an analysis of data on neutropenia admissions in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Central subspace dimensionality reduction using covariance operators.

    Kim, Minyoung; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    We consider the task of dimensionality reduction informed by real-valued multivariate labels. The problem is often treated as Dimensionality Reduction for Regression (DRR), whose goal is to find a low-dimensional representation, the central subspace, of the input data that preserves the statistical correlation with the targets. A class of DRR methods exploits the notion of inverse regression (IR) to discover central subspaces. Whereas most existing IR techniques rely on explicit output space slicing, we propose a novel method called the Covariance Operator Inverse Regression (COIR) that generalizes IR to nonlinear input/output spaces without explicit target slicing. COIR's unique properties make DRR applicable to problem domains with high-dimensional output data corrupted by potentially significant amounts of noise. Unlike recent kernel dimensionality reduction methods that employ iterative nonconvex optimization, COIR yields a closed-form solution. We also establish the link between COIR, other DRR techniques, and popular supervised dimensionality reduction methods, including canonical correlation analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We then extend COIR to semi-supervised settings where many of the input points lack their labels. We demonstrate the benefits of COIR on several important regression problems in both fully supervised and semi-supervised settings.

  4. The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail

  5. Covariant path integrals on hyperbolic surfaces

    Schaefer, Joe

    1997-11-01

    DeWitt's covariant formulation of path integration [B. De Witt, "Dynamical theory in curved spaces. I. A review of the classical and quantum action principles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 377-397 (1957)] has two practical advantages over the traditional methods of "lattice approximations;" there is no ordering problem, and classical symmetries are manifestly preserved at the quantum level. Applying the spectral theorem for unbounded self-adjoint operators, we provide a rigorous proof of the convergence of certain path integrals on Riemann surfaces of constant curvature -1. The Pauli-DeWitt curvature correction term arises, as in DeWitt's work. Introducing a Fuchsian group Γ of the first kind, and a continuous, bounded, Γ-automorphic potential V, we obtain a Feynman-Kac formula for the automorphic Schrödinger equation on the Riemann surface ΓH. We analyze the Wick rotation and prove the strong convergence of the so-called Feynman maps [K. D. Elworthy, Path Integration on Manifolds, Mathematical Aspects of Superspace, edited by Seifert, Clarke, and Rosenblum (Reidel, Boston, 1983), pp. 47-90] on a dense set of states. Finally, we give a new proof of some results in C. Grosche and F. Steiner, "The path integral on the Poincare upper half plane and for Liouville quantum mechanics," Phys. Lett. A 123, 319-328 (1987).

  6. Probing dark energy with cluster counts and cosmic shear power spectra: including the full covariance

    Takada, Masahiro; Bridle, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Several dark energy experiments are available from a single large-area imaging survey and may be combined to improve cosmological parameter constraints and/or test inherent systematics. Two promising experiments are cosmic shear power spectra and counts of galaxy clusters. However, the two experiments probe the same cosmic mass density field in large-scale structure, therefore the combination may be less powerful than first thought. We investigate the cross-covariance between the cosmic shear power spectra and the cluster counts based on the halo model approach, where the cross-covariance arises from the three-point correlations of the underlying mass density field. Fully taking into account the cross-covariance, as well as non-Gaussian errors on the lensing power spectrum covariance, we find a significant cross-correlation between the lensing power spectrum signals at multipoles l∼10 3 and the cluster counts containing halos with masses M∼>10 14 M o-dot . Including the cross-covariance for the combined measurement degrades and in some cases improves the total signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios up to ∼±20% relative to when the two are independent. For cosmological parameter determination, the cross-covariance has a smaller effect as a result of working in a multi-dimensional parameter space, implying that the two observables can be considered independent to a good approximation. We also discuss the fact that cluster count experiments using lensing-selected mass peaks could be more complementary to cosmic shear tomography than mass-selected cluster counts of the corresponding mass threshold. Using lensing selected clusters with a realistic usable detection threshold ((S/N) cluster ∼6 for a ground-based survey), the uncertainty on each dark energy parameter may be roughly halved by the combined experiments, relative to using the power spectra alone

  7. Resampling-based methods in single and multiple testing for equality of covariance/correlation matrices.

    Yang, Yang; DeGruttola, Victor

    2012-06-22

    Traditional resampling-based tests for homogeneity in covariance matrices across multiple groups resample residuals, that is, data centered by group means. These residuals do not share the same second moments when the null hypothesis is false, which makes them difficult to use in the setting of multiple testing. An alternative approach is to resample standardized residuals, data centered by group sample means and standardized by group sample covariance matrices. This approach, however, has been observed to inflate type I error when sample size is small or data are generated from heavy-tailed distributions. We propose to improve this approach by using robust estimation for the first and second moments. We discuss two statistics: the Bartlett statistic and a statistic based on eigen-decomposition of sample covariance matrices. Both statistics can be expressed in terms of standardized errors under the null hypothesis. These methods are extended to test homogeneity in correlation matrices. Using simulation studies, we demonstrate that the robust resampling approach provides comparable or superior performance, relative to traditional approaches, for single testing and reasonable performance for multiple testing. The proposed methods are applied to data collected in an HIV vaccine trial to investigate possible determinants, including vaccine status, vaccine-induced immune response level and viral genotype, of unusual correlation pattern between HIV viral load and CD4 count in newly infected patients.

  8. Resonance Region Covariance Analysis Method and New Covariance Data for Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239

    Leal, Luiz C.; Arbanas, Goran; Derrien, Herve; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2008-01-01

    Resonance-parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) evaluations in the resolved resonance region were done for 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu using the computer code SAMMY. The retroactive approach of the code SAMMY was used to generate the RPCMs for 233U, 235U. RPCMs for 232Th, 238U and 239Pu were generated together with the resonance parameter evaluations. The RPCMs were then converted in the ENDF format using the FILE32 representation. Alternatively, for computer storage reasons, the FILE32 was converted in the FILE33 cross section covariance matrix (CSCM). Both representations were processed using the computer code PUFF-IV. This paper describes the procedures used to generate the RPCM with SAMMY.

  9. Spinors, tensors and the covariant form of Dirac's equation

    Chen, W.Q.; Cook, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The relations between tensors and spinors are used to establish the form of the covariant derivative of a spinor, making use of the fact that certain bilinear combinations of spinors are vectors. The covariant forms of Dirac's equation are thus obtained and examples in specific coordinate systems are displayed. (author)

  10. A scale invariant covariance structure on jet space

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers scale invariance of statistical image models. We study statistical scale invariance of the covariance structure of jet space under scale space blurring and derive the necessary structure and conditions of the jet covariance matrix in order for it to be scale invariant. As par...

  11. Transformation of covariant quark Wigner operator to noncovariant one

    Selikhov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The gauge in which covariant and noncovariant quark Wigner operators coincide has been found. In this gauge the representations of vector potential via field strength tensor is valid. The system of equations for the coefficients of covariant Wigner operator expansion in the basis γ-matrices algebra is obtained. 12 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Covariance as input to and output from resonance analyses

    Larson, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate data analysis requires understanding of the roles played by both data and parameter covariance matrices. In this paper the entire data reduction/analysis process is examined, for neutron-induced reactions in the resonance region. Interrelationships between data and parameter covariance matrices are examined and alternative reduction/analysis methods discussed

  13. A three domain covariance framework for EEG/MEG data

    Ros, B.P.; Bijma, F.; de Gunst, M.C.M.; de Munck, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a covariance framework for the analysis of single subject EEG and MEG data that takes into account observed temporal stationarity on small time scales and trial-to-trial variations. We formulate a model for the covariance matrix, which is a Kronecker product of three

  14. application of covariance analysis to feed/ ration experimental data

    Prince Acheampong

    ABSTRACT. The use Analysis of Covariance (ANOCOVA) to feed/ration experimental data for birds was examined. Correlation and Regression analyses were used to adjust for the covariate – initial weight of the experimental birds. The Fisher's F statistic for the straight forward Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed ...

  15. Covariant Theory of Gravitation in the Spacetime with Finsler Structure

    Huang, Xin-Bing

    2007-01-01

    The theory of gravitation in the spacetime with Finsler structure is constructed. It is shown that the theory keeps general covariance. Such theory reduces to Einstein's general relativity when the Finsler structure is Riemannian. Therefore, this covariant theory of gravitation is an elegant realization of Einstein's thoughts on gravitation in the spacetime with Finsler structure.

  16. Some observations on interpolating gauges and non-covariant gauges

    We discuss the viability of using interpolating gauges to define the non-covariant gauges starting from the covariant ones. We draw attention to the need for a very careful treatment of boundary condition defining term. We show that the boundary condition needed to maintain gauge-invariance as the interpolating parameter ...

  17. Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalized...

  18. Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continuous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalize...

  19. Validity of covariance models for the analysis of geographical variation

    Guillot, Gilles; Schilling, Rene L.; Porcu, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    1. Due to the availability of large molecular data-sets, covariance models are increasingly used to describe the structure of genetic variation as an alternative to more heavily parametrised biological models. 2. We focus here on a class of parametric covariance models that received sustained att...

  20. The K-Step Spatial Sign Covariance Matrix

    Croux, C.; Dehon, C.; Yadine, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sign Covariance Matrix is an orthogonal equivariant estimator of mul- tivariate scale. It is often used as an easy-to-compute and highly robust estimator. In this paper we propose a k-step version of the Sign Covariance Matrix, which improves its e±ciency while keeping the maximal breakdown