WorldWideScience

Sample records for coupled upper ocean-atmosphere

  1. South African seasonal rainfall prediction performance by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented that coupled ocean-atmosphere models can already outscore computationally less expensive atmospheric models. However, if the atmospheric models are forced with highly skillful SST predictions, they may still be a very strong...

  2. Southern hemisphere climate variability as represented by an ocean-atmosphere coupled model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available , 1996: Relationship of air temperature in New Zealand to regional anomalies in sea-surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. Int. J. Climatol., 16, 405?425. Beraki, A., D. DeWitt, W.A. Landman and O. Cobus, 2011: Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled... variability as represented by an ocean-atmosphere coupled model Asmerom Beraki1,2, Willem A. Landman2,3 and David DeWitt4 1South African Weather Service Pretoria, South Africa, asmerom.beraki@weahtersa.co.za 2Departement of Geography...

  3. Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model Simulations of Precipitation in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen D.; Mohr, Karen I.

    2015-01-01

    The meridional extent and complex orography of the South American continent contributes to a wide diversity of climate regimes ranging from hyper-arid deserts to tropical rainforests to sub-polar highland regions. In addition, South American meteorology and climate are also made further complicated by ENSO, a powerful coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. Modelling studies in this region have typically resorted to either atmospheric mesoscale or atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models. The latter offers full physics and high spatial resolution, but it is computationally inefficient typically lack an interactive ocean, whereas the former offers high computational efficiency and ocean-atmosphere coupling, but it lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution to adequate resolve the complex orography and explicitly simulate precipitation. Explicit simulation of precipitation is vital in the Central Andes where rainfall rates are light (0.5-5 mm hr-1), there is strong seasonality, and most precipitation is associated with weak mesoscale-organized convection. Recent increases in both computational power and model development have led to the advent of coupled ocean-atmosphere mesoscale models for both weather and climate study applications. These modelling systems, while computationally expensive, include two-way ocean-atmosphere coupling, high resolution, and explicit simulation of precipitation. In this study, we use the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST), a fully-coupled mesoscale atmosphere-ocean modeling system. Previous work has shown COAWST to reasonably simulate the entire 2003-2004 wet season (Dec-Feb) as validated against both satellite and model analysis data when ECMWF interim analysis data were used for boundary conditions on a 27-9-km grid configuration (Outer grid extent: 60.4S to 17.7N and 118.6W to 17.4W).

  4. A 1000-year simulation with the IPSL ocean-atmosphere coupled model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Conil

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 1000-year climate simulation is run with the ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed at the Institute Pierre- Simon Laplace (IPSL, Paris. No flux adjustment is used. The drift of the model is analyzed in terms of the seasurface temperature and deep ocean temperature. When the model's own equilibrium is reached, it is found that the Antarctic bottom water production experiences large-amplitude variation, oscillating between strong and weak episodes. This can yield oceanic temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere and for the global mean.

  5. Ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model development at SAWS: description and diagnosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Landman6_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7732 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Landman6_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled... Climate Model Development at SAWS: Description and Diagnosis Asmerom Beraki1, David DeWitt2, Willem A. Landman3 and Cobus Olivier1 1South African Weather Service Pretoria, South Africa, asmerom.beraki@weahtersa.co.za 2International Research...

  6. Intercomparison of present and future climates simulated by coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, C; AchutaRao, K M; Lambert, S J

    2000-09-06

    We present an overview of results from the most recent phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). This phase of CMIP has archived output from both unforced (''control run'') and perturbed (1% per year increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide) simulations by 15 modern coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. The models are about equally divided between those employing and those not employing ad hoc flux corrections at the ocean-atmosphere interface. The new generation of non-flux-connected control runs are nearly as stable and agree with observations nearly as well as the flux-corrected models. This development represents significant progress in the state of the art of climate modeling since the Second (1995) Scientific Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; see Gates et al. 1996). From the increasing-CO{sub 2} runs, we find that differences between different models, while substantial, are not as great as would be expected from earlier assessments that relied on equilibrium climate sensitivity.

  7. Tsunami modeling with solid Earth-ocean-atmosphere coupled normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoto, V.; Lognonné, P.; Rolland, L.

    2017-11-01

    Tsunamis propagating along the ocean surface generate internal gravity waves which can be detected in the atmosphere and ionosphere using airglow or total electron content (TEC) measurements. Since the late 1960s, the summation of the seismic normal modes of the Earth allows to simulate the seismic ground motions measured by seismometers. We present a detailed case study of the same technique extended to the whole solid Earth-ocean-atmosphere system and show how the extended normal modes can be used to retrieve the tsunami signature not only in the ocean but also in the atmosphere and the ionosphere. On the example of the tsunami triggered by the 2012 Mw = 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake, we illustrate the coupling mechanisms under play and investigate in details the propagation properties of Lamb modes, atmospheric gravity modes and tsunami modes. The computed normal modes show a resonance between the tsunami modes and the atmospheric gravity modes at specific frequencies: 1.5, 2 and 2.5 mHz. We highlight that only the 1.5 mHz resonance of the tsunami modes can survive up to the ionospheric heights. Other remarkable features are also presented, such as the arrival of fundamental mode gravity waves prior to the (extended in the atmosphere) tsunami wave and the increased ocean/atmosphere coupling efficiency for larger ocean depths and during daytime. At last, for the purpose of validating the technique, we apply it to three real tsunami events and evaluate how well we quantitatively reconstruct the main features of the sea level anomaly measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis buoys and the global positioning system (GPS)-derived TEC perturbation.

  8. The impact of ENSO on Southern African rainfall in CMIP5 ocean atmosphere coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieppois, Bastien; Rouault, Mathieu; New, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We study the ability of 24 ocean atmosphere global coupled models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to reproduce the teleconnections between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern African rainfall in austral summer using historical forced simulations, with a focus on the atmospheric dynamic associated with El Niño. Overestimations of summer rainfall occur over Southern Africa in all CMIP5 models. Abnormal westward extensions of ENSO patterns are a common feature of all CMIP5 models, while the warming of the Indian Ocean that happens during El Niño is not correctly reproduced. This could impact the teleconnection between ENSO and Southern African rainfall which is represented with mixed success in CMIP5 models. Large-scale anomalies of suppressed deep-convection over the tropical maritime continent and enhanced convection from the central to eastern Pacific are correctly simulated. However, regional biases occur above Africa and the Indian Ocean, particularly in the position of the deep convection anomalies associated with El Niño, which can lead to the wrong sign in rainfall anomalies in the northwest part of South Africa. From the near-surface to mid-troposphere, CMIP5 models underestimate the observed anomalous pattern of pressure occurring over Southern Africa that leads to dry conditions during El Niño years.

  9. Predicting Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modes with a Climate Modeling Hierarchy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ghil, UCLA; Andrew W. Robertson, IRI, Columbia Univ.; Sergey Kravtsov, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Padhraic Smyth, UC Irvine

    2006-08-04

    The goal of the project was to determine midlatitude climate predictability associated with tropical-extratropical interactions on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. Our strategy was to develop and test a hierarchy of climate models, bringing together large GCM-based climate models with simple fluid-dynamical coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere models, through the use of advanced probabilistic network (PN) models. PN models were used to develop a new diagnostic methodology for analyzing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in large climate simulations made with the NCAR Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and to make these tools user-friendly and available to other researchers. We focused on interactions between the tropics and extratropics through atmospheric teleconnections (the Hadley cell, Rossby waves and nonlinear circulation regimes) over both the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC) in the Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that variations in the strength of the THC alter sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic, and that the latter influence the atmosphere in high latitudes through an atmospheric teleconnection, feeding back onto the THC. The PN model framework was used to mediate between the understanding gained with simplified primitive equations models and multi-century simulations made with the PCM. The project team is interdisciplinary and built on an existing synergy between atmospheric and ocean scientists at UCLA, computer scientists at UCI, and climate researchers at the IRI.

  10. Development and applications of a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. C.; Armstrong, B. N.; He, R.; Zambon, J. B.; Olabarrieta, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Haas, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding processes responsible for coastal change is important for managing both our natural and economic coastal resources. Coastal processes respond from both local scale and larger regional scale forcings. Understanding these processes can lead to significant insight into how the coastal zone evolves. Storms are one of the primary driving forces causing coastal change from a coupling of wave and wind driven flows. Here we utilize a numerical modeling approach to investigate these dynamics of coastal storm impacts. We use the Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere - Wave - Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System that utilizes the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange prognostic variables between the ocean model ROMS, atmosphere model WRF, wave model SWAN, and the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) sediment routines. The models exchange fields of sea-surface temperature, ocean currents, water levels, bathymetry, wave heights, lengths, periods, bottom orbital velocities, and atmospheric surface heat and momentum fluxes, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, and evaporation. Data fields are exchanged using regridded flux conservative sparse matrix interpolation weights computed from the SCRIP spherical coordinate remapping interpolation package. We describe the modeling components and the model field exchange methods. As part of the system, the wave and ocean models run with cascading, refined, spatial grids to provide increased resolution, scaling down to resolve nearshore wave driven flows simulated by the vortex force formulation, all within selected regions of a larger, coarser-scale coastal modeling system. The ocean and wave models are driven by the atmospheric component, which is affected by wave dependent ocean-surface roughness and sea surface temperature which modify the heat and momentum fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We describe the application of the modeling system to several regions of multi-scale complexity to identify the

  11. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    The stability of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation against meltwater input is investigated in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The meltwater input to the Labrador Sea is increased linearly for 250 years to a maximum input of 0.625 Sv and then reduced again to 0 (both instantaneously and slowly decreasing over 250 years). The resulting freshening forces a shutdown of the formation of North Atlantic deepwater and a subsequent reversal of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic, filling the deep Atlantic with Antarctic bottom water. The change in the overturning pattern causes a drastic reduction of the Atlantic northward heat transport, resulting in a strong cooling with maximum amplitude over the northern North Atlantic and a southward shift of the sea-ice margin in the Atlantic. Due to the increased meridional temperature gradient, the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone is displaced southward and the westerlies in the northern hemisphere gain strength. We identify four main feedbacks affecting the stability of the thermohaline circulation: the change in the overturning circulation of the Atlantic leads to longer residence times of the surface waters in high northern latitudes, which allows them to accumulate more precipitation and runoff from the continents, which results in an increased stability in the North Atlantic.

  12. Assessment of CNRM coupled ocean-atmosphere model sensitivity to the representation of aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laura; Michou, Martine; Nabat, Pierre; Saint-Martin, David

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can significantly affect the Earth's radiative balance due to absorption, scattering and aerosol-cloud interactions. Although our understanding of aerosol properties has improved over recent decades, aerosol radiative forcing remains as one of the largest uncertainties when attributing recent and projecting future anthropogenic climate change. Ensembles of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model were used to investigate how the representation of aerosols within the model can affect climate. The control simulation consisted of a 30-year simulation with an interactive aerosol scheme and aerosol emissions that evolve from 1980-2009. The sensitivity tests included using constant 1980 emissions, using prescribed 2-D monthly mean AODs, modifying the aerosol vertical distribution, altering aerosol optical properties, and changing the parameters used for calculating the aerosol first indirect effect. The results of these sensitivity studies show how modifying certain aspects of the aerosol scheme can significantly affect radiative flux and temperature. In particular, it was shown that compared to the control simulation the use of constant 1980 aerosol emissions decreased the average winter surface temperature of the Arctic by 0.2 K and that the use of prescribed 2-D monthly mean AODs reduced the annual global surface temperature by 0.3 K. Increasing the vertical distribution of anthropogenic aerosols in the model and altering aerosol optical properties modified localised radiative fluxes and temperatures, but the most significant change in global surface temperature (1.3 K) was caused by removing sea salt and organic matter from the calculation of cloud droplet number concentration.

  13. Using oceanic-atmospheric oscillations for long lead-time streamflow forecasting in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-12-01

    In the recent past, oceanic-atmospheric oscillations have been used successfully for long lead-time streamflow forecasting. Herein, we present a data-driven model, Support Vector Machine (SVM) for the long lead-time streamflow forecast incorporating oceanic-atmospheric oscillations. The SVM is based on Statistical Learning Theory that uses a hypothesis space of linear functions based on Kernel approach and can be used to predict a quantity forward in time based on training that uses past data. The principal strength of SVM lies in minimizing the empirical classification error and maximizing the geometric margin by solving inverse problems. The SVMs are considered superior to the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) due to the tendency of formulating a quadratic optimization problem which ensures a global optimum that is found missing in the traditional ANN approach. The SVM model was applied to four unimpaired gages in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). The streamflow data for the selected gages was used from 1906¡§C2004. Annual oceanic-atmospheric indexes comprising of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) for a period of 1906¡§C2001 were used to generate streamflow volumes for three years ahead. The SVM model was trained with 86 years of data (1906¡§C1991) and tested for 10 years of data (1992-2001). The testing criteria used for the model effectiveness was based on correlation coefficient r, root means square error (RMSE) and nash sutcliffe efficiency coefficient e. Predictions during the testing phase showed a good agreement with measured streamflow volumes for the selected gages in UCRB. Rigorous sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of individual oscillation. The results indicated a strong signal for NAO and ENSO indexes as compared to PDO and AMO indexes for the long lead-time streamflow forecast. The oceanic-atmospheric

  14. Ocean-Atmosphere coupling and CO2 exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R.; Pezzi, L. P.; Carmargo, R.; Acevedo, O. C.

    2013-05-01

    The establishment of the INTERCONF Program (Air-Sea Interactions at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone) in 2004 and subsequent developing of projects such as the SIMTECO (Integrated System for Monitoring the Weather, the Climate and the Ocean in the South of Brazil) and ACEx (Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment) from 2010 in Brazil brought to light the importance of understanding the impact of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean's mesoscale variability on the modulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the synoptic scale. Recent results of all these projects showed that the ABL modulation, as well as the ocean-atmosphere turbulent (heat, momentum and CO2) fluxes are dependent on the behavior of the ocean's surface thermal gradients, especially those found in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone and at the southern coast off Brazil during the winter. As expected, when atmospheric large scale systems are not present over the study area, stronger heat fluxes are found over regions of higher sea surface temperature (SST) including over warm core eddies shed towards the subantarctic (cold) environment. In the coastal region off southern Brazil, the wintertime propagation of the Brazilian Costal Current (La Plata Plume) acts rising the chlorophyll concentration over the continental shelf as well as diminishing considerably the SST - hence producing prominent across-shore SST gradients towards the offshore region dominated by the Brazil Current waters. Owing to that, heat fluxes are directed towards the ocean in coastal waters that are also responsible for the carbon sinking off Brazil in wintertime. All this description is dependent on the synoptic atmospheric cycle and strongly perturbed when transient systems (cold fronts, subtropical cyclones) are present in the area. However, remote sensing data used here suggest that the average condition of the atmosphere directly responding to the ocean's mesoscale variability appears to imprint a signal that extends from the

  15. Ocean-atmosphere coupling at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region based on in situ, satellite and numerical model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Souza, R.; Pezzi, L.

    2013-05-01

    In the Southwest Atlantic close to 40oS, the meeting of two ocean currents with distinct characteristics, the Brazil Current (BC), warm and saline, and the Malvinas Current (MC), cold and low salinity, resulting in strong activity marked by the formation of mesoscale eddies, this region is known as Brazil Malvinas Confluence (BMC). The INTERCONF project (Ocean Atmosphere Interaction over the region of CBM) perfoms since the 2002 data collection in situ radiosondes and XBTs onboard the Oceanographic Support Ship Ary Rongel during its trajectory of Brazil to the Antarctic continent. This paper analyzes the thermal contrast and ocean atmosphere coupling on the ocean front from the INTERCONF data, and compares the results to satellite data (QuikSCAT) and numerical models (Eta-CPTEC / INPE). The results indicate that the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is driving the atmosphere, on the warm waters of the BC occurs an intensification of the winds and heat fluxes, and the reverse occurs on the cold waters of the MC. The data collected in 2009 include the presence of a warm core eddy (42 oS to 43.1 oS) which recorded higher values of heat fluxes and wind speed in relation to its surroundings. On the warm core eddy wind speed recorded was about 10 m.s-1, while on the BC and MC was approximately 7 m.s-1 and 2 m.s-1, respectively. Satellite data and numerical model tends to overestimate the wind speed data in the region in relation to data collected in situ. The heat flux data from the numerical model tend to increase over the warm waters and cold waters on the decline, though the amounts recorded by the model have low correlation.

  16. The Impact of Coastal Phytoplankton Blooms on Ocean-Atmosphere Thermal Energy Exchange: Evidence from a Two-Way Coupled Numerical Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-25

    Phytoplankton Blooms on Ocean-Atmosphere Thermal Energy Exchange: Evidence from a Two-Way Coupled Numerical Modeling System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... phytoplankton stocks in a coastal embayment may impact thermal energy exchange processes. Monterey Bay simulations parameterizing solar shortwave transparency...in the surface ocean as an invariant oligotrophic oceanic water type estimate consistently colder sea surface temperature (SST) than simulations

  17. Impact of two-way ocean atmosphere coupling on precipitation forecast for the coastal Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerkol, Peter; Cedilnik, Jure; Fettich, Anja; Licer, Matjaz; Strajnar, Benedikt; Jerman, Jure

    2017-04-01

    A two-way coupled ocean and atmosphere modeling system has been developed at Slovenian Environment Agency and the National Institute of Biology (Ličer at al., 2016). The system comprises 4.4 km ALADIN/ALARO limited-area numerical weather prediction model and Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for Adriatic sea and uses Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) as ocean component outside the POM model domain. The heat and momentum fluxes between sea surface and atmosphere as estimated by ALADIN model are transferred into POM every model time stamp, and sea surface temperature (SST) is returned from POM to ALADIN. A positive impact of such a coupling system with respect to one-way coupling was demonstrated mainly for sea surface variables. In this contribution we study the impact on atmospheric variables, mainly precipitation. Unlike in the previous work where the atmospheric part of the system was reinitialized every day from external (non-coupled) data assimilation cycle, we implement the two-way coupling in the data assimilation cycle for ALADIN. Rather than running long-term simulations which would presumably lack observational information given no data assimilation for the ocean component, we focus on several precipitation events and assess performance of the atmospheric model by running the coupled system for a short warm-up periods beforehand the events. We evaluate several approaches to applying the one- or two-way coupling (in the warm-up period, during the main forecast, or both) and several approaches to using SST information in ALADIN in the one-way coupled mode (POM, MFS, global atmospheric model). Preliminary results suggest that it is important that two-way coupling is applied not only during the long term (e.g. 72 h) forecast but also already in the data assimilation cycle prior to event.

  18. Thirty-two-year ocean-atmosphere coupled downscaling of global reanalysis over the Intra-American Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqin; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the oceanic and atmospheric variability over the Intra-American Seas (IAS) from a 32-year integration of a 15-km coupled regional climate model consisting of the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) for the atmosphere and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for the ocean. It is forced at the lateral boundaries by National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE R-2) atmospheric global reanalysis and Simplified Ocean Data Assimilation global oceanic reanalysis. This coupled downscaling integration is a free run without any heat flux correction and is referred as the Regional Ocean-Atmosphere coupled downscaling of global Reanalysis over the Intra-American Seas (ROARS). The paper examines the fidelity of ROARS with respect to independent observations that are both satellite based and in situ. In order to provide a perspective on the fidelity of the ROARS simulation, we also compare it with the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), a modern global ocean-atmosphere reanalysis product. Our analysis reveals that ROARS exhibits reasonable climatology and interannual variability over the IAS region, with climatological SST errors less than 1 °C except along the coastlines. The anomaly correlation of the monthly SST and precipitation anomalies in ROARS are well over 0.5 over the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans. A highlight of the ROARS simulation is its resolution of the loop current and the episodic eddy events off of it. This is rather poorly simulated in the CFSR. This is also reflected in the simulated, albeit, higher variance of the sea surface height in ROARS and the lack of any variability in the sea surface height of the CFSR over the IAS. However the anomaly correlations of the monthly heat content anomalies of ROARS are comparatively lower, especially over the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This is a result of ROARS exhibiting a bias of underestimation

  19. Investigation of hurricane Ivan using the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying; Warner, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) model is used to hindcast Hurricane Ivan (2004), an extremely intense tropical cyclone (TC) translating through the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitivity experiments with increasing complexity in ocean–atmosphere–wave coupled exchange processes are performed to assess the impacts of coupling on the predictions of the atmosphere, ocean, and wave environments during the occurrence of a TC. Modest improvement in track but significant improvement in intensity are found when using the fully atmosphere–ocean-wave coupled configuration versus uncoupled (e.g., standalone atmosphere, ocean, or wave) model simulations. Surface wave fields generated in the fully coupled configuration also demonstrates good agreement with in situ buoy measurements. Coupled and uncoupled model-simulated sea surface temperature (SST) fields are compared with both in situ and remote observations. Detailed heat budget analysis reveals that the mixed layer temperature cooling in the deep ocean (on the shelf) is caused primarily by advection (equally by advection and diffusion).

  20. The crucial role of ocean-atmosphere coupling on the Indian monsoon anomalous response during dipole events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.; Swapna, P.; Ayantika, D.C.; Mujumdar, M. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Climate and Global Modelling Division, Pune (India); Sundaram, Suchithra [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Climate and Global Modelling Division, Pune (India); Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Kumar, Vinay [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Climate and Global Modelling Division, Pune (India); Florida State University, Department of Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This paper examines an issue concerning the simulation of anomalously wet Indian summer monsoons like 1994 which co-occurred with strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) conditions in the tropical Indian Ocean. Contrary to observations it has been noticed that standalone atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) forced with observed SST boundary condition, consistently depicted a decrease of the summer monsoon rainfall during 1994 over the Indian region. Given the ocean-atmosphere coupling during IOD events, we have examined whether the failure of standalone AGCM simulations in capturing wet Indian monsoons like 1994 can be remedied by including a simple form of coupling that allows the monsoon circulation to dynamically interact with the IOD anomalies. With this view, we have performed a suite of simulations by coupling an AGCM to a slab-ocean model with spatially varying mixed-layer-depth (MLD) specified from observations for the 1994 IOD; as well as four other cases (1983, 1997, 2006, 2007). The specification of spatially varying MLD from observations allows us to constrain the model to observed IOD conditions. It is seen that the inclusion of coupling significantly improves the large-scale circulation response by strengthening the monsoon cross-equatorial flow; leading to precipitation enhancement over the subcontinent and rainfall decrease over south-eastern tropical Indian Ocean - in a manner broadly consistent with observations. A plausible physical mechanism is suggested to explain the monsoonal response in the coupled frame-work. These results warrant the need for improved monsoon simulations with fully coupled models to be able to better capture the observed monsoon interannual variability. (orig.)

  1. South African mid-summer seasonal rainfall prediction performance by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available . 2000; Goddard and Mason, 2002). Such a so-called two-tiered procedure to predict the outcome of the rainfall season has been employed in South Africa for a number of years already (e.g., Landman et al., 2001). The advent of fully coupled ocean...

  2. On the dependence of hindcast skill on ocean thermodynamics in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeman, R. (Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne (Australia))

    1993-11-01

    Three different mechanisms for the generation of ENSO SST anomalies within a simplified tropical Pacific Ocean model are examined: thermocline depth changes, Ekman-induced upwelling anomalies, and zonal advection changes. The effect of varying the relative influence of these terms on the realism of tropical pacific coupled models is analyzed. The principal tool used to assess such realism is hindcast skill, with forced ocean and oscillatory behavior also being examined. Of the mechanisms considered, thermocline perturbations are shown to be crucially important for high coupled-model hindcast skills. Furthermore, it is concluded that the realism of the model (as measured by hindcast skill) deteriorates markedly when the influence on SST of Ekman upwelling becomes greater than a small fraction of the thermocline influence. This provides strong evidence for the hypothesis that Ekman upwelling anomalies (which are essentially a local response to wind stress anomalies) have only a small influence on the creation of real world SST anomalies. The implications of this latter point for coupled models involving ocean general circulation models is briefly discussed. It is also demonstrated that western boundary reflections provide a vital role by means of a negative feedback in ensuring realistic performance. The hindcast skill (as measured by NINO3 anomaly correlation) demonstrated by a model involving only the thermocline mechanism can be tuned to exceed that of the benchmark Cane and Zebiak model for hindcast lags up to 7 months (from 7 to 12 months the model skills are roughly equal). 47 refs., 32 figs.

  3. Response of the North Atlantic storm track to climate change shaped by ocean-atmosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollings, T.; Gregory, J. M.; Pinto, J. G.; Reyers, M.; Brayshaw, D. J.

    2012-05-01

    A poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks in response to anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcing has been diagnosed in climate model simulations. Explanations of this effect have focused on atmospheric dynamics. However, in contrast to storm tracks in other regions, the North Atlantic storm track responds by strengthening and extending farther east, in particular on its southern flank. These adjustments are associated with an intensification and extension of the eddy-driven jet towards western Europe and are expected to have considerable societal impacts related to a rise in storminess in Europe. Here, we apply a regression analysis to an ensemble of coupled climate model simulations to show that the coupling between ocean and atmosphere shapes the distinct storm-track response to greenhouse-gas forcing in the North Atlantic region. In the ensemble of simulations we analyse, at least half of the differences between the storm-track responses of different models are associated with uncertainties in ocean circulation changes. We compare the fully coupled simulations with both the associated slab model simulations and an ocean-forced experiment with one climate model to establish causality. We conclude that uncertainties in the response of the North Atlantic storm track to anthropogenic emissions could be reduced through tighter constraints on the future ocean circulation.

  4. Effects of ocean-atmosphere coupling on rainfall over the Indian Ocean and northwestern Pacific Ocean during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. Q.; Xie, S. P.; Zhou, W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM), forced with specified SST, has been widely used in climate studies. On one hand, AGCM is much faster to run compared to coupled general circulation model (CGCM). Also, the identical SST forcing allows a clean evaluation of the atmospheric component of CGCM. On the other hand, the coupling between atmosphere and ocean is missed in such atmosphere-only simulations. It is not clear how such simplification could affect the simulate of the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of ocean-atmosphere coupling is studied by comparing a CGCM simulation with an AGCM simulation which is forced with monthly SSTs specified from the CGCM simulation. Particularly, we focus on the climatology and interannual variability of rainfall over the IONWP during boreal summer. The IONWP is a unique region with a strong negative correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall during boreal summer on the interannual time scale. The lead/lag correlation analysis suggests a negative feedback of rainfall on SST, which is only reasonably captured by CGCMs. We find that the lack of the negative feedback in AGCM not only enhances the climatology and interannual variability of rainfall but also increases the internal variability of rainfall over the IONWP. A simple mechanism is proposed to explain such enhancement. In addition, AGCM is able to capture the large-scale rainfall pattern over the IONWP during boreal summer, this is because that rainfall here is caused by remote ENSO effect on the interannual time scale. Our results herein suggest that people should be more careful when using an AGCM for climate change studies.

  5. Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronholz, Alexandra; Gräwe, Ulf; Paul, André; Schulz, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a summer storm event in 2007 on the North Sea and its effects on the ocean stratification are investigated using a regional coupled ocean (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS)-atmosphere (Weather Research & Forecasting model, WRF) modeling system. An analysis of potential energy anomaly (PEA, Φ) and its temporal development reveals that the loss of stratification due to the storm event is dominated by vertical mixing in almost the entire North Sea. For specific regions, however, a considerable contribution of depth-mean straining is observed. Vertical mixing is highly correlated with wind induced surface stresses. However, peak mixing values are observed in combination with incoming flood currents. Depending on the phase between winds and tides, the loss of stratification differs strongly over the North Sea. To study the effects of interactive ocean-atmosphere exchange, a fully coupled simulation is compared with two uncoupled ones for the same vertical mixing parameters to identify the impact of spatial resolution as well as of SST feedback. While the resulting new mixed layer depth after the storm event in the uncoupled simulation with lower spatial and temporal resolution of the surface forcing data can still be located in the euphotic zone, the coupled simulation is capable to mix the entire water column and the vertical mixing in the uncoupled simulation with higher resolution of the surface forcing data is strongly amplified. These differences might have notable implications for ecosystem modeling since it could determine the development of new phytoplankton blooms after the storm and for sediment modeling in terms of sediment mobilization. An investigation of restratification after the extreme event illustrates the persistent effect of this summer storm.

  6. Evaluating Physical Processes during the Freeze-Up Season using a Coupled Sea Ice-Ocean-Atmosphere Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Amy; Intrieri, Janet; Persson, Ola; Cox, Christopher; Hughes, Mimi; Grachev, Andrey; Capotondi, Antonietta; de Boer, Gijs

    2017-04-01

    Improved sea ice forecasting must be based on improved model representation of coupled system processes that impact the sea ice thermodynamic and dynamic state. Pertinent coupled system processes remain uncertain and include surface energy fluxes, clouds, precipitation, boundary layer structure, momentum transfer and sea-ice dynamics, interactions between large-scale circulation and local processes, and others. In this presentation, we use a fully-coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere forecast system as a testbed for investigating biases in 0-10 day forecasts, with a focus on processes that determine fluxes at the ocean-ice-air interface. Model results and validation examples from an experimental, weather-scale, coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere model for 2015 and 2016 fall, sea ice freeze-up season will be presented. The model, a limited-area, fully-coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model (named, RASM-ESRL), was developed from the larger-scale Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) architecture. RASM-ESRL includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, Parallel Ocean Program (POP2) model, Community Ice Model (CICE5) and the NCAR Community Land Model. The domain is limited to the Arctic and all components are run with 10 km horizontal resolution. Components are coupled using a regionalized version of the CESM flux coupler (CPL7), which includes modifications important for resolving the sea ice pack's inertial response to transient (i.e. weather) events. The model is initialized with a GFS atmosphere, satellite-derived sea ice analyses using AMSR-2, and forced by 3-hourly GFS forecasts at the lateral boundaries. Experimental forecasts were run daily from late-July through mid-November in 2015 and 2016. These daily forecasts have been compared with observations of surface fluxes and vertical atmospheric profiles at the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) stations, and with atmospheric and oceanic observations obtained within the sea

  7. Ocean-atmosphere dynamics during Hurricane Ida and Nor'Ida: An application of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was used to investigate atmosphere–ocean–wave interactions in November 2009 during Hurricane Ida and its subsequent evolution to Nor’Ida, which was one of the most costly storm systems of the past two decades. One interesting aspect of this event is that it included two unique atmospheric extreme conditions, a hurricane and a nor’easter storm, which developed in regions with different oceanographic characteristics. Our modeled results were compared with several data sources, including GOES satellite infrared data, JASON-1 and JASON-2 altimeter data, CODAR measurements, and wave and tidal information from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and the National Tidal Database. By performing a series of numerical runs, we were able to isolate the effect of the interaction terms between the atmosphere (modeled with Weather Research and Forecasting, the WRF model), the ocean (modeled with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)), and the wave propagation and generation model (modeled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)). Special attention was given to the role of the ocean surface roughness. Three different ocean roughness closure models were analyzed: DGHQ (which is based on wave age), TY2001 (which is based on wave steepness), and OOST (which considers both the effects of wave age and steepness). Including the ocean roughness in the atmospheric module improved the wind intensity estimation and therefore also the wind waves, surface currents, and storm surge amplitude. For example, during the passage of Hurricane Ida through the Gulf of Mexico, the wind speeds were reduced due to wave-induced ocean roughness, resulting in better agreement with the measured winds. During Nor’Ida, including the wave-induced surface roughness changed the form and dimension of the main low pressure cell, affecting the intensity and direction of the winds. The combined wave age- and wave steepness

  8. The sensitivity of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations over the Intra-Americas seas to the prescribed bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Mishra, A.; Li, Haiqin

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the coupled ocean-atmosphere climate of the Intra-Americas Seas (IAS; which includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea) and parts of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean to the prescribed bathymetry in three independent multi-decadal, high-resolution (15 km grid interval), regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (RCM) integrations centered over the IAS. All of these RCM integrations with different prescribed bathymetries are forced by identical global atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis at the lateral boundaries. It is observed that the model integration with a smoother and coarser bathymetry in the region (RCM-C) results in more widespread sea surface temperature (SST) bias across the IAS. We also note that the bias displayed by the RCM-C simulation is analogous to the bias in the IAS ocean circulation of some Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) models. The models with an intermediate bathymetry (RCM-I) and finest bathymetry (RCM-F) rectify the bias in ocean transport through the Yucatan Channel relative to RCM-C but display mixed results with respect to SST bias. The RCM-C integration uses a bathymetry with a shallower Yucatan Channel, which tends to produce unrealistically weak flow through the Yucatan Channel and a weak Loop Current. However, the stronger heat transport through the Yucatan Channel in RCM-F results in significant warming of the northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean and associated weakening of the surface easterly atmospheric winds relative to the other RCM integrations. Due to the weaker surface wind-induced shelf currents, the area comprised of western Gulf of Mexico and southern Caribbean Sea have a severe cold SST bias over the IAS in RCM-F relative to either RCM-I or RCM-C. RCM-I on the other hand significantly warms the western Gulf of Mexico. RCM-I displays the least SST bias over the IAS and the ocean transport through the Yucatan Channel is most comparable to

  9. A Model Study on the Role of Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling for the 11-year Solar Signal in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubin, Anne; Abalichin, Janna; Langematz, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    The 11-year solar cycle is known to influence the stratospheric circulation and even tropospheric conditions on a hemispheric and seasonal scale. However, large uncertainties exist with respect to the top-down influence of radiative-chemical interactions as well as bottom-up ocean-atmosphere interactions for the tropospheric signal. Here, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on the tropospheric climate are studied by analyzing integrations of the chemistry climate model EMAC that has been coupled to the MPIOM ocean model. A series of experiments has been tailored to investigate the role of atmosphere-ocean coupling for the formation of the near-surface response to the 11-year solar irradiance variability. The focus is on the north Atlantic region in the northern winter season. The model output is analyzed with a multiple linear regression technique. It is found that there is a tendency towards a positive phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) at maxima of the Sunspot cycle. The signal is enhanced when the atmosphere-ocean interaction is suppressed by prescribed sea surface temperatures. Additional sensitivity simulations with either the sea surface temperatures or the middle atmosphere being free from 11-year solar influence reveal a key role for the stratospheric forcing in shaping the tropospheric response in the North Atlantic-European region. The robustness of the signals is tested by varying the length of the analyzed time series as well as by varying the set of basis functions used in the regression. The NAO response shows substantial variation of magnitude and even sign when subsets of the analysis period are examined.

  10. Evaluation of coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of the mid-Holocene using palaeovegetation data from the northern hemisphere extratropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfahrt, J.; Harrison, S.P. [University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, PO Box 10 01 64, Jena (Germany); Braconnot, P. [Lab. CNRS-CEA, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA/Saclay Gif sur Yvette (France); Hewitt, C.D. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, Devon (United Kingdom); Kitoh, A. [Meteorological Research Institute, Climate Research Department, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Otto-Bliesner, B.L. [National Control for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Weber, S.L. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 201, DeBilt (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    We have used the BIOME4 biogeography-biochemistry model and comparison with palaeovegetation data to evaluate the response of six ocean-atmosphere general circulation models to mid-Holocene changes in orbital forcing in the mid- to high-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. All the models produce: (a) a northward shift of the northern limit of boreal forest, in response to simulated summer warming in high-latitudes. The northward shift is markedly asymmetric, with larger shifts in Eurasia than in North America; (b) an expansion of xerophytic vegetation in mid-continental North America and Eurasia, in response to increased temperatures during the growing season; (c) a northward expansion of temperate forests in eastern North America, in response to simulated winter warming. The northward shift of the northern limit of boreal forest and the northward expansion of temperate forests in North America are supported by palaeovegetation data. The expansion of xerophytic vegetation in mid-continental North America is consistent with palaeodata, although the extent may be over-estimated. The simulated expansion of xerophytic vegetation in Eurasia is not supported by the data. Analysis of an asynchronous coupling of one model to an equilibrium-vegetation model suggests vegetation feedback exacerbates this mid-continental drying and produces conditions more unlike the observations. Not all features of the simulations are robust: some models produce winter warming over Europe while others produce winter cooling. As a result, some models show a northward shift of temperate forests (consistent with, though less marked than, the expansion shown by data) and others produce a reduction in temperate forests. Elucidation of the cause of such differences is a focus of the current phase of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project. (orig.)

  11. Impact of the configuration of stretching and ocean-atmosphere coupling on tropical cyclone activity in the variable-resolution GCM ARPEGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Chauvin, Fabrice [CNRM-GAME, Groupe de Modelisation Grande Echelle et Climat, Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Roux, Frank [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire d' Aerologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France)

    2012-11-15

    This study starts by investigating the impact of the configuration of the variable-resolution atmospheric grid on tropical cyclone (TC) activity. The French atmospheric general circulation model ARPEGE, the grid of which is rotated and stretched over the North Atlantic basin, was used with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The study clearly shows that changing the position of the stretching pole strongly modifies the representation of TC activity over the North Atlantic basin. A pole in the centre of the North Atlantic basin provides the best representation of the TC activity for this region. In a second part, the variable-resolution climate model ARPEGE is coupled with the European oceanic global climate model NEMO in order to study the impact of ocean-atmosphere coupling on TC activity over the North Atlantic basin. Two pre-industrial runs, a coupled simulation and a simulation forced by the sea surface temperatures from the coupled one, are compared. The results show that the coupled simulation is more active in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico while the forced simulation is more active over eastern Florida and the eastern Atlantic. The difference in the distribution of TC activity is certainly linked with the location of TC genesis. In the forced simulation, tropical cyclogenesis is closer to the west African coast than in the coupled simulation. Moreover, the difference in TC activity over the eastern Atlantic seems to be related to two different mechanisms: the difference in African easterly wave activity over the west of Africa and the cooling produced, in the coupled simulation, by African easterly waves over the eastern Atlantic. Finally, the last part studies the impact of changing the frequency of ocean-atmosphere coupling on Atlantic TC activity. Increasing the frequency of coupling decreases the density of TC activity over the North Atlantic basin. However, it does not modify the spatial distribution of the TC activity. TC rainfalls are

  12. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO).

  13. Future summer precipitation changes over CORDEX-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model: A comparison to the stand-alone RCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-03-01

    Climate changes under the RCP8.5 scenario over the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX)-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model Flexible Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Land System (FROALS) are compared to those downscaled by the corresponding atmosphere-only regional climate model driven by a global climate system model. Changes in the mean and interannual variability of summer rainfall were discussed for the period of 2051-2070 with respect to the present-day period of 1986-2005. Followed by an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high and an intensified East Asian summer monsoon, an increase in total rainfall over north China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan but a decrease in total rainfall over southern China are observed in the FROALS projection. Homogeneous increases of extreme rainfall amounts were found over the CORDEX-East Asia domain. A predominant increase in the interannual variability was evident for both total rainfall and the extreme rainfall amount. The spatial patterns of the projected rainfall changes by FROALS were generally consistent with those from the driving global model at a broad scale due to similar projected circulation changes. In both models, the enhanced southerlies over east China increased the moisture divergences over southern China and enhanced the moisture advection over north China. However, the atmosphere-only regional climate model (RCM) exhibited responses to the underlying sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies that were too strong, which induced an anomalous cyclone over the north South China Sea, followed by increases (decreases) of total and extreme rainfall over southern China (central China). The differences of the projected changes in both rainfall and circulation between FROALS and the atmosphere-only RCM were partly affected by the differences in the projected SST changes. The results recommend the employment of a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model in the

  14. Numerical studies of the air-sea interaction processes in intense tropical systems using the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaodong

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the air-sea interaction processes in intense tropical systems through numerical modeling. Three well-documented intense tropical systems are selected to study several aspects of the air-sea processes. First, the ocean response (one-way interaction) to an idealized representation of Hurricane Gilbert (1988) using the GFDL's Modular Ocean Model version 2 (MOM2) is given. Then the two-way interactions between a TOGA COARE squall line and the tropical ocean in an idealized setting using the NRL's original Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) are shown. Finally, the mutual responses between Hurricane Opal (1995) and a Warm Core Eddy (WCE) in the Gulf of Mexico using a more recent version of COAMPS, of which the MOM2 is used as an oceanic component, are presented. Results show that the Hurricane Gilbert increases the local speed of Loop Current over 55%. The maximum increase of WCE F surface current speed is approximate 133%. The near-inertial oscillation in the WCE F persists for at least 7 IP and propagated downward to 400 m. With the effect of Gilbert, the simulated translation of WCE F to the Mexican coast is more realistic. With the WCE F effect, the storm-induced surface current speed reduces by about 50%. The near-inertial oscillation and the vertical structure in the along-track direction are also influenced. The storm-induced sea surface temperature (SST) decrease in Gilbert's wake is over 2.5oC. The simulated TOGA COARE squall line from idealized conditions reproduces most of the features as observed. The squall line-induced SST decrease is about 0.21oC, resulting in about 10% less surface heat fluxes and weaker convective motions. The coupled system using real data is capable of reproducing the observed Hurricane Opal intensity. The simulated track is located directly over the simulated WCE. Maximum induced SST cooling behind the storm is 2oC, whereas this cooling is

  15. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). Model results from the planar beach case show good agreement with depth-averaged analytical solutions and with theoretical flow structures. Simulation results for the DUCK' 94 experiment agree closely with measured profiles of cross-shore and longshore velocity data from Garcez Faria et al. (1998, 2000). Diagnostic simulations showed that the nonlinear processes of wave roller generation and wave-induced mixing are important for the accurate simulation of surf zone flows. It is further recommended that a more realistic approach for determining the contribution of wave rollers and breaking induced turbulent mixing can be formulated using non-dimensional parameters which are functions of local wave parameters and the beach slope. Dominant terms in the cross-shore momentum balance are found to be the quasi-static pressure gradient and breaking acceleration. In the alongshore direction

  16. The role of ocean-atmosphere interaction in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) using a regional coupled data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akiyoshi; Kunii, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    For improving analyses of tropical cyclone (TC) and sea surface temperature (SST) and thereby TC simulations, a regional mesoscale strongly coupled atmosphere-ocean data assimilation system was developed with the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) implemented with the Japan Meteorological Agency's nonhydrostatic model (NHM) coupled with a multilayer ocean model and the third-generation ocean wave model. The NHM-LETKF coupled data assimilation system was applied to Typhoon Sinlaku (2008) along with the original NHM-LETKF system to investigate the sensitivity of Sinlaku to SST assimilation with the Level 2 Pre-processed (L2P) standard product of satellite SST. SST calculated in the coupled-assimilation experiment with the coupled data assimilation system and the satellite SST (CPL) showed a better correlation with Optimally Interpolated SST than SST used in the control experiment with the original NHM-LETKF (CNTL) and SST calculated in the succession experiment with the coupled system without satellite SST (SUCC). The time series in the CPL experiment well captured the variation in the SST observed at the Kuroshio Extension Observation buoy site. In addition, TC-induced sea surface cooling was analyzed more realistically in the CPL experiment than that in the CNTL and SUCC experiments. However, the central pressure analyzed in each three experiments was overestimated compared with the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center Tokyo best-track central pressure, mainly due to the coarse horizontal resolution of 15 km. The 96 h TC simulations indicated that the CPL experiment provided more favorable initial and boundary conditions than the CNTL experiment to simulate TC tracks more accurately.

  17. The impact of ocean-atmosphere interaction and atmospheric model resolution on the Mediterranean climate as simulated by regionally coupled ESM ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Dmitry; Cabos, William; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea and adjacent land is located in a transitional area between tropical and mid-latitudes and presents a complex orography and coastlines where intense local air-sea and land-sea interactions take place. These intense local air-sea interactions together with the inflow of Atlantic water drive the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. The resolution of global climate models in general is too coarse to correctly describe air-sea fluxes of energy and mass that play a key role in the process of deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. From the other hand stand-alone atmospheric models can be inadequate to simulate the air-sea fluxes correctly. For these reasons, the Mediterranean Sea is a region where atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCM) are critical for the study of the processes in the atmosphere and ocean. In this work we use the regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model ROM and its atmospheric component REMO in standalone configuration in order to assess the role of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and the ocean and atmosphere models resolution in the simulation of both the ocean and atmospheric features of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle. To this end, a number of coupled and uncoupled simulations forced by ERA-Interim boundary conditions have been carried out. Namely, four different sets of coupled and uncoupled simulations with different atmospheric resolutions (25 and 12.5 km) are used to estimate the impact of resolution and coupling on the mass and heat budget as well as deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Progress Towards Achieving the Challenge of Indian Summer Monsoon Climate Simulation in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Anupam; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Pokhrel, Samir; Goswami, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    Simulation of the spatial and temporal structure of the monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs), which have effects on the seasonal mean and annual cycle of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, remains a grand challenge for the state-of-the-art global coupled models. Biases in simulation of the amplitude and northward propagation of MISOs and related dry rainfall bias over ISM region in climate models are limiting the current skill of monsoon prediction. Recent observations indicate that the convective microphysics of clouds may be critical in simulating the observed MISOs. The hypothesis is strongly supported by high fidelity in simulation of the amplitude and space-time spectra of MISO by a coupled climate model, when our physically based modified cloud microphysics scheme is implemented in conjunction with a modified new Simple Arakawa Schubert (nSAS) convective parameterization scheme. Improved simulation of MISOs appears to have been aided by much improved simulation of the observed high cloud fraction and convective to stratiform rain fractions and resulted into a much improved simulation of the ISM rainfall, monsoon onset, and the annual cycle.

  19. Simulation of the Pinatubo Impact on the Red Sea Using Coupled Regional Ocean/Atmosphere Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study focuses on the Middle East regional climate response to the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption of 1991. It is motivated by the observed severe winter cooling in the Middle East during the winter of 1991/92. The Red Sea surface temperature dropped by more than 1K and deep water mixing caused coral bleaching for a few years. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the effects of radiative cooling and regional meteorological processes on the Red Sea, we employ the Regional Ocean Modeling system (ROMS) fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF model parent and nested domains are configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and over the Red Sea with 30 and 10 km resolution, respectively. The ROMS model over the Red Sea has 2 km grid spacing. The WRF code was modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Spectral optical properties of sulfate aerosols are computed using Mie based on the Sato's optical depth. Both atmosphere and ocean models capture the main features of the MENA climate response and correctly reproduce the anomalous winter cooling of 1991/92. We find that the sea surface cooling associated with meteorological effects prevails that caused by the direct radiative forcing of volcanic aerosols. The overturning circulation in the Red Sea strengthens. The salinity distribution and deep water formation are significantly perturbed.

  20. Simulation of Dust Radiative Impact on the Red Sea Using Coupled Regional Ocean/Atmosphere Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study focuses on the Middle East regional climate response to the dust aerosol radiative forcing. MODIS and SEVIRI satellite observations show extremely high (exceeding 1) dust optical depths over the southern Red Sea during the summer season. The significant north-to-south gradient of the dust optical depth over the Red Sea persists throughout the entire year. The radiative forcing of dust at the sea surface exceeds 120 Wm-2. The effect of this forcing to the Red Sea thermal regime and circulations is not well quantified yet. Therefore here we employ the Regional Ocean Modeling system (ROMS) fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the impact of dust on the Red Sea. The WRF was modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of dust. Daily spectral optical properties of dust are computed using Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics approaches, and are based on the SEVIRI climatological optical depth. The WRF model parent and nested domains are configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and over the Red Sea with 30 and 10 km resolution, respectively. The ROMS model over the Red Sea has 2 km grid spacing. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust causes 0.5-0.7K cooling of the Red Sea surface waters, and weakens the overturning circulation in the Red Sea. The salinity distribution, fresh water and heat budgets are significantly perturbed. This indicates that dust plays an important role in formation of the Red Sea energy balance and circulation regimes, and has to be thoroughly accounted for in the future modeling studies.

  1. Simulation of medicanes over the Mediterranean Sea in regional climate model ensembles: impact of ocean-atmosphere coupling and increased resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Miguel Angel; Jesús González-Alemán, Juan; Romera, Raquel; Domínguez, Marta; Gil, Victoria; Sánchez, Enrique; Gallardo, Clemente

    2017-04-01

    Some cyclones over the Mediterranean Sea occasionally develop a tropical structure. These cyclones, also called medicanes, can produce significant damage due to the combination of intense winds and heavy precipitation. The small size of medicanes and the importance of air-sea interaction in their formation and intensification represents a challenge for RCMs. Large ensembles of high resolution and ocean-atmosphere coupled RCM simulations are now available from MedCORDEX and EURO-CORDEX. We use these ensembles to analyze the ability of RCMs to reproduce the observed characteristics of medicanes, and to assess the impact of increasing resolution and using air-sea coupling on its simulation. As a reference for evaluating the simulations, we take the observational database of Miglietta et al. (2013), based on satellite images combined with very high resolution simulations. The simulated medicanes do not coincide in general on a case-by-case basis with the observed medicanes. This can be expected in climate mode simulations due to the small size of medicanes and the fact that they develop within the RCM domain. Therefore, the evaluation of medicanes in RCM simulations has to be done statistically. The observed spatial distribution of medicanes is well simulated in general. Regarding the monthly distribution, RCMs have difficulties in simulating the first medicanes appearing in September after the summer minimum. The use of higher horizontal resolution clearly increases the simulated frequency of medicanes, resulting in generally better frequency values. But the intensity, which is underestimated in low resolution runs, is not improved by most increased resolution simulations. A few RCMs show a clear intensity increase in the higher resolution runs, suggesting that model formulation is more important in this respect than high resolution alone. Air-sea interaction frequently produces a negative intensity feedback for tropical cyclones, which depends on the oceanic mixed

  2. Wave data from buoy deployments from the R/V KEXUE #1 as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) and Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) projects from 1992-11-01 to 1993-02-20 (NODC Accession 9600021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wave data were collected from buoy deployments from the R/V KEXUE #1 as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) and Tropical Ocean Global...

  3. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 22; A Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model for Global Ocean Biogeochemical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Suarez, Max J. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    An ocean-atmosphere radiative model (OARM) evaluates irradiance availability and quality in the water column to support phytoplankton growth and drive ocean thermodynamics. An atmospheric component incorporates spectral and directional effects of clear and cloudy skies as a function of atmospheric optical constituents, and spectral reflectance across the air-sea interface. An oceanic component evaluates the propagation of spectral and directional irradiance through the water column as a function of water, five phytoplankton groups, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter. It tracks the direct and diffuse streams from the atmospheric component, and a third stream, upwelling diffuse irradiance. The atmospheric component of OARM was compared to data sources at the ocean surface with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.97 and a root mean square of 12.1%.

  4. Simulation of the Effects of Bathymetry and Land-Sea Contrasts on Hurricane Development Using a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, N.; Pfeffer, R. L.; Dietrich, D. E.

    2000-02-01

    A version of the Naval Research Laboratory Limited Area Dynamical Weather Prediction Model is coupled with the DieCAST ocean circulation model, which is particularly well suited for the specification of realistic bathymetry. The resulting coupled model, with 11 levels in the atmosphere and 20 in the ocean, is used to study the sensitivity of hurricane formation, intensification, and weakening in the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean region to the presence of land-sea contrasts and bathymetry in this region. Numerical simulations with the fully coupled model, Gulf of Mexico, and Carribean geography and bathymetry are compared with simulations with coupling and no geometry or bathymetry and also with simulations using the uncoupled atmospheric model.The primary finding is that land-sea contrast and bathymetry reduce the intensification of the tropical disturbance, even when the hurricane is far from shore. The effect of drier air coming off the land masses surrounding the Gulf, which can penetrate to the storm center in a day, is to reduce the moisture supply and thereby decrease the rate of intensification of the storm. This is true in both the coupled and uncoupled model integrations. In the coupled model simulations, inertia currents and vertical mixing and upwelling on the continental shelf cause more intense and more widespread sea surface cooling in the presence of land-sea contrasts and bathymetry than in its absence, further reducing the rate of intensification.

  5. Analysis of the Effects of SST and Model Resolutions on the Identification of the 1993 Superstorm Using an Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Regional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, D.; Velissariou, P.; Chassignet, E.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The non-tropical storm, the 12-14 March 1993 Superstorm, which called the Storm of the Century had a wide reaching effect on the Northern Gulf of Mexico region and the East Coast of the United States. Previous studies show that the initial development of the storm could not be simulated accurately enough to represent the intensity and the evolution of the storm over the Gulf of Mexico region. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of the air-sea fluxes, the sea surface temperature (SST) and the model resolution on determining the intensity and the track of the storm more accurately. To this end, the outputs from two-way coupled model runs were examined to analyze the storm characteristics. Model configurations have been set within a coupled system framework that includes the atmospheric model Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and the ocean model Regional Ocean Model (ROMS). Three WRF domains assigned 15 km, 5 km and ~1.6 km resolutions, respectively and an 8 km resolution ROMS domain were used in the coupled system. The initial and boundary conditions for WRF were extracted from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) products and the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) generated SSTs while, the conditions for ROMS were extracted from HYCOM. Comparisons were performed against NOAA buoys and GridSAT brightness temperatures. Minimum mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum wind speed and storm locations were examined. Time series for MSLP and wind speed were used to illustrate how air-sea interaction and resolution changes storm intensity along the track. The results showing the RMS differences on the storm location and intensity of the storm are also presented.

  6. Assimilation of subsurface thermal data into a simple ocean model for the initialization of an intermediate tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeman, R.; Moore, A.M.; Smith, N.R. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-10-01

    An adjoint variational assimilation technique is used to assimilate observations of both the oceanic state and wind stress data into an intermediate coupled ENSO prediction model. This method of initialization is contrasted with the more usual method, which uses only wind stress data to establish the initial state of the ocean. It is shown that ocean temperature data has a positive impact on the prediction skill in such models. On the basis of hindcasts for the period 1982-91, it is shown that NINO3 SST anomaly correlations greater than 0.7 can be obtained for hindcasts of duration up to 13 months and greater than 0.6 up to 16 months. There are also clear indications of skill at two years. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Decadal to multi-decadal scale variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-chemistry climate model SOCOL-MPIOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander; Raible, Christoph C.; Muthers, Stefan; Anet, Julien; Rozanov, Eugene; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The present study is an effort to deepen the understanding of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) on decadal to multi-decadal timescales. We use ensemble simulations for the period AD 1600-2000 carried out by the coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Chemistry-Climate Model (AOCCM) SOCOL-MPIOM. Firstly, the SOCOL-MPIOM is evaluated using observational and reanalyses datasets. The model is able to realistically simulate the ISMR as well as relevant patterns of sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. Further, the influence of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability on ISMR is realistically simulated. Secondly, we investigate the impact of internal climate variability and external climate forcings on ISMR on decadal to multi-decadal timescales over the past 400 years. The results show that AMO, PDO, and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) play a considerable role in controlling the wet and dry decades of ISMR. Resembling observational findings most of the dry decades of ISMR occur during a negative phase of AMO and a simultaneous positive phase of PDO. The observational and simulated datasets reveal that on decadal to multi-decadal timescales the ISMR has consistent negative correlation with PDO whereas its correlation with AMO and TSI is not stationary over time.

  8. Decadal to multi-decadal scale variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-chemistry climate model SOCOL-MPIOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander; Raible, Christoph C.; Muthers, Stefan; Anet, Julien; Rozanov, Eugene; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-11-01

    The present study is an effort to deepen the understanding of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) on decadal to multi-decadal timescales. We use ensemble simulations for the period AD 1600-2000 carried out by the coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Chemistry-Climate Model (AOCCM) SOCOL-MPIOM. Firstly, the SOCOL-MPIOM is evaluated using observational and reanalyses datasets. The model is able to realistically simulate the ISMR as well as relevant patterns of sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. Further, the influence of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability on ISMR is realistically simulated. Secondly, we investigate the impact of internal climate variability and external climate forcings on ISMR on decadal to multi-decadal timescales over the past 400 years. The results show that AMO, PDO, and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) play a considerable role in controlling the wet and dry decades of ISMR. Resembling observational findings most of the dry decades of ISMR occur during a negative phase of AMO and a simultaneous positive phase of PDO. The observational and simulated datasets reveal that on decadal to multi-decadal timescales the ISMR has consistent negative correlation with PDO whereas its correlation with AMO and TSI is not stationary over time.

  9. Ocean-atmosphere dynamics during Hurricane Ida and Nor'Ida: An application of the coupled ocean-;atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was used to investigate atmosphere–ocean–wave interactions in November 2009 during Hurricane Ida and its subsequent evolution to Nor'Ida, which was one of the most costly storm systems of the past two decades. One interesting aspect of this event is that it included two unique atmospheric extreme conditions, a hurricane and a nor'easter storm, which developed in regions with different oceanographic characteristics. Our modeled results were compared with several data sources, including GOES satellite infrared data, JASON-1 and JASON-2 altimeter data, CODAR measurements, and wave and tidal information from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and the National Tidal Database. By performing a series of numerical runs, we were able to isolate the effect of the interaction terms between the atmosphere (modeled with Weather Research and Forecasting, the WRF model), the ocean (modeled with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)), and the wave propagation and generation model (modeled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)). Special attention was given to the role of the ocean surface roughness. Three different ocean roughness closure models were analyzed: DGHQ (which is based on wave age), TY2001 (which is based on wave steepness), and OOST (which considers both the effects of wave age and steepness). Including the ocean roughness in the atmospheric module improved the wind intensity estimation and therefore also the wind waves, surface currents, and storm surge amplitude. For example, during the passage of Hurricane Ida through the Gulf of Mexico, the wind speeds were reduced due to wave-induced ocean roughness, resulting in better agreement with the measured winds. During Nor'Ida, including the wave-induced surface roughness changed the form and dimension of the main low pressure cell, affecting the intensity and direction of the winds. The combined wave age- and wave steepness

  10. A comparison of observed extreme water levels at the German Bight elaborated through an extreme value analysis (EVA) with extremes derived from a regionally coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model (MPI-OM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of climate change atmospheric and oceanographic extremes and their potential impacts on coastal regions are of growing concern for governmental authorities responsible for the transportation infrastructure. Highest risks for shipping as well as for rail and road traffic originate from combined effects of extremes of storm surges and heavy rainfall which sometimes lead to insufficient dewatering of inland waterways. The German Ministry of Transport and digital Infrastructure therefore has tasked its Network of Experts to investigate the possible evolutions of extreme threats for low lands and especially for Kiel Canal, which is an important shortcut for shipping between the North and Baltic Seas. In this study we present results of a comparison of an Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) carried out on gauge observations and values derived from a coupled Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Climate Model (MPI-OM). High water levels at the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas are one of the most important hazards which increase the risk of flooding of the low-lying land and prevents such areas from an adequate dewatering. In this study changes in the intensity (magnitude of the extremes) and duration of extreme water levels (above a selected threshold) are investigated for several gauge stations with data partly reaching back to 1843. Different methods are used for the extreme value statistics, (1) a stationary general Pareto distribution (GPD) model as well as (2) an instationary statistical model for better reproduction of the impact of climate change. Most gauge stations show an increase of the mean water level of about 1-2 mm/year, with a stronger increase of the highest water levels and a decrease (or lower increase) of the lowest water levels. Also, the duration of possible dewatering time intervals for the Kiel-Canal was analysed. The results for the historical gauge station observations are compared to the statistics of modelled water levels from the coupled

  11. Indoex : chemistry of the Indian Ocean atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J. de

    2000-01-01

    NDOEX (INDian Ocean EXperiment) was large international measurement campaign focussing on measuring radiation in, and the chemical compisition of, the Indian Ocean Atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. One of the reasons to measure in this region was the specific and unique

  12. Palatoglossus coupling in selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Edenharter, Günther; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) of the hypoglossal nerve is a useful therapy to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Is it known that multiple obstructions can be solved by this stimulation technique, even at the retropalatal region. The aim of this study was to verify the palatoglossus coupling at the soft palate during stimulation. Single-center, prospective clinical trail. Twenty patients who received an sUAS implant from April 2015 to April 2016 were included. A drug-induced sedated endoscopy (DISE) was performed before surgery. Six to 12 months after activation of the system, patients' tongue motions were recorded, an awake transnasal endoscopy was performed with stimulation turned on, and a DISE with stimulation off and on was done. Patients with a bilateral protrusion of the tongue base showed a significantly increased opening at the retropalatal level compared to ipsilateral protrusions. Furthermore, patients with a clear activation of the geniohyoid muscle showed a better reduction in apnea-hypopnea index. A bilateral protrusion of the tongue base during sUAS seems to be accompanied with a better opening of the soft palate. This effect can be explained by the palatoglossal coupling, due to its linkage of the muscles within the soft palate to those of the lateral tongue body. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:E378-E383, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Surface Wind and Upper-Ocean Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation Simulated by the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Assimilation System ( MODAS ; Fox et al. 2002), while there is no data assimilation in the ocean component of COAMPS. The RAMA buoy data show that...M. Lee, 2002: The Modular Ocean Data Analysis System ( MODAS ). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 240–252. Gentemann, C. L., C. J. Donlon, A. C. Stuart

  14. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu

    2012-10-01

    The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  15. Upper bound on the Abelian gauge coupling from asymptotic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Versteegen, Fleur

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of asymptotically safe quantum gravity on the Abelian gauge coupling in a model including a charged scalar, confirming indications that asymptotically safe quantum fluctuations of gravity could trigger a power-law running towards a free fixed point for the gauge coupling above the Planck scale. Simultaneously, quantum gravity fluctuations balance against matter fluctuations to generate an interacting fixed point, which acts as a boundary of the basin of attraction of the free fixed point. This enforces an upper bound on the infrared value of the Abelian gauge coupling. In the regime of gravity couplings which in our approximation also allows for a prediction of the top quark and Higgs mass close to the experimental value [1], we obtain an upper bound approximately 35% above the infrared value of the hypercharge coupling in the Standard Model.

  16. Upper extremity improvements in chronic stroke: Coupled bilateral load training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauraugh, James H.; Coombes, Stephen A.; Lodha, Neha; Naik, Sagar K.; Summers, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The current treatment intervention study determined the effect of coupled bilateral training (i.e., bilateral movements and EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation) and resistive load (mass) on upper extremity motor recovery in chronic stroke. Methods Thirty chronic stroke subjects were randomly assigned to one of three behavioral treatment groups and completed 6 hours of rehabilitation in 4 days: (1) coupled bilateral training with a load on the unimpaired hand, (2) coupled bilateral training with no load on the unimpaired hand, and (3) control (no stimulation assistance or load). Results Separate mixed design ANOVAs revealed improved motor capabilities by the coupled bilateral groups. From the pretest to the posttest, both the coupled bilateral no load and load groups moved a higher number of blocks and demonstrated more regularity in the sustained contraction task. Faster motor reaction times across test sessions for the coupled bilateral load group provided additional evidence for improved motor capabilities. Conclusions Together these behavioral findings lend support to the contribution of coupled bilateral training with a load on the unimpaired arm to improved motor capabilities on the impaired arm. This evidence supports a neural explanation in that simultaneously moving both limbs during stroke rehabilitation training appears to activate balanced interhemispheric interactions while an extra load on the unimpaired limb provides stability to the system. PMID:19164850

  17. Skill Assessment of a Spectral Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson, W.; Casey, Nancy W.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean phytoplankton, detrital material, and water absorb and scatter light spectrally. The Ocean- Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is intended to provide surface irradiance over the oceans with sufficient spectral resolution to support ocean ecology, biogeochemistry, and heat exchange investigations, and of sufficient duration to support inter-annual and decadal investigations. OASIM total surface irradiance (integrated 200 nm to 4 microns) was compared to in situ data and three publicly available global data products at monthly 1-degree resolution. OASIM spectrally-integrated surface irradiance had root mean square (RMS) difference= 20.1 W/sq m (about 11%), bias=1.6 W/sq m (about 0.8%), regression slope= 1.01 and correlation coefficient= 0.89, when compared to 2322 in situ observations. OASIM had the lowest bias of any of the global data products evaluated (ISCCP-FD, NCEP, and ISLSCP 11), and the best slope (nearest to unity). It had the second best RMS, and the third best correlation coefficient. OASIM total surface irradiance compared well with ISCCP-FD (RMS= 20.7 W/sq m; bias=-11.4 W/sq m, r=0.98) and ISLSCP II (RMS =25.2 W/sq m; bias= -13.8 W/sq m; r=0.97), but less well with NCEP (RMS =43.0 W/sq m ;bias=-22.6 W/sq m; x=0.91). Comparisons of OASIM photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) with PAR derived from SeaWiFS showed low bias (-1.8 mol photons /sq m/d, or about 5%), RMS (4.25 mol photons /sq m/d ' or about 12%), near unity slope (1.03) and high correlation coefficient (0.97). Coupled with previous estimates of clear sky spectral irradiance in OASIM (6.6% RMS at 1 nm resolution), these results suggest that OASIM provides reasonable estimates of surface broadband and spectral irradiance in the oceans, and can support studies on ocean ecosystems, carbon cycling, and heat exchange.

  18. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  19. Seasonal prediction of global sea level anomalies using an ocean-atmosphere dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Elaine R.; Spillman, Claire M.; Church, John A.; McIntosh, Peter C.

    2014-10-01

    Advanced warning of extreme sea level events is an invaluable tool for coastal communities, allowing the implementation of management policies and strategies to minimise loss of life and infrastructure damage. This study is an initial attempt to apply a dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere model to the prediction of seasonal sea level anomalies (SLA) globally for up to 7 months in advance. We assess the ability of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's operational seasonal dynamical forecast system, the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), to predict seasonal SLA, using gridded satellite altimeter observation-based analyses over the period 1993-2010 and model reanalysis over 1981-2010. Hindcasts from POAMA are based on a 33-member ensemble of seasonal forecasts that are initialised once per month for the period 1981-2010. Our results show POAMA demonstrates high skill in the equatorial Pacific basin and consistently exhibits more skill globally than a forecast based on persistence. Model predictability estimates indicate there is scope for improvement in the higher latitudes and in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Most characteristics of the asymmetric SLA fields generated by El-Nino/La Nina events are well represented by POAMA, although the forecast amplitude weakens with increasing lead-time.

  20. Coupled hydrologic and hydraulic modeling of Upper Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Ayan; Siqueira, Vinícius; Paris, Adrien; Collischonn, Walter; Paiva, Rodrigo; Gossett, Marielle; Pontes, Paulo; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Crétaux, Jean-François; Tanimoune, Bachir

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Niger Basin is located in Western Africa, flowing from Guinea Highlands towards the Sahel region. In this area lies the seasonally inundated Niger Inland Delta, which supports important environmental services such as habitats for wildlife, climate and flood regulation, as well as large fishery and agricultural areas. In this study, we present the application of MGB-IPH large scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic model for the Upper Niger Basin, totaling c.a. 650,000 km2 and set up until the city of Niamey in Niger. The model couples hydrological vertical balance and runoff generation with hydrodynamic flood wave propagation, by allowing infiltration from floodplains into soil column as well as representing backwater effects and floodplain storage throughout flat areas such as the Inland Delta. The model is forced with TRMM 3B42 daily precipitation and Climate Research Unit (CRU) climatology for the period 2000-2010, and was calibrated against in-situ discharge gauges and validated with in-situ water level, remotely sensed estimations of flooded areas (classification of MODIS imagery) and satellite altimetry (JASON-2 mission). Model results show good predictions for calibrated daily discharge and validated water level and altimetry at stations both upstream and downstream of the delta (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency>0.7 for all stations), as well as for flooded areas within the delta region (ENS=0.5; r2=0.8), allowing a good representation of flooding dynamics basinwide and simulation of flooding behavior of both perennial (e.g., Niger main stem) and ephemeral rivers (e.g., Niger Red Flood tributaries in Sahel). Coupling between hydrology and hydrodynamic processes indicates an important feedback between floodplain and soil water storage that allows high evapotranspiration rates even after the flood passage around the inner delta area. Also, representation of water retention in floodplain channels and distributaries in the inner delta (e.g., Diaka river

  1. Upper and lower limb muscle activation is bidirectionally and ipsilaterally coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen J; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-09-01

    There are neural connections between the upper and lower limbs of humans that enable muscle activation in one limb pair (upper or lower) to modulate muscle activation in the other limb pair (lower or upper, respectively). The aims of this study were to extend previous findings regarding submaximal exercise to maximal effort exercise and determine whether there is an ipsilateral or contralateral bias to the neural coupling during a rhythmic locomotor-like task. We measured upper and lower limb muscle activity, joint kinematics, and limb forces in neurologically intact subjects (n = 16) as they performed recumbent stepping using different combinations of upper and lower limb efforts. We found increased muscle activation in passive lower limbs during active upper limb effort compared with passive upper limb effort. Likewise, increased muscle activation in passive upper limbs occurred during active lower limb effort compared with passive lower limb effort, suggesting a bidirectional effect. Maximal muscle activation in the active lower limbs was not different between conditions with active upper limb effort and conditions with passive upper limb movement. Similarly, maximal muscle activation in the active upper limbs was not different between conditions with active lower limb effort and conditions with passive lower limb movement. Further comparisons revealed that neural coupling was primarily from active upper limb muscles to passive ipsilateral lower limb muscles. These findings indicate that interlimb neural coupling affects muscle recruitment during maximal effort upper and lower limb rhythmic exercise and provides insight into the architecture of the neural coupling.

  2. Ocean-atmosphere-wave characterisation of a wind jet (Ebro shelf, NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Navarro, Jorge; Pallares, Elena; Ràfols, Laura; Espino, Manuel; Palomares, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution the wind jet dynamics in the northern margin of the Ebro River shelf (NW Mediterranean Sea) are investigated using coupled numerical models. The study area is characterised by persistent and energetic offshore winds during autumn and winter. During these seasons, a seaward wind jet usually develops in a ˜ 50 km wide band offshore. The COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) modelling system was implemented in the region with a set of downscaling meshes to obtain high-resolution meteo-oceanographic outputs. Wind, waves and water currents were compared with in situ observations and remote-sensing-derived products with an acceptable level of agreement. Focused on an intense offshore wind event, the modelled wind jet appears in a limited area offshore with strong spatial variability. The wave pattern during the wind jet is characterised by the development of bimodal directional spectra, and the ocean circulation tends to present well-defined two-layer flow in the shallower region (i.e. inner shelf). The outer shelf tends to be dominated by mesoscale dynamics such as the slope current. Due to the limited fetch length, ocean surface roughness considering sea state (wave-atmosphere coupling) modifies to a small extent the wind and significant wave height under severe cross-shelf wind events. However, the coupling effect in the wind resource assessment may be relevant due to the cubic relation between the wind intensity and power.

  3. A Summer Mode of the North Indian Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S. P.; Kosaka, Y.; Chowdary, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variability in North Indian Ocean surface temperature is traditionally viewed as a passive response to El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) via the atmospheric bridge. This view is being challenged by new studies showing a double peak evolution of North Indian Ocean response to ENSO in sea surface temperature (SST). The first peak, concurrent with El Nino, is readily explained by the atmospheric bridge from the Pacific but the second peak in the post El Nino summer is due to local ocean-atmosphere interactions. First, El Nino excites downwelling ocean Rossby waves in the tropical South Indian Ocean, persisting the El Nino-induced warming. Second, the North Indian Ocean warming excites an anomalous atmospheric anticyclone spanning the tropical Northwest Pacific and the North Indian Ocean. The attendant anomalous easterlies in turn help sustain the ocean warming by reducing the prevailing southwest monsoon. The circular argument signifies the two-way interaction that persists El Nino anomalies through the summer over the Indo-Northwest Pacific. When initialized in spring, this coupled mode of summer is highly predictable. Numerical experiments and hindcasts with coupled models support this mode. Analysis of a long ship track across the North Indian Ocean shows that this summer mode and its correlation with ENSO display pronounced interdecadal modulations, pronounced when ENSO amplitude is large (after the 1970s and at the turn of the 20th century). This coupled mode poses new problems of physical oceanography.

  4. International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) And NCEI Global Marine Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) consists of digital data set DSI-1173, archived at the National Center for Environmental Information...

  5. Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Long Marine Reports Fixed-Length (LMRF) Arctic subset contains marine surface weather reports for regions north...

  6. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) with Enhanced Trimming, Release 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the latest official release of International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) with Enhanced Trimming, provided in a common...

  7. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3.0 - Monthly Summary Groups (MSG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), is the most widely-used freely available collection of surface marine observations,...

  8. International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) in Near-Real Time (NRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Near-Real-Time (NRT) product is an extension of the official ICOADS dataset with preliminary...

  9. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model v2.0.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Zeebe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. LOSCAR's configuration of ocean geometry is flexible and allows for easy switching between modern and paleo-versions. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  10. Assessing the influence of ocean-atmosphere forcing on precipitation and drought characteristics at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian Michael

    Previous studies have demonstrated that ocean-atmosphere forcing by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) significantly influences large-scale hydroclimatic variability. However, the influence of SST anomalies on the stochastic characteristics of regional precipitation and drought is not well understood. This dissertation investigates the influence of SST forcing on hydroclimatic variability at global and regional scales. An ensemble of 20th century atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations is used to evaluate the SST-forced signal and chaotic noise components of simulated seasonal precipitation. Temporal variability and trends in signal and potential predictability (signal-to-noise ratio) are shown to be significant over much of the globe, while variability in noise is not significant over most regions. Results suggest that ocean-atmosphere forcing of seasonal precipitation is not stationary; results are discussed in the contexts of seasonal climate prediction and global climate change. The influence of SST anomalies on stochastic characteristics of precipitation and drought is subsequently evaluated using two ensembles of AGCM simulations forced with observed (interannually varying) SST and their climatological annual cycle, respectively. SST anomalies are shown to significantly increase interannual variability of precipitation and persistence of precipitation anomalies throughout the tropics and some midlatitude regions. With respect to drought, SST anomalies are shown to increase the duration and magnitude of drought events over much of the tropics; outside of the tropics SST anomalies contribute a small increase in likelihood of persistent drought events. Coupled (atmosphere-ocean-land) general circulation models (CGCMs) pose a number of applications to drought research. The final portion of this dissertation evaluates precipitation characteristics and ocean-atmosphere coupling in nine state-of-the-art CGCMs. CGCMs are shown to generally

  11. Computer simulations of neural mechanisms explaining upper and lower limb excitatory neural coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Daniel P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. Methods We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs did not receive supraspinal input such that the only mechanisms available for enhancing output were interlimb coupling gains and sensory feedback gains. Results In a two-CPG model with inhibitory sensory feedback gains, only excitatory gains of ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 26%. In a two-CPG model with excitatory sensory feedback gains, excitatory gains of contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 100%. However, within a given excitatory sensory feedback gain, enhancement due to excitatory interlimb gains could only reach levels up to 20%. Interconnecting four CPGs to have ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling, contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling, and bilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling could enhance

  12. Rapid ocean-atmosphere response to Southern Ocean freshening during the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Christian; Jones, Richard; Phipps, Steven; Thomas, Zoë; Hogg, Alan; Kershaw, Peter; Fogwill, Christopher; Palmer, Jonathan; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Hughen, Konrad; Staff, Richard; Grosvenor, Mark; Golledge, Nicholas; Rasmussen, Sune; Hutchinson, David; Haberle, Simon; Lorrey, Andrew; Boswijk, Gretel

    2017-04-01

    Contrasting Greenland and Antarctic temperature trends during the late last glacial period (60,000 to 11,703 years ago) are thought to be driven by imbalances in the rate of formation of North Atlantic and Antarctic Deep Water (the 'bipolar seesaw'), with cooling in the north leading the onset of warming in the south. Some events, however, appear to have occurred independently of changes in deep water formation but still have a southern expression, implying that an alternative mechanism may have driven some global climatic changes during the glacial. Testing these competing hypotheses is challenging given the relatively large uncertainties associated with correlating terrestrial, marine and ice core records of abrupt change. Here we exploit a bidecadally-resolved 14C calibration dataset obtained from New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to undertake high-precision alignment of key climate datasets spanning 28,400 to 30,400 years ago. We observe no divergence between terrestrial and marine 14C datasets implying limited impact of freshwater hosing on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, an ice-rafted debris event (SA2) in Southern Ocean waters appears to be associated with dramatic synchronous warming over the North Atlantic and contrasting precipitation patterns across the low latitudes. Using a fully coupled climate system model we undertook an ensemble of transient meltwater simulations and find that a southern salinity anomaly can trigger low-latitude temperature changes through barotropic and baroclinic oceanic waves that are atmospherically propagated globally via a Rossby wave train, consistent with contemporary modelling studies. Our results suggest the Antarctic ice sheets and Southern Ocean dynamics may have contributed to some global climatic changes through rapid ocean-atmospheric teleconnections, with implications for past (and future) change.

  13. Upper-tropospheric moistening in response to anthropogenic warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eui-Seok; Soden, Brian; Sohn, B J; Shi, Lei

    2014-08-12

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere strongly regulates the strength of water-vapor feedback, which is the primary process for amplifying the response of the climate system to external radiative forcings. Monitoring changes in upper-tropospheric water vapor and scrutinizing the causes of such changes are therefore of great importance for establishing the credibility of model projections of past and future climates. Here, we use coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations under different climate-forcing scenarios to investigate satellite-observed changes in global-mean upper-tropospheric water vapor. Our analysis demonstrates that the upper-tropospheric moistening observed over the period 1979-2005 cannot be explained by natural causes and results principally from an anthropogenic warming of the climate. By attributing the observed increase directly to human activities, this study verifies the presence of the largest known feedback mechanism for amplifying anthropogenic climate change.

  14. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-qun

    2017-04-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere

  15. [Coordination patterns assessed by a continuous measure of joints coupling during upper limb repetitive movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Silvetti, A; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the coordination patterns between elbow, shoulder and trunk in a motor task consisting of reaching out, picking up a cylinder, and transporting it back by using the Dynamical Systems Theory and calculating the continuous relative phase (CRP), a continuous measure of the coupling between two interacting joints. We used an optoelectronic motion analysis system consisting of eight infra-red ray cameras to detect the movements of nine skin-mounted markers. We calculated the root square of the adjusted coefficient of determination, the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), in order to investigate the repeatability of the joints coordination. The data confirm that the CNS establishes both synergic (i.e. coupling between shoulder and trunk on the frontal plane) and hierarchical (i.e. coupling between elbow-shoulder-trunk on the horizontal plane) relationships among the available degrees of freedom to overcome the complexity due to motor redundancy. The present study describes a method to investigate the organization of the kinematic degrees of freedom during upper limb multi-joint motor tasks that can be useful to assess upper limb repetitive movements.

  16. Modelling studies of possible coupling mechanisms between the upper and middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Alison Louise

    In recent years, the evidence for a correlation between lower atmospheric behaviour and changes in solar activity has increased. This correlation is thought to be associated with complex coupling mechanisms that link the upper and lower regions of the atmosphere. Dynamical processes are believed to play an important role via the influence of large- and small-scale waves that can lead to the transport of energy, momentum and chemical constituents. Compositional and energetic changes that occur as a direct result of changes in solar energy flux are also thought to contribute to the coupling of atmospheric regions. The production and transport of odd nitrogen species is thought to be particularly important, especially following periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity. The UCL Coupled Middle Atmosphere - Thermosphere (CMAT) general circulation model was developed in order to provide a tool to investigate two-way coupling between the Earth's lower and upper atmosphere. This model has been updated to include high-resolution empirical solar flux data and current photoabsorption and ionisation cross sections. Improvements have been made to the chemical scheme, and a new spectral gravity wave parameterisation has been implemented Factors influencing production and loss of odd nitrogen species in the lower thermosphere have been investigated. The representation of nitric oxide in the CMAT model is presented and compared with empirical data. Studies have been carried out to investigate the global production, transport and impact of nitric oxide in the MLT (mesosphere lower thermosphere) region during and following periods of enhanced solar and geomagnetic activity, including a simulation of the 2003 'Halloween super storm'. The effect of the new gravity wave parameterisation on the zonal and meridional wind structure is also investigated along with its effect on the equatorial local diurnal maximum of atomic oxygen and associated OS) 557.7nm green line volume emission rates.

  17. Decadal Variations in Eastern Canada’s Taiga Wood Biomass Production Forced by Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Etienne Boucher; Antoine Nicault; Dominique Arseneault; Yves Bégin; Mehdi Pasha Karami

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we analyze an extensive network of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) ring width and wood density measurements and provide new evidence that wood biomass production is influenced by large-scale, internal ocean-atmosphere processes...

  18. Page 1 Stability of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system - 157 the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2HoCºp, *||ax tay || ) where the low-level winds (UI, VI) are given by. (UI, Vi) - - (U, V)/2, qos represents the saturated moisture corresponding to a background mean SST T. expressed in units of depth of precipitable water. Ho is a projection factor and is. * 2H (Davey and Gill 1987) if all the latent heat is assumed to go to the ...

  19. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamics and Predictability of MJO’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    this current award in spring , 2010, we have contributed to the following subset of accomplishments of the multi-institutional team: a. Constructed a...shallower layer like a conveyor belt. These model results are also supported by the observations. When we calculate correlation coefficients between

  20. Development and Testing of a Coupled Ocean-atmosphere Mesoscale Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    LK, Hodur R (2000) The interaction between hurricane Opal (1995) and a warm core ring in the Gulf of Mexico. Mon Wea Rev 128:1347–1365 Houtekamer PL...and moving and fixed nest options. Results from relatively coarse resolution (∼27-km) ensemble simulations of Hurricanes Hanna and Ike demonstrate...moving and fixed nest options. Results from relatively coarse resolution (???27-km) ensemble simulations of Hurricanes Hanna and Ike demonstrate that

  1. Low-frequency variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system at midlatitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoird, E. van der

    2002-01-01

    The winter-mean climate over the North Atlantic ocean shows a low pressure center near Iceland and a large high pressure center ranging from Florida to Spain. Between these centers, an eastward jet prevails, causing cold and dry winter conditions in Northeast America and moderate conditions in

  2. The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data – HOAPS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andersson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of microwave instruments on satellite platforms allows the retrieval of essential water cycle components at high quality for improved understanding and evaluation of water processes in climate modelling. HOAPS-3, the latest version of the satellite climatology "Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data" provides fields of turbulent heat fluxes, evaporation, precipitation, freshwater flux and related atmospheric variables over the global ice-free ocean. This paper describes the content, methodology and retrievals of the HOAPS climatology. A sophisticated processing chain, including all available Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I instruments aboard the satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program (DMSP and careful inter-sensor calibration, ensures a homogeneous time-series with dense data sampling and hence detailed information of the underlying weather situations. The completely reprocessed data set with a continuous time series from 1987 to 2005 contains neural network based algorithms for precipitation and wind speed and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR based SST fields. Additionally, a new 85 GHz synthesis procedure for the defective SSM/I channels on DMSP F08 from 1988 on has been implemented. Freely available monthly and pentad means, twice daily composites and scan-based data make HOAPS-3 a versatile data set for studying ocean-atmosphere interaction on different temporal and spatial scales. HOAPS-3 data products are available via http://www.hoaps.org.

  3. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  4. Assessing the capability of EOS sensors in measuring ocean-atmosphere moisture exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the Science Synergism Studies to identify interdisciplinary Scientific studies, which could be addressed by the Environmental Observing System (EOS), the techniques being developed to measure ocean-atmosphere moisture exchanges using satellite sensors were evaluated. Studies required to use sensors proposed for EOS were examined. A method has been developed to compute the moisture flux using the wind speed, sea surface temperature, and preciptable water measured by satellite sensors. It relies on a statistical model which predicts surface-level humidity from precipitable water. The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) measures all 3 parameters and was found to be sensitive to the annual cycle and large interannual variations such as the 1982 to 1983 El Nino. There are systematic differences between geophysical parameters measured by Nimbus/SMMR and in situ measurements. After quadratic trends and crosstalks were removed from the parameters through multivariate regressions, the latent heat fluxes computed from SMMR agree with those computed from ship reports to within 30 W/sq m. The poor quality of ship reports may be the cause of a portion of this scatter. Similar results are found using SEASAT/SMMR data. When the scatterometer winds were used instead of the SMMR winds, the difference between the satellite fluxes and the ship fluxes was reduced.

  5. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-12-07

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  6. Identifying the relationship of global oceanic-atmospheric regions to seasonal streamflows of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, K. W.; Shams, M. S.; Anwar, A. H. M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the impact of climate change, Australian rainfall data shows a tendency of incremental change of Australian summer (Dec Feb) rainfall compared to traditional winter (Jun Aug) rainfall and subsequently streamflow pattern. In northern Australia, distinct wet (April Sep) and dry (Oct March) seasons are felt that may have teleconnections with summer and winter precipitation and streamflow. We examine teleconnections between Australian streamflow (ASF), Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs), 500 mb Meridional Wind (U­500), and 500 mb Geopotential Height (Z500) data fields using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). This study examines the teleconnections over a period of 41 years (1971 2011) by examining the climate drivers of ASF on typical seasonal variations. First, we analysed the SST-ASF teleconnection using SVD and then correlated the results with the Z500 and U500 fields to further map the impact of the teleconnection. The output of the SVD analysis displayed both positive and negative significantly correlated ocean-atmospheric regions (95% significant) with corresponding ASF gauges. The results identified various regions within the SST/U500/Z500 fields that appear to be driving ASF during the study time period. For example, dry season U500 correlated contours displayed better positive correlation in the regions approximately within 30°N and 160°E to 150°W and 20°S and 150°E to 140°W. Similarly, mixed positive and negative correlated regions with ASF were identified for winter wet seasons. The relationship of Z500 with ASF showed better positive correlation in the regions approximately between 20°S and 90°E to 120°E. But the correlation of U500 with ASF showed an isolation of negatively correlated regions approximately within 40°S and 110°E to 90°E. These selective correlated regions based on teleconnection can potentially help long-lead streamflow forecasting of Australian rivers.

  7. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3 Final, Individual Reports in the International Maritime Meteorological Archive Format version 1 (IMMA1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), is the most widely-used freely available collection of surface marine observations,...

  8. Mechanical analyses of the waveguide flange coupling for the first confinement system of the ITER electron cyclotron upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas Sánchez, Avelino, E-mail: avelino.massanchez@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bertizzolo, Robert; Chavan, René [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gagliardi, Mario [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Goodman, Timothy; Landis, Jean-Daniel [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saibene, Gabriella [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Santos Silva, Phillip [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A double-metallic-seal waveguide flange coupling, capable of withstanding the expected load specification, has been designed. • The numerical simulations have shown that bending is the dominant load configuration for the current coupling concept. • The numerical studies indicate that an excessive seal decompression will not occur due to the expected load configurations. • Experimental tests show a good agreement with the results obtained in the numerical analyses. - Abstract: The four electron cyclotron (EC) upper port antennas (or “upper launchers” —UL) will be used to drive current locally inside magnetic islands located at the q = 2 (or smaller) rational surfaces in order to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), as well as heat inside of ρ of about 0.4. Each antenna consists of eight beam lines that are designed for the transmission of 1.5 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz. The First Confinement System (FCS) is formed by the ex-vessel mm-wave waveguide components, for which SIC-1 classification requirements apply. The beam lines in the FCS comprise a Z shaped set of straight corrugated waveguides with a nominal diameter of 50 mm connected by miter bends. This system is subjected to imposed displacements coming mainly from the thermal expansion of the vacuum vessel, seismic events and/or plasma disruption events. In absence of suitable SIC-1 waveguide bellows, the FCS waveguides must provide the necessary mechanical functional compliance. This has required the development of a dedicated, flange type coupling system with double metallic seals, capable of resisting the generated external loads while maintaining vacuum tightness and alignment. This paper presents the results of the design, analysis and pre-qualification experimental work done on the waveguides and the integrated SIC-1 compliant coupling system.

  9. From 3D gravity to coupled fluid and heat transport modelling - a case study from the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Numerical models that predict and help to understand subsurface hydrothermal conditions are key to reduce the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. Such simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport need a reliable 3D structural model. Therefore, we use an integrated approach of data-based 3D structural, gravity, conductive thermal and thermo-hydraulic coupled modelling. The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is known for its large potential for deep geothermal energy that is already used in e.g. Soultz-sous-Forêts. In the frame of the EU-funded project "IMAGE" (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration, grant agreement no. 608553), we assess the dominant processes and effective physical properties that control the deep thermal field of the URG. Therefore, we have built a lithospheric-scale 3D structural model of the URG by integrating existing data-based 3D models, deep seismic reflection and refraction profiles, as well as receiver function data. 3D gravity modelling was used to assess the internal configuration of the upper crystalline crust in addition to deep seismic lines. The resulting gravity-constrained 3D structural model was then used as base to calculate the 3D conductive thermal field. An analysis of deviations between measured and calculated temperatures revealed that heat transport connected to fluid circulation is probably relevant at depths above 2500 m. To test this hypotheses smaller-scale and higher resolution models for coupled fluid and heat transport were simulated. We present the results from this combined workflow considering 3D gravity and 3D thermal modelling.

  10. Response of the ocean-atmosphere system to external forcing. Reaktsiia sistemy okean-atmosfera na vneshnie vozdeistviia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, B.A.; Riabchenko, V.A.; Safrai, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Data existing on the state of the present-day ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere-lithosphere climatic system and on its variability on the geological time scale are systematized. Special attention is given to the principles of constructing zero-dimensional, box-type, one-dimensional, zonal, and three-dimensional models of the system, as well as to the methods for studying the system's sensitivity. Results are presented on numerical experiments investigating the response of the system to changes in the land and the ocean areas, atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the surface albedo, and the soil-moisture content.

  11. Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) Version 5.0, Rev. 2.0 (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    command vi can be used to open the script: vi setup_nrlssc 2. Set the wall time, which is the actual time taken by a computer to complete a run...SWAN grid setup. SWAN actually uses the NCOM setup for part of its grid setup. • lwav- The number of vertical depths for wave forcing input...fort.35), 5) Listing of MVOI observations (fort.36), 6) Synthetics (direct and MODAS ) for MODAS , including rejections and editing results (fort

  12. Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), Version 5.0, Revision 2.0 (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    command vi can be used to open the script: vi setup_nrlssc 2. Set the wall time, which is the actual time taken by a computer to complete a run...SWAN grid setup. SWAN actually uses the NCOM setup for part of its grid setup. • lwav- The number of vertical depths for wave forcing input...fort.35), 5) Listing of MVOI observations (fort.36), 6) Synthetics (direct and MODAS ) for MODAS , including rejections and editing results (fort

  13. Lagged effects of the Mistral wind on heavy precipitation through ocean-atmosphere coupling in the region of Valencia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthou, Ségolène; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe; Arsouze, Thomas; Bastin, Sophie; Béranger, Karine; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy

    2016-05-01

    The region of Valencia in Spain has historically been affected by heavy precipitation events (HPEs). These HPEs are known to be modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Balearic Sea. Using an atmosphere-ocean regional climate model, we show that more than 70 % of the HPEs in the region of Valencia present a SST cooling larger than the monthly trend in the Northwestern Mediterranean before the HPEs. This is linked to the breaking of a Rossby wave preceding the HPEs: a ridge-trough pattern at mid-levels centered over western France associated with a low-level depression in the Gulf of Genoa precedes the generation of a cut-off low over southern Spain with a surface depression over the Alboran Sea in the lee of the Atlas. This latter situation is favourable to the advection of warm and moist air towards the Mediterranean Spanish coast, possibly leading to HPEs. The depression in the Gulf of Genoa generates intense northerly (Mistral) to northwesterly (Tramontane/Cierzo) winds. In most cases, these intense winds trigger entrainment at the bottom of the oceanic mixed layer which is a mechanism explaining part of the SST cooling in most cases. Our study suggests that the SST cooling due to this strong wind regime then persists until the HPEs and reduces the precipitation intensity.

  14. Validation and analysis of the coupled multiple response Colorado upper-division electrostatics diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Standardized conceptual assessment represents a widely used tool for educational researchers interested in student learning within the standard undergraduate physics curriculum. For example, these assessments are often used to measure student learning across educational contexts and instructional strategies. However, to support the large-scale implementation often required for cross-institutional testing, it is necessary for these instruments to have question formats that facilitate easy grading. Previously, we created a multiple-response version of an existing, validated, upper-division electrostatics diagnostic with the goal of increasing the instrument’s potential for large-scale implementation. Here, we report on the validity and reliability of this new version as an independent instrument. These findings establish the validity of the multiple-response version as measured by multiple test statistics including item difficulty, item discrimination, and internal consistency. Moreover, we demonstrate that the majority of student responses to the new version are internally consistent even when they are incorrect and provide an example of how the new format can be used to gain insight into student difficulties with specific content in electrostatics.

  15. Coupled aerosol-chemical modeling of UARS HNO3 and N2O5 measurements in the Arctic upper stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, S.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Pyle, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Smith, S. E.; Grainger, R. G.; Lambert, A.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.

    1997-04-01

    Gas-phase photochemical models do not account for the formation of a secondary altitude HNO3 maximum in the upper stratosphere at high latitudes during winter, suggesting that some processes are missing in the currently accepted chemistry of reactive nitrogen species [Kawa et al, 1995]. Heterogeneous chemistry on aerosol particles had been discounted as the cause because the aerosol surface area is expected to be very low at these altitudes. We have coupled a sulphate aerosol microphysical model to a chemical transport model to investigate this model deficiency in the Arctic during January 1992. The aerosol model predicts the formation of small sulphate particles at 1100 K. Comparisons with cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer (CLAES) HNO3 and improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (ISAMS) N2O5 observations show that the heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on the modeled small sulphate particles can account for some of the unexpected features seen in Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) observations.

  16. Nonbreaking wave-induced mixing in upper ocean during tropical cyclones using coupled hurricane-ocean-wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijaz, S.; Ghantous, M.; Babanin, A. V.; Ginis, I.; Thomas, B.; Wake, G.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of turbulence generated by nonbreaking waves have been investigated by testing and evaluating a new nonbreaking wave parameterization in a coupled hurricane-ocean-wave model. The MPI version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with hurricane forcing is coupled with the WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) surface wave model. Hurricane Ivan is chosen as the test case due to its extreme intensity and availability of field data during its passage. The model results are validated against field observations of wave heights and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the National Data Buoy Centre (NDBC) during Hurricane Ivan and against limited in situ current and bottom temperature data. A series of numerical experiments is set up to examine the influence of the nonbreaking wave parameterization on the mixing of upper ocean. The SST response from the modeling experiments indicates that the nonbreaking wave-induced mixing leads to significant cooling of the SST and deepening of the mixed layer. It was found that the nondimensional constant b1 in the nonbreaking wave parameterization has different impacts on the weak and the strong sides of the storm track. A constant value of b1 leads to improved predictions on the strong side of the storm while a steepness-dependent b1 provides a better agreement with in situ observations on the weak side. A separate simulation of the intense tropical cyclone Olwyn in north-west Australia revealed the same trend for b1 on the strong side of the tropical cyclone.

  17. Tropical ocean-atmospheric forcing of Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, Nathan D.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Rodbell, Donald T.; Mark, Bryan G.

    2017-05-01

    Evaluating the timing and style of past glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes is important for our scientific understanding of global environmental change. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide ages on moraine boulders combined with 14C-dated clastic sediment records from alpine lakes document glacial variability in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru during the last 16 ka. Late Glacial ice extents culminated at the start of the Antarctic Cold Reversal and began retracting prior to the Younger Dryas. Multiple moraine crests dating to the early Holocene mark brief readvances or stillstands that punctuated overall retreat of the Queshque Valley glacier terminus during this interval. Glaciers were less extensive during the middle Holocene before readvancing during the latest Holocene. These records suggest that tropical Atlantic and Pacific ocean-atmospheric processes exerted temporally variable forcing of Late Glacial and Holocene glacial changes in the Peruvian Andes.

  18. Feedbacks between hydrological processes in tropical South America and large-scale ocean-atmospheric phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda Jaramillo, Germán; Mesa Sánchez, Óscar José

    1997-01-01

    The hydroclimatology of tropical South America is strongly coupled to low-frequency large-scale oceanic and atmospheric phenomena occurring over the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. In particular, El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects climatic and hydrologic conditions on timescales ranging from seasons to decades. With some regional differences in timing and amplitude, tropical South America exhibits negative rainfall and streamflow anomalies in association with the low–wa...

  19. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso- to planetary-scale. Mechanics, parameterization, and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Small, Justin [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Most climate models are currently run with grid spacings of around 100km, which, with today’s computing power, allows for long (up to 1000 year) simulations, or ensembles of simulations to explore climate change and variability. However this grid spacing does not resolve important components of the weather/climate system such as atmospheric fronts and mesoscale systems, and ocean boundary currents and eddies. The overall aim of this project has been to look at the effect of these small-scale features on the weather/climate system using a suite of high and low resolution climate models, idealized models and observations. High-resolution global coupled integrations using CAM/CESM were carried out at NCAR by the lead PI. At TAMU, we have complemented the work at NCAR by analyzing datasets from the high-resolution (28km) CESM integrations (Small et al., 2014) as well as very high resolution (9km, 3km) runs using a coupled regional climate (CRCM) carried out locally. The main tasks carried out were: 1. Analysis of surface wind in observations and high-resolution CAM/CCSM simulations 2. Development of a feature-tracking algorithm for studying midlatitude air-sea interaction by following oceanic mesoscale eddies and creating composites of the atmospheric response overlying the eddies. 3. Applying the Lagrangian analysis technique in the Gulf Stream region to compare data from observational reanalyses, global CESM coupled simulations, 9km regional coupled simulations and 3km convection-resolving regional coupled simulations. Our main findings are that oceanic mesoscale eddies influence not just the atmospheric boundary layer above them, but also the lower portions of the free troposphere above the boundary layer. Such a vertical response could have implications for a remote influence of Gulf Stream oceanic eddies on North Atlantic weather patterns through modulation of the storm track, similar to what has been noted in the North Pacific. The coarse resolution

  20. Coupled multiple-response versus free-response conceptual assessment: An example from upper-division physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Free-response research-based assessments, like the Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics Diagnostic (CUE, provide rich, fine-grained information about students’ reasoning. However, because of the difficulties inherent in scoring these assessments, the majority of the large-scale conceptual assessments in physics are multiple choice. To increase the scalability and usability of the CUE, we set out to create a new version of the assessment that preserves the insights afforded by a free-response format while exploiting the logistical advantages of a multiple-choice assessment. We used our extensive database of responses to the free-response CUE to construct distractors for a new version where students can select multiple responses and receive partial credit based on the accuracy and consistency of their selections. Here, we describe the development of this modified CUE format, which we call coupled multiple response (CMR, and present data from direct comparisons of both versions. We find that the two formats have the same average score and perform similarly on multiple measures of validity and reliability, suggesting that the new version is a potentially viable alternative to the original CUE for the purpose of large-scale research-based assessment. We also compare the details of student responses on each of the two versions. While the CMR version does not capture the full scope of potential student responses, nearly three-quarters of our students’ responses to the free-response version contained one or more elements that matched options provided on the CMR version.

  1. Coupled multiple-response versus free-response conceptual assessment: An example from upper-division physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2014-12-01

    Free-response research-based assessments, like the Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics Diagnostic (CUE), provide rich, fine-grained information about students' reasoning. However, because of the difficulties inherent in scoring these assessments, the majority of the large-scale conceptual assessments in physics are multiple choice. To increase the scalability and usability of the CUE, we set out to create a new version of the assessment that preserves the insights afforded by a free-response format while exploiting the logistical advantages of a multiple-choice assessment. We used our extensive database of responses to the free-response CUE to construct distractors for a new version where students can select multiple responses and receive partial credit based on the accuracy and consistency of their selections. Here, we describe the development of this modified CUE format, which we call coupled multiple response (CMR), and present data from direct comparisons of both versions. We find that the two formats have the same average score and perform similarly on multiple measures of validity and reliability, suggesting that the new version is a potentially viable alternative to the original CUE for the purpose of large-scale research-based assessment. We also compare the details of student responses on each of the two versions. While the CMR version does not capture the full scope of potential student responses, nearly three-quarters of our students' responses to the free-response version contained one or more elements that matched options provided on the CMR version.

  2. Statistical and dynamical assessment of land-ocean-atmosphere interactions across North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan

    impacts is evaluated through ensembles of fully coupled CESM dynamical experiments, with modified leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture across the Sahel or West African Monsoon (WAM) region. The atmospheric responses to oceanic and terrestrial forcings are generally consistent between the dynamical experiments and statistical GEFA, confirming GEFA's capability of isolating the individual impacts of oceanic and terrestrial forcings on North African climate. Furthermore, with the incorporation of stepwise selection, GEFA can now provide reliable estimates of the oceanic and terrestrial impacts on the North African climate with the typical length of observational datasets, thereby enhancing the method's applicability. After the successful validation of GEFA, the key observed oceanic and terrestrial drivers of North African climate are identified through the application of GEFA to gridded observations, remote sensing products, and reanalyses. According to GEFA, oceanic drivers dominate over terrestrial drivers in terms of their observed impacts on North African climate in most seasons. Terrestrial impacts are comparable to, or more important than, oceanic impacts on rainfall during the post-monsoon across the Sahel and WAM region, and after the short rain across the Horn of Africa (HOA). The key ocean basins that regulate North African rainfall are typically located in the tropics. While the observed impacts of SST variability across the tropical Pacific and tropical Atlantic Oceans on the Sahel rainfall are largely consistent with previous model-based findings, minimal impacts from tropical Indian Ocean variability on Sahel rainfall are identified in observations, in contrast to previous modeling studies. The current observational analysis verifies model-hypothesized positive vegetation-rainfall feedback across the Sahel and HOA, which is confined to the post-monsoon and post-short rains season, respectively. However, the observed positive vegetation feedback to rainfall

  3. Ocean-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in the 21st century and the competing effects of temperature and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Claudia; Stevenson, David; Heal, Mathew; Sutton, Mark; Buitenhuis, Erik; Fowler, David

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia is the principal alkaline gas in the atmosphere. It therefore plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry, reacting with sulphuric and nitric acids to form ammonium aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei and negatively impact human health. Anthropogenic ammonia emissions are increasing rapidly in many areas of the world, and are expected to increase dramatically in the future due to the strong effect of temperature on the emission of ammonia. It is therefore of interest to understand the impact of increasing temperatures, atmospheric CO2, and anthropogenic ammonia emissions on the ocean-atmosphere exchange of ammonia. Global scale estimates of this exchange are difficult to constrain due to the variability of fluxes and the difficulties in measuring them. A modelling approach is therefore required. An interactive scheme for the global exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and the ocean was developed, and implemented in both an offline physico-chemical model, and the global atmospheric chemistry and aerosol model UKCA-CLASSIC. The scheme takes into account future projections of changes in temperature, terrestrial ammonia emissions, and ocean pH. Results show that ocean acidification has the largest effect, leading to a decrease in global ocean ammonia emissions from a range of 2.8 to 6.6 Tg-N/yr for the present day to a range of -1.1 to 2.3 Tg-N/yr for 2100 (RCP 8.5), suggesting this is one of several routes through which the flux of nitrogen to the oceans will increase in the future.

  4. Intended and unintended (sensory-)motor coupling between the affected and unaffected upper limb in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, P.J.M.; Peper, C.E.; Marinus, J.; Van Hilten, J.J.; Beek, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been associated with bilateral malfunction of sensory and motor circuits, which hints at abnormal coupling between the affected and the contralateral unaffected limb. In addition, clinical observations suggest that motor

  5. New Planetary Energy Balance, Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and their Effects on Extreme Events in North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2016-04-01

    Global warming has now reached the energetic phase of H2O's return to the ground after the saturation of the atmosphere in evaporation since the 80s and 90s of the last century, which were characterized by severe droughts, mainly in Africa. This phase is the result of the accumulation of thermal energy exchanges in the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere system that resulted in the thrust reversal of the energy balance toward the poles. This situation is characterized by a new thermal distribution: above the ocean, the situation is more in surplus compared to the mainland, or even opposite when the balance is negative on the land, and in the atmosphere, warm thermal advection easily reach the North Pole (planetary crests), as well as cold advection push deep into North Africa and the Gulf of Mexico (planetary valleys). This "New Ground Energy Balance" establishes a "New Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC)" with an undulating character throughout the year, including the winter characterized by intense latitudinal very active energy exchanges between the surplus areas (tropical) and the deficit (polar) on the one hand, and the atmosphere, the ocean and the continent on the other. The excess radiation balance increases the potential evaporation of the atmosphere and provides a new geographical distribution of H2O worldwide: the excess water vapor is easily converted by cold advection (polar vortex) to heavy rains that cause floods or snow storms that paralyze the normal functioning of human activities, which creates many difficulties for users and leaves damage and casualties, but ensures water availability missing since a long time in many parts of the world, in Africa, Europe and America. The new thermal distribution reorganizes the geography of atmospheric pressure: the ocean energy concentration is transmitted directly to the atmosphere, and the excess torque is pushed northward. The Azores anticyclone is strengthened and is a global lock by the Atlantic ridge at Greenland

  6. European Geophysical Society (23rd) General Assembly, Annales Geophysicae. Part 2. Hydrology, Oceans & Atmosphere, Supplement 2 to Volume 16 Held in Nice, France on 20-24 April 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    management in the Mediterranean for efficient water use C 535 II.2 OCEANS & ATMOSPHERE (OA) OA1 The thermohaline circulation C 536 OA2...rivers of (he basin. Is de- lected as of concentration of nutrient matters (N02", NO,", rvV -) cyclical ostll- lalloru. It I* discovered that phases of...have implications for the sustainability of agricultural cultivation on shallow soils OCEANS & ATMOSPHERE (OA) OA1 The thermohaline circulation

  7. Global response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton in a coupled climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The global climate response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton is investigated by performing multi-century simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere-biogeochemistry model. The absorption of solar radiation by phytoplankton increases radiative heating in the near-surface ocean and raises sea surface temperature (SST) by overall {approx}0.5 C. The resulting increase in evaporation enhances specific atmospheric humidity by 2-5%, thereby increasing the Earth's greenhouse effect and the atmospheric temperatures. The Hadley Cell exhibits a weakening and poleward expansion, therefore reducing cloudiness at subtropical-middle latitudes and increasing it at tropical latitudes except near the Equator. Higher SST at polar latitudes reduces sea ice cover and albedo, thereby increasing the high-latitude ocean absorption of solar radiation. Changes in the atmospheric baroclinicity cause a poleward intensification of mid-latitude westerly winds in both hemispheres. As a result, the North Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation extends more northward, and the equatorward Ekman transport is enhanced in the Southern Ocean. The combination of local and dynamical processes decreases upper-ocean heat content in the Tropics and in the subpolar Southern Ocean, and increases it at middle latitudes. This study highlights the relevance of coupled ocean-atmosphere processes in the global climate response to phytoplankton solar absorption. Given that simulated impacts of phytoplankton on physical climate are within the range of natural climate variability, this study suggests the importance of phytoplankton as an internal constituent of the Earth's climate and its potential role in participating in its long-term climate adjustments. (orig.)

  8. A Ship Collision Analysis Program Based on Upper Bound Solutions and Coupled with a Large Rotational Ship Movement Analysis Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Le Sourne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a user-friendly rapid prediction tool of damage to struck and striking vessels in a ship collision event. To do this, the so-called upper bound theorem is applied to calculate internal forces and energies of any substructure involved in the ships crushing process. At each increment of indentation, the total crushing force is transmitted to the external dynamics MCOL program, which calculates the global ship motion correction by solving the hydrodynamic force equilibrium equations. As a first step, the paper gives a brief description of the upper bound method originally developed for perpendicular collisions and recently enhanced for oblique ones. Then, the theory developed in MCOL program for large rotational ship movements is detailed. By comparing results obtained with and without MCOL, the importance of hydrodynamic effects is highlighted. Some simulation results are compared with results provided by classical nonlinear finite element calculations. Finally, by using the developed analytical tool, which mixes internal and external dynamics, different crushing scenarios including oblique collisions are investigated and the influence of some collision parameters like longitudinal and vertical impact location, impact angle, and struck ship velocity is studied.

  9. Simulation of snowstorm over the Yellow Sea using a mesoscale coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ki-Young; Kim, Kyung-Eak; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Park, Kwang-Soon; Jun, Ki-Cheon; Shim, Jae-Seol; Suh, Young-Sang

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to examine the favorable conditions for an ocean effect snowstorm across the Yellow Sea over the southwestern coast of Korea on 21 December 2005, using a coupled model with a Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System as the atmospheric component and the Regional Ocean Modeling System as the oceanic component. Simulation of heavy snowfall event, which was 44.3 cm of snow accumulated in 24-hour, was performed to investigate the mesoscale structure, dynamics and development mechanisms in the snowstorm. As a result from 48-hour integration, the results of simulation showed that barotropic instability and turbulent heat fluxes played important roles in the formation of snowstorm. The enhanced surface diabatic heating was dominant in the latent heat flux, and eventually induced convective instability. An additional factor was the favorable condition of synoptic environment, accessing the cold air transport by the approach of the upper-level cold vortex over the warm ocean. Besides these factors, conditional symmetric instability (CSI) is a mechanism which can result in a heavy snowfall with sufficient moisture and upward vertical motion. A slantwise convection from the release of CSI could support a complex snowfall event with heavier than expected amounts. The result comparison between a coupled model and an uncoupled model supports that airsea coupling has an impact of decreasing of about 10% in a snowfall amount on the snowstorm.

  10. Indirect Effects of Conservation Policies on the Coupled Human-Natural Ecosystem of the Upper Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038), directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008) levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider ecological and

  11. Indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper Gulf of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna

    Full Text Available High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038, directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008 levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider

  12. Indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H; Kaplan, Isaac C; Levin, Phillip S; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038), directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008) levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider ecological and

  13. Solar wind interaction with Mars Upper atmosphere: Results from the one-way coupling between the Multi-fluid MHD model and the M-TGCM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Nagy, A. F.; Brain, D. A.; Najib, D.

    2012-12-01

    The study of the solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere/ionosphere has triggered great interest in recent years. Among the large number of topics in this research area, the investigation of ion escape rates has become increasingly important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3D Mars neutral atmosphere profiles from the well-regarded Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model (M-TGCM) and one-way couple it with the 3D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD model that solves separate momentum equations for each ion species. The M-TGCM model takes into account the effects of the solar cycle (solar minimum: F10.7=70 and solar maximum: F10.7=200 with equinox condition: Ls=0), allowing us to investigate the effects of the solar cycle on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling, i.e., the M-TGCM model outputs are used as inputs for the multi-fluid MHD model. A case for solar maximum with extremely high solar wind parameters is also investigated to estimate how high the escape flux can be for such an extreme case. Moreover, the ion escape flux along a satellite trajectory will be studied. This has the potential to provide predictions of ion escape rates for comparison to future data to be returned by the MAVEN mission (2012-2016). In order to make the code run more efficiently, we adopt a more appropriate grid structure compared to the one used previously. This new grid structure will benefit us to investigate the effects of some dynamic events (such as CME and dust storm) on the ion escape flux.

  14. Literature Review on the Effects of tDCS Coupled with Robotic Therapy in Post Stroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Simonetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today neurological diseases such as stroke represent one of the leading cause of long-term disability. Many research efforts have been focused on designing new and effective rehabilitation strategies. In particular, robotic treatment for upper limb stroke rehabilitation has received significant attention due to its ability to provide high-intensity and repetitive movement therapy with less effort than traditional methods. In addition, the development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has also demonstrated the capability of modulating brain excitability thus increasing motor performance. The combination of these two methods is expected to enhance functional and motor recovery after stroke; to this purpose, the current trends in this research field are presented and discussed through an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art. The heterogeneity and the restricted number of collected studies make difficult to perform a systematic review. However, the literature analysis of the published data seems to demonstrate that the association of tDCS with robotic training has the same clinical gain derived from robotic therapy alone. Future studies should investigate combined approach tailored to the individual patient's characteristics, critically evaluating the brain areas to be targeted and the induced functional changes.

  15. Literature Review on the Effects of tDCS Coupled with Robotic Therapy in Post Stroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Davide; Zollo, Loredana; Milighetti, Stefano; Miccinilli, Sandra; Bravi, Marco; Ranieri, Federico; Magrone, Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Sterzi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Today neurological diseases such as stroke represent one of the leading cause of long-term disability. Many research efforts have been focused on designing new and effective rehabilitation strategies. In particular, robotic treatment for upper limb stroke rehabilitation has received significant attention due to its ability to provide high-intensity and repetitive movement therapy with less effort than traditional methods. In addition, the development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has also demonstrated the capability of modulating brain excitability thus increasing motor performance. The combination of these two methods is expected to enhance functional and motor recovery after stroke; to this purpose, the current trends in this research field are presented and discussed through an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art. The heterogeneity and the restricted number of collected studies make difficult to perform a systematic review. However, the literature analysis of the published data seems to demonstrate that the association of tDCS with robotic training has the same clinical gain derived from robotic therapy alone. Future studies should investigate combined approach tailored to the individual patient's characteristics, critically evaluating the brain areas to be targeted and the induced functional changes.

  16. Coupling of Markov chains and cellular automata spatial models to predict land cover changes (case study: upper Ci Leungsi catchment area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, K.; Zulkarnain, F.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2016-11-01

    Land cover changes particular in urban catchment area has been rapidly occur. Land cover changes occur as a result of increasing demand for built-up area. Various kinds of environmental and hydrological problems e.g. floods and urban heat island can happen if the changes are uncontrolled. This study aims to predict land cover changes using coupling of Markov chains and cellular automata. One of the most rapid land cover changes is occurs at upper Ci Leungsi catchment area that located near Bekasi City and Jakarta Metropolitan Area. Markov chains has a good ability to predict the probability of change statistically while cellular automata believed as a powerful method in reading the spatial patterns of change. Temporal land cover data was obtained by remote sensing satellite imageries. In addition, this study also used multi-criteria analysis to determine which driving factor that could stimulate the changes such as proximity, elevation, and slope. Coupling of these two methods could give better prediction model rather than just using it separately. The prediction model was validated using existing 2015 land cover data and shown a satisfactory kappa coefficient. The most significant increasing land cover is built-up area from 24% to 53%.

  17. Solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere: Results from the one-way coupling between the multifluid MHD model and the MTGCM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bougher, Stephen W.; Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Nagy, Andrew F.; Najib, Dalal

    2014-04-01

    The 3-D multifluid Block Adaptive Tree Solar-wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) MHD code (MF-MHD) is coupled with the 3-D Mars Thermospheric general circulation model (MTGCM). The ion escape rate from the Martian upper atmosphere is investigated by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., the MF-MHD model incorporates the effects of 3-D neutral atmosphere profiles from the MTGCM model. The calculations are carried out for two cases with different solar cycle conditions. The calculated total ion escape flux (the sum of three major ionospheric species, O+, O2+, and CO2+) for solar cycle maximum conditions (6.6×1024 s-1) is about 2.6 times larger than that of solar cycle minimum conditions (2.5×1024 s-1). Our simulation results show good agreement with recent observations of 2-3×1024 s-1 (O+, O2+, and CO2+) measured near solar cycle minimum conditions by Mars Express. An extremely high solar wind condition is also simulated which may mimic the condition of coronal mass ejections or corotating interaction regions passing Mars. Simulation results show that it can lead to a significant value of the escape flux as large as 4.3×1025s-1.

  18. Absorption of PCB126 by upper airways impairs G protein-coupled receptor-mediated immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ana Lúcia B.; Cruz, Wesley S.; Loiola, Rodrigo A.; Drewes, Carine C.; Dörr, Fabiane; Figueiredo, Natália G.; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2015-10-01

    PCB126 is a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) environmental pollutant with a significant impact on human health, as it bioaccumulates and causes severe toxicity. PCB126-induced immune toxicity has been described, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an in vivo protocol of PCB126 intoxication into male Wistar rats by intranasal route was used, which has not yet been described. The intoxication was characterised by PCB126 accumulation in the lungs and liver, and enhanced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and adipose tissues. Moreover, an innate immune deficiency was characterised by impairment of adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes and by reduced blood neutrophil locomotion and oxidative burst activation elicited by ex vivo G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Specificity of PCB126 actions on the GPCR pathway was shown by normal burst oxidative activation evoked by Toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C direct activation. Moreover, in vivo PCB180 intoxication did not alter adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes either blood neutrophil locomotion, and only partially reduced the GPCR-induced burst oxidative activation on neutrophils. Therefore, a novel mechanism of in vivo PCB126 toxicity is described which impairs a pivotal inflammatory pathway to the host defence against infections.

  19. The role of the southern annular mode in dynamical global coupled model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, AF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interannual and decadal variability of the Southern Annual Mode (SAM) was examined in the ECHAM 4.5-MOM3-SA ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model (OAGCM). The analysis placed emphasis on the behavior of the SAM when its variability...

  20. A global hybrid coupled model based on Atmosphere-SST feedbacks

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2011-01-01

    A global hybrid coupled model is developed, with the aim of studying the effects of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks on the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The model includes a global ocean general circulation model and a statistical atmosphere model. The statistical atmosphere model is based on linear regressions of data from a fully coupled climate model on sea surface temperature both locally and hemispherically averaged, being the footprint of Atlantic meridional overturning variability. It provides dynamic boundary conditions to the ocean model for heat, freshwater and wind-stress. A basic but consistent representation of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks is captured in the hybrid coupled model and it is more than ten times faster than the fully coupled climate model. The hybrid coupled model reaches a steady state with a climate close to the one of the fully coupled climate model, and the two models also have a similar response (collapse) of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulati...

  1. How Sensitive is the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Partitioning to Changes in Remineralization Rates of Biogenic Material in the Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, E.; Primeau, F.

    2006-12-01

    We use a 3D ocean biogeochemistry model coupled to an atmospheric box model to study the equilibrium response of atmospheric CO_2 to changes in the remineralization rates of calcium carbonate and particulate and dissolved organic matter. Our focus is on understanding how the three dimensional redistribution of biogeochemical tracers affect the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean. We present a sensitivity analysis that quantifies how dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and nutrients are redistributed as a result of changes in the remineralization parameters. The resulting sensitivity patterns are further analyzed using a novel decomposition technique that allows us to quantify the impact of the parameter changes on the strength of the potential soft-tissue pump, the potential hard-tissue counter pump and the gas-exchange pump. The three dimensional view of the pump components elucidates how the changes in remineralization length scales couple with the ocean circulation to affect air-sea carbon fluxes.

  2. Toward an improved representation of ocean/atmosphere interactions in high-resolution global ocean forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Florian; Samson, Guillaume; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Giordani, Hervé; Madec, Gurvan; Couvelard, Xavier; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Drillet, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Within the ALBATROS project, an objective is to derive a simplified model of the marine atmospheric boundary layer which would have the ability to represent key processes associated to air/sea interactions at the characteristic scales of the oceanic mesoscale. This model called SIMBAD (SIMplified Boundary Atmospheric layer moDel) is of intermediate complexity between a bulk parameterization and a full three-dimensional atmospheric model. A one-dimensional version of SIMBAD forced by large-scale atmospheric real-time data from ECMWF operational models has been integrated to the NEMO surface module and appropriate preprocessing tools have been developed. In this talk we first introduce the formulation of SIMBAD1d model and the results obtained for some atmosphere-only analytical testcases available in the literature. Then we describe the implementation of the NEMO-SIMBAD1d coupling infrastructure. This coupled system has been tested on a toy model at 1/12° resolution covering a small area of the north-east atlantic ocean. We conclude by giving the various possibilities to relax the assumption of horizontal homogeneity behind SIMBAD1d in order to further improve the realism of the coupling.

  3. Validation Test Report for the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere MesoscalePrediction System (COAMPS) Version 5.0: Ocean/Wave Component Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    following mechanisms: 1) Stokes drift current ( SDC ) in which a particle floating at the free surface experiences a net drift velocity in the...forcing fields are passed from SWAN to NCOM. SDC causes ocean current speeds to increase, but enhanced vertical mixing in the surface mixed layer...increased shear) will decrease currents. The SDC also tends to increase bottom stress. Ocean model water levels can modify the water depth used in wave

  4. Performance of a Dynamic Initialization Scheme in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System for Tropical Cyclones (COAMPS-TC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    hypotenuse of the black right triangle indicates the approximate location of the ocean surface. 654 W E A T H E R A N D F O R E C A S T I N G VOLUME 26...become a category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 115 kt at 0600 UTC 19 August. After passing approxi- mately 125 n mi west of Bermuda , Bill

  5. Air-Sea Interaction in the Ligurian Sea: Assessment of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Using In Situ Data from LASIE07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    group at CNR’s Istituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera e del Clima ( ISAC ) in Rome, Italy (GOS-CNR, Marullo et al. 2007). For analysis of SST at the coastal...CNR-ISSIA (Italy), for pro- vision of ODAS data; Bruno Buongiorno, CNR- ISAC (Italy), for helpful interpretations of the satellite SST data- set; and

  6. Dynamical seasonal climate prediction using an ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model developed in partnership between South Africa and the IRI

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, AF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ocean state for all ensemble members which fall within the proximity of the forecast date 207 (in our case the 4th of each month). The uncertainties which arise from the initial 208 conditions are accounted for by taking 10 consecutive daily... atmospheric states back from 209 the forecast date in each month and year. For the November hindcasts for example the 210 atmospheric initial conditions cover the period from October 26 to November 4 for 28 211 years starting from 1982 to 2009...

  7. MAVEN/IUVS observations of dayglow emissions on Mars: indicator of dynamics, energetics, physical processes, and coupling between lower and upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, A. Ian; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Evans, J. Scott; Stevens, Michael H.; Chaffin, Michael S.; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi-Matta, Majd A.; Eparvier, Frank; Thiemann, Ed; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2017-10-01

    The dayglow emissions are a common feature of any planetary atmosphere. These emissions provide basic information about the atmospheric composition and structure, and can be used to study energy deposition, dynamics, and chemistry. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the MAVEN spacecraft has been observing mid and far ultraviolet emissions from the Martian upper atmosphere for over one Martian year and have provided the first long term observations of Martian dayglow. These observations have been used to characterize Martian thermospheric temperatures, densities, and their variations with solar activity, seasons, and dust activities. This data set has enabled us to track short and long term seasonal and spatial variations and their relationship with both solar forcing from top of the atmosphere and coupling from lower atmosphere (via tides/waves/dust storms). The scale heights retrieved from CO2+ Ultraviolet Doublet band emission shows 25% reduction from Ls = 218 degree (near perihelion; Mars year 32) to Ls = 60 degree (at aphelion; MY 33), indicating effect of both decline in solar activity as well as increase in Mars-Sun distance. At the onset of a regional dust storm at Ls = 219 (during MY 33), we noticed about 16% increase in the altitude of maximum intensities of major UV emission (indicating increase in neutral column density), however, we did not notice any significant warming in thermosphere associate with this dust storm.The results presented herein will help us better understand properties of the Martian thermosphere.

  8. Modeling Studies of the Effects of Tropical Rainfall on Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions and Oceanic Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dake

    2000-01-01

    This research project is a joint effort of UMD/JCESS, NASA/GSFC, NOAA/PMEL and LDEO, with UMD/JCESS being the leader and LDEO being responsible for coupled modeling. Although the project as a whole is for three years, the LDEO part was terminated at the end of the second year because of a shift of focus. The detailed description of the whole project and the effort made at LDEO have been given in the two joint annual reports and the two annual reports from LDEO. Here we only provide a brief summary of what we have done here at LDEO and a list of publications that resulted partly from this project.

  9. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso-to planetary-scale. Mechanisms, parameterization, and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Richard [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bryan, Frank [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Tribbia, Joseph [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Park, Sungsu [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Saravanan, R. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schneider, Niklas [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kwon, Young-Oh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-11

    This project aims to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving ocean mesoscale activity and the corresponding response in the atmosphere. The main computational objectives are; i) to perform and assess Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations with the new Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) spectral element dynamical core; ii) use static mesh refinement to focus on oceanic fronts; iii) develop a new Earth System Modeling tool to investigate the atmospheric response to fronts by selectively filtering surface flux fields in the CESM coupler. The climate research objectives are 1) to improve the coupling of ocean fronts and the atmospheric boundary layer via investigations of dependency on model resolution and stability functions: 2) to understand and simulate the ensuing tropospheric response that has recently been documented in observations: and 3) to investigate the relationship of ocean frontal variability to low frequency climate variability and the accompanying storm tracks and extremes in high resolution simulations. This is a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of computational scientists, climate scientists and climate model developers. It specifically aims at DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation.

  10. Heavy Rainfall Episodes in the Eastern Northeast Brazil Linked to Large-Scale Ocean-Atmosphere Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between simultaneous occurrences of distinctive atmospheric easterly wave (EW signatures that cross the south-equatorial Atlantic, intense mesoscale convective systems (lifespan > 2 hour that propagate westward over the western south-equatorial Atlantic, and subsequent strong rainfall episodes (anomaly > 10 mm·day−1 that occur in eastern Northeast Brazil (ENEB are investigated. Using a simple diagnostic analysis, twelve cases with EW lifespan ranging between 3 and 8 days and a mean velocity of 8 m·s−1 were selected and documented during each rainy season of 2004, 2005, and 2006. These cases, which represent 50% of the total number of strong rainfall episodes and 60% of the rainfall amount over the ENEB, were concomitant with an acceleration of the trade winds over the south-equatorial Atlantic, an excess of moisture transported westward from Africa to America, and a strengthening of the convective activity in the oceanic region close to Brazil. Most of these episodes occurred during positive sea surface temperature anomaly patterns over the entire south-equatorial Atlantic and low-frequency warm conditions within the oceanic mixing layer. A real-time monitoring and the simulation of this ocean-atmosphere relationship could help in forecasting such dramatic rainfall events.

  11. Glaciers-Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. M. Kotlyakov, A. Ushakov, and A. Glazovsky (Eds.), International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 208, Great Yarmouth, Great Britain, 1991.This volume consists of fifty-five papers presented at an international symposium held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in September 1990. The papers are divided into nine subsections covering ice cores, sea ice, modeling of ice sheets, glaciation and sea-level variation, mass and heat balances, paleoclimatic studies, and glacier-atmospheric interactions. The majority of authors are Russian, although Estonian, German, French, Chinese, American, English, Dutch, Polish, Norwegian, Uzbekian, and Japanese authors are represented. As stated in the preface, this symposium was convened by the International Commission on Snow and Ice “to consider fundamental questions of the interactions which are of great importance to global change processes.”

  12. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) Procedures F - Z GI Bleeding Manometry Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Polypectomy ... Gastrointestinal Glossary of Terms Home / Clinical Topics / Procedures F - Z / Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The ...

  13. Upper Endoscopy

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    Full Text Available ... Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Members-only content ... Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure View more Products ...

  14. Upper Endoscopy

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    Full Text Available ... Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Members-only ... Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure View more ...

  15. Upper Endoscopy

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    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Quality & Safety GIQuIC Registry Infection Control Privileging & Credentialing Quality Indicators Education & Meetings Advanced Education & Training ARIA Industry ...

  16. Upper Endoscopy

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    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety of ... S0016-5107(98)70268-8 View more Technology Reviews Members-only content Document Link: ASGE Leading Edge: ...

  17. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EGD) Upper Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety ... 1016/S0016-5107(98)70268-8 View more Technology Reviews Members-only content Document Link: ASGE Leading ...

  18. Upper Endoscopy

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    Full Text Available ... Drainage Stent Placement Stricture Dilation Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Quality & Safety GIQuIC Registry Infection Control Privileging & Credentialing Quality Indicators Education & Meetings Advanced Education & Training ARIA Industry ...

  19. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staff Rent IT&T Facility Gastrointestinal Glossary of Terms Home / Clinical Topics / Procedures F - Z / Upper Endoscopy ( ... Facebook ASGE on Youtube ASGE on Twitter Privacy | Terms of Use | © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  20. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Quality & Safety GIQuIC Registry Infection Control Privileging & Credentialing Quality Indicators Education & Meetings Advanced Education & Training ARIA Industry Training ASGE Endorsed Activities ASGE Masterclasses Clinical Courses DDW / Digestive Disease Week ® ...

  1. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Endoscopy (EGD) The Latest Practice Guidelines Technology Reviews Articles Videos Events & Products Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure Understanding Upper Endoscopy Brochure Make the Best Choice for Your Endoscopic Procedure Brochure ...

  2. Upper Endoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Year Fellow (FYF) Courses Training & Core Curriculum Practice Support Advocacy Advocacy Agenda Issues Policy Statements Take Action ... Rent IT&T Facility Gastrointestinal Glossary of Terms Home / Clinical Topics / Procedures F - Z / Upper Endoscopy (EGD) ...

  3. Investigating the Effect of Ocean Currents on the Surface Stress and Heat Fluxes over the Gulf of Mexico Using a Two-way Coupled Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M. A.; Shi, Q.

    2016-02-01

    A two-way coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system is used to investigate the effects associated with air-sea interaction through the use of wind-current shear in the bulk formula. This study focuses on changes in the mean and the variability of the wind stress magnitude, the heat fluxes, the near surface temperature and the precipitation on meso-scale. The atmospheric and the ocean components of the coupled modeling system are the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) respectively. The ocean and the atmospheric models exchange data fields using the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). The ocean surface currents are passed to the atmospheric model for use in surface layer schemes to allow for the current to change the wind shear. The wind stress and heat fluxes computed by the WRF surface scheme are passed to the ocean model, which allows both models to use the same fluxes at the interface. The inclusion of the wind-current shear results in weaker surface stress over most of the Gulf of Mexico compared to the wind alone estimate. Changes are also being found in air-sea heat fluxes. The weekly averaged Latent Heat Flux (LHF) decreases by 1% 2% over most of the Gulf of Mexico by considering the currents effect, but localized LHF increases of 10% are found in the Loop current. The sensible heat flux changes (> 5%) due to using the wind-current shear are found in the Loop Current as well as over the land. The air-sea heat fluxes associated with surface wind stress feedback onto the upper-ocean thermodynamics. The weekly mean SSTs increase over most of the Gulf of Mexico using the wind-current shear, and significant increases (>0.2 K) are found next to the Loop Current and ocean eddies. However, the SSTs slightly decrease ( 0.05 K) in the Loop Current.

  4. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  5. Summer precipitation anomalies in the low-latitude highlands of China coupled with the subtropical Indian Ocean dipole-like sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Gui, Shu; Cao, Jie; Yan, Hongming

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between the subtropical Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD)-like sea surface temperature (SST) and summer precipitation in the low-latitude highlands (LLH) of China is investigated in a suite of numerical simulations using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The AGCM experiments driven by SIOD-like SST anomalies are inconsistent with the observations. However, the coupled ocean-atmosphere experiments show a good agreement with the observational results. The modeling results indicate that the air-sea interaction rather than a simple atmospheric forcing-response relationship is a crucial mechanism explaining the connection among the anomalous summer precipitation in the LLH, the anomalous divergence circulations across the Indian Ocean, and the SIOD-like SST anomalies. The effect of the enhanced interhemispheric vertical circulation variability associated with the SIOD-like SST anomalies facilitates zonal wind anomalies in the northern Bay of Bengal, and further induces anomalous water vapor convergence and precipitation anomalies in the LLH. The SST-wind-evaporation feedback mechanism could account for maintenance of the SIOD-like pattern in the coupled ocean-atmosphere experiments. These results could help to improve prediction accuracy of summer rainfall variations over the LLH of China.

  6. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  7. TOGA COARE Upper-Air Sounding Data Archive: Development and Quality Control Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrer, Scot M.; Edmands, Todd A.; Moore, James A.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most important datasets to wine from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) is the most complete, high-resolution upper-air sounding dataset ever collected in the equatorial western Pacific Ocean. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/Office of Field Project Support UCAR/OFPS (recently combined with the UCAR/Joint International Climate Projects Planning Office and renamed the Joint Office for Science Support)' was given the responsibility of processing, quality controlling, and archiving the dataset. OFPS, in consultation with the TOGA COARE scientific community, developed a four-stage process to provide the community with a thoroughly quality controlled dataset.The TOGA COARE sounding dataset includes over 14 000 soundings, collected from 14 countries, in over 20 different original formats. The first OFPS processing step was the conversion of all soundings to a single, easy to use format, the OFPS quality control format. The second stage was a series of automated internal consistency cheeks on each sounding. This stage was particularly important as it directly led to the improvement of several of the datasets. The third step was a visual examination of each sounding to provide another layer of internal consistency cheeks, for dewpoint and wind in particular. The final process used spatial quality control checks to put each station into context with its neighboring stations as well as the network as a whole. These cheeks provided statistics from which both systematic and individual sounding problems could be determined. Finally, some derived sounding parameters such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) were calculated for each sounding. The CAPE calculations provided a quick method to qualitatively examine the high-resolution sounding data for low-level humidity problems. A composite dataset of all soundings at a uniform vertical resolution of 5 hPa was created to provide

  8. Numerical model experiments on the variation of the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle during the last 2100 years: The impact of variations of the thermahaline oceanic circulation; Numerische Modellexperimente zur Veraenderung des Ozean-Atmosphaere-Kohlenstoffkreislaufes waehrend der letzten 21000 Jahre: Der Einfluss von Variationen der thermohalinen Ozeanzirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M.

    1998-03-01

    In order to quantify the variability of the ocean-atmosphere carbon-cycle on glacial-interglacial time scales numerical biogeochemical models are required. In this work, a modeling approach consisting of a coupling between a newly developed biogeochemical box model (16 oceanic boxes) and a three-dimensional (3D) ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was pursued. The simulation of biogeochemical processes by the box model is almost identical to state of the art 3D-models. The global OGCM (4 x 6 , 12 layers) is forced by temperature and salinity fields obtained from paleoceanographic time-slice reconstructions, and model-derived wind fields. This model setup offers several advantages: (1) The box model is driven by waterfluxes that are diagnosed from the OGCM-fields. This approach results in hydrodynamically consistent water-fluxes for the box model. (2) The OGCM results guide the selection of appropriate box-configurations for time-slices having water-mass distributions that differ from the present-day situation. (3) The high numerical efficiency of the biogeochemical model component allows for a sufficient number of sensitivity experiments. (4) Based on paleoceanographic information, the boundary conditions of the box model can be combined as a function of time in order to conduct time-dependent experiments with the box model. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die globale Quantifizierung von Veraenderungen des Ozean-Atmosphaere-Kohlenstoffkreislaufes auf glazial-interglazialen Zeitskalen erfordert den Einsatz numerischer biogeochemischer Modelle. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde hierzu ein Modellansatz gewaehlt, der aus der Kopplung eines neu entwickelten biogeochemischen Boxmodells (16 ozeanische Boxen) an ein dreidimensionales (3D) allgemeines Ozean-Zirkulationsmodell (OGCM) besteht. Die Simulation biogeochemischer Prozesse erfolgt im Boxmodell analog zu hochentwickelten 3D-Modellen. Das globale (4 x 6 , 12 Schichten) Ozeanmodell wird mit Temperatur- und Salzgehaltsfeldern, die

  9. A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.

    2015-01-01

    to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than......This study aims at improving the simulation of wind and waves during storms in connection with wind turbine design and operations in coastal areas. For this particular purpose, we investigated the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System which couples the Weather...... for the coastal condition. With the current model setup, using high spatial resolution gives better results for strong winds both for the open ocean and coastal sites. The signicant wave height (Hm0) is very sensitive to the model resolution and bathymetry data for the coastal zone. In addition, using Janssen...

  10. Ocean-atmosphere interactions during cyclone Nargis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McPhaden, M.J.; Foltz, G.R.; Lee, T.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ravichandran, M.; Vecchi, G.A.; Vialard, J.; Wiggert, J.D.; Yu, L.

    of rain and a storm surge of 3-4 meters to the low-lying and densely populated Irrawaddy River delta. In its wake, the storm left an estimated 130,000 dead or missing and more than $10 billion in economic losses. It was the worst natural disaster to strike...

  11. Decadal climate variability simulated in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walland, D.J. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). National Climate Centre; Power, S.B. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Research Centre; Hirst, A.C. [Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation Division of Atmospheric Research (Australia)

    2000-02-01

    A 1000 year integration of the CSIRO coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model is used to study low frequency (decadal to centennial) climate variability in precipitation and temperature. The model is shown to exhibit sizeable decadal variability for these fields, generally accounting for approximately 20 to 40% of the variability (greater than one year) in precipitation and up to 80% for temperature. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to the model output to show some of the major statistical modes of low frequency variability. The first EOF spatial pattern looks very much like that of the interannual ENSO pattern. It bears considerable resemblance to observational estimates and is centred in the Pacific extending into both hemispheres. It modulates both precipitation and temperature globally. The EOF has a time evolution that appears to be more than just red noise. Finally, the link between SST in the Pacific with Australian rainfall variability seen in observations is also evident in the model. (orig.)

  12. Development of the Coupled Northwest Atlantic Prediction System (CNAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, J. B.; He, R.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensioanl marine environmental nowcast/forecast system has been constructed and is running quasi-operationally for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. This fully coupled modeling accounts for the interactions among Ocean, Atmosphere, Wave, Sediment Transport and the low-trophic marine ecosystem. It is driven by realistic meteorological boundary forcing, tides, river, and deep-ocean boundary conditions provided by a data assimilative global ocean model. Model output from this nowcast/forecast system, including marine weather, ocean wave, ocean circulation and marine ecosystem variable are generated daily and available for public access. The construction of this prediction system, model validations and case studies on air-sea interactions during major tropical and extratropical storms will be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Coupled interactions of organized deep convection over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, X.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and deep convection is complex. In general, deep convection occurs more frequently and with more intensity as SSTs become higher. This theory assumes that the atmospheric stability is sufficiently reduced to allow the onset of moist convection. However, the amount and intensity of convection observed tends to decrease with increasing SST because very warm SSTs. A reason for such decrease is the enhancements to surface fluxes of heat and moisture out of the ocean surface because of the vertical overturning associated with deep convection. Early studies used the radiative-convective models of the atmosphere to examine the role of the convective exchange of heat and moisture in maintaining the vertical temperature profile. In this paper we use a Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to simulate a squall line over a tropical ocean global atmosphere/coupled ocean atmosphere response experiment (TOGA/COARE) area and to investigate how the ocean cooling mechanisms associated with organized deep convection act to limit tropical SSTs.

  14. Upper Limb Exoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusak, Z.; Luijten, J.; Kooijman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates a wearable exoskeleton for a user having a torso with an upper limb to support motion of the said upper limb. The wearable exoskeleton comprises a first fixed frame mountable to the torso, an upper arm brace and a first group of actuators for moving the upper arm brace

  15. A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Wave Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R. A.; Smith, T.; Rogers, W. E.; Jensen, T. G.; Chu, P.; Campbell, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    A growing interest in the impacts that large and small scale ocean and atmospheric events (El Niño, hurricanes, etc.) have on weather forecasting has led to the coupling of atmospheric, ocean circulation and ocean wave models. The Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS™ ) consists of the Navy's atmospheric model coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the wave models SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and WAVEWATCH III (WW3™). In a fully coupled mode, COAMPS, NCOM, and SWAN (or WW3) may be integrated concurrently so that currents and water levels, wave-induced stress, bottom drag, Stokes drift current, precipitation, and surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum are exchanged across the air-wave-sea interface. This coupling is facilitated through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF version of COAMPS is being transitioned to operational production centers at the Naval Oceanographic Office and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center. Highlights from validation studies for the Florida Straits, Hurricane Ivan and the Adriatic Sea will be presented. COAMPS® is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.

  16. Numerical Investigations of Wave-Induced Mixing in Upper Ocean Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Changlong

    2017-04-01

    The upper ocean layer is playing an important role in ocean-atmosphere interaction. The typical characteristics depicting the upper ocean layer are the sea surface temperature (SST) and the mixed layer depth (MLD). So far, the existing ocean models tend to over-estimate SST and to under-estimate MLD, due to the inadequate mixing in the mixing layer, which is owing to that several processes related mixing in physics are ignored in these ocean models. The mixing induced by surface gravity wave is expected to be able to enhance the mixing in the upper ocean layer, and therefore the over-estimation of SST and the under-estimate of MLD could be improved by including wave-induced mixing. The wave-induced mixing could be accomplished by the physical mechanisms, such as wave breaking (WB), wave-induced Reynolds stress (WR), and wave-turbulence interaction (WT). The General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is employed to investigate the effects of the three mechanisms concerning wave-induced mixing. The numerical investigation is carried out for three turbulence closure schemes, say, k-epsilon, k-omega and Mellor-Yamada (1982), with the observational data from OSC Papa station and wave data from ECMWF. The mixing enhancement by various waved-induced mixing mechanisms is investigated and verified.

  17. Blockage of upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Upper Kenai Corridor Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai Corridor study describes and evaluates the Upper Kenai River and the land which embraces it. It also places the river corridor in its regional...

  19. NAO-ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Gualdi, S.; Navarra, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Scoccimarro, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The interplay between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the large scale ocean circulation is inspected in a twentieth century simulation conducted with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model. Significant lead-lag covariance between oceanic and tropospheric variables suggests that the system supports a damped oscillatory mode involving an active ocean-atmosphere coupling, with a typical NAO-like space structure and a 5 years timescale, qualitatively consistent with a mid-latitude delayed oscillator paradigm. The two essential processes governing the oscillation are (1) a negative feedback between ocean gyre circulation and the high latitude SST meridional gradient and (2) a positive feedback between SST and the NAO. The atmospheric NAO pattern appears to have a weaker projection on the ocean meridional overturning, compared to the gyre circulation, which leads to a secondary role for the thermohaline circulation in driving the meridional heat transport, and thus the oscillatory mode. (orig.)

  20. Upper Limb Exoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Rusak, Z.; Luijten, J.; Kooijman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates a wearable exoskeleton for a user having a torso with an upper limb to support motion of the said upper limb. The wearable exoskeleton comprises a first fixed frame mountable to the torso, an upper arm brace and a first group of actuators for moving the upper arm brace relative to the first fixed frame. In an example the present invention is for use in post-stroke therapy.

  1. An adaptive information technology for the operative diagnostics of the tropical cyclones; solar-terrestrial coupling mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivin, Vladimir F.; Soldatov, Vladimir Yu.; Varotsos, Costas A.; Cracknell, Arthur P.

    2012-11-01

    The tools of sequential analysis and percolation theory are herewith used to study the transition processes in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. To accomplish this aim the recently proposed instability indicator for the detection of the characteristics of the state for this system, is utilized. In more detail, the case of the transition processes for Baltic Sea assessed by the Beaufort Scale is examined by investigating the efficiency of the afore-mentioned indicator.We show that the crucial parameter is not the energy source, like the solar radiation, but the energy conversion. Numerical experiments conducted herewith showed that such an indicator facilitates the monitoring of the variability and direction of transition processes in the oceans, and is capable to predict a remarkable change of the ocean-atmosphere system states. It is finally shown that the combination of sequential and cluster analysis with the percolation procedure allows for the detection of a tropical hurricane up to three days in advance of its start. The tool presented may also be applied to the development of relevant indicators for the predictions of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and the solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. Finally, future problems on the subject are discussed.

  2. Poleward upgliding Siberian atmospheric rivers over sea ice heat up Arctic upper air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke K; Alexeev, Vladimir A; Repina, Irina A; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-13

    We carried out upper air measurements with radiosondes during the summer over the Arctic Ocean from an icebreaker moving poleward from an ice-free region, through the ice edge, and into a region of thick ice. Rapid warming of the Arctic is a significant environmental issue that occurs not only at the surface but also throughout the troposphere. In addition to the widely accepted mechanisms responsible for the increase of tropospheric warming during the summer over the Arctic, we showed a new potential contributing process to the increase, based on our direct observations and supporting numerical simulations and statistical analyses using a long-term reanalysis dataset. We refer to this new process as "Siberian Atmospheric Rivers (SARs)". Poleward upglides of SARs over cold air domes overlying sea ice provide the upper atmosphere with extra heat via condensation of water vapour. This heating drives increased buoyancy and further strengthens the ascent and heating of the mid-troposphere. This process requires the combination of SARs and sea ice as a land-ocean-atmosphere system, the implication being that large-scale heat and moisture transport from the lower latitudes can remotely amplify the warming of the Arctic troposphere in the summer.

  3. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study possible motivations for co-entreprenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes...... with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female...

  4. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  5. Role of stochastic forcing in ENSO in observations and a coupled GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, Atul; Zhang, Chidong [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL (United States); Zavala-Garay, Javier [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Hendon, Harry H. [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    A procedure is presented to estimate the role of atmospheric stochastic forcing (SF) in El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM), in direct comparison to observations represented by a global reanalysis product. SF is extracted from the CGCM and reanalysis as surface wind anomalies linearly independent of the sea-surface temperature anomalies. Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is isolated from SF to quantify its role in ENSO. A coupled ocean-atmosphere model of intermediate complexity is forced with SF, as well as its MJO and non-MJO components, from the reanalysis and CGCM. The role of SF is estimated by comparing the original ENSO in observations and the CGCM with that reproduced by the intermediate model. ENSO statistics in both reanalysis and CGCM are better reproduced when the intermediate model is tuned to be weakly stable than unstable. The intermediate model driven by SF from the reanalysis reproduces most characteristics of observed ENSO, such as its spectrum, seasonal phase-locking, fast decorrelation of ENSO SST during boreal spring, and its lag-correlation with SF. In contrast, not all characteristics of ENSO in the CGCM are reproduced by the intermediate model when SF from the CGCM is used. The seasonal phase-locking of ENSO in the CGCM is not reproduced at all. ENSO, therefore, appears to be driven by SF to a lesser degree in the CGCM than in observations. Characteristics of observed ENSO reproduced by the intermediate model (driven by SF) can be largely attributed to the MJO; which, for instance, is responsible for the fast decorrelation of ENSO SST during boreal spring in both reanalysis and CGCM. The non-MJO component seems to be more responsible than the MJO for erroneous features of ENSO in the CGCM. (orig.)

  6. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  7. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    a labor market position for (female) spouses with limited alternative opportunities. This decision has positive effects: the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the fe-male, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. This also......We study motivations for and outcomes of couples starting up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010, while comparing them to a set of comparable firms and couples. The main motivation for joint entrepreneurship is to create...

  8. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  9. Upper GI Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to diagnose conditions such as cancer celiac disease gastritis Doctors also use upper GI endoscopy to treat ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  10. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse - most commonly the female - has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, us-ing a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound in-vestment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...

  11. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and postdissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound investment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...

  12. Coupled Climate Model Appraisal a Benchmark for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; AchutaRao, K; Bader, D; Covey, C; Doutriaux, C M; Fiorino, M; Gleckler, P J; Sperber, K R; Taylor, K E

    2005-08-22

    The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has produced an extensive appraisal of simulations of present-day climate by eleven representative coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCMs) which were developed during the period 1995-2002. Because projections of potential future global climate change are derived chiefly from OAGCMs, there is a continuing need to test the credibility of these predictions by evaluating model performance in simulating the historically observed climate. For example, such an evaluation is an integral part of the periodic assessments of climate change that are reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The PCMDI appraisal thus provides a useful benchmark for future studies of this type. The appraisal mainly analyzed multi-decadal simulations of present-day climate by models that employed diverse representations of climate processes for atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land, as well as different techniques for coupling these components (see Table). The selected models were a subset of those entered in phase 2 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2, Covey et al. 2003). For these ''CMIP2+ models'', more atmospheric or oceanic variables were provided than the minimum requirements for participation in CMIP2. However, the appraisal only considered those climate variables that were supplied from most of the CMIP2+ models. The appraisal focused on three facets of the simulations of current global climate: (1) secular trends in simulation time series which would be indicative of a problematical ''coupled climate drift''; (2) comparisons of temporally averaged fields of simulated atmospheric and oceanic climate variables with available observational climatologies; and (3) correspondences between simulated and observed modes of climatic variability. Highlights of these climatic aspects manifested by different CMIP2+ simulations are briefly

  13. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors in a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model - Multiscale Effects and Geometric Degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Vannitsem, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    We study a simplified coupled atmosphere-ocean model using the formalism of covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), which link physically-based directions of perturbations to growth/decay rates. The model is obtained via a severe truncation of quasi-geostrophic equations for the two fluids, and includes a simple yet physically meaningful representation of their dynamical/thermodynamical coupling. The model has 36 degrees of freedom, and the parameters are chosen so that a chaotic behaviour is observed. One finds two positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs), sixteen negative LEs, and eighteen near-zero LEs. The presence of many near-zero LEs results from the vast time-scale separation between the characteristic time scales of the two fluids, and leads to nontrivial error growth properties in the tangent space spanned by the corresponding CLVs, which are geometrically very degenerate. Such CLVs correspond to two different classes of ocean/atmosphere coupled modes. The tangent space spanned by the CLVs corresponding to the positive and negative LEs has, instead, a non-pathological behaviour, and one can construct robust large deviations laws for the finite time LEs, thus providing a universal model for assessing predictability on long to ultra-long scales along such directions. Finally, it is somewhat surprising to find that the tangent space of the unstable manifold has strong projection on both atmospheric and oceanic components, thus giving evidence that coupled modes are responsible for the instability of the flow.

  14. The NEMO-AROME WMED high-resolution air-sea coupled system: impact on dense water formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    The North-Western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur, especially during winter when the succession of strong northerly and north-westerly wind boosts the dense water formation. The second Special Observation Period (SOP2) of the HyMeX program, which took place between 1st February and 15th March 2013, was dedicated to the observation of the dense water formation and ocean deep convection processes. During this period, several platforms sampled the area, providing a unique dataset to better identify the coupled processes leading to dense water formation. This study investigates the impacts of the fine scale ocean-atmosphere coupled processes on dense water formation during winter 2012-2013. We developed the coupling between the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36° resolution) and the AROME-WMED numerical weather prediction model (2.5 km resolution) and ran the high-resolution air-sea coupled system over SOP2. The coupled simulation is compared to an ocean-only simulation forced by AROME-WMED operational forecasts and to air-sea observations collected during the HyMeX SOP2. The results show small differences in term of surface fluxes. Dense water formation is slightly changed in the coupled simulation, whereas fine-scale ocean processes are significantly modified.

  15. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients......, but the examination is useful to diagnose a tumor in the renal pelvis and the ureter....

  16. Multi-Decadal Oscillations of the Ocean Active Upper-Layer Heat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byshev, Vladimir I.; Neiman, Victor G.; Anisimov, Mikhail V.; Gusev, Anatoly V.; Serykh, Ilya V.; Sidorova, Alexandra N.; Figurkin, Alexander L.; Anisimov, Ivan M.

    2017-07-01

    Spatial patterns in multi-decadal variability in upper ocean heat content for the last 60 years are examined using a numerical model developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russia (INM Model) and sea water temperature-salinity data from the World Ocean Database (in: Levitus, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 66, U.S. Wash.: Gov. Printing Office, 2009). Both the model and the observational data show that the heat content of the Active Upper Layer (AUL) in particular regions of the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceans have experienced prominent simultaneous variations on multi-decadal (25-35 years) time scales. These variations are compared earlier revealed climatic alternations in the Northern Atlantic region during the last century (Byshev et al. in Doklady Earth Sci 438(2):887-892, 2011). We found that from the middle of 1970s to the end of 1990s the AUL heat content decreased in several oceanic regions, while the mean surface temperature increased on Northern Hemisphere continents according to IPCC (in: Stocker et al. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013). This means that the climate-forcing effect of the ocean-atmosphere interaction in certain energy-active areas determines not only local climatic processes, but also have an influence on global-scale climate phenomena. Here we show that specific regional features of the AUL thermal structure are in a good agreement with climatic conditions on the adjacent continents. Further, the ocean AUL in the five distinctive regions identified in our study have resumed warming in the first decade of this century. By analogy inference from previous climate scenarios, this may signal the onset of more continental climate over mainlands.

  17. Impact of air-sea coupling on the simulation of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean using a simple 3-D ocean model coupled to ARW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Mohan, Greeshma M.; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the impact of air-sea coupling on tropical cyclone (TC) predictions is studied using a three-dimensional Price-Weller-Pinkel (3DPWP) ocean model coupled to the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting in six tropical storms in the North Indian Ocean, representing different intensities, seasonality, and varied oceanic conditions. A set of numerical experiments are conducted for each cyclone using sea surface temperature (SST) boundary conditions derived from Global Forecast System (GFS) SST, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction SST, and ocean coupling (3DPWP). Significant differences and improvements are found in the predicted intensity and track in the simulations, in which the cyclones' impact on SST is included. It has been found that while the uncoupled model using GFS SST considerably overestimated the intensity as well as produced large track errors, the ocean coupling substantially improved the track and intensity predictions. The improvements with 3DPWP are because of simulating the ocean-atmosphere feedback in terms of deepening of ocean mixed layer, reduction in enthalpy fluxes, and storm-induced SST cooling as seen in observations. The coupled model could simulate the cold wake in SST, asymmetries in the surface winds, enthalpy fluxes, size, and structure of the storm in better agreement with observations than the uncoupled model. The coupled model reduced the track errors by roughly 0.3-39% and intensity errors by 29-47% at 24-96 h predictions by controlling the northward deviation of storms tracks by SST cooling and associated changes in the dynamics. The vorticity changes associated with horizontal advection and stretching terms affect the tracks of the storms in the three simulations.

  18. Impact of improved assimilation of temperature and salinity for coupled model seasonal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar; Yin, Yonghong

    2014-05-01

    We assess the impact of improved ocean initial conditions for predicting El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) using the Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) coupled seasonal prediction model for the period 1982-2006. The new ocean initial conditions are provided by an ensemble-based analysis system that assimilates subsurface temperatures and salinity and which is a clear improvement over the previous optimal interpolation system which used static error covariances and was univariate (temperature only). Hindcasts using the new ocean initial conditions have better skill at predicting sea surface temperature (SST) variations associated with ENSO than do the hindcasts initialized with the old ocean analyses. The improvement derives from better prediction of subsurface temperatures and the largest improvements come during ENSO-IOD neutral years. We show that improved prediction of the Niño3.4 SST index derives from improved initial depiction of the thermocline and halocline in the equatorial Pacific but as lead time increases the improved depiction of the initial salinity field in the western Pacific become more important. Improved ocean initial conditions do not translate into improved skill for predicting the IOD but we do see an improvement in the prediction of subsurface temperatures in the Indian Ocean (IO). This result reflects that the coupling between subsurface and surface temperature variations is weaker in the IO than in the Pacific, but coupled model errors may also be limiting predictive skill in the IO.

  19. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  20. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface marine observational records from ships, buoys, and other platform types are processed and binned creating monthly global and regional grids of the...

  1. Biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere transfers in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Bange, H.W.; Gibb, S.W.; Goyet, C.; Hatton, A.D.; Upstill-Goddard, R.C.

    )and dimethylsulphide (DMS),across the air-sea interface are investigated using published data generated mostly during the Arabian Sea Process Study (1992 -1997) of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS).The most important contribution of the region to biogeochemical...

  2. Relating ocean-atmospheric climate indices with Australian river streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Md Shamim; Faisal Anwar, A. H. M.; Lamb, Kenneth W.; Bari, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between climate indices with Australian river streamflow (ASF) may provide valuable information for long-lead streamflow forecasting for Australian rivers. The current study examines the correlations between three climate indices (SST, 500 mb meridional wind -U500 and 500 mb geopotential height-Z500) and 135 unimpaired ASF gauges for 1971-2011 using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. First, SVD method was applied to check the SST-ASF correlated regions of influence and then extended SST-ASF variabilities were used to determine the correlated regions within Z500 and U500 fields. Based on the teleconnection, the most correlated region (150°E to 105°W and 35°S to 5°N) was identified and its persistency was checked by lag analysis up to 2 years from seasonal to yearly time-scale. The results displayed positive correlation for the south and south-eastern part of Australia while negative correlation prevails in the north-eastern region (at 95% significance level). The most correlated region was found situated along the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) axis which may be considered as a probable climate driver for ASF. The persistency of this region was checked by a separate climate indicator (mean vertical velocity-500 mb) and found prominent in dry period than the wet period. This persistent teleconnected region may be potentially useful for long-lead forecasting of ASF.

  3. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mean sea surface temperature (SST) is found to be the same in both the phases, however large ... latent heat and momentum fluxes at air-sea interface. .... face pressure gradient along 89◦E, between lati- tudes 5◦N and 18◦N estimated from the 03UTC, surface charts. Figure 1(b) shows the variation of the OZI over the Bay of ...

  4. Upper-tropospheric moistening in response to anthropogenic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eui-Seok; Soden, Brian; Sohn, B. J.; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere strongly regulates the strength of water-vapor feedback, which is the primary process for amplifying the response of the climate system to external radiative forcings. Monitoring changes in upper-tropospheric water vapor and scrutinizing the causes of such changes are therefore of great importance for establishing the credibility of model projections of past and future climates. Here, we use coupled ocean–atmosphere model simulations under different climate-forcing scenarios to investigate satellite-observed changes in global-mean upper-tropospheric water vapor. Our analysis demonstrates that the upper-tropospheric moistening observed over the period 1979–2005 cannot be explained by natural causes and results principally from an anthropogenic warming of the climate. By attributing the observed increase directly to human activities, this study verifies the presence of the largest known feedback mechanism for amplifying anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25071183

  5. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the NE and SE Pacific as part of the East Pacific Investigations of Climate Processes in support of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere from 2001-09-05 to 2001-10-25 (NODC Accession 0000657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the NE and SE Pacific from 05 September 2001 to 25 October 2001. CTD data consist of temperature...

  6. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the SE Pacific (limit -140 W) as part of the East Pacific Investigations of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere from 2001-02-01 to 2001-03-08 (NODC Accession 0000660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from from 01 February 2001 to 08 March 2001. CTD data consist of...

  7. Oceanographic data from ADCP, microprofiler, and thermistor casts from the MOANA WAVE from the SW Pacific (limit-147 E to 140 W) as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) from 01 July 1992 to 30 June 1993 (NODC Accession 9600029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected from ADCP, microprofiler, and thermister casts from the MOANA WAVE from the SW Pacific (limit-147 E to 140 W) from 01 July 1992 to...

  8. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) and others locations as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) and other projects from 1984-02-26 to 1986-06-01 (NODC Accession 9100048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) and others locations from 26 February 1984 to 01 June 1986. Data...

  9. Upper thymic prolongation simulating mediastinal lymphadenomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Wosny

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is located in the anterior portion of the upper mediastinum, immediately behind the sternal manubrium, and extends to the anterior mediastinum, anteriorly to the pericardium. Two patients were evaluated due to nodulations at the transition from the cervical region to the anterior mediastinum, which simulated lymphadenomegaly. The first patient, a seven-year-old male, presented with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the masticatory space; during progressive follow-up, a nodule was noted with FDG uptake on the positron emission tomography coupled with the computed tomography (PET-CT. The second patient, a 51-year-old female, presented with a nodulation characterized on the magnetic resonance image for follow-up of a papilliferous carcinoma of the thyroid. In both cases, the nodulation displayed an upper prolongation of the thymus. These nodulations showed the same density on the computed tomography and the same signal intensity on the magnetic resonance image as the adjacent thymic tissue, and there was no adipose tissue layer between the nodulations and the thymus. Knowledge of the upper prolongation of the thymus as an anatomical variation is vital for differentiating it from mediastinal lymphadenomegaly, thus avoiding unnecessary biopsies or procedures.

  10. Plasmons in Dimensionally Mismatched Coulomb Coupled Graphene Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badalyan, S. M.; Shylau, A. A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the plasmon dispersion relation for Coulomb coupled metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons and doped monolayer graphene. The crossing of the plasmon curves, which occurs for uncoupled 1D and 2D systems, is split by the interlayer Coulomb coupling into a lower and an upper plasmon...... by varying the system parameters and be used in plasmonic applications....

  11. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding - Upper GI bleeding is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding - Upper GI bleeding is the most common complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. SR Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  12. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  13. Upper jaw in human cyclopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, P

    1989-01-01

    In human cyclopia the upper jaw forms a solid bony mass between the median orbit and the oral cavity. The skeletal elements forming the upper jaw have been studied in serial sections through the median third of the head in 3 perinatal human specimens presenting with a median orbit and proboscis. One head was sectioned in the sagittal plane and 2 in the coronal plane. The upper jaw has also been studied in a dried cyclops skull and in a desiccated cyclops head in which the roof of the orbit had been removed. The data obtained demonstrate the particular contributions made by the lacrimal bones, the maxillae and the palatine bones to the upper jaw in human cyclopia. The effects of the absence of the frontonasal process contribution and of the absence of the nasal cavity on the upper jaw in cyclopia are considered.

  14. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  15. Application of a wind-wave-current coupled model in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean sea), for wind energy purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Palomares, Ana; Navarro, Jorge; Grifoll, Manel; Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This work shows the main results of the HAREAMAR project (including HAREMAR, ENE2012-38772-C02-01 and DARDO, ENE2012-38772-C02-02 projects), concerning the local Wind, Wave and Current simulation at St. Jordi Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea). Offshore Wind Energy has become one of the main topics within the research in Wind Energy research. Although there are quite a few models with a high level of reliability for wind simulation and prediction in onshore places, the wind prediction needs further investigations for adaptation to the Offshore emplacements, taking into account the interaction atmosphere-ocean. The main problem in these ocean areas is the lack of wind data, which neither allows for characterizing the energy potential and wind behaviour in a particular place, nor validating the forecasting models. The main objective of this work is to reduce the local prediction errors, in order to make the meteo-oceanographic hindcast and forecast more reliable. The COAWST model (Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport Model; Warner et al., 2010) system has been implemented in the region considering a set of downscaling nested meshes to obtain high-resolution outputs in the region. The adaptation to this particular area, combining the different wind, wave and ocean model domains has been far from simple, because the grid domains for the three models differ significantly. This work shows the main results of the COAWST model implementation to this particular area, including both monthly and other set of tests in different atmospheric situations, especially chosen for their particular interest. The time period considered for the validation is the whole year 2012. A comparative study between the WRF, SWAN and ROMS model outputs (without coupling), the COWAST model outputs, and a buoy measurements moored in the region was performed for this year. References Warner, J.C., Armstrong, B., He, R., and Zambon, J.B., 2010, Development of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere

  16. Analysis of Pollution Potential of the Upper San Pedro and Upper Santa Cruz Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincicome, A. D.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Transboundary aquifers along the U.S.-Mexico border are subject to unique demands and constraints, and are a focus of priority assessment under the auspices of the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program. The Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins in southern Arizona are experiencing rapid population growth and development, and the associated water and environmental resource demands are stressors to water resource sustainability. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed to evaluate groundwater resources within these two basins using DRASTIC (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer). DRASTIC analysis is a standardized method developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating groundwater pollution potential. DRASTIC was used to characterize the potential for contamination of groundwater by land surface sources. Data layers for the DRASTIC analysis were compiled and analyzed separately based on rating methods from DRASTIC. These methods rate each layer on a scale of one to ten, one being the least vulnerable to contamination and ten being the most vulnerable. Weights for each layer were also provided by DRASTIC based on each layer's contribution to the overall vulnerability of the aquifer. These layers were then analyzed using the equation: DRDW+RRRW+ARAw+SRSW+TRTW+IRIW+CRCW = Pollution Potential, where R = rating, and W = weight. This assessment was coupled with current knowledge of groundwater contamination and current land use practices to identify zones of potential concern. This information can be used to better direct city planning, zoning programs, and groundwater monitoring and remediation efforts throughout the Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins.

  17. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Seshadri, Pranay; Ganju, Neil K.; Beudin, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant density, height, and to a certain degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance for future observational and modeling work to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space.

  19. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: part I a linear coupled framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-07-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific has a pronounced westward propagating SST annual cycle resulting from ocean-atmosphere interactions with equatorial semiannual solar forcing and off-equatorial annual solar forcing conveyed to the equator. In this two-part paper, a simple linear coupled framework is proposed to quantify the internal dynamics and external forcing for a better understanding of the linear part of the dynamics annual cycle. It is shown that an essential internal dynamical factor is the SST damping rate which measures the coupled stability in a similar way as the Bjerknes instability index for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. It comprises three major negative terms (dynamic damping due to the Ekman pumping feedback, mean circulation advection, and thermodynamic feedback) and two positive terms (thermocline feedback and zonal advection). Another dynamical factor is the westward-propagation speed that is mainly determined by the thermodynamic feedback, the Ekman pumping feedback, and the mean circulation. The external forcing is measured by the annual and semiannual forcing factors. These linear internal and external factors, which can be estimated from data, determine the amplitude of the annual cycle.

  20. What the diurnal cycle of precipitation tells us about land-atmosphere coupling strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Craig; Song, Hyojong; Roundy, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    The key attributes of a coupled forecast model are the coupling strengths between the land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere schemes. If a model cannot skillfully capture the diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation, then it likely cannot be expected to yield accurate long-term climate projections. The seasonal drought forecast skill shortfalls of the U.S. NCEP Coupled Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2) have been directly linked to its unrealistically strong land-atmosphere coupling strength. Most models can be similarly categorized, which is to say, sensitivity to the land physics (i.e., soil moisture constraints on evapotranspiration) is too strong. In nature, the land signal: noise ratio appears to be at a much lower value. Diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling strength requires at a minimum: surface soil moisture state, surface turbulent heat fluxes, and atmospheric moisture and instability. Full-on diagnosis would entail hacking into the code and inserting a number of tracers. This study addresses the question: What if, given the soil wetness anomaly, model biases in coupling sign and/or strength could be diagnosed from phase shifts in the diurnal precipitation frequency cycle? We use 34-years of output from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) to investigate the variation in diurnal precipitation frequency cycle between so-called "wet-advantage" and "dry-advantage" coupling regimes over the U.S. southern Great Plains. Wet-advantage occurs when the atmospheric state is closer to the wet adiabatic rate and convection is triggered by a strong increase in the moist static energy from the surface. In contrast, dry-advantage occurs when the atmosphere is drier and the temperature profile is close to the dry adiabatic lapse rate, which favors convection over areas of large boundary layer growth due to high sensible heat fluxes at the surface. We find that there is a significant difference in the

  1. Bayesian versus frequentist upper limits

    CERN Document Server

    Rover, Christian; Prix, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    While gravitational waves have not yet been measured directly, data analysis from detection experiments commonly includes an upper limit statement. Such upper limits may be derived via a frequentist or Bayesian approach; the theoretical implications are very different, and on the technical side, one notable difference is that one case requires maximization of the likelihood function over parameter space, while the other requires integration. Using a simple example (detection of a sinusoidal signal in white Gaussian noise), we investigate the differences in performance and interpretation, and the effect of the "trials factor", or "look-elsewhere effect".

  2. Diagnostic indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy now assumes a prominent role in the diagnosis and therapy of upper GI diseases. Some indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy include dyspepsia, dysphagia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study aimed to review the ...

  3. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ese clinical factors, age over 60, and shock on admission are highly predictive.[7] Concurrent medical therapy is particularly important as NSAIDs and anticoagulants, which are commonly prescribed in the elderly, have a direct deleterious effect on coagulation. e. Table 1. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding-related ...

  4. [Virtual orientation of the lower and upper jaws model on the position of centric occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaosheng; Liao, Wenhe; Zhang, Xiang; Yu, Qing

    2007-12-01

    The rotation axis equation of the simple articulator is built by the cylinder feature identification, which facilitates the rotation transform of the lower jaw data. Then the collision points and areas on the position of centric occlusion are found to form two collision couples. The virtual orientation of the lower and upper jaws model is realized by collision detection of the collision couples. Consequently the occlusal relation between the lower and upper jaws is established. It sets a good basis for the virtual adjustment of edentulous occlusal surface. The jaw movement of opening and closing in the state of hinge axis is also simulated accordingly.

  5. Benthic-Pelagic Coupling in Biogeochemical and Climate Models: Existing Approaches, Recent developments and Roadblocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediments are key components in the Earth System. They host the largest carbon reservoir on Earth, provide the only long term sink for atmospheric CO2, recycle nutrients and represent the most important climate archive. Biogeochemical processes in marine sediments are thus essential for our understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles and climate. They are first and foremost, donor controlled and, thus, driven by the rain of particulate material from the euphotic zone and influenced by the overlying bottom water. Geochemical species may undergo several recycling loops (e.g. authigenic mineral precipitation/dissolution) before they are either buried or diffuse back to the water column. The tightly coupled and complex pelagic and benthic process interplay thus delays recycling flux, significantly modifies the depositional signal and controls the long-term removal of carbon from the ocean-atmosphere system. Despite the importance of this mutual interaction, coupled regional/global biogeochemical models and (paleo)climate models, which are designed to assess and quantify the transformations and fluxes of carbon and nutrients and evaluate their response to past and future perturbations of the climate system either completely neglect marine sediments or incorporate a highly simplified representation of benthic processes. On the other end of the spectrum, coupled, multi-component state-of-the-art early diagenetic models have been successfully developed and applied over the past decades to reproduce observations and quantify sediment-water exchange fluxes, but cannot easily be coupled to pelagic models. The primary constraint here is the high computation cost of simulating all of the essential redox and equilibrium reactions within marine sediments that control carbon burial and benthic recycling fluxes: a barrier that is easily exacerbated if a variety of benthic environments are to be spatially resolved. This presentation provides an integrative overview of

  6. MAVEN observations of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and solar wind interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2017-09-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission to Mars has been operating in orbit for more than a full Martian year. Observations are dramatically changing our view of the Mars upper atmosphere system, which includes the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, coupling to the lower atmosphere, magnetosphere, and interactions with the Sun and the solar wind. The data are allowing us to understand the processes controlling the present-day structure of the upper atmosphere and the rates of escape of gas to space. These will tell us the role that escape to space has played in the evolution of the Mars atmosphere and climate.

  7. Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhold, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter {lambda}. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure {phi}{sup 4}-theory. (orig.)

  8. Least Upper Bounds of the Powers Extracted and Scattered by Bi-anisotropic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Liberal, Inigo; Gonzalo, Ramon; Ederra, Inigo; Tretyakov, Sergei A; Ziolkowski, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    The least upper bounds of the powers extracted and scattered by bi-anisotropic particles are investigated analytically. A rigorous derivation for particles having invertible polarizability tensors is presented, and the particles with singular polarizability tensors that have been reported in the literature are treated explicitly. The analysis concludes that previous upper bounds presented for isotropic particles can be extrapolated to bi-anisotropic particles. In particular, it is shown that neither nonreciprocal nor magnetoelectric coupling phenomena can further increase those upper bounds on the extracted and scattered powers. The outcomes are illustrated further with approximate circuit model examples of two dipole antennas connected via a generic lossless network.

  9. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  10. Gastrin and upper GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Chang, Wenju; Jin, Guangchun; Wang, Timothy C

    2016-12-01

    Gastrin was initially identified as the hormone primarily responsible for gastric acid secretion, but was subsequently shown to be a growth factor for the proximal stomach, acting through the gastrin receptor CCK2R. Studies in the past several decades have explored the role of gastrin, along with its incompletely processed precursors, in cancer development. The growth in long-term PPI use has frequently led to elevations in serum gastrin levels in patients with upper GI disease, including GERD, peptic ulcers, and chronic gastritis. However, while accumulated evidence has shown that gastrin likely does not promote-and may even suppress-distal antral gastric cancer, questions have now arisen regarding possible effects of gastrin on the development of gastric cardia cancer or esophageal adenocarcinoma at gastroesophageal junction. Here, we provide an overview of the possible roles of these gastrin peptides in upper GI cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Rhinoscleroma Causing Upper Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika Verma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous condition of the respiratory tract, and is not uncommon in tropical regions; particularly, Mexico, Central America and the Middle East. A few cases have been reported in North America, primarily involving immigrants from endemic countries. The causative organism is Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a Gram-negative coccobacillus. Diagnosis is made on the basis of culture of the organism and the characteristic pathology of Mikulicz cells on light microscopy. The condition primarily affects the upper airway, and frequently presents with nasal discharge, nasal obstruction or frontal facial pain. Despite the term 'rhinoscleroma', there may be involvement of the entire respiratory tract. Although the condition is slowly progressive, its natural course portends extensive destruction. Laryngotracheal involvement occurs in approximately 15% to 80% of cases, but patients rarely present with isolated laryngotracheal disease. In the present paper, a case of rhinoscleroma presenting with symptoms of upper airway obstruction is described.

  12. VUV photochemistry simulation of planetary upper atmosphere using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Giuliani, Alexandre; Correia, Jean Jacques; Cernogora, Guy

    2013-07-01

    The coupling of a gas reactor, named APSIS, with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility, for a photochemistry study of gas mixtures, is reported. The reactor may be irradiated windowless with gas pressures up to hundreds of millibar, and thus allows the effect of energetic photons below 100 nm wavelength to be studied on possibly dense media. This set-up is perfectly suited to atmospheric photochemistry investigations, as illustrated by a preliminary report of a simulation of the upper atmospheric photochemistry of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is mainly composed of molecular nitrogen and methane. Solar VUV irradiation with wavelengths no longer than 100 nm on the top of the atmosphere enables the dissociation and ionization of nitrogen, involving a nitrogen chemistry specific to nitrogen-rich upper atmospheres.

  13. Comparison of extended medium-range forecast skill between KMA ensemble, ocean coupled ensemble, and GloSea5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwook; Kim, Dong-Joon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Kie-Woung; Kim, Jongkhun; Song, Eun-Ji; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    This article describes a three way inter-comparison of forecast skill on an extended medium-range time scale using the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) operational ensemble numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems (i.e., atmosphere-only global ensemble prediction system (EPSG) and ocean-atmosphere coupledEPSG) and KMA operational seasonal prediction system, the Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5). The main motivation is to investigate whether the ensemble NWP system can provide advantage over the existing seasonal prediction system for the extended medium-range forecast (30 days) even with putting extra resources in extended integration or coupling with ocean with NWP system. Two types of evaluation statistics are examined: the basic verification statistics - the anomaly correlation and RMSE of 500-hPa geopotential height and 1.5-meter surface temperature for the global and East Asia area, and the other is the Real-time Multivariate Madden and Julian Oscillation (MJO) indices (RMM1 and RMM2) - which is used to examine the MJO prediction skill. The MJO is regarded as a main source of forecast skill in the tropics linked to the mid-latitude weather on monthly time scale. Under limited number of experiment cases, the coupled NWP extends the forecast skill of the NWP by a few more days, and thereafter such forecast skill is overtaken by that of the seasonal prediction system. At present stage, it seems there is little gain from the coupled NWP even though more resources are put into it. Considering this, the best combination of numerical product guidance for operational forecasters for an extended medium-range is extension of the forecast lead time of the current ensemble NWP (EPSG) up to 20 days and use of the seasonal prediction system (GloSea5) forecast thereafter, though there exists a matter of consistency between the two systems.

  14. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Real-time, Two-way, Coupled, Refined, Forecasting System to Predict Coastal Storm Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, B. N.; Warner, J. C.; Signell, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Storms are one of the primary environmental forces causing coastal change. These discrete events often produce large waves, storm surges, and flooding, resulting in coastal erosion. In addition, strong storm-generated currents may pose threats to life, property, and navigation. The ability to predict these events, their location, duration, and magnitude allows resource managers to better prepare for the storm impacts as well as guide post-storm survey assessments and recovery efforts. As a step towards increasing our event prediction capability we have developed an automated system to run a daily forecast of the Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere - Wave - Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System, which includes the ocean model ROMS and the wave model SWAN. Management of the system is controlled on a high-performance computing cluster. Data required to drive the modeling system include wave, wind, atmospheric surface inputs, and climatology fields obtained from other modeling products. The Unidata Internet Data Distribution/Local Data Manager, nctoolbox and other NetCDF tools are used to access large data sets from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Nomads http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov site. The data are used to create forcings and boundary conditions for the ROMS and SWAN models that run on both a 5 km US east coast and a 1 km nested region in the Gulf of Maine. Improvements in the modeling system, data acquisition, and visualization methods required for the forecasting system are described. Results of the newly coupled and refined system show improvement for the prediction of the free surface due to the increased resolution from the grid refinement in the Bay of Fundy. The surface currents of the refined system are more consistent with climatology. The surface waves are permitted to interact with the surface currents and show tidal oscillations at certain locations. Additionally, wave heights during storm events are modified by wave

  16. Confusing or Ambiguous Upper Gut Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ...

  17. International Migration of Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu

    2017-01-01

    We analyze emigration and return decisions of Danish couples. Our main questions are how emigration and return migration decisions depend on education, earnings, and the number and age of children. We use register data on full population from 1982 to 2006, focusing on opposite-gender couples in which the female is aged 23 to 37, and the male 25 to 39. We find that power couples in which both are highly educated are most likely to emigrate, but also most likely to return. Couples in which only...

  18. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  19. Simulation of ENSO Forcings on U.S. Drought by the HadCM3 Coupled Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, S. J.; Briffa, K.; Osborn, T.

    2007-05-01

    The ability of the HadCM3 coupled ocean - atmosphere general circulation model to represent the mechanisms linking the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and drought in the U.S. is investigated. Rotated principal components analyses of a self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) data are used to identify the dominant modes of summer drought variability in the observed climate record (1901-2002), and in a 250-year period of a HadCM3 control run. A similar mode of drought variability is identified in both data sets that is correlated with ENSO variability: a monopolar pattern across the continental interior, centred in the southern states. HadCM3 successfully reproduces the displacement of the mid-latitude jet streams during ENSO events, a mechanism related to U.S. drought variability, but the model appears to be less realistic in its simulation of the influence of Rossby wave teleconections on drought, possibly due to errors in its simulation of ENSO in the equatorial Pacific. Despite this, we conclude that HadCM3's simulation of the link between ENSO and U.S. drought is sufficiently realistic for it to be used in further studies of U.S. drought variability.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method (ESQM v5.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Seshadri, Pranay; Ganju, Neil K.; Beudin, Alexis

    2017-12-01

    Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as the Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant stem density, height, and, to a lesser degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant stem density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space for future observational and modeling work.

  1. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  2. Seasonal variability of the upper ocean driven by the atmospheric forcing and its regulation of nutrients and chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.

    The upper ocean is the most variable and dynamically active part of the marine environment that couples the underlying ocean to the atmosphere above through the transfer of mass, momentum and energy. The thickness of mixed layer is an important...

  3. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  4. The South Atlantic Anticyclone as a key player for the representation of the tropical Atlantic climate in coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry V.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Fink, Andreas H.; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Alvarez, Francisco; Izquierdo, Alfredo; Keenlyside, Noel; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    The key role of the South Atlantic Anticyclone (SAA) on the seasonal cycle of the tropical Atlantic is investigated with a regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model for two different coupled domains. Both domains include the equatorial Atlantic and a large portion of the northern tropical Atlantic, but one extends southward, and the other northwestward. The SAA is simulated as internal model variability in the former, and is prescribed as external forcing in the latter. In the first case, the model shows significant warm biases in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Angola-Benguela front zone. If the SAA is externally prescribed, these biases are substantially reduced. The biases are both of oceanic and atmospheric origin, and are influenced by ocean-atmosphere interactions in coupled runs. The strong SST austral summer biases are associated with a weaker SAA, which weakens the winds over the southeastern tropical Atlantic, deepens the thermocline and prevents the local coastal upwelling of colder water. The biases in the basins interior in this season could be related to the advection and eddy transport of the coastal warm anomalies. In winter, the deeper thermocline and atmospheric fluxes are probably the main biases sources. Biases in incoming solar radiation and thus cloudiness seem to be a secondary effect only observed in austral winter. We conclude that the external prescription of the SAA south of 20°S improves the simulation of the seasonal cycle over the tropical Atlantic, revealing the fundamental role of this anticyclone in shaping the climate over this region.

  5. Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient clinic…

  6. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  7. Fundamental Principles of Tremor Propagation in the Upper Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew D; Charles, Steven K

    2017-04-01

    Although tremor is the most common movement disorder, there exist few effective tremor-suppressing devices, in part because the characteristics of tremor throughout the upper limb are unknown. To clarify, optimally suppressing tremor requires a knowledge of the mechanical origin, propagation, and distribution of tremor throughout the upper limb. Here we present the first systematic investigation of how tremor propagates between the shoulder, elbow, forearm, and wrist. We simulated tremor propagation using a linear, time-invariant, lumped-parameter model relating joint torques and the resulting joint displacements. The model focused on the seven main degrees of freedom from the shoulder to the wrist and included coupled joint inertia, damping, and stiffness. We deliberately implemented a simple model to focus first on the most basic effects. Simulating tremorogenic joint torque as a sinusoidal input, we used the model to establish fundamental principles describing how input parameters (torque location and frequency) and joint impedance (inertia, damping, and stiffness) affect tremor propagation. We expect that the methods and principles presented here will serve as the groundwork for future refining studies to understand the origin, propagation, and distribution of tremor throughout the upper limb in order to enable the future development of optimal tremor-suppressing devices.

  8. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.

  9. Axial Rod Coupling Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David R

    2003-01-01

    .... The axial rod and coupling has been designed to withstand external survival loads ( 8.3 kN (1,870 lb) for Ring 5), and to maintain its length to within 7 microns after disassembly and reassembly...

  10. Coupling in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  11. Triple gauge boson couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Gounaris, George J; Zeppenfeld, Dieter; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Arhrib, A; Bella, G; Berends, F A; Bilenky, S M; Blondel, A; Busenitz, J K; Choudhury, D; Clarke, P; Conboy, J E; Diehl, M; Fassouliotis, D; Frère, J M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Gibbs, M; Grünewald, M W; Hansen, J B; Hartmann, C; Jin, B N; Jousset, J; Kalinowski, Jan; Kocian, M L; Lahanas, Athanasios B; Layssac, J; Lieb, E H; Markou, C; Matteuzzi, C; Mättig, P; Moreno, J M; Moultaka, G; Nippe, A; Orloff, J; Papadopoulos, C G; Paschalis, J; Petridou, C; Phillips, H; Podlyski, F; Pohl, M; Renard, F M; Rossignol, J M; Rylko, R; Sekulin, R L; Van Sighem, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Skillman, A; Spanos, V C; Tonazzo, A; Tytgat, M H G; Tzamarias, S; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vlachos, N D; Zevgolatakos, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the results obtained by the "Triple Gauge Couplings" working group during the LEP2 Workshop (1994-1995). The report concentrates on the measurement of WW\\gamma and WWZ couplings in e^-e^+\\to W^-W^+ or, more generally, four-fermion production at LEP2. In addition the detection of new interactions in the bosonic sector via other production channels is discussed.

  12. Air-sea fluxes in a climate model using hourly coupling between the atmospheric and the oceanic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangxing; von Storch, Jin-Song; Hertwig, Eileen

    2017-05-01

    We analyse the changes in the air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and fresh water flux caused by increasing the ocean-atmosphere coupling frequency from once per day to once per hour in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. We diagnose the relative influences of daily averaging and high-frequency feedbacks on the basic statistics of the air-sea fluxes at grid point level and quantify feedback modes responsible for large scale changes in fluxes over the Southern Ocean and the Equatorial Pacific. Coupling once per hour instead of once per day reduces the mean of the momentum-flux magnitude by up to 7 % in the tropics and increases it by up to 10 % in the Southern Ocean. These changes result solely from feedbacks between atmosphere and ocean occurring on time scales shorter than 1 day . The variance and extremes of all the fluxes are increased in most parts of the oceans. Exceptions are found for the momentum and fresh water fluxes in the tropics. The increases result mainly from the daily averaging, while the decreases in the tropics are caused by the high-frequency feedbacks. The variance increases are substantial, reaching up to 50 % for the momentum flux, 100 % for the fresh water flux, and a factor of 15 for the net heat flux. These diurnal and intra-diurnal variations account for up to 50-90 % of the total variances and exhibit distinct seasonality. The high-frequency coupling can influence the large-scale feedback modes that lead to large-scale changes in the magnitude of wind stress over the Southern Ocean and Equatorial Pacific. In the Southern Ocean, the dependence of the SST-wind-stress feedback on the mean state of SST, which is colder in the experiment with hourly coupling than in the experiment with daily coupling, leads to an increase of westerlies. In the Equatorial Pacific, Bjerknes feedback in the hourly coupled experiment reveals a diurnal cycle during the El Niño events, with the feedback being stronger in the nighttime than in the daytime and

  13. Representing Icebergs In A Fully Coupled Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bügelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the global climate during past and current times strongly impact the Polar Regions, which in turn affect the global climate due to several mechanisms, such as albedo, topography, ablation and ice discharge. Icebergs are an important part of the climate system as they interact with the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Several approaches have been taken to incorporate iceberg calving into numerical models under different climate forcings. The studies done so far have in common that the icebergs were moved by reconstructed or modelled forcing fields and that the initial size distribution of the icebergs was prescribed according to present day observations. Hence, uncertainties in the forcing fields and in the parameterization of the iceberg size may alter the results. To investigate the impact of the background forcing (atmosphere, ocean) and the pre-defined size distribution on the icebergs and consequently on the Northern hemisphere climate and the Greenland ice sheet, we have coupled an earth system model of intermediate complexity (iLOVECLIM, Roche et al., 2013) to an ice sheet/ice shelf model (GRISLI, Ritz et al., 2001) and an iceberg module (Jongma et al., 2009; Bügelmayer et al., 2014). Using this set-up, we performed 15 sensitivity experiments that differ in the applied forcing (atmosphere, ocean), the applied boundary conditions (pre-industrial, 4xCO2, 1/4 x CO2) and the initial size distribution of the icebergs. In the presented study only the Greenland ice sheet is considered. We find that, under pre-industrial conditions, the atmospheric forcing pushes the icebergs further away from their calving sites and further into the North Atlantic, whereas the ocean currents transport the bergs along the Greenland coast and southward along the Canadian coast. Although the purely atmospheric-forced bergs cause warmer oceanic conditions than the oceanic-driven bergs, the overall effect on climate and the resulting ice sheet due to variations in the

  14. Upper torso and pelvis linear velocity during the downswing of elite golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During a golf swing, analysis of the movement in upper torso and pelvis is a key step to determine a motion control strategy for accurate and consistent shots. However, a majority of previous studies that have evaluated this movement limited their analysis only to the rotational movement of segments, and translational motions were not examined. Therefore, in this study, correlations between translational motions in the 3 axes, which occur between the upper torso and pelvis, were also examined. Methods The experiments were carried out with 14 male pro-golfers (age: 29 ± 8 years, career: 8.2 ± 4.8years) who registered in the Korea Professional Golf Association (KPGA). Six infrared cameras (VICON; Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) and SB-Clinc software (SWINGBANK Ltd, Korea) were used to collect optical marker trajectories. The center of mass (CoM) of each segment was calculated based on kinematic principal. In addition, peak value of CoM velocity and the time that each peak occurred in each segment during downswing was calculated. Also, using cross-correlation analysis, the degree of coupling and time lags of peak values occurred between and within segments (pelvis and upper torso) were investigated. Results As a result, a high coupling strength between upper torso and pelvis with an average correlation coefficient = 0.86 was observed, and the coupling between segments was higher than that within segments (correlation coefficient = 0.81 and 0.77, respectively). Conclusions Such a high coupling at the upper torso and pelvis can be used to reduce the degree of motion control in the central nervous system and maintain consistent patterns in the movement. The result of this study provides important information for the development of optimal golf swing movement control strategies in the future. PMID:23398693

  15. Unraveling the Complexities of the Upper Atmosphere as a System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere responds as a system to external forcing from the Sun, magnetosphere, and lower atmosphere. The underlying system components comprise a highly dynamic, non-linear neutral fluid supporting fast propagating wave fields, advective transport, dissipation, and chemical changes, coupled to an active plasma constrained by all-encompassing magnetic and electric fields. More importantly, the plasma and more massive neutral gas are intimately coupled. Ion-neutral coupling can drive winds ten-times hurricane strength making inertia a dominant force; it can sometimes wipe out 90% of the plasma, and at other times allow plasma content to explode with dangerous consequences. Ion-neutral dissipation can result in intense heating, allowing the atmosphere to expand to double its normal size, dragging Earth orbiting satellites to the ground. The thermospheric dynamo, ultimately driven by the solar and magnetosphere dynamos, redistributes equatorial plasma and can drive structure, steep gradients, and irregularities. A single satellite sampling the medium is suitable for uncovering perhaps one or two of the many interacting processes, in what could be called discovery mode science. Without a three-dimensional imaging capability, a single satellite cannot explore the interaction and balance between the multiple of processes actually present. Unraveling the system-wide or global response requires multi-point in-situ constellation-type measurements, together with available two-dimensional imaging. Modeling the system can create an illusion of understanding, but until we really look we will never know.

  16. Problem-based learning in upper division courses: Student successes, perceptions, and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Gintaras; Ross, James

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an experiment in project/problem-based learning (PBL) in an upper division mathematical physics course. The group project in the course involved modeling a zombie outbreak of the type seen in AMC's The Walking Dead. Students researched, devised, and solved their mathematical models for the spread of a zombie-like infection. Students independently learned and utilized numerical methods to solve highly coupled systems of differential equations. This work explores student perceptions and reactions to problem-based learning, and the feasibility of using PBL as the sole pedagogy in upper division physics courses.

  17. Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesundara, Kushal; Zdanski, Carlton; Kimbell, Julia; Price, Hillel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light sourc...

  18. Statistical and dynamical properties of covariant lyapunov vectors in a coupled atmosphere-ocean model—multiscale effects, geometric degeneracy, and error dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannitsem, Stéphane; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    We study a simplified coupled atmosphere-ocean model using the formalism of covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), which link physically-based directions of perturbations to growth/decay rates. The model is obtained via a severe truncation of quasi-geostrophic equations for the two fluids, and includes a simple yet physically meaningful representation of their dynamical/thermodynamical coupling. The model has 36 degrees of freedom, and the parameters are chosen so that a chaotic behaviour is observed. There are two positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs), sixteen negative LEs, and eighteen near-zero LEs. The presence of many near-zero LEs results from the vast time-scale separation between the characteristic time scales of the two fluids, and leads to nontrivial error growth properties in the tangent space spanned by the corresponding CLVs, which are geometrically very degenerate. Such CLVs correspond to two different classes of ocean/atmosphere coupled modes. The tangent space spanned by the CLVs corresponding to the positive and negative LEs has, instead, a non-pathological behaviour, and one can construct robust large deviations laws for the finite time LEs, thus providing a universal model for assessing predictability on long to ultra-long scales along such directions. Interestingly, the tangent space of the unstable manifold has substantial projection on both atmospheric and oceanic components. The results show the difficulties in using hyperbolicity as a conceptual framework for multiscale chaotic dynamical systems, whereas the framework of partial hyperbolicity seems better suited, possibly indicating an alternative definition for the chaotic hypothesis. They also suggest the need for an accurate analysis of error dynamics on different time scales and domains and for a careful set-up of assimilation schemes when looking at coupled atmosphere-ocean models.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS WITH MULTIPLE COUPLED LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of coupled lossy transmission line structures like microwave directional couplers and filters, 3-phase power cable networks or a databus is not simple. In this paper it is shown that the admittance parameters for the 2N port network, N coupled lossy transmission lines form, may...... be found using a set of almost arbitrary (orthogonal) quasi propagation modes instead of the true modes, if the up-per frequency is so low that the electrical length of the lines is smaller than about 1/3 of the wavelength for the propagation mode with the lowest phase velocity....

  20. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for Routine Oxygen Monitoring? HY Embu, MJ Misauno, ES Isamade, MG Yilkudi. Abstract. Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper ...

  1. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R

    1983-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  2. Endoscopic Findings in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common medical condition that results in high morbidity and mortality, especially if not properly and aggressively managed. Identification of cause of bleeding is paramount towards effective management. The aim of this study was to determine the common causes of upper ...

  3. Upper bound on quantum stabilizer codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Xing, Li-Juan

    2009-03-01

    By studying sets of operators having constant weight, we present an analytical upper bound on the pure quantum stabilizer codes whose underlying quantum system can be of arbitrary dimension, which outperforms the well-known quantum Hamming bound, the optimal analytical upper bound so far for small code length.

  4. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  5. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till

    2018-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  6. The Upper Mississippi River System—Topobathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jayme M.; Hanson, Jenny L.; Sattler, Stephanie R.

    2017-03-23

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), the navigable part of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, is a diverse ecosystem that contains river channels, tributaries, shallow-water wetlands, backwater lakes, and flood-plain forests. Approximately 10,000 years of geologic and hydrographic history exist within the UMRS. Because it maintains crucial wildlife and fish habitats, the dynamic ecosystems of the Upper Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries are contingent on the adjacent flood plains and water-level fluctuations of the Mississippi River. Separate data for flood-plain elevation (lidar) and riverbed elevation (bathymetry) were collected on the UMRS by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program. Using the two elevation datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) developed a systemic topobathy dataset.

  7. Asymptotic behavior for cross coupled parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhen XUE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to better describe the heat transfer process of three kinds of mixed substances, namely the reaction of the reactants in the three chemical reactions, a class of three variable cross coupling with non parabolic equations of the whole existence of local source and non local boundary flow and the finite time blow up problem with breaking method for the solution of the first commonly used feature value structure are studied. The structure of the equations of the upper and lower solutions by using the method of ordinary differential equation reference is broken, with comparison theorem, the proof shows that obtained by local source power function and exponential function of parabolic equations is broken, with the sufficient conditions for global existence of clegerate purubolic equations solutions cross coupled by local source power function and non local sources exponential function are proved, as soon as the solution of blowing up in finite time degradation of non local sources of cross coupling, providing better support for the theory of heat transfer and chemical reaction problem.

  8. A Real-time, Coupled, Refined Forecasting System for Coastal Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, B. N.; Warner, J. C.; Signell, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    In the coastal zone, storms are one of the primary environmental forces causing coastal change. These discrete events often produce large waves, storm surges, and flooding, resulting in coastal erosion. In addition, strong storm-generated currents may pose threats to life, property, and navigation. The ability to predict these events, their location, duration, and magnitude allows resource managers to better prepare for the storm impacts as well as guide post-storm survey assessments and recovery efforts. As a step towards increasing our capability for prediction of these events and to help us study the physical processes that occur we have developed an automated system to run components of the Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere - Wave - Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System as a daily forecast. The current daily system couples Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) and Simulation Waves Nearshore (SWAN) models to predict currents, salinity, temperature, wave height and direction, and sediment transport for the US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico on a 5 km scale. As part of the system a refined grid for the area of Cape Hatteras, NC at a resolution of 1 km is included. Management of the system is controlled by the Windows Scheduler to start Matlab® and run scripts and functions. Data required by the modeling system include daily modeled wave, wind, atmospheric surface inputs, and climatology fields. The Unidata Internet Data Distribution/Local Data Manager (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/ldm/) is used to download National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GFS global 5 degree data and NCEP NAM Conus 12km data to a local server. The Matlab “structs” tool and NJ-Toolbox (http://njtbx.sourceforge.net/njdocs/njtbxhelp/njtbxhelp.html) are used to access these large data sets on the local server as well as Wave Watch 3 (WW3) and NCEP model data sets available remotely on the Nomads http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov site and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) data

  9. Generic flux coupling analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Reimers (Arne); Y. Goldstein; A. Bockmayr

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the

  10. HIV-discordant couples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... and Gynecology have noted that assisted reproductive technologies should not be withheld from HIV-infected infertile couples merely on the grounds of HIV serostatus.26. However, ethical controversies in this area remain. Adequate preconception counselling to establish the stability of the discordant ...

  11. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: remartinezm@unal.edu.co. Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  12. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupli...

  13. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the APCC coupled MME suite in predicting the distinctive climate impacts of two flavors of ENSO during boreal winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hye-In; Lee, Doo Young [APEC Climate Center (APCC), Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Ashok, Karumuri [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Centre for Climate Change Research, Pune (India); Ahn, Joong-Bae [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Luo, Jing-Jia [Research Institute for Global Change/JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); Schemm, Jae-Kyung E. [NCEP/NOAA Climate Prediction Center, Camp Spring, MD (United States); Hendon, Harry H.; Braganza, Karl [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ham, Yoo-Geun [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research Studies and Investigations, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Forecast skill of the APEC Climate Center (APCC) Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) seasonal forecast system in predicting two main types of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), namely canonical (or cold tongue) and Modoki ENSO, and their regional climate impacts is assessed for boreal winter. The APCC MME is constructed by simple composite of ensemble forecasts from five independent coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Based on a hindcast set targeting boreal winter prediction for the period 1982-2004, we show that the MME can predict and discern the important differences in the patterns of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly between the canonical and Modoki ENSO one and four month ahead. Importantly, the four month lead MME beats the persistent forecast. The MME reasonably predicts the distinct impacts of the canonical ENSO, including the strong winter monsoon rainfall over East Asia, the below normal rainfall and above normal temperature over Australia, the anomalously wet conditions across the south and cold conditions over the whole area of USA, and the anomalously dry conditions over South America. However, there are some limitations in capturing its regional impacts, especially, over Australasia and tropical South America at a lead time of one and four months. Nonetheless, forecast skills for rainfall and temperature over East Asia and North America during ENSO Modoki are comparable to or slightly higher than those during canonical ENSO events. (orig.)

  15. Left upper lobe mass and diffuse reticular-nodular infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H D; Carney, K J; Knautz, M A; Tenholder, M F

    1994-06-01

    We encountered a clinical problem in a young man who presented with a left upper lobe mass and a diffuse reticular-nodular infiltrate. We thought we had appropriately applied Murphy's Law (the famed bank robber who "went where the money is"), and Ockham's Razor (the philosopher William of Ockham [1285 to 1349]-"Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity") as we rapidly diagnosed the lung mass with computed tomography, scintigraphy, and fine-needle aspiration. However, when his invaluable previous chest radiographs arrived, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, brushings, and postbronchoscopy sputum revealed the more ominous diagnosis in this patient. This case illustrates the complementary nature of current imaging and bronchoscopy techniques; but, even more importantly, it demonstrates the value of the history coupled with the previous radiograph. Even an unusual case can provide lessons in cost containment.

  16. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Warthog code was developed to couple codes that are developed in both the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SHARP from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The initial phase of this work, focused on coupling the neutronics code PROTEUS with the fuel performance code BISON. The main technical challenge involves mapping the power density solution determined by PROTEUS to the fuel in BISON. This presents a challenge since PROTEUS uses the MOAB mesh format, but BISON, like all other MOOSE codes, uses the libMesh format. When coupling the different codes, one must consider that Warthog is a light-weight MOOSE-based program that uses the Data Transfer Kit (DTK) to transfer data between the various mesh types. Users set up inputs for the codes they want to run, and then Warthog transfers the data between them. Currently Warthog supports XSProc from SCALE or the Sub-Group Application Programming Interface (SGAPI) in PROTEUS for generating cross sections. It supports arbitrary geometries using PROTEUS and BISON. DTK will transfer power densities and temperatures between the codes where the domains overlap. In the past fiscal year (FY), much work has gone into demonstrating two-way coupling for simple pin cells of various materials. XSProc was used to calculate the cross sections, which were then passed to PROTEUS in an external file. PROTEUS calculates the fission/power density, and Warthog uses DTK to pass this information to BISON, where it is used as the heat source. BISON then calculates the temperature profile of the pin cell and sends it back to XSProc to obtain the temperature corrected cross sections. This process is repeated until the convergence criteria (tolerance on BISON solve, or number of time steps) is reached. Models have been constructed and run for both uranium oxide and uranium silicide fuels. These models demonstrate a clear difference in power shape that is not accounted for in a

  17. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohammadi; R Sheykh Hadi Siruii; A Garafar; K Zahrakar; M Shakarami; R Davarniya

    2017-01-01

    Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of gro...

  18. Surveillance and management of upper gastrointestinal disease in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, Michelle C; Phillips, Robin K S; Bülow, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    develop colorectal cancer, but the lifetime risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer is lower, estimated at approximately 5%. Management of the upper gastrointestinal cancer risk is one of the greatest challenges facing clinicians involved in the care of Polyposis families, and with improved survival......Almost all patients affected by Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP) will develop foregut as well as hindgut polyps, and following prophylactic colectomy duodenal cancer constitutes one of the leading causes of death in screened populations. Without prophylactic colectomy, FAP patients predictably...... following prophylactic colectomy, the burden of foregut disease (particularly duodenal adenomatosis) will increase. Until recently, the value of upper gastrointestinal surveillance in FAP populations has been contentious, but with improved understanding of the natural history coupled with developments...

  19. Surveillance and management of upper gastrointestinal disease in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, Michelle C; Phillips, Robin K S; Bülow, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    Almost all patients affected by Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP) will develop foregut as well as hindgut polyps, and following prophylactic colectomy duodenal cancer constitutes one of the leading causes of death in screened populations. Without prophylactic colectomy, FAP patients predictably...... develop colorectal cancer, but the lifetime risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer is lower, estimated at approximately 5%. Management of the upper gastrointestinal cancer risk is one of the greatest challenges facing clinicians involved in the care of Polyposis families, and with improved survival...... following prophylactic colectomy, the burden of foregut disease (particularly duodenal adenomatosis) will increase. Until recently, the value of upper gastrointestinal surveillance in FAP populations has been contentious, but with improved understanding of the natural history coupled with developments...

  20. Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Kushal; Zdanski, Carlton; Kimbell, Julia; Price, Hillel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2014-03-01

    Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a proximally-scanned fiber-optic catheter of 820 μm outer diameter and >2 mm focal length. Coupled with a long coherence length wavelength-swept light source, the system exhibited an SNR roll-off of endoscopy afforded by this system can aid in diagnosis, medical and surgical decision making, and predictive modeling of upper airway obstructive disorders.

  1. Generic flux coupling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Arne; Goldstein, Y.; Bockmayr, A.

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algo...

  2. Role of gravity waves in vertical coupling during sudden stratospheric warmings

    CERN Document Server

    Yiğit, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Gravity waves are primarily generated in the lower atmosphere, and can reach thermospheric heights in the course of their propagation. This paper reviews the recent progress in understanding the role of gravity waves in vertical coupling during sudden stratospheric warmings. Modeling of gravity wave effects is briefly reviewed, and the recent developments in the field are presented. Then, the impact of these waves on the general circulation of the upper atmosphere is outlined. Finally, the role of gravity waves in vertical coupling between the lower and the upper atmosphere is discussed in the context of sudden stratospheric warmings.

  3. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  4. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  5. Rock glaciers, Upper Engadin, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The investigated region is called Upper Engadin and is situated in the Eastern part of the Swiss Alps. The area is characterized by a high situated valley floor with...

  6. Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing.

    OpenAIRE

    Bannister, P; Foster, P

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing.

  7. Unified physicochemical property estimation relationships (UPPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2014-09-01

    The knowledge of physicochemical properties of organic compounds becomes increasingly important in pharmaceutical sciences, chemical engineering, and other fields. In this study, we developed UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships), a comprehensive model for the estimation of 20 physicochemical properties of organic compounds. UPPER is a system of thermodynamically sound relationships that relate the various phase-transition properties to one another, which includes transition heats, transition entropies, transition temperatures, molar volume, vapor pressure, solubilities and partition coefficients in different solvents, and so on. UPPER integrates group contributions with the molecular geometric factors that affect transition entropies. All of the predictions are directly based on molecular structure. As a result, the proposed model provides a simple and accurate prediction of the properties studied. UPPER is designed to predict industrially, pharmaceutically, and environmentally relevant physicochemical properties. It can be an aid for the efficient design and synthesis of compounds with optimal physicochemical properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  9. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  10. [Endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón Sepúlveda, M

    1990-01-01

    There are several changes in the role that endoscopy plays in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We propose indications and make point about the factors than an endoscopist must have in mind referring to timing the endoscopy study. In the experience of our Hospital (Hospital Central Norte de Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico City), during 20 years we found a diminution in the prevalence of duodenal ulceration and an increase in gastric ulceration, erosive gastritis an neoplasies as causes of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  11. Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Rainer A.

    2008-01-01

    Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections (MAUI) will observe the Space Shuttle engine exhaust plumes from the Maui Space Surveillance Site in Hawaii. The observations will occur when the Space Shuttle fires its engines at night or twilight. A telescope and all-sky imagers will take images and data while the Space Shuttle flies over the Maui site. The images will be analyzed to better understand the interaction between the spacecraft plume and the upper atmosphere of Earth.

  12. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of mountain snowpack and terrestrial water storage in the Upper Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial and temporal relationships of winter snowpack and terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the Upper Snake River were analyzed for water years 2001–2010 at a monthly time step. We coupled a regionally validated snow model with gravimetric measurements of the Earth’s water...

  13. Validation and Analysis of the Coupled Multiple Response Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized conceptual assessment represents a widely used tool for educational researchers interested in student learning within the standard undergraduate physics curriculum. For example, these assessments are often used to measure student learning across educational contexts and instructional strategies. However, to support the large-scale…

  14. Large-Eddy Simulations of Tropical Convective Systems, the Boundary Layer, and Upper Ocean Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 phase of MJO affects ...sensible, and evaporative heating anomalies between the ocean and atmosphere affect the evolution of the MJO? We will identify convective and air...clearly shown by a horizontal plane view of the cloud albedo and surface latent heat flux (Figure 5). At this time a single strong group of

  15. Laparoscopic upper-pole nephroureterectomy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcio L; Oliveira-Filho, Antonio G; Carvalho, Patricia T; Ungersbock, Elaine; Olimpio, Hugo; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim M

    2007-01-01

    Report the results of laparoscopic upper-pole nephroureterectomy in infants. Six consecutive infants underwent 7 laparoscopic upper-pole nephroureterectomy. Pre and postoperative evaluation included renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy. All infants showed upper-pole exclusion. Surgery was performed through a transperitoneal approach with full flank position in all infants. Three or 4 ports were used according to the necessity of retracting the liver. The distal ureter was ligated close to the bladder whenever reflux was present and the dysplastic upper-pole was divided with the help of an electrocautery. Data regarding operative time, postoperative use of analgesics, time to resume oral feeding, hospital stay and tubular function were collected and analyzed. All procedures were concluded as planned. Mean operative time was 135 min. One patient underwent staged bilateral upper-pole nephrectomy. There were no complications and the postoperative hospital stay was 48 hours in 5 procedures and 24 hours in 2 procedures. Pain medication was required only in the first day. Renal tubular function showed improvement in half of the cases. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a safe and feasible procedure in infants. Due to the magnification provided by the lenses, a better vision of the structures is achieved, facilitating selective dissection of vascular upper-pole, renal parenchyma and distal ureter. This approach is less damaging to the lower pole, and is associated to low morbidity and a short hospital stay.

  16. Laparoscopic upper-pole nephroureterectomy in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L. Miranda

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the results of laparoscopic upper-pole nephroureterectomy in infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six consecutive infants underwent 7 laparoscopic upper-pole nephroureterectomy. Pre and postoperative evaluation included renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy. All infants showed upper-pole exclusion. Surgery was performed through a transperitoneal approach with full flank position in all infants. Three or 4 ports were used according to the necessity of retracting the liver. The distal ureter was ligated close to the bladder whenever reflux was present and the dysplastic upper-pole was divided with the help of an electrocautery. Data regarding operative time, postoperative use of analgesics, time to resume oral feeding, hospital stay and tubular function were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: All procedures were concluded as planned. Mean operative time was 135 min. One patient underwent staged bilateral upper-pole nephrectomy. There were no complications and the postoperative hospital stay was 48 hours in 5 procedures and 24 hours in 2 procedures. Pain medication was required only in the first day. Renal tubular function showed improvement in half of the cases. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a safe and feasible procedure in infants. Due to the magnification provided by the lenses, a better vision of the structures is achieved, facilitating selective dissection of vascular upper-pole, renal parenchyma and distal ureter. This approach is less damaging to the lower pole, and is associated to low morbidity and a short hospital stay.

  17. Amlodipine-induced bilateral upper extremity edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshalingham, Anusha; Wong, William

    2007-09-01

    To report a case of bilateral upper extremity edema associated with amlodipine use in a child. A previously well and normotensive 6-year-old girl presented with a generalized vasculitis of unknown origin and severe hypertension. Large vessels predominantly affecting the neck, chest, and abdomen were found to be involved, resulting in abnormal arterial circulation and significant blood pressure differences between the upper and lower extremities. Multiple antihypertensive agents were initially required to control blood pressure. She was stabilized and discharged on amlodipine 10 mg each evening, atenolol 50 mg/day, and warfarin. Three days later she was noted to have facial and bilateral upper extremity pitting edema. Laboratory and radiologic assessments for possible etiologies were negative. Discontinuation of amlodipine resulted in resolution of edema. As of June 2007, there had been no cases of bilateral upper extremity edema associated with amlodipine use reported in the English literature. Adverse effects of amlodipine, a widely used antihypertensive, have been well reported. These include flushing, headache, and peripheral edema. Lower limb edema is the most common, while periocular and perioral edema have occurred less frequently. Anasarca edema has been described only once in the English literature. According to the Naranjo probability scale, amlodipine was a probable cause of bilateral upper extremity edema in this child. Bilateral upper extremity edema has been associated with amlodipine use in a child with an abnormal arterial circulation. The edema resolved upon discontinuation of the drug.

  18. Bounds on the Coupling of the Majoron to Light Neutrinos from Supernova Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2002-12-02

    We explore the role of Majoron (J) emission in the supernova cooling process, as a source of upper bound on the neutrino-Majoron coupling. We show that the strongest upper bound on the coupling to {nu}{sub 3} comes from the {nu}{sub e}{nu}{sub e} {yields} J process in the core of a supernova. We also find bounds on diagonal couplings of the Majoron to {nu}{sub {mu}({tau})}{nu}{sub {mu}({tau})} and on off-diagonal {nu}{sub e}{nu}{sub {mu}({tau})} couplings in various regions of the parameter space. We discuss the evaluation of cross-section for four-particle interactions ({nu}{nu} {yields} JJ and {nu}J {yields} {nu}J). We show that these are typically dominated by three-particle sub-processes and do not give new independent constraints.

  19. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of group cognitive behavioral couple therapy on couple burnout and divorce tendency in couples.   Methods: The present research was of applied research type. The research method was semi-empirical with a pretest-posttest with control group design. The research population included all the couples with marital conflict and problems who, after a recall announcement of the researcher, visited the counseling and psychological services center located in Gorgan city in 2014. By using the available sampling method, 20 couples were selected among the volunteer and qualified couples for the research, and they were assigned into experiment and control groups (10 couples per group by random assignment. In the present research, the Pines burnout questionnaire (1996 and divorce tendency scale of Rouswelt, Johnson, and Mouro (1986 were used for gathering the data. After taking the pretest, the group cognitive behavioral couple therapy based on the couple therapy model of Baucom  and colleagues (2008 was held in 10 2-hour weekly sessions for the experiment group couples, while the control group couples received no intervention. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics method and multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA in SPSS v.20. Results: The multivariate covariance analysis results for couple burnout (F= 28.80 and divorce tendency (F= 51.25 suggested that there was a significant difference between the couples of experiment and control groups (P< 0

  20. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  1. Identification of Directional Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    An important piece of information, which can be extracted from parameters of empirical models, is quantitative characteristics of couplings between processes under study. The problem of coupling detection is encountered in multiple fields including physics (Bezruchko et al., 2003), geophysics (Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mokhov and Smirnov, 2006, 2008; Mosedale et al., 2006; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Verdes, 2005; Wang et al., 2004), cardiology (Rosenblum et al., 2002; Palus and Stefanovska, 2003) and neurophysiology (Arnhold et al., 1999; Brea et al., 2006; Faes et al., 2008; Friston et al., 2003; Kreuz et al., 2007; Kiemel et al., 2003; Le Van Quyen et al., 1999; Mormann et al., 2000; Osterhage et al., 2007; Pereda et al., 2005; Prusseit and Lehnertz, 2008; Smirnov et al., 2005; Romano et al., 2007; Schelter et al., 2006; Schiff et al., 1996; Sitnikova et al., 2008; Smirnov et al., 2008, Staniek and Lehnertz, 2008; Tass, 1999; Tass et al., 2003). Numerous investigations are devoted to synchronisation, which is an effect of interaction between non-linear oscillatory systems (see, e.g., Balanov et al., 2008; Boccaletti et al., 2002; Hramov and Koronovskii, 2004; Kreuz et al., 2007; Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mormann et al., 2000; Mosekilde et al., 2002; Osipov et al., 2007; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Pikovsky et al., 2001; Prokhorov et al., 2003; Tass et al., 2003). In the last decade, more careful attention is paid to directional coupling analysis. Such characteristics might help, e.g., to localise an epileptic focus (a pathologic area) in the brain from electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings: hypothetically, an increasing influence of an epileptic focus on adjacent areas leads to the seizure onset for some kinds of epilepsy.

  2. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  3. Upper Girdle Imaging in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Leoncini, Emanuele; Boccia, Stefania; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Pelliccioni, Marco; Masciullo, Marcella; Frusciante, Roberto; Mercuri, Eugenio; Ricci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the upper girdle is early involved and often difficult to assess only relying on physical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern and degree of involvement of upper girdle muscles in FSHD compared with other muscle diseases with scapular girdle impairment. Methods We propose an MRI protocol evaluating neck and upper girdle muscles. One hundred-eight consecutive symptomatic FSHD patients and 45 patients affected by muscular dystrophies and myopathies with prominent upper girdle involvement underwent this protocol. Acquired scans were retrospectively analyzed. Results The trapezius (100% of the patients) and serratus anterior (85% of the patients) were the most and earliest affected muscles in FSHD, followed by the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major, whilst spinati and subscapularis (involved in less than 4% of the patients) were consistently spared even in late disease stages. Asymmetry and hyperintensities on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences were common features, and STIR hyperintensities could also be found in muscles not showing signs of fatty replacement. The overall involvement appears to be disease-specific in FSHD as it significantly differed from that encountered in the other myopathies. Conclusions The detailed knowledge of single muscle involvement provides useful information for correctly evaluating patients' motor function and to set a baseline for natural history studies. Upper girdle imaging can also be used as an additional tool helpful in supporting the diagnosis of FSHD in unclear situations, and may contribute with hints on the currently largely unknown molecular pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24932477

  4. Effect of antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling on spin-wave resonance frequency of multi-layer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com; Cai, Wei

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • A quantum approach is developed to study the SWR of a bicomponent multi-layer films. • The comparison of the SWR in films with FM and AFM interfacial coupling has been made. • The present results show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of films. - Abstract: We investigate the spin-wave resonance (SWR) frequency in a bicomponent bilayer and triple-layer films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as function of interfacial coupling, surface anisotropy, interface anisotropy, thickness and external magnetic field, using the linear spin-wave approximation and Green’s function technique. The microwave properties for multi-layer magnetic film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling is different from those for multi-layer magnetic film with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. For the bilayer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as the lower (upper) surface anisotropy increases, only the SWR frequencies of the odd (even) number modes increase. The lower (upper) surface anisotropy does not affect the SWR frequencies of the even (odd) number modes{sub .} For the multi-layer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling, the SWR frequency of modes m = 1, 3 and 4 decreases while that of mode m = 2 increases with increasing thickness of the film within a proper parameter region. The present results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding and show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of bicomponent multi-layer magnetic films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial coupling.

  5. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-08-08

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph classes, such as P4-free graphs or 2K2-free graphs.For classes defined by finitely many forbidden induced subgraphs, the boundary separating difficult instances of the problem from polynomially solvable ones consists of the so called boundary classes.However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem.In the present paper, we discover the first boundary class for this problem.

  6. Plate Coupling and Strain Partitioning in the Northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaker, D.; Calais, E.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

    2006-12-01

    Major strike-slip faults commonly found on the margin of overriding plates in oblique subduction zone settings facilitate the partitioning of strain into trench-parallel and trench-normal tectonics. Their development has been proposed to be controlled by factors such as convergence obliquity, basal tractions, magnitude of slab-pull force, or strength of interplate coupling. In the northeastern Caribbean, the direction of GPS velocities and earthquake slip vectors suggests low coupling along the Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles trenches, but strong coupling to the west along the Hispaniola margin, while the convergence obliquity remains constant. Coincidentally, large strike-slip faults in the overriding plate only develop in Hispaniola, which is also the locus of the largest historical subduction earthquakes in the Caribbean (M8.0, 1946-53 sequence). We investigate interplate coupling at the Caribbean-North American plate boundary using a model that allows for block rotations and elastic strain accumulation on partially coupled faults. Model parameters (block rotations and coupling on interplate faults) are derived from an inversion of earthquake slip vectors and new GPS data covering Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and the Lesser Antilles. We find that intraplate coupling is high in the western half of the domain, coincident with the development of large and fast-slipping strike-slip faults in the upper plate that partition the Carribean/North America plate motion, but low in its eastern half, along the Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles subductions, that show little to no strain partitioning. This suggests that strain partitioning occur only if interplate coupling is large enough to effectively transfer shear stresses to the overriding plate.

  7. Management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is unique from variceal bleeding in terms of patient characteristics, management, rebleeding rates, and prognosis, and should be managed differently. The majority of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds will not rebleed once treated successfully. The incidence is 80 to 90% of all upper gastrointestinal bleeds and the mortality is between 5 to 10%. The causes include nonacid-related ulceration from tumors, infections, inflammatory disease, Mallory-Weiss tears, erosions, esophagitis, dieulafoy lesions, angiodysplasias, gastric antral vascular ectasia, and portal hypertensive gastropathy. Rarer causes include hemobilia, hemosuccus pancreaticus, and aortoenteric fistulas. Hematemesis and melena are the key features of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, but fresh per rectal bleeding may be present in a rapidly bleeding lesion. Resuscitation and stabilization before endoscopy leads to improved outcomes. Fluid resuscitation is essential to avoid hypotension. Though widely practiced, there is currently insufficient evidence to show that routine red cell transfusion is beneficial. Coagulopathy requires correction, but the optimal international normalized ratio has not been determined yet. Risk stratification scores such as the Rockall and Glasgow-Blatchford scores are useful to predict rebleeding, mortality, and to determine the urgency of endoscopy. Evidence suggests that high-dose proton pump inhibitors (PPI should be given as an infusion before endoscopy. If patients are intolerant of PPIs, histamine-2 receptor antagonists can be given, although their acid suppression is inferior. Endoscopic therapy includes thermal methods such as coaptive coagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and hemostatic clips. Four quadrant epinephrine injections combined with either thermal therapy or clipping reduces mortality. In hypoxic patients, endoscopy masks allow high-flow oxygen during upper

  8. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  9. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....

  10. Coupled Double Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Mantovani Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress of the semiconductor growth techniques allows the opportunity to produce new semiconductors devices that may contribute to the development of the nanotechnology. The fabrication of semiconductor heterostructures with high quality allows the obtaining of new effects based on the quantum properties of those systems, which have stimulated great technological interest, especially on the optoelectronic and telecommunications fields. In this work some basic concepts related to one of those heterostructures are discussed: the Coupled Double Quantum Well (CDQW. The deduction of the expression for the determination of the energy levels in CDQWs is presented in details. The results obtained through this expression are compared with experimental results obtained through photoluminescence (PL measurements, complementing the work.

  11. Washing Machine Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S S

    2008-01-01

    Washing machines are part of every household and there are various reports of upper extremity injuries due to inadequate safety precautions while operating the machine. Most of the injuries occur when an attempt is made to remove the clothes from the machine and the hand gets caught in the spinning machine. The presentation can vary from minor soft tissue injuries to a mangled upper extremity. The chance of neurovascular damage resulting in compartment syndrome is very high. The author reports three cases of washing machine injuries to draw attention to this not so uncommon injury. The relevant literature is also considered. PMID:21654964

  12. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2009-11-15

    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  13. Upper urinary tract. Pyelography and interventional procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.

    Pyelography is superior to all other imaging techniques for the demonstration of fine detail in the pelveocalyceal system and the ureter. For almost 90 years it has been performed through a retrogradely inserted catheter, but during the recent 30 years antegrade injection via a transparenchymally inserted needle or catheter has become an accepted alternative, especially in case of dilated upper urinary tract. Both methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. This article presents a review of indications, techniques, and complications. Furthermore, interventional procedures on the upper urinary tract - such as stent placement and baloon dilatation - are now handled by the radiologist, mainly through an antegrade approach. These therapeutic procedures are also reviewed.

  14. Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schreiber, Trine; Tønnesen, Pia Hvid

    The discussion paper is a publication from the project Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School. The project is a collaboration between the National Library of Education at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, and the Royal School of Library and Information Science....... The project is funded by Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF). The discussion paper is published in connection with the conference Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School on 22 April 2010. See video streaming from the conference etc. at www.dpu.dk/info....

  15. Collective modes of coupled phase oscillators with delayed coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Ares, Saúl; Morelli, Luis G.; Jörg, David J.; Andrew C. Oates; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of delayed coupling on timing and pattern formation in spatially extended systems of dynamic oscillators. Starting from a discrete lattice of coupled oscillators, we derive a generic continuum theory for collective modes of long wavelength. We use this approach to study spatial phase profiles of cellular oscillators in the segmentation clock, a dynamic patterning system of vertebrate embryos. Collective wave patterns result from the interplay of coupling delays and moving...

  16. Introducing Undergraduates to Research Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Organic Chemistry Miniproject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Deyvid G. M.; Rosa, Clarissa H.; Vargas, Bruna P.; Rosa, Diego S.; Silveira, Ma´rcia V.; de Moura, Neusa F.; Rosa, Gilber R.

    2015-01-01

    A five-week miniproject is described for an upper-division experimental organic chemistry course. The activities include synthesis of a phenylboronic acid via a Grignard reaction and its use in a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Technical skills and concepts normally presented in practical organic chemistry courses are covered, including…

  17. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  18. Shear-coupled PL waves observed at the Kerguelen Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, O.; Maupin, V.

    2003-04-01

    S-waves generated by earthquakes in Indonesia and recorded at the seismological broadband station PAF on the Kerguelen Isles are usually followed by particularly large, long and monochromatic wavetrains. These wavetrains are not observed, or are not as prominent, for events at comparable epicentral distances in other source regions. They have a clear dominant period of about 20 seconds and last usually for more than 100s. They show slight normal dispersion, and have a prograde elliptical motion in the vertical propagation plane with largest amplitude on the radial component. These characteristics suggest that the observed waves are shear-coupled PL-waves, i.e., a phase which propagates partly as a mantle S-wave and partly as P-waves trapped in the crust. The P-wave portion of the propagation may occur close to the source, close to the receiver, or at both ends of the wavepath, over a significant portion of the epicentral distance. Observations at Kerguelen of strong shear-coupled PL waves from Indonesian earthquakes suggest a special crust and upper mantle structure in the region between the Kerguelen hotspot and the South-East Indian Ridge, 1000 km away. This includes the region where a special upper mantle anisotropic structure has been detected from surface wave polarisation anomalies. We analyse which implications the strong shear-coupled PL waves may have on the structure between the hotspot and the ridge.

  19. Measurements of the Top-Higgs Coupling with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mildner, Hannes

    The top-Higgs coupling is constrained using data measured with the CMS experiment in LHC Run 1 and 2. Constraints on anomalous top-Higgs couplings are derived by re-analyzing CMS Run 1 measurements. Furthermore, a search for Higgs production in association with a top-quark pair and Higgs-boson decays into b-quarks in Run 2 data is presented. Upper limits on ttH production are calculated and it is demonstrated that the analysis can also be used to constrain anomalous top-Higgs couplings.

  20. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  1. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  2. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori, which has been designated by the WHO as type I carcinogen, has a global prevalence of over 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the association between this bacterium and upper gastrointestinal problems in an endoscopy unit in Ouagadougou, using a molecular diagnostic method.

  3. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical findings are key to pinpointing the pain source. History. Cervical and upper limb pain may present in isolation or be associated with altered sensation. .... Positive test is presence of 'electric-like sensations' down spine or extremities. Myelopathy. Hoffmann's sign. Passive snapping flexion of middle finger distal ...

  4. Spinal (Intrathecal) Ketamine Anaesthesia for Upper Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous ketamine is usually administered for the induction of general anaesthesia. Spinal ketamine for lower abdominal and lower limb surgery is sporadically reported in the literature. However, the use of spinal ketamine for upper body surgery is rare. We describe the case of a 35-year old man, with a retroperitoneal ...

  5. Upper blepharoplasty : Defying dogmas and clarifying uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Shariselle Mirna Wietske

    2016-01-01

    Upper blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures by (oculo)plastic surgeons and it is generally recognized as a relatively easy technical procedure. However, seemingly minor aspects before, during and after surgery can be identified that significantly contribute to surgical

  6. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes etiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with various ...

  7. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes etiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with.

  8. Modernization of upper secondary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Jakob Ditlev

    2008-01-01

    The Danish upper secondary school is currently undergoing a hyper complex process of modernization where new organizational forms, teacher-student roles and principles of management are introduced. The process is set-off most directly by a new reform. This article explores the implementation...

  9. Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, P; Foster, P

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing. PMID:3730754

  10. Update on embryology of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Kozin, Scott H

    2013-09-01

    Current concepts in the steps of upper limb development and the way the limb is patterned along its 3 spatial axes are reviewed. Finally, the embryogenesis of various congenital hand anomalies is delineated with an emphasis on the pathogenetic basis for each anomaly. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Schroedinger upper bounds to semirelativistic eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Richard L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lucha, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-09-16

    Problems posed by semirelativistic Hamiltonians of the form H = {radical}(m{sup 2} + p{sup 2}) + V(r) are studied. It is shown that energy upper bounds can be constructed in terms of certain related Schroedinger operators; these bounds include free parameters which can be chosen optimally.

  12. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding | Thomson | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 11 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. SR Thomson. Abstract.

  13. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg, and an image is recorded on special film or a computer. This image shows the soft tissues and the bone in the upper leg, which is called the femur. The X-ray image is black and white. Dense body parts that block the passage of the X- ...

  14. Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...

  15. Upper Bounds for Mutations of Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Cruz Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we provide a new, algebraic proof of the excessive Laurent phenomenon for mutations of potentials (in the sense of [Galkin S., Usnich A., Preprint IPMU 10-0100, 2010] by introducing to this theory the analogue of the upper bounds from [Berenstein A., Fomin S., Zelevinsky A., Duke Math. J. 126 (2005, 1-52].

  16. Pathophysiology of upper extremity muscle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A review of the literature on the pathophysiology of upper extremity muscle disorders (UEMDs) was performed. An overview is given of clinical findings and hypotheses on the pathogenesis of UEMDs. The literature indicates that disorders of muscle cells and limitations of the local circulation

  17. Poststroke hypertonicity: upper limb assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Hypertonicity is common in patients with upper limb dysfunction following hemiplegic stroke and is associated with greater impairment, worse function, and lower health-related quality of life. In addition to increased rest activity, abnormal patterns of muscle activation, such as spastic co-contraction, may contribute to disability. In the upper limb, flexor muscles are more commonly involved distally, and at the shoulder, spasticity of adductors, flexors, and internal rotators is most often observed. Prior to interventions, a history regarding prior interventions, comorbid diagnoses, and limitations imposed by abnormal tone should be elicited. Commonly used scales to assess hypertonicity include the Modified Ashworth, the Modified Tardieu, the Spasm Frequency, the Disability Assessment, the Fugl-Meyer, and the Motor Assessment Scales. Treatment interventions for upper limb hypertonicity include stretching, splinting, strengthening of antagonist muscles, oral medications, and focal injections (phenol or botulinum toxins). Intrathecal baclofen may also impact upper limb tone. For focal injections, correct identification of muscles contributing to problematic tone is evaluated by eliciting resistance to movement at rest and observation of patterns of tightness as the limb is used functionally. The botulinum toxins have been shown to decrease tone in stroke survivors and improve active and passive functioning. Because secondary changes such as contractures and weakness may occur with prolonged hypertonicity, therapy to improve range of motion, strengthen weakened muscles, and incorporate use of the limb should be considered following focal injections, oral medications, or intrathecal pump placement.

  18. Cleaved-Coupled Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    fabricated with micrometer -scale gaps (26, 27). This Fig. 1. Single-frequency lasing in 9-μm (4:3) cleaved-coupled nanowires. (A) SEM images showing the...modulation of modes observed in cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers can be predicted using transfer matrix methods. Although the Vernier effect provides an...Following the Vernier effect, coupled nanowires with integer ratios would produce the free spectral range of the shorter nanowire. The lasing spectra

  19. Gestural coupling and social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Krueger, Joel William

    2012-01-01

    Social cognition researchers have become increasingly interested in the ways that behavioral, physiological, and neural coupling facilitate social interaction and interpersonal understanding. We distinguish two ways of conceptualizing the role of such coupling processes in social cognition: strong...... and interpersonal understanding. We conclude that investigations of coupling processes within social interaction should inform rather than marginalize or eliminate investigation of higher-level individual cognition...... and moderate interactionism. According to strong interactionism (SI), low-level coupling processes are alternatives to higher-level individual cognitive processes; the former at least sometimes render the latter superfluous. Moderate interactionism (MI) on the other hand, is an integrative approach. Its...

  20. Cosmological tests of coupled Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Gubitosi, Giulia

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the cosmological properties of Galileon models which admit Minkowski space as a stable solution in vacuum. This is motivated by stable, positive tension brane world constructions that give rise to Galileons. We include both conformal and disformal couplings to matter and focus on constraints on the theory that arise because of these couplings. The disformal coupling to baryonic matter is extremely constrained by astrophysical and particle physics effects. The disformal coupling to photons induces a cosmological variation of the speed of light and therefore distorsions of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum which are known to be very small. The conformal coupling to baryons leads to a variation of particle masses since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is also tightly constrained. We consider the background cosmology of Galileon models coupled to Cold Dark Matter (CDM), photons and baryons and impose that the speed of light and particle masses respect the observational bounds on cosmological time scales. We find that requiring that the equation of state for the Galileon models must be close to -1 now restricts severely their parameter space and can only be achieved with a combination of the conformal and disformal couplings. This leads to large variations of particle masses and the speed of light which are not compatible with observations. As a result, we find that cosmological Galileon models are viable dark energy theories coupled to dark matter but their couplings, both disformal and conformal, to baryons and photons must be heavily suppressed making them only sensitive to CDM.

  1. Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schemm, Jae Kyung E. [Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Long-lead prediction of waxing and waning of the Western North Pacific (WNP)-East Asian (EA) summer monsoon (WNP-EASM) precipitation is a major challenge in seasonal time-scale climate prediction. In this study, deficiencies and potential for predicting the WNP-EASM precipitation and circulation one or two seasons ahead were examined using retrospective forecast data for the 26-year period of 1981-2006 from two operational couple models which are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Center (BMRC) Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). While both coupled models have difficulty in predicting summer mean precipitation anomalies over the region of interest, even for a 0-month lead forecast, they are capable of predicting zonal wind anomalies at 850 hPa several months ahead and, consequently, satisfactorily predict summer monsoon circulation indices for the EA region (EASMI) and for the WNP region (WNPSMI). It should be noted that the two models' multi-model ensemble (MME) reaches 0.40 of the correlation skill for the EASMI with a January initial condition and 0.75 for the WNPSMI with a February initial condition. Further analysis indicates that prediction reliability of the EASMI is related not only to the preceding El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but also to simultaneous local SST variability. On other hand, better prediction of the WNPSMI is accompanied by a more realistic simulation of lead-lag relationship between the index and ENSO. It should also be noted that current coupled models have difficulty in capturing the interannual variability component of the WNP-EASM system which is not correlated with typical ENSO variability. To improve the long-lead seasonal prediction of the WNP-EASM precipitation, a statistical postprocessing was developed based on the multiple linear regression method. The method utilizes the MME prediction of the EASMI and

  2. Ocean-atmosphere dynamics linked to 800-1050 CE drying in mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tripti; Chiang, John C. H.; Cheng, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Proxy records from the last millennium in Mesoamerica suggest a widespread interval of drought at some point between the 7th and 13th centuries CE. In some records, this time period represents the driest proxy values in the last few millennia. There is currently no clear dynamical explanation for these droughts, nor consensus as to whether they were spatiotemporally coherent over the region. We perform several analyses to develop a novel hypothesis to explain these droughts that is consistent with our knowledge of the dynamics of the climate system. We use Bayesian age modeling techniques and a synthesis of regional proxy records to suggest that there is robust evidence of drying between 800 and 1050 CE, with the sites showing dry conditions clustered in southern central America. By studying control simulations of two general circulation models (GCMs), we suggest that this pattern may be diagnostic of hydroclimate changes associated with multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Basin. Models and instrumental data suggest that cooling of tropical Atlantic SSTs and strengthening of the North Atlantic Subtropical High drives a pattern of multidecadal drought with negative rainfall anomalies in southern central America and positive anomalies in northern Mexico. This process could have resulted in the droughts observed in the proxy record. Our work offers a novel hypothesis about the dynamics of multidecadal drought in Mesoamerica, and builds on previous efforts to synthesize proxy records from the region.

  3. Prospects for Simulating Macromolecular Surfactant Chemistry at the Ocean-Atmosphere Boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Deal, C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Long, M.; Ogunro, O.; Russell, Lynn M.; Wingenter, O.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic lipids and polymers are surveyed for their ability to adsorb at the water-air interfaces associated with bubbles, marine microlayers and particles in the overlying boundary layer. Representative ocean biogeochemical regimes are defined in order to estimate local concentrations for the major macromolecular classes. Surfactant equilibria and maximum excess are then derived based on a network of model compounds. Relative local coverage and upward mass transport follow directly, and specific chemical structures can be placed into regional rank order. Lipids and denatured protein-like polymers dominate at the selected locations. The assigned monolayer phase states are variable, whether assessed along bubbles or at the atmospheric spray droplet perimeter. Since oceanic film compositions prove to be irregular, effects on gas and organic transfer are expected to exhibit geographic dependence as well. Moreover, the core arguments extend across the sea-air interface into aerosol-cloud systems. Fundamental nascent chemical properties including mass to carbon ratio and density depend strongly on the geochemical state of source waters. High surface pressures may suppress the Kelvin effect, and marine organic hygroscopicities are almost entirely unconstrained. While bubble adsorption provides a well-known means for transporting lipidic or proteinaceous material into sea spray, the same cannot be said of polysaccharides. Carbohydrates tend to be strongly hydrophilic so that their excess carbon mass is low despite stacked polymeric geometries. Since sugars are abundant in the marine aerosol, gel-based mechanisms may be required to achieve uplift. Uncertainties in the surfactant logic distill to a global scale dearth of information regarding two dimensional kinetics and equilibria. Nonetheless simulations are recommended, to initiate the process of systems level quantification.

  4. Prospects for simulating macromolecular surfactant chemistry at the ocean-atmosphere boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S.; Burrows, S. M.; Deal, C.; Liu, X.; Long, M.; Ogunro, O.; Russell, L. M.; Wingenter, O.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic lipids and polymers are surveyed for their ability to adsorb at the water-air interfaces associated with bubbles, marine microlayers and particles in the overlying boundary layer. Representative ocean biogeochemical regimes are defined in order to estimate local concentrations for the major macromolecular classes. Surfactant equilibria and maximum excess are then derived based on a network of model compounds. Relative local coverage and upward mass transport follow directly, and specific chemical structures can be placed into regional rank order. Lipids and denatured protein-like polymers dominate at the selected locations. The assigned monolayer phase states are variable, whether assessed along bubbles or at the atmospheric spray droplet perimeter. Since oceanic film compositions prove to be irregular, effects on gas and organic transfer are expected to exhibit geographic dependence as well. Moreover, the core arguments extend across the sea-air interface into aerosol-cloud systems. Fundamental nascent chemical properties including mass to carbon ratio and density depend strongly on the geochemical state of source waters. High surface pressures may suppress the Kelvin effect, and marine organic hygroscopicities are almost entirely unconstrained. While bubble adsorption provides a well-known means for transporting lipidic or proteinaceous material into sea spray, the same cannot be said of polysaccharides. Carbohydrates tend to be strongly hydrophilic so that their excess carbon mass is low despite stacked polymeric geometries. Since sugars are abundant in the marine aerosol, gel-based mechanisms may be required to achieve uplift. Uncertainties distill to a global scale dearth of information regarding two dimensional kinetics and equilibria. Nonetheless simulations are recommended, to initiate the process of systems level quantification.

  5. Job Satisfaction, Organization Commitment and Retention in the NOAA (national Oceanic Atmospheric Administration) Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    was further refined by Clayton Alderfer (1969) into a model known as ERG theory (existence—relatedness—growth). While similar to Maslow’s model...and Personality, 2d ed., pp. 35-58, Harper and Row, 1970. 2. Alderfer , C. P.. "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs," Organizational...utilizing urvey responses from 319 of 375 NOAA Corps officers. Job satisfaction ras analyzed using need-satisfaction theory . Commitment and retention

  6. A Reusable and Autonomous Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System (OASIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need to acquire observations on oceanic and atmospheric physical and biogeochemical processes continues to increase. These data are presently being used as...

  7. Transient Climate Simulation of DMS in the Marine Ocean - Atmosphere System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Six, K.; Stier, P.; Roeckner, E.

    2005-12-01

    Dimethylsulphide (DMS) is thought to be the major biogenic component of the global atmospheric sulphur burden. Phytoplankton produces dimethylsulphoniopropionate, which via enzymatic cleavage forms DMS in the seawater. Through sea-air exchange oceanic DMS enters the atmosphere. DMS in the atmosphere is oxidized to sulphate aerosols, which may impact climate directly through light scattering or indirectly through their role as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby affecting the cloud albedo. It has been postulated that the Earth's climate is partly regulated by variation in DMS emissions through this DMS-CCN-albedo feedback. A reduced version of the "Hamburg Earth System Model" is used to study the feedback of DMS on climate in a transient climate simulation running from 1860 to 2100. The model includes a scheme of the DMS cycle in the ocean linked to the explicit simulation of plankton dynamics in the marine biogeochemistry model (MPI-OM/HAMOCC5). The DMS emissions are passed interactively to the atmosphere model (ECHAM5). The atmosphere model is extended by the microphysical aerosol model (HAM), which predicts the size distribution, the composition and mixing state of the aerosol components sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt and dust. These parameters are necessary for an inclusion of the radiative perturbations caused by aerosols in the radiation scheme of the atmospheric model. The transient evolution of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions are prescribed assuming for the future the IPCC SRES A1B scenario. DMS, dust and sea salt emissions are calculated interactively. Iron contained in dust deposited onto the ocean surface serves as a micronutrient for phytoplankton in the ocean and therefore influences the DMS production in the ocean. Phytoplankton growth is simulated to be light and temperature dependent. The simulated global warming between 1860 and 2100 affects the marine ecosystem and alters the DMS sea surface concentration and the resulting DMS emissions. On the global scale the response is small. However, regionally the picture looks quite different with regions showing an increase in DMS emissions, most pronounced in regions with reduced sea ice cover, but also large regions where the DMS sea surface concentration and the DMS flux in the atmosphere is reduced under warmer climate conditions. Interestingly the simulated global DMS burden is rather unaffected by these changes in the DMS emission.

  8. Ocean-atmosphere interaction during Thane cyclone: A numerical study using WRF

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VinodKumar, K.; Soumya, M.; Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.

    coast. This study investigates the factors which reinforce cyclone genesis, its propagation and atmospheric parameters that prevailed while the cyclone was passing through the coastal region. We have also studied the variations in sea level along...

  9. Variation of the ocean-atmosphere system as a consequence of feedback mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Of the terms entering into the heat budget equation for an oceanic volume, the role of variable oceanic advective transport and of variable heat loss to the atmosphere is investigated. Changes in the water transport of the Kuroshio, possibly tied to trends in the u-component of the trade winds, may affect long-term sea-surface temperature (SST) behavior off the coast of Japan. Short-term fluctuations of SST with large amplitudes appear to be in part caused by meandering characteristics of the ocean current, but perhaps even more so by local air-sea interaction. Zonal atmospheric wind stress variations strongly affect the meridional SST anomaly gradients in the Central North Pacific -- even more so than the SST anomalies.

  10. Trace Gas Distributions and Correlations Observed In The Southern Ocean Atmosphere During the ORCAS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Donets, V.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Stephens, B. B.; Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Gierach, M.

    2016-12-01

    The biologically productive waters of the Southern Ocean are potentially a significant source and sink for trace gases that impact atmospheric chemistry and climate. However, relatively little is known about the variations and atmospheric vertical structures of trace gases in this region. During January/February, 2016, we participated in the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) Study, an airborne mission that included the measurement of a wide range of trace gases. This presentation will focus on a selection of gases measured from the Whole Air Sampler and from an in-situ GC/MS system (TOGA). The gases measured by these instruments included a range of reactive halocarbons produced by marine organisms in the surface ocean (e.g., dimethyl sulfide, bromoform, methyl iodide), produced from marine surface photochemistry (e.g., methyl nitrate), and introduced to the region from long-range transport (e.g., chlorinated solvents, CFCs and HCFCs, non-methane hydrocarbons). Distributions of these gases should reflect the biological productivity of the region, the surface flux rates, and the rates of atmospheric transport and mixing. The concentrations of biogenic trace gases that we measured in the marine boundary layer showed significant regional differences in concentrations and different seasonal changes over the course of the experiment. Vertical profiles of biogenic trace gases could be related to the surface sources, exchange with the free troposphere, and the photochemical lifetime of the different gases. Because of the potential relationship of biogenic trace gases to biological productivity in the surface ocean, the measurements will be compared to distributions of chlorophyll a, as observed remotely from the GV aircraft and from satellites. For trace gases with a large interhemispheric gradient and primarily northern hemisphere source (e.g. mainly anthropogenic sources), atmospheric vertical profiles showed an average increase in mixing ratio with altitude that reflected the large-scale transport pathways from northern to southern hemisphere and photochemical processing during transport. Relationship of the various trace gases we measured to O2 and to carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4) will also be discussed in terms of potential sources, sinks, and biogeochemical processes.

  11. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) R3.0 netCDF version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains observations of global ocean meteorological and oceanographic variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures, wind, pressure, humidity,...

  12. Evaluation of Flammability of Footwear Upper Materials. Patent and Regular Shoe Upper Leather vs. Porvair and Clarino Poromerics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    EVALUATION OF( 4 ) FLAMMABILITY OF FOOTWEAR UPPER MATERIALS: PATENT AND REGULAR SHOE UPPER LEATHER Vs. I’ORVAIR AND CLARINO POROMERICS 44., ET DTIC...EVALUATION OF FLAMMABILITY OF FOOTWEAR UPPER MATERIALS: PATENT AND REGULAR SHOE UPPER Final Report LEATHER VS. PORVAIR AND CLARINO POROMERICS S...Identify by block number) Flammability of Footwear Upper Materials;,’Military Dress Shoes ;-Poromeric Materials; Leather Materials; Patent Leather

  13. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  14. Evidence of interseismic coupling variations along the Bhutan Himalayan arc from new GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marechal, Anais; Mazzotti, Stephane; Cattin, Rodolphe; Cazes, Gael; Vernant, Philippe; Drukpa, Dowchu; Thinley, Kinzang; Tarayoun, Alizia; Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Thapa, Bal Bahadur; Pelgay, Phuntsho; Gyeltshen, Jampel; Doerflinger, Erik; Gautier, Stéphanie

    2016-12-01

    Although the first-order pattern of present-day deformation is relatively well resolved across the Himalayas, irregular data coverage limits detailed analyses of spatial variations of interseismic coupling. We provide the first GPS velocity field for the Bhutan Himalaya. Combined with published data, these observations show strong east-west variations in coupling between central and eastern Bhutan. In contrast with previous estimations of first-order uniform interseismic coupling along the Himalayan arc, we identify significant lateral variations: In western and central Bhutan, the fully coupled segment is 135-155 km wide with an abrupt downdip transition, whereas in eastern Bhutan the fully coupled segment is 100-120 km wide and is limited updip and downdip by partially creeping segments. This is the first observation of decoupling on the upper ramp along the Himalayan arc, with important implications for large earthquake surface rupture and seismic hazard.

  15. Acoustic impedances of audiometric earphones coupled to different loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    , audiometric earphones are coupled to different loads. Thus, they are placed on different terminations of the tube including metal plate, artificial rubber pinna and upper part of the standardized coupler. The results show that the impedances of earphones are different, but they also differ from radiation...... impedances of used terminations (seen from inside the tube without earphone). In addition, there is an indication of differences among the earphones regarding the influence of the load on their impedances. These results are going to be further analysed together with the corresponding ones obtained...

  16. Slot-Coupled Barbel Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant.......A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant....

  17. Older Couple Relationships and Loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Broese van Groenou, M.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2016-01-01

    The couple relationship is a major factor in alleviating loneliness. Midlife and older adults without a couple relationship, especially after widowhood or divorce, are at serious risk of loneliness. Outcomes of empirical research, both dating back to the former century (Lopata, 1980, 1996), as well

  18. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed......-dipoles and helices are considered in order to establish a correspondence with simple antenna structures....

  19. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    spatially variable and realistic sea ice albedo . The coupled system has been used to a short hindcast for 2013 similar to the SEARCH results with...and thus affect stress calculations. COAMPS/NCOM/SWAN are still being used as a proxy here for NAVGEM/HYCOM/WW3, as the coupling infrastructure in

  20. The Minnesota Couples Communication Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnally, Elam W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the Minnesota Couples Communication Program which offers a structured educational experience directed toward equipping couples with skills for (1) heightening awareness of self and self's contributions to interaction, (2) effectively expressing self-awareness, (3) accurately understanding partner's communications, and (4)…

  1. Relational Communication in Intercultural Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Carine A.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study utilises the relational dialectics of Baxter and Montgomery (1996) to examine the relationship communication of six heterosexual intercultural couples living in Finland. In this study, I attempt to answer the following questions: what cultural issues are relevant in the couples' relationship? What intercultural relational…

  2. Linear analysis of coupled lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sagan

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A formalism for describing the coupled two-dimensional motion of high energy particle beams in a storage ring is developed and extended to circumstances where the coupling is very strong, such as for the Möbius twist accelerator.

  3. Coupling spin qubits via superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We show how superconductors can be used to couple, initialize, and read out spatially separated spin qubits. When two single-electron quantum dots are tunnel coupled to the same superconductor, the singlet component of the two-electron state partially leaks into the superconductor via crossed...

  4. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Sevick

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1 tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8–17 years with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2 determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy.

  5. Using Free Internet Videogames in Upper Extremity Motor Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Marisa; Eklund, Elizabeth; Mensch, Allison; Foreman, Matthew; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2016-06-07

    Movement therapy is one type of upper extremity intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to improve function. It requires high-intensity, repetitive and task-specific training. Tedium and lack of motivation are substantial barriers to completing the training. An approach to overcome these barriers is to couple the movement therapy with videogames. This investigation: (1) tested the feasibility of delivering a free Internet videogame upper extremity motor intervention to four children with CP (aged 8-17 years) with mild to moderate limitations to upper limb function; and (2) determined the level of intrinsic motivation during the intervention. The intervention used free Internet videogames in conjunction with the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor and the Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit software (FAAST) software. Results indicated that the intervention could be successfully delivered in the laboratory and the home, and pre- and post- impairment, function and performance assessments were possible. Results also indicated a high level of motivation among the participants. It was concluded that the use of inexpensive hardware and software in conjunction with free Internet videogames has the potential to be very motivating in helping to improve the upper extremity abilities of children with CP. Future work should include results from additional participants and from a control group in a randomized controlled trial to establish efficacy.

  6. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  7. Vibrational coupling in plasmonic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chongyue; Dongare, Pratiksha D; Su, Man-Nung; Wang, Wenxiao; Chakraborty, Debadi; Wen, Fangfang; Chang, Wei-Shun; Sader, John E; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan

    2017-10-31

    Plasmon hybridization theory, inspired by molecular orbital theory, has been extremely successful in describing the near-field coupling in clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles, also known as plasmonic molecules. However, the vibrational modes of plasmonic molecules have been virtually unexplored. By designing precisely configured plasmonic molecules of varying complexity and probing them at the individual plasmonic molecule level, intramolecular coupling of acoustic modes, mediated by the underlying substrate, is observed. The strength of this coupling can be manipulated through the configuration of the plasmonic molecules. Surprisingly, classical continuum elastic theory fails to account for the experimental trends, which are well described by a simple coupled oscillator picture that assumes the vibrational coupling is mediated by coherent phonons with low energies. These findings provide a route to the systematic optical control of the gigahertz response of metallic nanostructures, opening the door to new optomechanical device strategies. Published under the PNAS license.

  8. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan A. Al-Habsi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP is a rare skin tumour believed to arise from the apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. It appears predominantly in childhood, usually at birth. It is exceedingly rare for it to appear on the upper lip. We report a case of SCAP in a 10-year-old Omani girl who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in February 2012 with a non-tender, non-pruritic, solitary verrucous papule of 4 x 5 mm on the left side of the upper lip. It had been present since birth and had slowly been increasing in size over the years. It was occasionally associated with recurrent ulceration and bleeding and had previously been misdiagnosed and mismanaged. An excisional biopsy was performed and the whole lesion was removed. The surgical site was then sutured and the patient was discharged on the same day.

  9. A giant upper eyelid ossifying pilomatrixoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi Syed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma of the eyelid is extremely rare in middle age and rarely develops into a large tumor. A 45-year-old female developed a painless, progressive swelling (3.0 cm x 2.0 cm of the left upper eyelid over a period of two years. Overlying skin was normal in color and texture. A differential diagnosis of dermoid, epidermoid cyst, chalazion and basal cell carcinoma was made. An excisional biopsy was performed. A diagnosis of pilomatrixoma was made on histopathological features (dystrophic calcification of matrix with keratin and foreign body granulomatous reaction, basaloid cells and shadow cells/ghost cells. It also comprises ossification apart from the usual calcification. This is a report of an unusually large ossifying pilomatrixoma in left upper eyelid of a middle-aged woman. The patient should be followed up at regular intervals to rule out any recurrence or malignant transformation.

  10. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults.

  11. Palpation of the upper thoracic spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Vach, Kirstin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated-measures des......OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated...... procedure. RESULTS: Using an "expanded" definition of agreement that accepts small inaccuracies (+/-1 segment) in the numbering of spinal segments, we found--based on the pooled data from the thoracic spine--kappa values of 0.59 to 0.77 for the hour-to-hour and the day-to-day intraobserver reliability...

  12. Emulating Upper Limb Disorder for Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.

  13. PWR upper/lower internals shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homyk, W.A. [Indian Point Station, Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    During refueling of a nuclear power plant, the reactor upper internals must be removed from the reactor vessel to permit transfer of the fuel. The upper internals are stored in the flooded reactor cavity. Refueling personnel working in containment at a number of nuclear stations typically receive radiation exposure from a portion of the highly contaminated upper intervals package which extends above the normal water level of the refueling pool. This same issue exists with reactor lower internals withdrawn for inservice inspection activities. One solution to this problem is to provide adequate shielding of the unimmersed portion. The use of lead sheets or blankets for shielding of the protruding components would be time consuming and require more effort for installation since the shielding mass would need to be transported to a support structure over the refueling pool. A preferable approach is to use the existing shielding mass of the refueling pool water. A method of shielding was devised which would use a vacuum pump to draw refueling pool water into an inverted canister suspended over the upper internals to provide shielding from the normally exposed components. During the Spring 1993 refueling of Indian Point 2 (IP2), a prototype shield device was demonstrated. This shield consists of a cylindrical tank open at the bottom that is suspended over the refueling pool with I-beams. The lower lip of the tank is two feet below normal pool level. After installation, the air width of the natural shielding provided by the existing pool water. This paper describes the design, development, testing and demonstration of the prototype device.

  14. Postoperative pleural effusion following upper abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P H; Jepsen, S B; Olsen, A D

    1989-01-01

    Of 128 patients who underwent upper abdominal surgery, examined by standard preoperative and postoperative chest roentgenograms for the formation of postoperative pleural effusions, 89 had postoperative pleural effusions. Their presence was not related to the type of operation, infection, serum...... to postoperative sodium and water retention, and aggravated by an age-related relative cardiac decompensation. Early postoperative pleural effusions are common and do not require specific treatment....

  15. The use of concept tests and peer instruction in upper-division physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Dubson, Michael; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2010-10-01

    Many upper-division courses at the University of Colorado now regularly use peer instruction in the form of clicker questions during lectures. Particular attention has been paid to developing and implementing clicker questions in junior-level E&M and Quantum mechanics. These transformed classes largely follow traditional local norms of syllabus and content coverage, but are designed to address broader learning goals (e.g developing math-physics connections) that our faculty expect from physics majors in these courses. Concept-tests are designed to align with these goals, and have altered the dynamic of our classes. Coupled with other course transformations, we find measurable improvement in student performance on targeted conceptual post-tests. Here, we discuss classroom logistics of upper-division clickers, purposes of clicker questions, aspects of student engagement facilitated by concept-tests, and observations of and challenges to sustainability of this activity.

  16. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  17. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  18. Aeronomy of the Venus Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Bougher, S. W.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Pätzold, M.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.

    2017-11-01

    We present aeronomical observations collected using remote sensing instruments on board Venus Express, complemented with ground-based observations and numerical modeling. They are mostly based on VIRTIS and SPICAV measurements of airglow obtained in the nadir mode and at the limb above 90 km. They complement our understanding of the behavior of Venus' upper atmosphere that was largely based on Pioneer Venus observations mostly performed over thirty years earlier. Following a summary of recent spectral data from the EUV to the infrared, we examine how these observations have improved our knowledge of the composition, thermal structure, dynamics and transport of the Venus upper atmosphere. We then synthesize progress in three-dimensional modeling of the upper atmosphere which is largely based on global mapping and observations of time variations of the nitric oxide and O2 nightglow emissions. Processes controlling the escape flux of atoms to space are described. Results based on the VeRA radio propagation experiment are summarized and compared to ionospheric measurements collected during earlier space missions. Finally, we point out some unsolved and open questions generated by these recent datasets and model comparisons.

  19. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  20. Infantile lipofibromatosis of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-12-01

    The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)

  1. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  2. Placing an upper limit on cryptic marine sulphur cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D T; Gill, B C; Masterson, A; Beirne, E; Casciotti, K L; Knapp, A N; Berelson, W

    2014-09-25

    A quantitative understanding of sources and sinks of fixed nitrogen in low-oxygen waters is required to explain the role of oxygen-minimum zones (OMZs) in controlling the fixed nitrogen inventory of the global ocean. Apparent imbalances in geochemical nitrogen budgets have spurred numerous studies to measure the contributions of heterotrophic and autotrophic N2-producing metabolisms (denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation, respectively). Recently, 'cryptic' sulphur cycling was proposed as a partial solution to the fundamental biogeochemical problem of closing marine fixed-nitrogen budgets in intensely oxygen-deficient regions. The degree to which the cryptic sulphur cycle can fuel a loss of fixed nitrogen in the modern ocean requires the quantification of sulphur recycling in OMZ settings. Here we provide a new constraint for OMZ sulphate reduction based on isotopic profiles of oxygen ((18)O/(16)O) and sulphur ((33)S/(32)S, (34)S/(32)S) in seawater sulphate through oxygenated open-ocean and OMZ-bearing water columns. When coupled with observations and models of sulphate isotope dynamics and data-constrained model estimates of OMZ water-mass residence time, we find that previous estimates for sulphur-driven remineralization and loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans are near the upper limit for what is possible given in situ sulphate isotope data.

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  6. Upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients for endoscopy in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p-values< 0.05). Conclusion: Gastritis, ulcerative disease, and upper gastrointestinal malignancies are common in South-Western Ugandans and are associated with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. Keywords: Upper gastrointestinal ...

  7. 1989 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Pool 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  8. Pattern of Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UGT) including gastro esophageal reflux (GERD), peptic ulcer diseases (PU), and upper gastrointestinal malignancies was not studied recently in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the pattern of endoscopic findings of upper ...

  9. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  10. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  15. Venlafaxine and Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Elderly Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucio Ghio; Serena Puppo; Andrea Presta

    2012-01-01

    .... In order to promote debate about possible risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients taking antidepressants different from SSRIs, we report a case of venlafaxine-induced upper...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. Substrate noise coupling in RFICs

    CERN Document Server

    Helmy, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Substrate Noise Coupling in RFICs addresses substrate noise coupling in RF and mixed signal ICs when used in a system on chip (SoC) containing digital ICs as well. This trend of integrating RF, mixed signal ICs with large digital ICs is found in many of today's commercial ICs such as single chip Wi-Fi or Bluetooth solutions and is expected to grow rapidly in the future. The book reports modeling and simulation techniques for substrate noise coupling effects in RFICs and introduces isolation structures and design guides to mitigate such effects with the ultimate goal of enhancing the yield of R

  20. Possibilities of prosthetic upper limb fitting in cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis give an overview of possible solutions in upper limbs prosthetic fitting which is suitable for cycling. And provide enough information on modifications that should be performed on a bicycle so that it can be used by humans with upper extremity prostheses. It can be an essential guide for anyone looking for a solution that would allow a person with an amputated upper limb again sit on the bike. Keywords: amputation, upper limb prosthesis, prosthetic fitting, cycling

  1. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gay Couple Counseling: Proceedings of a Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Ralph; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This is a report of a conference on gay couple counseling for members of the helping professions. Discussion topics included (1) Therapists' Panel on Female Couples, (2) Therapists' Panel on Male Couples; (3) Panel of Male Couples and (4) Panel of Female Couples. The conference was held in May, 1974 in New York and was sponsored by The Homosexual…

  3. Universality of coupled Potts models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, V.S.; Jacobsen, J.L. E-mail: jacobsen@ipno.in2p3.fr; Nguyen, X.S.; Santachiara, Raoul

    2002-06-10

    We study systems of M Potts models coupled by their local energy density. Each model is taken to have a distinct number of states, and the permutational symmetry S{sub M} present in the case of identical coupled models is thus broken initially. The duality transformations within the space of 2{sup M}-1 multi-energy couplings are shown to have a particularly simple form. The selfdual manifold has dimension D{sub M}=2{sup M-1}-1. Specialising to the case M=3, we identify a unique non-trivial critical point in the three-dimensional selfdual space. We compare its critical exponents as computed from the perturbative renormalisation group with numerical transfer matrix results. Our main objective is to provide evidence that at the critical point of three different coupled models the symmetry S{sub 3} is restored.

  4. Weak Coupling Phases future directions

    CERN Document Server

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results obtained from B decays on the phases of weak couplings described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are discussed, with particular emphasis on $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma = \\pi - \\beta - \\alpha$.

  5. Measuring the uncertainty of coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian

    2015-06-01

    A new information-theoretic measure, called coupling entropy, is proposed here to detect the causal links in complex systems by taking into account the inner composition alignment of temporal structure. It is a permutation-based asymmetric association measure to infer the uncertainty of coupling between two time series. The coupling entropy is found to be effective in the analysis of Hénon maps, where different noises are added to test its accuracy and sensitivity. The coupling entropy is also applied to analyze the relationship between unemployment rate and CPI change in the U.S., where the CPI change turns out to be the driving variable while the unemployment rate is the responding one.

  6. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  7. Couplings in Pseudo-Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Matthias

    2002-08-08

    We analyze theories in which a supersymmetric sector is coupled to a supersymmetry-breaking sector described by a non-linear realization. We show how to consistently couple N = 1 supersymmetric matter to non-supersymmetric matter in such a way that all interactions are invariant under non-linear supersymmetry transformations. We extend this formalism to couple N = 2 supersymmetric matter to N = 1 superfields that lack N = 2 partners but transform in a non-linear representation of the N = 2 algebra. In particular, we show how to couple an N = 2 vector to N = 1 chiral fields in a consistent way. This has important applications to effective field theories describing the interactions of D-brane world-volume fields with bulk fields. We apply our method to study systems where different sectors break different halves of supersymmetry, which appear naturally in models of intersecting branes.

  8. Can We Probe the Conductivity of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Using Satellite Tidal Magnetic Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    A few studies convincingly demonstrated that the magnetic fields induced by the lunar semidiurnal (M2) ocean flow can be identified in satellite observations. This result encourages using M2 satellite magnetic data to constrain subsurface electrical conductivity in oceanic regions. Traditional satellite-based induction studies using signals of magnetospheric origin are mostly sensitive to conducting structures because of the inductive coupling between primary and induced sources. In contrast, galvanic coupling from the oceanic tidal signal allows for studying less conductive, shallower structures. We perform global 3-D electromagnetic numerical simulations to investigate the sensitivity of M2 signals to conductivity distributions at different depths. The results of our sensitivity analysis suggest it will be promising to use M2 oceanic signals detected at satellite altitude for probing lithospheric and upper mantle conductivity. Our simulations also suggest that M2 seafloor electric and magnetic field data may provide complementary details to better constrain lithospheric conductivity.

  9. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  10. Marital Dissolution Among Interracial Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuanting; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Increases in interracial marriage have been interpreted as reflecting reduced social distance among racial and ethnic groups, but little is known about the stability of interracial marriages. Using six panels of Survey of Income and Program Participation (N = 23,139 married couples), we found that interracial marriages are less stable than endogamous marriages, but these findings did not hold up consistently. After controlling for couple characteristics, the risk of divorce or separation amon...

  11. Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the existence of coupled bandgaps for corrugated plate structures and acoustic channels. The study is motivated by the observation that the performance of traditional bandgap structures, such as periodic plates, may be compromised due to the coupling to a surrounding acoust...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode.......In this work, we study the existence of coupled bandgaps for corrugated plate structures and acoustic channels. The study is motivated by the observation that the performance of traditional bandgap structures, such as periodic plates, may be compromised due to the coupling to a surrounding acoustic...... medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...

  12. Social networking among upper extremity patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Tamara D; George, Tina M; Chacko, Aron T

    2010-05-01

    Despite their rising popularity, the health care profession has been slow to embrace social networking sites. These are Web-based initiatives, designed to bring people with common interests or activities under a common umbrella. The purpose of this study is to evaluate social networking patterns among upper extremity patients. A total of 742 anonymous questionnaires were distributed among upper extremity outpatients, with a 62% response rate (462 were completed). Demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education, employment, type of health insurance, and income stratification) were defined, and data on computer ownership and frequency of social networking use were collected. Social network users and nonusers were compared according to their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Our patient cohort consisted of 450 patients. Of those 450 patients, 418 had a high school education or higher, and 293 reported a college or graduate degree. The majority of patients (282) were employed at the time of the survey, and income was evenly distributed among U.S. Census Bureau quintiles. A total of 349 patients reported computer ownership, and 170 reported using social networking sites. When compared to nonusers, social networking users were younger (pnetworking use. Most users (n = 114) regularly visit a single site. Facebook was the most popular site visited (n=142), followed by MySpace (n=28) and Twitter (n=16). Of the 450 upper extremity patients in our sample, 170 use social networking sites. Younger age, higher level of education, and computer ownership were associated with social networking use. Physicians should consider expanding their use of social networking sites to reach their online patient populations. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drag Effects in the Upper Thermosphere: New Insights into Momentum Sources of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J. P.; Hsu, V.; Wang, W.; Burns, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Drag forces, ion drag and vertical viscosity, are investigated for their role in establishing the temperature and mass structure in the upper thermosphere, shedding new light on how their affect on neutral dynamics leads to changes in energetics. Exploiting the coupling of an ionosphere-thermosphere (I/T) model, it is discovered that drag forces in the upper thermosphere can lead to sustained divergent ageostrophic winds causing adjustments in mass, modification of pressure gradients, and a redistribution of energy. This results in significant alterations to the global thermal and mass density structure. Through numerical experiments, it is found that for quiet geomagnetic conditions, the interplay between ion drag and viscosity mainly regulates the large-scale thermal structure of the upper thermosphere. This study highlights the significant influence of drag forces on neutral behavior for both solar minimum and maximum, and illuminates an aspect of ion-neutral coupling that continues to be unresolved without sufficient measurements. The upcoming ICON and GOLD missions will help in unraveling the response of the coupled I/T system to drag-related momentum sources.

  14. Historical Geography of the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0-0117 005 AL4AA8A IIV IN BZFI~~N$A cmkf FOR TH4I STW ~V O5-C PlO 5/4045TORICAL W5APm or T~iq LP t’ viLLEY. tuM AY t an 0 Po ot C4714(76) iL d Au rI...Archeology Upper Tombigbee Valley Cultural Resources Tombigbee River Predictive Models * A Settlement Patterns Transportation Activities cont on n xt...Tombigbee River Multi- Resource District of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway in Alabama and Mississippi. THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF SOUTHERN HISTORY

  15. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...... and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental...

  16. Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund R Thatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrampment neuropathy or compression neuropathy is a fairly common problem in the upper limb. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest, followed by Cubital tunnel compression or Ulnar Neuropathy at Elbow. There are rarer entities like supinator syndrome and pronator syndrome affecting the Radial and Median nerves respectively. This article seeks to review comprehensively the pathophysiology, Anatomy and treatment of these conditions in a way that is intended for the practicing Hand Surgeon as well as postgraduates in training. It is generally a rewarding exercise to treat these conditions because they generally do well after corrective surgery. Diagnostic guidelines, treatment protocols and surgical technique has been discussed.

  17. Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A.

    2011-01-01

    Entrampment neuropathy or compression neuropathy is a fairly common problem in the upper limb. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest, followed by Cubital tunnel compression or Ulnar Neuropathy at Elbow. There are rarer entities like supinator syndrome and pronator syndrome affecting the Radial and Median nerves respectively. This article seeks to review comprehensively the pathophysiology, Anatomy and treatment of these conditions in a way that is intended for the practicing Hand Surgeon as well as postgraduates in training. It is generally a rewarding exercise to treat these conditions because they generally do well after corrective surgery. Diagnostic guidelines, treatment protocols and surgical technique has been discussed. PMID:22022039

  18. Volkmann's ischemic contracture of the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, M J; Keenan, M A; Gelberman, R H

    1998-08-01

    Upper extremity deformity of ischemic contracture usually includes elbow flexion, forearm pronation, wrist flexion, thumb flexion and adduction, digital metacarpophalangeal joint extension, and interphalangeal joint flexion. Treatment of mild contractures consists of either nonoperative management with a comprehensive rehabilitation program (to increase range of motion and strenght) or operative management consisting of infarct excision or tendon lengthening. Treatment of moderate-to-severe contractures consists of release of secondary nerve compression, treatment of contractures (with tendon lengthening or recession), tendon or free-tissue transfers to restore lost function, and/or salvage procedures for the severely contracted or neglected extremity.

  19. Multicultural Upper Secondary School Life in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Education has played an important role in the development of the Nordic welfare states. As in other European countries, present day Denmark wrestles with the problem of finding ways to handle the increased diversity of its population in terms of, for instance, ethnicity, religion and language....... Hence, negotiations and contestations about how to operationalize different forms of multiculturalism on all sorts of multicultural issues are currently on the agenda in relation to the welfare state. This article explores the interaction between ethnic majority and ethnic minority students in an upper...

  20. UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING HAPTIC INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bardorfer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks – to assess the accuracy of movement – tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces – to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test – to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks–to assess the accuracy of movement-tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces-to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test-to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A comprehensive study, using the developed measurement setup within the

  1. Communication and Contraceptive Practices in Adolescent Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit-O'Hara, Denise; Kahn, Janet R.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a descriptive analysis of couple communication among stable, sexually active adolescent couples (N=83) and the effect of communication on actual contraceptive practices. Results showed couples with good communication were more likely to practice effective contraception. (BH)

  2. Coupled Model Simulations of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal (30-50 day) Variability, Part 1: Systematic Errors and Caution on Use of Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, K R; Annamalai, H

    2007-05-30

    Boreal summer intraseasonal (30-50 day) variability (BSISV) over the Asian monsoon region is more complex than its boreal winter counterpart, the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), since it also exhibits northward and northwestward propagating convective components near India and over the west Pacific. Here we analyze the BSISV in the CMIP3 and two CMIP2+ coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Though most models exhibit eastward propagation of convective anomalies over the Indian Ocean, difficulty remains in simulating the life cycle of the BSISV, as few represent its eastward extension into the western/central Pacific. As such, few models produce statistically significant anomalies that comprise the northwest to southeast tilted convection which results from the forced Rossby waves that are excited by the near-equatorial convective anomalies. Our results indicate that it is a necessary, but not sufficient condition, that the locations the time-mean monsoon heat sources and the easterly wind shear be simulated correctly in order for the life cycle of the BSISV to be represented realistically. Extreme caution is needed when using metrics, such as the pattern correlation, for assessing the fidelity of model performance, as models with the most physically realistic BSISV do not necessarily exhibit the highest pattern correlations with observations. Furthermore, diagnostic latitude-time plots to evaluate the northward propagation of convection from the equator to India and the Bay of Bengal also need to be used with caution. Here, incorrectly representing extratropical-tropical interactions can give rise to 'apparent' northward propagation when none exists in association with the eastward propagating equatorial convection. It is necessary to use multiple cross-checking diagnostics to demonstrate the fidelity of the simulation of the BSISV.

  3. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  4. Phantom pain in bilateral upper limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modirian, Ehsan; Shojaei, Hadi; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Masoumi, Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    To alert health professionals on presence and extent of phantom pain and sensation following bilateral upper limb amputation. Of a total of 140 war-related bilateral upper limb amputees in Iran, 103 subjects were thoroughly examined in this cross-sectional study by a physical medicine specialist. The patients were questioned for the presence of phantom pain and sensations, and frequency and intensity of the feeling were recorded. At 17.1 +/- 6.1 years after injury, 82.0% of the 103 amputees suffered from phantom sensation, including varying degrees of phantom limb pain in 53.9% of stumps. Phantom phenomena had a higher frequency in the right extremities, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Of those amputees who had phantom pain or sensation, 51.2% reported that they 'always' had phantom limb sensation; and approximately one-fourth of the subjects (24.6%) 'always' had phantom pain. Among the stumps who reported phantom pain (N=112), the pain was excruciating (38.5%), distressing (34.9%) or discomforting (25.6%). A significant statistical relation between phantom limb sensation and level of amputation was observed (p phantom pain; medical and surgical modalities only bring temporary relief, and less than 1% of the respondents achieve permanent relief through different treatment methods.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  6. [Tumours of the upper cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández García, Borja Jesús; Isla Guerrero, Alberto; Castaño, Ana; Alvarez Ruiz, Fernando; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral tumours arising in the upper cervical spine are rare. We present our experience in managing these neoplasms. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of patients treated at our institution between January 2000 and June 2011. There were 9 patients with tumours in C1-C2-C3: 2metastases, 3chordomas, 2plasmocytomas, 1chondrosarcoma and 1osteochondroma. All patients complained of neck pain at the time of diagnosis. Three patients underwent an anterior and posterior approach, 3 an exclusively posterior approach and 3 an exclusively anterior surgical approach. Tumour resection was intralesional in 7 cases. Chemo-radiotherapy was used as adjuvant therapy in patients with malignant tumours. Vertebral tumours in the upper cervical spine are usually malignant. Achieving en bloc resection is particularly challenging and is technically unfeasible in many cases. This worsens the prognosis and makes adjuvant treatment very important. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Does upper blepharoplasty affect frontalis tonicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Son, Daegu; Kim, Minkyung; Harijan, Aram; Yang, Shimo; Lee, Soyoung

    2015-05-01

    Frontalis hypertonicity has long been implicated in patients with significant dermatochalasia or blepharoptosis, as evidenced by eyebrow changes that occur after the resection of redundant skin or after blepharoptosis operation. However, whether upper blepharoplasty affects the forehead muscle has not been reported. Thus, this study investigated electrophysiology of the frontalis muscle and eyebrow morphology in a population of patients undergoing double-eyelid blepharoplasty. Patients wishing to undergo upper blepharoplasty were recruited for this prospective study between June 2011 and February 2012. The subjects were excluded for complaints of visual obstruction, trauma history, and for any underlying medical condition that would affect eyebrow height or electromyogram (EMG) findings. Eyebrow morphology was ascertained in a standardized photogrammetric evaluation, and the frontalis muscle activity was recorded with needle EMG. These assessments were carried out at preoperation and at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Root-mean-square (RMS) indices of various facial expressions were used to normalize the frontalis activity values across individuals. Thirteen patients with a mean age of 55.5 years were recruited. No statistical significance was observed for eyebrow heights at various assessment points. However, EMG recordings have demonstrated a gradual decrease in the proportional RMS index of the frontalis muscle activity. This difference was statistically significant between preoperation and 6 months postoperation (p EMG readings as an input. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the upper limb amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard O′Keeffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of all or part of the arm is a catastrophic event for a patient and a significant challenge to rehabilitation professionals and prosthetic engineers. The large, upper extremity amputee population in India has, historically, been poorly served, with most having no access to support or being provided with ineffective prostheses. In recent years, the arrival of organisations like Otto Bock has made high quality service standards and devices accessible to more amputees. This review attempts to provide surgeons and other medical professionals with an overview of the multidisciplinary, multistage rehabilitation process and the solution options available. With worldwide upper extremity prosthesis rejection rates at significant levels, the review also describes some of the factors which influence the outcome. This is particularly relevant in the Indian context where the service can involve high cost investments. It is the responsibility of all contributing professionals to guide vulnerable patients through the process and try to maximise the benefit that can be obtained within the resources available.

  9. Exercise, immunology and upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E M

    1997-03-01

    The literature reveals a paradoxical response of the immune and host defense systems to endurance exercise apparent stimulation following long-term regular training and suppression in response to acute exposure to exhaustive endurance exercise. Several epidemiological surveys have confirmed a clinical manifestation of immunosuppression in the form of increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms following participation in competitive marathon and ultramarathon running events. Prerace training status and racing intensity have been related to the incidence of this symptomatology during the postrace fortnight. Nutritional intervention studies have shown the antioxidant nutrient, vitamin C, to be effective in reducing the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms following competitive distance events. Laboratory studies have revealed this vitamin to be the first line of defense in neutralizing the auto-oxidative activity of phagocytes. It is hypothesized that exercise-induced neuroendocrine stimulation of the oxidative burst in neutrophils increases the rate of release of reactive oxygen species and that these are, in turn, neutralized by high plasma ascorbate levels. Enhancing intrinsic antioxidant defense by increasing exogenous antioxidant intake is thus theorized to be of long-term benefit to serious endurance athletes engaged in heavy training and competition.

  10. Acceptance Versus Change Interventions in Behavioral Couple Therapy: Impact on Couples' In-Session Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, James V.; Jacobson, Neil S.; Christensen, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Examines couples' communication through Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) and Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (TBCT). Results show that IBCT couples expressed more nonblaming descriptions of problems and more soft emotions than TBCT couples during late stages of therapy. IBCT couples increased their nonblaming description of…

  11. Improvement of Stopband Performance in Parallel-Coupled Bandpass Filters Using Quasi-Lumped Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    , with adjustable locations of transmission zeros for desired performance. The device is fabricated in standard thick-film manufacturing technology. Based on parallel-coupled line theory, the impedance inverter model for this device is developed. The passband filter centered at 5.5 GHz with a 3 dB relative......This paper is aimed at improving the rejection level as well as overcoming the bandwidth limitations for classical coupled-line filters. A planar microwave coupled-line filter employing a quasi-lumped element resonator considerably improving the stopband characteristics is presented. The proposed...... bandpass filter has a compact footprint, and exhibits good stopband rejection with no repeated passband at twice the center frequency in comparison with the traditional coupled-line filter. By introducing the quasi-lumped element resonator, two transmission zeros at upper and lower stopbands are created...

  12. Ephaptic coupling in cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Anastassiou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical processes that underlie neural function manifest themselves in ceaseless spatial and temporal fluctuations in the extracellular electric field. The local field potential (LFP, used to study neural interactions during various brain states, is regarded as an epiphenomenon of coordinated neural activity. Yet the extracellular field activity feeds back onto the electrical potential across the neuronal membrane via ephaptic coupling (Jefferys et al, Physiol Rev, 1995. The extent to which such ephaptic coupling alters the functioning of individual neurons and neural assemblies under physiological conditions has remained largely speculative despite recent advances (Ozen et al, JNeurosci, 2010; Fröhlich & McCormick, Neuron, 2010, Anastassiou et al, JNeurosci, 2010. To address this question we use a 12-pipette setup that allows independent positioning of each pipette under visual control with μm accuracy, with the flexibility of using an arbitrary number of these as patching, extracellularly stimulating or extracellular recording pipettes only a few μm away from the cell body of patched neurons (Anastassiou et al, Nat Neurosci, 2011. We stimulated in rat somatosensory cortical slices a variety of layer 5 neural types and recorded inside and outside their cell bodies while pharmacologically silencing synaptic transmission. Pyramidal cells couple to the extracellular field distinctly different from interneurons. Ephaptic coupling strength depends both on the field strength (as measured at the neuron soma as well as the spike-history of neurons. In particular, we find that ephaptic coupling strength depends both on the field strength (as measured at the cell body as well as the spike-history of neurons. How do such effects manifest themselves in vivo? We address this question through detailed large-scale simulations from thousands of biophysically realistic and interconnected neurons (Reimann, Anastassiou et al, Neuron, 2013 emulating

  13. Upper Extremity Assessment in Tetraplegia: The Importance of Differentiating Between Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Anne M; Hoyen, Harry A; Keith, Michael W; Mejia, Melvin; Kilgore, Kevin L; Nemunaitis, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    Scientific advances are increasing the options for improved upper limb function in people with cervical level spinal cord injury (SCI). Some of these interventions rely on identifying an aspect of paralysis that is not uniformly assessed in SCI: the integrity of the lower motor neuron (LMN). SCI can damage both the upper motor neuron and LMN causing muscle paralysis. Differentiation between these causes of paralysis is not typically believed to be important during SCI rehabilitation because, regardless of the cause, the muscles are no longer under voluntary control by the patient. Emerging treatments designed to restore upper extremity function (eg, rescue microsurgical nerve transfers, motor learning-based interventions, functional electrical stimulation) all require knowledge of LMN status. The LMN is easily evaluated using surface electrical stimulation and does not add significant time to the standard clinical assessment of SCI. This noninvasive evaluation yields information that contributes to the development of a lifetime upper extremity care plan for maximizing function and quality of life. Given the relative simplicity of this assessment and the far-reaching implications for treatment and function, we propose that this assessment should be adopted as standard practice for acute cervical SCI. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What Makes an Upper-Division Course Upper-Division? Differing Perspectives of Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Mary; Lee, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare faculty and student expectations of course content, structure and requirements of lower and upper-division courses. Two groups of participants were recruited: 1) undergraduate psychology majors, and 2) Social Sciences faculty. The survey consisted of a series of questions regarding expectations and…

  15. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  16. Loop-to-loop coupling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2012-05-01

    This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.

  17. Prospects for an upper Givetian substage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Aboussalam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New ammonoid and conodont data from Germany, the Montagne Noire (France and southeastern Morocco document a complex sequence of sedimentary events and faunal changes within an extended Givetian (late Middle Devonian Taghanic Event Interval or Taghanic Biocrisis. Direct association of supposed typical middle Givetian ammonoids, trilobites and corals with upper Givetian marker taxa such as pharciceratids have been found, for example, in Moroccan and French time equivalents of the New York Upper Tully Limestone. The initial and eustatic Taghanic Onlap level is not known to be characterized by the first appearance of any widespread index conodont, goniatite or other taxon. A future upper Givetian substage, therefore, might be based either on the entry of Ozarkodina semialternans or on the first appearance of Schmidtognathus hermanni. The semialternans Zone correlates with a third sedimentary cycle within the Tully Limestone and with the spread of the first Pharciceratidae. Eobeloceratidae (Mzerrebites juvenocostatus and Archoceratidae n. fam. (Atlantoceras. The (Lower hermanni Zone is marked by a post-event transgression which led to a significant conodont radiation and to a further diversification of Pharciceratidae and Eobeloceratidae (Mz. erraticus. Neue Ammonoideen- und Conodonten-Daten aus Deutschland, Frankreich (Montagne Noire und aus Südost-Marokko belegen eine komplexe Abfolge sedimentärer Ereignisse und von Faunenwechseln in einem längerfristigen Taghanic-Event-Intervall bzw. einer Taghanic-Biokrise des Givetiums (oberes Mittel-Devon. Direkte Vergesellschaftungen von Ammonoideen, Trilobiten und Korallen, die früher als typische Mittel-Givetium-Formen angesehen wurden, mit Leitformen des Ober-Givetiums (z. B. Pharciceraten konnten in Marokko und Frankreich in Zeitequivalenten des Oberen Tully-Kalkes von New York nachgewiesen werden. Der initiale und eustatisch bedingte Taghanic Onlap ist bisher nicht durch das Einsetzen eines weit

  18. Upper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Mancini, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement which aims to keep global warming under 2 °C in the next century and considering the emission scenarios produced by the IPCC for the same time span, it is likely that to remain below that threshold some kind of geoengineering technique will have to be deployed. Amongst the different methods, the injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has received much attention considering its effectiveness and affordability. Aside from the rather well established surface cooling sulfate geoengineering (SG) would produce, the investigation on possible side-effects of this method is still ongoing. For instance, some recent studies have investigated the effect SG would have on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, expecially on the homogenous freezing mechanisms that produces the ice particles (Kuebbeler et al., 2012). The goal of the present study is to better understand the effect of thermal and dynamical anomalies caused by SG on the formation of ice crystals via homogeneous freezing by comparing a complete SG simulation with a RCP4.5 reference case and with a number of sensitivity studies where atmospheric temperature changes in the upper tropospheric region are specified in a schematic way as a function of the aerosol driven stratospheric warming and mid-lower tropospheric cooling. These changes in the temperature profile tend to increase atmospheric stabilization, thus decreasing updraft and with it the amount of water vapor available for homogeneous freezing in the upper troposphere. However, what still needs to be assessed is the interaction between this dynamical effect and the thermal effects of tropospheric cooling (which would increase ice nucleation rates) and stratospheric warming (which would probably extend to the uppermost troposphere via SG aerosol gravitational settling, thus reducing ice nucleation rates), in order to understand how they combine together. Changes in ice clouds coverage could be important for SG, because cirrus ice

  19. Chameleons with Field Dependent Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Winther, Hans A

    2010-01-01

    Certain scalar-tensor theories exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, whereby observational signatures of scalar fields are hidden by a combination of self-interactions and interactions with ambient matter. Not all scalar-tensor theories exhibit such a chameleon mechanism, which has been originally found in models with inverse power run-away potentials and field independent couplings to matter. In this paper we investigate field-theories with field-dependent couplings and a power-law potential for the scalar field. We show that the theory indeed is a chameleon field theory. We find the thin-shell solution for a spherical body and investigate the consequences for E\\"ot-Wash experiments, fifth-force searches and Casimir force experiments. Requiring that the scalar-field evades gravitational tests, we find that the coupling is sensitive to a mass-scale which is of order of the Hubble scale today.

  20. Sexual disorders in infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmann, Tewes H

    2010-05-01

    Sexuality and the desire for a child are strongly interconnected. The same applies to sexual disorders and the unfulfilled desire for a child. This article indicates the relations between sexual disorders and the unfulfilled desire for a child and outlines the potential effects of diagnostics and treatment in the context of reproductive medicine on the couples' sexuality. A research drive was undertaken in well-established medical and psychological literature database with the keywords "infertile" or "infertility" and "sexual dysfunction" or "sexual satisfaction." Sexual dysfunctions (of organic or of psychic origin) as a cause of involuntary childlessness are relatively unusual. By contrast (temporary) sexual disorders resulting from diagnosis and medical therapy are common in couples with fertility problems, with women more frequently affected than men. Counseling for couples with the unfulfilled desire for a child should invariably include explicit and appropriately tactful reference to sexuality and (functional) sexual disorders by the therapist.

  1. Plasmonic Antenna Coupling for QWIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, John

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed scheme for coupling light into a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), an antenna or an array of antennas made of a suitable metal would be fabricated on the face of what would otherwise be a standard QWIP. This or any such coupling scheme is required to effect polarization conversion: Light incident perpendicularly to the face is necessarily polarized in the plane of the face, whereas, as a matter of fundamental electrodynamics and related quantum selection rules, light must have a non-zero component of perpendicular polarization in order to be absorbed in the photodetection process. In a prior coupling scheme, gratings in the form of surface corrugations diffract normally gles, thereby imparting some perpendicular polarization. Unfortunately, the corrugation- fabrication process increases the overall nonuniformity of a large QWIP array. The proposed scheme is an alternative to the use of surface corrugations.

  2. Hyperchaos in coupled Colpitts oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenys, Antanas; Tamasevicius, Arunas; Baziliauskas, Antanas

    2003-01-01

    The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individu...... oscillators. The spectrum of the Lyapunov exponents (LE) have been calculated versus the coefficient k. For weakly coupled oscillators there are two positive LE indicating hyperchaotic behaviour of the overall system.......The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individual...

  3. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep – an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Anttalainen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea–hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB, which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment.

  4. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep - an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea-hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment.

  5. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep – an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea–hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  6. Impact of Langmuir Turbulence on Upper Ocean Response to Hurricane Edouard: Model and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.; Ulhorn, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclone intensity is strongly affected by the air-sea heat flux beneath the storm. When strong storm winds enhance upper ocean turbulent mixing and entrainment of colder water from below the thermocline, the resulting sea surface temperature cooling may reduce the heat flux to the storm and weaken the storm. Recent studies suggest that this upper ocean turbulence is strongly affected by different sea states (Langmuir turbulence), which are highly complex and variable in tropical cyclone conditions. In this study, the upper ocean response under Hurricane Edouard (2014) is investigated using a coupled ocean-wave model with and without an explicit sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence parameterization. The results are compared with in situ observations of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth from AXBTs, as well as satellite sea surface temperature observations. Overall, the model results of mixed layer deepening and sea surface temperature cooling under and behind the storm are consistent with observations. The model results show that the effects of sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence can be significant, particularly on the mixed layer depth evolution. Although available observations are not sufficient to confirm such effects, some observed trends suggest that the sea state dependent parameterization might be more accurate than the traditional (sea state independent) parameterization.

  7. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R; Leung, L Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A

    2016-11-25

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961-2008 is ∼53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  8. Strong coupling in porphyrin J-aggregate excitons and plasmons in nano-void arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdele, Stefano; Jose, Bincy; Foster, Robert; Keyes, Tia E.; Rice, James H.

    2017-10-01

    Active plasmonic nano-void arrays made through colloidal lithography (a cost effective and rapid process) potentially offers opportunities for scalable device design. In this work we demonstrate strong coupling between Bragg-like quadrupole surface plasmon modes in nano-void substrate designs with Frankel excitons in a molecular J-aggregate layer though angular tuning. The enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling creates a Fano like line shape in the differential reflection spectra associated with the formation of new hybrid states, leading to anti-crossing of the upper and lower polaritons with a Rabi frequency of 120 meV.

  9. Governing couple-sexuality: publically funded couples' courses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Hilde; Ludvigsen, Kari; Mühleisen, Wencke

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the construction of Norwegian couples' sexuality through the study of a publically financed and organised relationship course called Living Well Together (Godt Samliv). Established in 2005, this relationship course aimed at first-time parent couples is offered free of charge by municipal health centres. Scrutiny of national policy documents and political debate and of the course handbooks presented to couples, makes visible a particular Norwegian discourse on sexuality, which stresses gender equality and neutrality and ideas of inclusive democratization. New parents are advised to make active efforts to maintain a loving, lasting relationship and sexuality, for the sake of the children. The idea of sex implied by this couples relationship policy is based on what might be described as a 'duty of spontaneity', presented as a work both parents should undertake in order to achieve a stable and healthy relationship. We argue, however, that the inclusive rhetoric of diversity that characterises this public form of Norwegian sexuality has its limitations and that certain forms of intimacy and sexuality are excluded from this discourse.

  10. Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Alexey [Fermilab

    2016-06-23

    A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.

  11. Coupled optical resonance laser locking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burd, CC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available . The coupled resonance technique discussed here overcomes this obstacle, and works as follows. If the 2S1/2 → 2P1/2 transition is driven at resonance, there will be a net increase of ions in the 2D3/2 state and a decrease in the population of ions in the ground... stream_source_info Burd_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31258 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Burd_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Coupled optical resonance laser locking S...

  12. Coupling to photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Knudsen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the correspondence between the fundamental mode of PCFs and Gaussian modes as a function of frequency, pitch, and air hole size. Such analysis provides insight into design space regions of PCFs, where low-loss coupling to standard fibers may be obtained.......In this work we have analyzed the correspondence between the fundamental mode of PCFs and Gaussian modes as a function of frequency, pitch, and air hole size. Such analysis provides insight into design space regions of PCFs, where low-loss coupling to standard fibers may be obtained....

  13. Annual Workshop: Higgs Couplings 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Higgs Couplings 2016 is this year's installment of an annual workshop devoted to new experimental and theoretical results on the Higgs boson. The 2016 workshop will present the latest results from the LHC run 2 on the Higgs boson mass, spin/parity, and couplings and will present new theoretical work devoted to the measurement of Higgs parameters and possibilities for exotic Higgs decays. The workshop will provide an opportunity for critical discussion of the current strategies for studying the Higgs boson at the LHC and the next steps in the LHC program. The workshop will also include discussion of the longer-term Higgs boson program at future facilities.

  14. Spinning particles coupled to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hojman, Sergio A

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental work has determined that free falling $^{87}$Rb atoms on Earth, with vertically aligned spins, follow geodesics, thus apparently ruling out spin--gravitation interactions. It is showed that while some spinning matter models coupled to gravitation referenced to in that work seem to be ruled out by the experiment, those same experimental results confirm theoretical results derived from a Lagrangian description of spinning particles coupled to gravity constructed over forty years ago. A proposal to carry out (similar but) different experiments which will help to test the validity of the Universality of Free Fall as opposed to the correctness of the aforementioned Lagrangian theory, is presented.

  15. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information...

  16. Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.

  17. Lightweight Restraint For Coupling Flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Willie D.

    1989-01-01

    End flanges of flexible coupling system restrained against excessive rotation or axial separation by inexpensive, lightweight mechanism based on cables and pulleys. Restraining mechanism adapted to cable, duct, hose, or passageway couplings between vehicles, or to other applications in which angular and positional misalignments must be restricted to moderate specified values. Total misalignment of two end flanges limited to amount of slack available in cable-and-pulley mechanism. When cable taut, further axial separation of flange centers restrained, but small tilts accommodated by running of cable through pulleys.

  18. 3D thermal modelling of the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is a promising target for deep geothermal energy production. As part of the EU-funded project "IMAGE" (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration, grant agreement no. 608553), we aim to understand the processes that control the temperature distribution in the subsurface of the URG by using numerical simulations. Reservoir-scale numerical models are often used to predict the hydrothermal conditions and to reduce the risk of drilling non-productive geothermal wells. One major problem related to such reservoir-scale models is setting appropriate boundary conditions that define, for instance, how much heat enters the reservoir from greater depths. To overcome this problem, we combine lithospheric-scale 3D structural and thermal modelling with higher resolved hydrothermal models of the sedimentary basin fill in a workflow of successive modelling steps. After model parameterization with thermal rock properties we solve the steady-state conductive heat equation first to calculate the 3D conductive thermal field and to understand the first-order controlling factors of the regional temperature distribution. In a second step we took into account the fluid flow due to permeability variations in the porous media and the influence of major faults, which locally change the temperature distribution. These numerical simulations of coupled heat and fluid transport were performed on smaller and higher resolved models of the basin fill for which the conductive thermal model provide the thermal boundary conditions. We present the methodological workflow, the developed 3D structural and thermal models, and assess how heat transport mechanisms in response to lithological and structural features on different scales control subsurface temperatures.

  19. Management of upper dyspepsia in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans Christian; Kier, Svend; Husum, Gitte

     Aim: To compare the effect of two strategies for management of dyspepsia. Evaluation based on GP's assessment after two weeks and patients assessment after three months.   Design: Prospective randomised controlled trial in general practice   Methods: 357 patients with dyspepsia where the general...... or discomfort centred in the upper abdomen with or without nausea, vomiting, heartburn, acid regurgitation, early satiety or bloating. Patients were initially treated according to one of two management strategies. The patient was the unit of randomisation. Strategy 1:   Proton pump inhibitor (40 mg omeprazol......) for two weeks. If symptoms were unchanged after to weeks => referral to endoscopy. Later recurrence of symptoms => endoscopy (> 45 year) or management strategy according to helicobacter pylori status and/or clinical reflux (

  20. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other......) were selected by a risk set sampling. Data on all subjects' drug exposure and past medical history were retrieved from a prescription database and from the County's patient register. Confounders were controlled by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associating use...... significant protective effect was observed for concurrent users of low-dose aspirin [OR 0.43 (0.18-1.05)]. CONCLUSION: Statins do not prevent UGB, except possibly in users of low-dose aspirin....

  1. Critical analysis of upper limb replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rames Mattar Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The authors analyze the follow-up of results in 62 adultpatients who had traumatic amputations in the upper limb andwho underwent successful replantation procedures from 1994 to2004. Methods: The levels of amputation were in fingers or thumbin 48, hand in 5, wrist in 4, forearm in 2 and arm in 3 patients. Allpatients were treated in a rehabilitation program of specializedhand therapy. A simplified questionnaire was used to evaluate thereturn to work activities using the operated limb, either in theformal or informal economy, and the patient’s satisfaction rateconcerning the surgical procedure. Results: It was noted that 85.5%of patients returned to some work activity using the operated limband 96.8% of patients are satisfied with the results. Conclusions:Patients submitted to successful replantation present a high rateof satisfaction and return to work activities.

  2. Coolant mixing in the HPLWR upper plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wank, Alexander; Schulenberg, Thomas; Class, Andreas G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Energietechnik

    2008-08-15

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a new type of reactor cooled with supercritical water. The cooling water is heated in 3 stages. In the first stage, the evaporator, the water flows to the top, then flows down in superheater 1 before again flowing upward in superheater II. To prevent peak temperatures and enthalpies being passed on from one heating stage to the next, and to homogenize temperature, the water is mixed in two mixing chambers between the heating stages. Mixing in the upper plenum was computed as a reference case by the STAR-CD CFD code. For quantitative evaluation of mixing, passive scalars were added to the flow and evaluated. Further studies will be conducted to improve mixing by appropriate design measures. (orig.)

  3. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...... in 2009-2011 were retrospectively identified. All medical records were scrutinized and relevant data (such as comorbid illness and medications, endoscopy, rebleeding, inhospital mortality, and 30-day emergency readmission) were extracted. The Charlson comorbidity index was calculated. RESULTS: A total...... of 174 out of 1056 patients discharged alive following AUGIB (16.5%) had an emergency readmission within 30 days. Nineteen percent of readmissions were because of rebleeding, whereas the rest were because of other reasons, mainly bacterial infections (9.8%) and cardiovascular events (8%). Inhospital...

  4. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  5. Mozambique upper fan: origin of depositional units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droz, L.; Mougenot, D.

    1987-11-01

    The upper Mozambique Fan includes a stable down-stream region, with a north-south channel flanked by thick (1.5 sec two-way traveltime) asymmetric levees, and a migrating upstream region where at least two main feeding paths have been successively dominant. From the Oligocene to early Miocene, the north-south Serpa Pinto Valley acted as the main conduit for the north Mozambique terrigenous sediments. From the middle Miocene, the west-east Zambezi Valley became the dominant path and supplied the fan with sediments transported by the Zambezi River from the central part of Mozanbique. The transfer from one sediment-feeding system to the other is related to the abandonment of the Serpa Pinto Valley because of graben formation along the Davie Ridge, which trapped the sediments, and the increase of the Zambezi River sediment supply because of the creation and erosion of the East African Rift. 13 figures.

  6. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB......BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  7. Women in Upper Houses: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neiva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In analyses of female representation in lower houses, the adoption of quotas, the electoral system and the religious aspect have been identified as the main explanatory variables. In the case of upper houses, I see a relationship between their political strength and women’s presence in them: when they are weak, the presence of female representatives tends to be larger, when they are strong, women’s presence is smaller. Furthermore, the article shows that an analysis based solely on the number of seats held by women is insufficient for one to gather the true dimensions of their participation in politics. Evaluating the role and expressiveness of the institutions in which they are present is also necessary.

  8. Vascular anomalies of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies of the upper extremity are a surgical challenge to the hand surgeons. The treatment modality varies with respect to the presentation, extent of the lesion, progression and their complications. Based on our experience in treating patients with vascular malformations, a protocol has been formulated for their management, which we have found to be very useful and successful. With the use of the tumescent technique and good planning, haemangiomas are best excised in infancy or early childhood. Investigations like contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgery for venous malformations. Embolisation seems to be a safe option in arteriovenous malformations.

  9. The management of upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, C L; Shajahan, Y; Khoo, E M; Nurjahan, I; Leong, K C; Yap, T G

    2001-06-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the commonest reason for consultation in primary care. Group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS), the most important bacterial pathogen in this condition, can be cultured from about 30% of patients, more so in children than adults. Clinical features that are predictive of positive GABHS culture are absence of cough, fever, cervical adenopathy, tonsillar enlargement and tonsillar exudate. Use of a sore throat score can help in the detection of streptococcal throat infection. Symptomatic therapies which are useful include anticholinergic, antihistamine, decongestant, humified hot air and Vitamin C. Antibiotics are universally over-prescribed in this condition as a result of high patient expectation and faulty clinical decision making. Oral Penicillin V for 10 days is the drug of choice. Effective intervention to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescription probably require a multifaceted approach targeted at both the patients and the prescribers.

  10. Upper flow regime bedforms on Mediterranean prodeltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgeles, Roger; Cattaneo, Antonio; Puig, Pere; Liquete, Camino; Sultan, Nabil

    2015-04-01

    Most Mediterranean prodeltas show undulated sediment features on the foresets of their Holocene wedges. Using acoustic, geotechnical and hydrographic data as well as hydrodynamic time series we show that the sediment undulations are upper flow regime bedforms rather than sediment deformation. Various processes in the benthic boundary layer can be invoked to explain the variety of features observed across Mediterranean prodeltas displaying such bedforms. The most common mechanism for the genesis of these bedforms are likely sediment resuspension by internal waves and hyperpycnal flows. Evidence suggests that bedforms generated by these two processes probably differ in L/H ratio, with bedforms generated by hyperpycnal flows showing lower values. Additional mechanisms that may induce formation of sedimentary bedforms in Mediterranea prodeltas include waves and derived longshore currents in the shallowest bedform fields, or strong bottom currents in the deepest water bedform fields.

  11. Blow-up analysis for a system of heat equations coupled through a nonlinear boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Lin, Zhigui

    2001-01-01

    Consider the system of heat equations uit - Δui = 0 (i = 1 , . . . , k, uk+i := u1) in Ω x (0, T) coupled through nonlinear boundary conditions ∂ui/∂η = up1i+1 on ∂Ω x [0, T). The upper and lower bounds of the blow-up rate is derived. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Consider the system of heat equations uit - Δui = 0 (i = 1 , . . . , k, uk+i := u1) in Ω x (0, T) coupled through nonlinear boundary conditions ∂ui/∂η = up1i+1 on ∂Ω x [0, T). The upper and lower bounds of the blow-up rate is derived. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Novel coupling scheme to control dynamics of coupled discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Ambika, G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new coupling scheme to control spatio-temporal patterns and chimeras on 1-d and 2-d lattices and random networks of discrete dynamical systems. The scheme involves coupling with an external lattice or network of damped systems. When the system network and external network are set in a feedback loop, the system network can be controlled to a homogeneous steady state or synchronized periodic state with suppression of the chaotic dynamics of the individual units. The control scheme has the advantage that its design does not require any prior information about the system dynamics or its parameters and works effectively for a range of parameters of the control network. We analyze the stability of the controlled steady state or amplitude death state of lattices using the theory of circulant matrices and Routh-Hurwitz criterion for discrete systems and this helps to isolate regions of effective control in the relevant parameter planes. The conditions thus obtained are found to agree well with those obtained from direct numerical simulations in the specific context of lattices with logistic map and Henon map as on-site system dynamics. We show how chimera states developed in an experimentally realizable 2-d lattice can be controlled using this scheme. We propose this mechanism can provide a phenomenological model for the control of spatio-temporal patterns in coupled neurons due to non-synaptic coupling with the extra cellular medium. We extend the control scheme to regulate dynamics on random networks and adapt the master stability function method to analyze the stability of the controlled state for various topologies and coupling strengths.

  13. Acoustical coupling of lizard eardrums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Lizard ears are clear examples of two-input pressure-difference receivers, with up to 40-dB differences in eardrum vibration amplitude in response to ipsi- and contralateral stimulus directions. The directionality is created by acoustical coupling of the eardrums and interaction of the direct and...

  14. Latinos' Perceptions of Interethnic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amber L.; Riggio, Heidi R.; Palavinelu, Subha; Culpepper, Lane Locher

    2012-01-01

    Numerous survey findings indicate that the majority of White Americans are accepting of interracial romantic relationships. However, relatively few studies have looked at how different American ethnic minority groups view such relationships. The current research examined Latinos' evaluations of intraethnic and interethnic couples. Latino…

  15. Marital Dissolution among Interracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanting; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Increases in interracial marriage have been interpreted as reflecting reduced social distance among racial and ethnic groups, but little is known about the stability of interracial marriages. Using six panels of Survey of Income and Program Participation (N = 23,139 married couples), we found that interracial marriages are less stable than…

  16. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  17. Host-Pathogen Coupled Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Oct 2012 – Oct. 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Host-Pathogen Coupled Interactions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Similarly, Bacillus anthracis (BA) produces lethal factor (LF) that also accumulates in the cytosol of macrophages, cleaving the MAPKKs and leading to

  18. Palladium-Catalysed Coupling Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Beller, M; Blaser, HU

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions have gained importance as a tool for the production of pharmaceutical intermediates and to a lesser extent also for the production of agrochemicals, flavours and fragrances, and monomers for polymers. In this review only these cases are discussed where it seems

  19. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  20. Sexual counseling in elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Platano, Giacomo; Tschudin, Sibil; Alder, Judith

    2008-09-01

    Sexual health of the elderly has long been either a taboo or a non-medical life style luxury issue. Increasing longevity of women and men, reconceptualization of sexual health as part of general health, and the development of drugs aiming at improvement of sexual function have contributed to a change in the attitude of the elderly and the medical community, thus increasing the demands for help. To respond to these demands, caregivers need to be informed about the statistics concerning the sex life of the elderly, need to understand the biological, psychological, interaction and social factors that determine the sexual health of the aging population, need a comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approach, taking into account the specific characteristics of the aging male, female, and the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm integrating the biopsychosocial profile of the aging male and female and the interaction characteristics of the couple. Review of the literature, analysis of cases, and review of multidisciplinary case discussions of elderly couples with sexual problems consulting the Division of Sexual Medicine at the University Hospital of Basel. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in the aging population, with hypoactive sexual desire disorder and pain disorders being the most frequent in women, and premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction being the most frequent in men. The specific characteristics of the sexual ill health in elderly couples are the interactions of physical and mental morbidity including therapies, multidimensional sexual dysfunctions in both partners, dyssynchrony in personal development and sexual scripts, and a longstanding fixed interactional pattern with rigid "sexual roles." The diagnostic approach has to integrate sexological descriptive diagnoses of both partners, their biopsychosocial profile, and the couple's history and interactional pattern. From this diagnostic framework, caregivers must design specific

  1. P1-22: Upper-Lower Asymmetry in Slant Perception and Natural Scene Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Inagami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the upper-lower asymmetry of slant perception by measuring our daily environment and conducting a psychophysical experiment. We hypothesize that the performance of slant perception varies according to the viewing direction because the visual system adapts to the probability distribution of environmental slants. In the environmental measurement, we sampled 17 locations (2 indoor and 15 outdoor ones from our daily environment. At each location, a 3D laser scanner was used to measure the spatial layout by collecting radial distances to the surrounding surfaces. On the basis of the measurements, we calculated the probability distribution of the magnitude of surface slant, which was analyzed for each upper and lower area with respect to the eye level. Consequently, the distribution for the lower area, compared to that for the upper area, showed a remarkably high peak at the horizontal (i.e., ground-like slant. In the psychophysical experiment, participants observed a surface with a random-dot texture, which was presented in the upper and lower viewing directions. For each direction, the participants performed two tasks: adjusted the surface's slant to be vertical (i.e., wall-like and horizontal (i.e., ceiling- or ground-like. The results show that the response is most accurate for the horizontal task in the lower direction. This finding, coupled with the distribution of environmental slants, suggests that the visual system is sensitive to the ground-like slant that often exists in our daily environment. This asymmetrical property of slant perception is consistent with our hypothesis.

  2. International Experience in Upper Echelon Theory: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerđa Dino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international experience of top managers is an evolving research within the upper echelon theory; therefore this literature review summarizes everything made so far.

  3. Spin-dependent electron-phonon coupling in the valence band of single-layer WS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Ngankeu, Arlette S.; Guilloy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The absence of inversion symmetry leads to a strong spin-orbit splitting of the upper valence band of semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalchogenides such as MoS2 or WS2. This permits a direct comparison of the electron-phonon coupling strength in states that only differ by their spin....... Here, the electron-phonon coupling in the valence band maximum of single-layer WS2 is studied by first-principles calculations and angle-resolved photoemission. The coupling strength is found to be drastically different for the two spin-split branches, with calculated values of λK=0.0021 and 0.......40 for the upper and lower spin-split valence band of the freestanding layer, respectively. This difference is somewhat reduced when including scattering processes involving the Au(111) substrate present in the experiment but it remains significant, in good agreement with the experimental results....

  4. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electroencephalogram–Electromyography Coupling Analysis in Stroke Based on Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyuan Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling strength between electroencephalogram (EEG and electromyography (EMG signals during motion control reflects the interaction between the cerebral motor cortex and muscles. Therefore, neuromuscular coupling characterization is instructive in assessing motor function. In this study, to overcome the limitation of losing the characteristics of signals in conventional time series symbolization methods, a variable scale symbolic transfer entropy (VS-STE analysis approach was proposed for corticomuscular coupling evaluation. Post-stroke patients (n = 5 and healthy volunteers (n = 7 were recruited and participated in various tasks (left and right hand gripping, elbow bending. The proposed VS-STE was employed to evaluate the corticomuscular coupling strength between the EEG signal measured from the motor cortex and EMG signal measured from the upper limb in both the time-domain and frequency-domain. Results showed a greater strength of the bi-directional (EEG-to-EMG and EMG-to-EEG VS-STE in post-stroke patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, the strongest EEG–EMG coupling strength was observed in the beta frequency band (15–35 Hz during the upper limb movement. The predefined coupling strength of EMG-to-EEG in the affected side of the patient was larger than that of EEG-to-EMG. In conclusion, the results suggested that the corticomuscular coupling is bi-directional, and the proposed VS-STE can be used to quantitatively characterize the non-linear synchronization characteristics and information interaction between the primary motor cortex and muscles.

  6. Correction of Sunken Upper Eyelids by Anchoring the Central Fat Pad to the Medial Fat Pad during Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Su Jeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany methods have been proposed for the correction of sunken upper eyelids. These methods include surgical treatments, such as micro-fat, dermofat, or fascia-fat grafts, or the use of alloplastic materials. Here, we present our experience of sunken upper eyelid correction involving the simple addition of anchoring the central fat pad to the medial fat pad during upper blepharoplasty.MethodsWe performed 74 cases of upper blepharoplasty with sunken upper eyelid correction between October 2013 and September 2014. The lateral portion of the central fat pad was partially dissected to facilitate anchoring. The medial fat pad was gently exposed and then pulled out to facilitate anchoring. After the rotation of the dissected lateral portion of the central fat pad by 180° to the medial side, it was anchored spreading to the medial fat pad. Photographs taken at 6 months postoperatively were presented to three physicians for objective assessment. Of the 74 patients, 54 patients followed at 6 months postoperatively were included in this retrospective, objective assessment.ResultsSunken eyelids were effectively corrected in 51 of the 54 patients, but 3 had minimal effect because preaponeurotic fat pads had been removed during previous upper blepharoplasty. In addition to correcting sunken eyelids, lateral bulging was corrected and a better definition of the lateral portion of upper lid creases was obtained.ConclusionsAnchoring the central fat pad to the medial fat pad provides an effective means of correcting sunken upper eyelids during upper blepharoplasty.

  7. Coupling strength assumption in statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, T.; Totaro, N.; Le Bot, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper is a discussion of the hypothesis of weak coupling in statistical energy analysis (SEA). The examples of coupled oscillators and statistical ensembles of coupled plates excited by broadband random forces are discussed. In each case, a reference calculation is compared with the SEA calculation. First, it is shown that the main SEA relation, the coupling power proportionality, is always valid for two oscillators irrespective of the coupling strength. But the case of three subsystems, consisting of oscillators or ensembles of plates, indicates that the coupling power proportionality fails when the coupling is strong. Strong coupling leads to non-zero indirect coupling loss factors and, sometimes, even to a reversal of the energy flow direction from low to high vibrational temperature.

  8. Urogenital trauma: imaging upper GU trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Stanford M. E-mail: Stanford.M.Goldman@uth.tmc.edu; Sandler, Carl M

    2004-04-01

    Objectives: This article will define the current controversies and concepts in the classification, clinical presentation, imaging approaches and management of upper urinary tract trauma. Materials and methods, results: This review will include the experience of the authors in the field of renal trauma over a 32-year period. Current thinking accepts the view that significant renal trauma is generally present when there is gross hematuria, signs of shock, or other clinical signs of severe injury. In most patients, suspected renal injury will be evaluated as a part of the overall assessment of the patient for suspected intraperitoneal injury. The authors will stress some exceptions to the rule. Conclusions: Most trauma experts now advocate conservative management, unless the patient is unstable or a renal vascular thrombosis or avulsion is suspected. Similarly, penetrating trauma to the kidney in and of itself no longer requires mandatory surgery. In the United States, computed tomography (CT), especially spiral CT, is considered the best diagnostic study, if available. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) is adequate if this is the only imaging modality available and if no concomitant injuries to the abdominal structure are suspected. Ultrasound, although strongly advocated in some countries, can lead to some significant false negatives. The diagnosis and management of unusual problems such as the traumatic AV fistula, the patient with an absent kidney or injury to the congenitally abnormal kidney, the serendipitous renal tumor in a patient with trauma, or serious bleeding after an apparent minor injury (i.e., spontaneous hemorrhage) are also reviewed in this article.

  9. Upper Atmospheric Particulate Monitoring and Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Alan; Sohl, John E.

    2010-10-01

    H.A.R.B.O.R. (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a student-run program in which high-altitude balloon systems are designed, constructed, and flown by students conducting individual or group research projects. One area of interest is in the sampling of particles in the upper atmosphere. Collecting airborne particulates and studying them under an SEM can answer questions on the origins of airborne particulate matter. We could find explanations for climate change or directly measure pollution caused by smokestacks. The SEM has the capacity to capture images of particulates and determine their composition. I am building a system capable of sampling air up to 30km (100,000 ft). The system will contain a servo-controlled filter system for sampling air captured by the ascent of the balloon. Currently, filter types are being evaluated for capture rate and air flow resistance. A circuit has been built to test the mass throughput of the airflow as the balloon travels its course. A vacuum chamber is being built to simulate the nearspace environment. Testing and simulation should be complete in time to fly a finalized sample return mission in spring 2011.

  10. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  11. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  12. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  13. Tumor Budding in Upper Gastrointestinal Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelzer, Viktor H.; Langer, Rupert; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB) at the tumor–host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon, and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal, and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: (1) validation of prognostic scoring systems for TB in large, multi-center studies, (2) consensus on the optimal assessment method, and (3) inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study. PMID:25177546

  14. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  15. Interpersonal Couplings in Human Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A.

    As inherently social beings people routinely interact with others. Interpersonal activities such as dancing, conversation, or team sports require people to coordinate at several different levels, ranging from the coordination of physical movements and physiological states of the body to the coordination of mental states and cognitive or linguistic activity. One of the challenges confronted by researchers in this interdisciplinary field has been to find ways to objectively quantify interpersonal coupling on the basis of brief, noisy, nonstationary, and complex time series of human behavioral sequences. Given their robustness to these challenges, recurrence-based strategies have played a very important role in the development of this field of research. This chapter provides a review of current behavioral, cognitive, and physiological research that has used recurrence methods to quantify interpersonal coupling.

  16. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information....... The period of infertility and the P-test are best scored as continuous variables, whereas the female infertility factor are best categorized in four classes, i.e., normal, ovulation or cervical disorder, anatomic disorder, or a combination of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The three prognostic variables...

  17. Matrix formalism of synchrobetatron coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a complete linear synchrobetatron coupling formalism by studying the transfer matrix which describes linear horizontal and longitudinal motions. With the technique established in the linear horizontal-vertical coupling study [D. Sagan and D. Rubin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 074001 (1999PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.2.074001], we found a transformation to block diagonalize the transfer matrix and decouple the betatron motion and the synchrotron motion. By separating the usual dispersion term from the horizontal coordinate first, we were able to obtain analytic expressions of the transformation under reasonable approximations. We also obtained the perturbations to the betatron tune and the Courant-Snyder functions. The closed-orbit changes due to finite energy gains at rf cavities and radiation energy losses were studied by the 5×5 extended transfer matrix with the fifth column describing kicks in the 4-dimension phase space.

  18. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Reynolds Marine Meteorology Division, Code 7532 Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, CA 93943 phone: (831) 656-4728 fax: (831) 656-4769 email...and James Chen (SAIC). Oceanography and meteorology leads for coupled physical parameterizations for NAVGEM/HYCOM are James Richman (NRLSSC) and...wave forcing into HYCOM met with computational challenges. To mitigate the expense, Stokes drift is processed as a vertical profile that’s integrated

  19. Fluctuations in strongly coupled cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonometto, Silvio A. [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, Trieste University, Via Tiepolo 11, I 34143 Trieste (Italy); Mainini, Roberto, E-mail: bonometto@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: mainini@mib.infn.it [Department of Physics G. Occhialini, Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, I 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    In the early Universe, a dual component made of coupled CDM and a scalar field Φ, if their coupling β > (3){sup 1/2}/2, owns an attractor solution, making them a stationary fraction of cosmic energy during the radiation dominated era. Along the attractor, both such components expand ∝a{sup −4} and have early density parameters Ω{sub d} = 1/(4β{sup 2}) and Ω{sub c} = 2 Ω{sub d} (field and CDM, respectively). In a previous paper it was shown that, if a further component, expanding ∝a{sup −3}, breaks such stationary expansion at z ∼ 3–5 × 10{sup 3}, cosmic components gradually acquire densities consistent with observations. This paper, first of all, considers the case that this component is warm. However, its main topic is the analysis of fluctuation evolution: out of horizon modes are then determined; their entry into horizon is numerically evaluated as well as the dependence of Meszaros effect on the coupling β; finally, we compute: (i) transfer function and linear spectral function; (ii) CMB C{sub l} spectra. Both are close to standard ΛCDM models; in particular, the former one can be so down to a scale smaller than Milky Way, in spite of its main DM component being made of particles of mass < 1 keV. The previously coupled CDM component, whose present density parameter is O(10{sup −3}), exhibits wider fluctuations δρ/ρ, but approximately β-independent δρ values. We discuss how lower scale features of these cosmologies might ease quite a few problems that ΛCDM does not easily solve.

  20. Single and Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    of photonic crystal filters. The second part focuses on some aspects of photonic crystals fabrication and relevant applications, such as nitrogen defect technology in diamond, silicon nitride free standing membranes, photonic crystals structures in silicon, photonic crystals for optical sensing....... for analysis and design of photonic crystal devices, such as 2D ring resonators for filters, single and coupled nanobeam cavities, birefringence in photonic crystal cavities, threshold analysis in photonic crystal lasers, gap solitons in photonic crystals, novel photonic atolls, dynamic characteristics...

  1. Coupling constant in dispersive model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The average of the moments for event shapes in e+e− → hadrons within the con- text of next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD prediction in dispersive model is studied. Moments used in this article are 〈1 − T〉, 〈ρ〉, 〈BT〉 and 〈BW〉. We extract αs, the coupling con- stant in perturbative theory and α0 in the ...

  2. Acoustic wave coupled magnetoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.S. [Institute of information Engineering, Suqian College, Suqian 223800 (China); Magnetoelectronic Laboratory, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, N., E-mail: zhangning@njnu.edu.cn [Magnetoelectronic Laboratory, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. Longitudinal and transversal ME effects of larger than 44 and 6 (V cm{sup −1} Oe{sup −1}) were obtained with the waveguide-coupled ME device, respectively. Several resonant points were observed in the range of frequency lower than 47 kHz. Analysis showed that the standing waves in the waveguide were responsible for those resonances. The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. Theory and experiments showed the resonant frequencies were closely influenced by the diameter and length of the waveguide. A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. • The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. • A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. • A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially.

  3. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  4. Vibronic coupling in icosahedral systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, R

    2001-01-01

    consideration. In this thesis, an explanation based on the competition between the two tunneling paths on the lowest APES is proposed. It is assumed that tunneling occurs along paths of steepest descent. The reversal in sign of the tunneling splitting, calculated using the WKB method, in the icosahedral H x h Jahn-Teller system is explained in terms of different tunneling paths along which the system moves as the strength of the vibronic coupling K sub h sub sub 1 changes. It is found that this sign reversal occurs when K sub h sub sub 1 /(h/2 pi)w approx 4.1. This result is very near to the original result of K sub h sub sub 1 /(h/2 pi)w approx 3.8 obtained using a totally different method. This reversal can be explained as follows; for weak vibronic coupling, the H symmetry state is dominated by tunneling along the steepest descent path of C sub 1 symmetry which connects two D sub 3 sub d wells via one point on the D sub 3 symmetry saddle trough; for strong coupling, the A symmetry state is dominated by tun...

  5. Upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness under Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Drury, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Deglaciation during the Holocene on Iceland caused uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Relatively low estimates for the upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness result in rapid uplift responses to the deglaciation cycles on Iceland. The relatively high temperatures of the upper

  6. Cost Analysis of Medications Used in Upper Respiratory Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To conduct a cost analysis, a narrow cost-utility study, for upper respiratory tract infection medications in University Sans Malaysia's clinics. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done for all medical claims of upper respiratory tract infections in the period 2008 - 2009. The study was done in the clinics under ...

  7. Unexplained right upper quadrant abdominal pain? do not forget the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Right upper quadrant abdominal pain is a common reason for consulting a gastroenterologist. Commonly, it portends pathological processes occurring in the liver, gall bladder, or the gut however, unusual causes have been reported. We report cervical intervertebral disc prolapse causing right upper quadrant ...

  8. LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF UPPER AIRWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal Disease in Nairobi and Nakuru Counties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of gastritis as the major upper gastrointestinal morbidity. Esophageal varices, benign gastric ulcers and esophageal tumors show a significant difference between the two centres. Key Words: Endoscopy, Peptic, Ulcer, Dyspepsia. Introduction. Upper gastrointestinal complaints are a common presentation in many outpatient ...

  10. The effect of upper eyelid blepharoplasty on eyebrow position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, Marijn A.; van der Palen, Job; van der Lei, Berend

    Background: Although upper eyelid blepharoplasty is one of the most frequently performed facial plastic surgical procedures, there is no consensus of opinion about the effect of an upper eyelid blepharoplasty on the position of the eyebrows in a general population. Objectives: This study was

  11. The effect of transradial coronary catheterization on upper limb function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.H. van Leeuwen (Maarten); N.M. van Mieghem (Nicolas); M.J. Lenzen (Mattie); R.W. Selles (Ruud); M.F. Hoefkens (Mirjam F.); F. Zijlstra (Felix); N. van Royen (Niels)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to analyze the change of upper limb function when percutaneous coronary procedures were performed through the radial artery. Background It is currently unknown if upper limb function is affected by transradial (TR) catheterization. Methods Between

  12. Pattern of presentation and management of benign upper urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of severe symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infection and deterioration or complete loss of renal function when intervention is not timely. Objective: To document the pattern of presentation and the management options for the benign upper urinary tract ...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  14. Aetiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in North-Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aetiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in North-Eastern Nigeria: A Retrospective Review of Endoscopic Findings. SK Mustapha, N Ajayi, YB Jibrin, A Shehu. Abstract. Background : Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common life threatening emergency resulting in a large number of hospital admissions.

  15. Rockall score of the acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rockall score of the acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients the experience in Sudan. ... subjective evaluation of outcome of patient treatment. Objectives: To predict the morbidity and mortality in patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Ibn-Sina Hospital using the Rockall score. Patients and ...

  16. determination of upper mantle conductivity using quiet day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... produces large lateral variation in electrical conductivity. Keywords: Sq, spherical harmonic analysis, conductivity, ionospheric curtent. And upper mantle. 1 . Introduction. The systematic flow of varying electric current in the part of the earth's upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, give rise to a magnetic field ...

  17. International Spinal Cord Injury Upper Extremity Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft...

  18. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To present a case of a compound odontoma impeding eruption of the permanent upper left central incisor and to narrate its management. Case history: A 12-year-old girl attended at Muhimbili National Hospital dental clinic complaining of a missing upper anterior tooth. At the age of 3 years the patient sustained injury ...

  19. Upper South Platte Watershed Protection and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Culver; Cindy Dean; Fred Patten; Jim Thinnes

    2001-01-01

    The Upper South Platte Basin is a critical watershed in Colorado. Nearly 80 percent of the water used by the 1.5 million Denver metropolitan residents comes from or is transmitted through this river drainage. The Colorado Unified Watershed Assessment identified the Upper South Platte River as a Category 1 watershed in need of restoration. Most of the river basin is...

  20. Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This (uncommon) occurrence of upper tract urolithiasis in young adults in Ibadan maybe related to chronic dehydration exacerbated by religious fasting. Further studies are required to explore this relation- ship,. Keywords: Urolithiasis, Upper Urinary Tract, Young. Adults, Nigeria, Dehydration, Religious fasting.