WorldWideScience

Sample records for coupled orientation imaging

  1. Enhanced prenatal HIV couple oriented counselling session and couple communication about HIV (ANRS 12127 Prenahtest Trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazy, M.; Orne-Gliemann, J.; Balestre, E.; Miric, M.; Darak, S.; Butsashvili, M.; Tchendjou, P.; Dabis, F.; du Lou, A. Desgrees

    Background. - The Prenahtest study investigated the efficacy of a couple-oriented HIV counselling session (COC) in encouraging couple HIV counselling and testing, and improving intra-couple communication about sexual and reproductive health. We report here on the effect of COC on intra-couple

  2. ORIENTATION STRATEGIES FOR AERIAL OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedemann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  3. Subspace learning from image gradient orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of subspace learning from image gradient orientations for appearance-based object recognition. As image data is typically noisy and noise is substantially different from Gaussian, traditional subspace learning from pixel intensities fails very often to estimate reliably the

  4. Remote sensing object-oriented approaches coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanjay

    No. 3, November 2016. 285. Remote sensing object-oriented approaches coupled with ecological informatics to map invasive plant species. Sanjay Gairolaa*, Şerban Procheşa, Michael Gebreslasiea, and Duccio Rocchinib. aSchool of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville.

  5. Remote sensing object-oriented approaches coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the combined use of new generation sensor imagery and the employment of object-oriented image classification techniques provided more accurate information on Melia invasion in the study area. This is an encouraging result given the high degree of intermingling of Melia with other plants at the study site.

  6. [Enhanced prenatal HIV couple oriented counselling session and couple communication about HIV (ANRS 12127 Prenahtest Trial)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazy, M; Orne-Gliemann, J; Balestre, E; Miric, M; Darak, S; Butsashvili, M; Tchendjou, P; Dabis, F; Desgrées du Loû, A

    2013-08-01

    The Prenahtest study investigated the efficacy of a couple-oriented HIV counselling session (COC) in encouraging couple HIV counselling and testing, and improving intra-couple communication about sexual and reproductive health. We report here on the effect of COC on intra-couple communication about HIV. Within this 4-country trial (India, Georgia, Dominican Republic and Cameroon), 484 to 491 pregnant women per site were recruited and individually randomized to receive either the COC intervention, enhanced counselling with role playing, or standard post-test HIV counselling. Women were interviewed at recruitment, before HIV testing (T0), and 2 to 8 weeks after post-test HIV counselling (T1). Four dichotomous variables documented intra-couple communication about HIV at T1: 1) discussion about HIV, 2) discussion about condom use, 3) suggesting HIV testing and 4) suggesting couple HIV counselling to the partner. An intra-couple HIV communication index was created: low degree of communication ("yes" response to zero or one of the four variables), intermediate degree of communication ("yes" to two or three variables) or high degree of communication ("yes" to the four variables). To estimate the impact of COC on the intra-couple HIV communication index, multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. One thousand six hundred and seven women were included in the analysis of whom 54 (3.4%) were HIV-infected (49 in Cameroon). In the four countries, the counselling group was associated with intra-couple HIV communication (P≤0.03): women allocated to the COC group were significantly more likely to report high or intermediate degrees of intra-couple communication about HIV (versus low degree of communication) than women allocated to standard counselling. COC improved short-term communication about HIV within couples in different sociocultural contexts, a positive finding for a couple approach to HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (pig hearts.

  8. Assigning Main Orientation to an EOH Descriptor on Multispectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to compute an EOH (edge-oriented histogram descriptor with main orientation. EOH has a better matching ability than SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform on multispectral images, but does not assign a main orientation to keypoints. Alternatively, it tends to assign the same main orientation to every keypoint, e.g., zero degrees. This limits EOH to matching keypoints between images of translation misalignment only. Observing this limitation, we propose assigning to keypoints the main orientation that is computed with PIIFD (partial intensity invariant feature descriptor. In the proposed method, SIFT keypoints are detected from images as the extrema of difference of Gaussians, and every keypoint is assigned to the main orientation computed with PIIFD. Then, EOH is computed for every keypoint with respect to its main orientation. In addition, an implementation variant is proposed for fast computation of the EOH descriptor. Experimental results show that the proposed approach performs more robustly than the original EOH on image pairs that have a rotation misalignment.

  9. Orientation-Dependent Exciton-Plasmon Coupling in Embedded Organic/Metal Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Hong, Yan; Peng, Qian; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2017-10-24

    The excitation of surface plasmons by optical emitters based on exciton-plasmon coupling is important for plasmonic devices with active optical properties. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the orientation of exciton dipole can significantly influence the coupling strength, yet systematic study of the coupling process in nanostructures is still hindered by the lack of proper material systems. In this work, we have experimentally investigated the orientation-dependent exciton-plasmon coupling in a rationally designed organic/metal nanowire heterostructure system. The heterostructures were prepared by inserting silver nanowires into crystalline organic waveguides during the self-assembly of dye molecules. Structures with different exciton orientations exhibited varying coupling efficiencies. The near-field exciton-plasmon coupling facilitates the design of nanophotonic devices based on the directional surface plasmon polariton propagations.

  10. FULLY AUTOMATED IMAGE ORIENTATION IN THE ABSENCE OF TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stamatopoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated close-range photogrammetric network orientation has traditionally been associated with the use of coded targets in the object space to allow for an initial relative orientation (RO and subsequent spatial resection of the images. Over the past decade, automated orientation via feature-based matching (FBM techniques has attracted renewed research attention in both the photogrammetry and computer vision (CV communities. This is largely due to advances made towards the goal of automated relative orientation of multi-image networks covering untargetted (markerless objects. There are now a number of CV-based algorithms, with accompanying open-source software, that can achieve multi-image orientation within narrow-baseline networks. From a photogrammetric standpoint, the results are typically disappointing as the metric integrity of the resulting models is generally poor, or even unknown, while the number of outliers within the image matching and triangulation is large, and generally too large to allow relative orientation (RO via the commonly used coplanarity equations. On the other hand, there are few examples within the photogrammetric research field of automated markerless camera calibration to metric tolerances, and these too are restricted to narrow-baseline, low-convergence imaging geometry. The objective addressed in this paper is markerless automatic multi-image orientation, maintaining metric integrity, within networks that incorporate wide-baseline imagery. By wide-baseline we imply convergent multi-image configurations with convergence angles of up to around 90°. An associated aim is provision of a fast, fully automated process, which can be performed without user intervention. For this purpose, various algorithms require optimisation to allow parallel processing utilising multiple PC cores and graphics processing units (GPUs.

  11. Principal component analysis of image gradient orientations for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    We introduce the notion of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of image gradient orientations. As image data is typically noisy, but noise is substantially different from Gaussian, traditional PCA of pixel intensities very often fails to estimate reliably the low-dimensional subspace of a given data

  12. Orientational transitions in ferromagnetic liquid crystals with bistable coupling between colloidal particles and the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N., E-mail: anz@psu.ru; Petrov, D. A. [Perm State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    We study the orientational response of a ferromagnetic liquid crystal that is induced by magnetic and electric fields. A modified form of the energy of the orientational interaction between magnetic impurity particles and the liquid crystal matrix that leads to bistable coupling is considered. It is shown that apart from magnetic impurity segregation, first-order orientational transitions can be due to the bistability of the potential of the orientational coupling between the director and the magnetization. The ranges of material parameters that lead to optical bistability are determined. The possibility of first-order orientational transitions is analyzed for the optical phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary light rays transmitted through a ferronematic cell. It is shown that an electric field applied in the given geometry considerably enhances the magneto-orientational response of the ferronematic.

  13. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging and Radi......This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses...

  14. Attachment-oriented psychological intervention for couples facing breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2014-01-01

    primary surgery date. The primary outcome is patients' cancer-specific distress at the 5-month follow-up measured by the Impact of Event Scale. Secondary outcomes are assessed for both breast cancer patients and partners. These outcomes are: general distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, health......BACKGROUND: There is evidence that both breast cancer patients and their partners are affected emotionally, when facing a breast cancer diagnosis. Several couple interventions have been evaluated, but there is a need for couple intervention studies with a clear theoretical basis and a strong design....... The Hand in Hand intervention is designed to enhance interdependent coping in the couples and to address patients and partners that are both initially distressed and non-distressed. METHODS: The Hand in Hand study is a randomised controlled trial among 199 breast cancer patients and their partners. Couples...

  15. Coupled Person Orientation Estimation and Appearance Modeling using Spherical Harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for the estimation of a person's overall body orientation, 3D shape and texture, from overlapping cameras. A distinguishing aspect of our approach is the use of spherical harmonics for 3D shape- and texture-representation; it offers a compact, low-dimensional

  16. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses...

  17. Oriented diffusion filtering for enhancing low-quality fingerprint images

    KAUST Repository

    Gottschlich, C.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance low-quality fingerprint images, we present a novel method that first estimates the local orientation of the fingerprint ridge and valley flow and next performs oriented diffusion filtering, followed by a locally adaptive contrast enhancement step. By applying the authors\\' new approach to low-quality images of the FVC2004 fingerprint databases, the authors are able to show its competitiveness with other state-of-the-art enhancement methods for fingerprints like curved Gabor filtering. A major advantage of oriented diffusion filtering over those is its computational efficiency. Combining oriented diffusion filtering with curved Gabor filters led to additional improvements and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, the lowest equal error rates achieved so far using MINDTCT and BOZORTH3 on the FVC2004 databases. The recognition performance and the computational efficiency of the method suggest to include oriented diffusion filtering as a standard image enhancement add-on module for real-time fingerprint recognition systems. In order to facilitate the reproduction of these results, an implementation of the oriented diffusion filtering for Matlab and GNU Octave is made available for download. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  18. Effects of Coping-Oriented Couples Therapy on Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Plancherel, Bernard; Beach, Steven R. H.; Widmer, Kathrin; Gabriel, Barbara; Meuwly, Nathalie; Charvoz, Linda; Hautzinger, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treating depression with coping-oriented couples therapy (COCT) as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; A. T. Beck, C. Ward, & M. Mendelson, 1961) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; M. M. Weissman, J. C. Markowitz, & G. L. Klerman, 2000). Sixty couples, including 1…

  19. Hope–Oriented Mental Rehabilitation and Enhancement of Marital Satisfaction among Couples with Addicted Husband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darrodi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to study the effects of hope-oriented group-couple- therapy on the increase of marital satisfaction among wives with addicted husbands. Methods: The design of study was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and a control group. Population of the study included all wives with addicted husbands who volunteered to participate in the hope-oriented group couple-therapy sessions, held in 2010 at Residential and Rehabilitatory Place of Aftab Population. Sampling was achieved through random selection which assigned 6 couples in the experiment and six couples in the control groups. Enrich marital satisfaction-short form was the instrument utilized in the study consistency coefficient for the questionnaire was calculated at 0.091 by Asgari & Bahmani (2010. Hope-oriented group-couple-therapy sessions involved a pre-session and 8 main sessions which were held once a week, each 1.5 hour to hold these sessions practical instructions on hope therapy, as suggested by Snyder et al. & Verthington (cited in Bahari, 2010 were utilized. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS using descriptive statistics methods (drawing tables, depiction of diagrams and using mean and standard deviation for the study variables and inferential statistics methods (including Colmogrov-Smirnov test, t-test for independent groups, Lewin test, Q-Square test and co-variance test. Results: Results of covariance analysis revealed hope-oriented group-couple-therapy intervention could significantly increase marital satisfaction among couples of the experimental group as compared to the control group. Discussion: To summarize, this study showed the effects of using couple therapy, the advantages of group therapy, the advantages of adopting a hope-oriented approach and the benefits of making use of multiple therapeutic methods (such as cognitive-behavioral, problem-oriented, motivational and narrative therapies.

  20. AUTOMATIC ORIENTATION OF LARGE BLOCKS OF OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rupnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, multi-camera platforms combining nadir and oblique cameras are experiencing a revival. Due to their advantages such as ease of interpretation, completeness through mitigation of occluding areas, as well as system accessibility, they have found their place in numerous civil applications. However, automatic post-processing of such imagery still remains a topic of research. Configuration of cameras poses a challenge on the traditional photogrammetric pipeline used in commercial software and manual measurements are inevitable. For large image blocks it is certainly an impediment. Within theoretical part of the work we review three common least square adjustment methods and recap on possible ways for a multi-camera system orientation. In the practical part we present an approach that successfully oriented a block of 550 images acquired with an imaging system composed of 5 cameras (Canon Eos 1D Mark III with different focal lengths. Oblique cameras are rotated in the four looking directions (forward, backward, left and right by 45° with respect to the nadir camera. The workflow relies only upon open-source software: a developed tool to analyse image connectivity and Apero to orient the image block. The benefits of the connectivity tool are twofold: in terms of computational time and success of Bundle Block Adjustment. It exploits the georeferenced information provided by the Applanix system in constraining feature point extraction to relevant images only, and guides the concatenation of images during the relative orientation. Ultimately an absolute transformation is performed resulting in mean re-projection residuals equal to 0.6 pix.

  1. Anchoring Distortions Coupled with Plane Couette & Poiseuille Flows of Nematic Polymers in Viscous Solvents: Morphology in Molecular Orientation, Stress & Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Hong; Forest, M. G

    2006-01-01

    .... The morphology has various physical realizations, all coupled through the model equations: the orientational distribution of the ensemble of rods, anisotropic viscoelastic stresses, and flow feedback...

  2. The relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Seddighi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marital satisfaction is a positive relationship with spouse’s family, positive dynamism in the original family, self-esteem and religious homogeneity of couples. Religion is one of the most effective spiritual fulcrums that are able to provide the meaning of life in every moment of life. Religious beliefs and credence are important factors in marital satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was the survey of the relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City. Methods: This study was performed by the descriptivecorrelation method. The study population included all the couples referred to counselling centers and psychological clinics of Qom City. Therefore, 150 couples have been selectedwho were volunteer for cooperation in this study. Required information was collected by the Azarbayejani religious orientation (2003 and Walter marital satisfaction (1992 questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version-17 statistical software and usingPearson correlation coefficients and regression and descriptive statistics. Findings: The results showed that there was a positive significant relationship between religious orientation and marital satisfaction. (P=0/001 & r= - 0/511 The results of regression analyses indicated that religious orientation is as a predictor of sex (p=0/001, r2=15/438, educational degree (p=0/003, r2=5/409 and marital satisfaction (p=0/004, r2=0/927. Conclusion: According to the importance of religious orientation and credence of family and especially in couples that increases the commitment and marital satisfaction, it has been recommended to strengthen the couple's religious beliefs in preventive and treatment programs.

  3. AUTOMATIC ORIENTATION OF IMAGE SEQUENCES IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Del Pizzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available role in the field of cultural heritage. Making copies of virtual objects is very significant for their consultation, storage, disclosure and restoration. Nowadays the modeling of a free-form object can be attained both by laser-scanning and by digital photogrammetry. With the use of the last methodology dense point clouds can be obtained through elaborate process steps. The purpose of this study is to provide input to the automation of some phases of these processes. Recent advances in the Structure from Motion community have greatly extended the feature matching and triangulation capabilities to enable significantly larger datasets to be used for the reconstruction of the relative orientation of the cameras and, consequently, of the artefacts. In this paper a methodology to automatically orient a set of images is presented, such methodology makes use of algorithms for feature extraction coming from computer vision community and allows to easily recognize a large amount of homologous points on a set of images in a completely automatic way. The above said methodology has been adopted for the automatic orienting of some sequences of images relative to several interesting sites from the perspective of cultural heritage.

  4. A strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis of macrocyclic scaffolds using multidimensional coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Henning S G; Nie, Feilin; Hagerman, Caroline E

    2013-01-01

    A prerequisite for successful screening campaigns in drug discovery or chemical genetics is the availability of structurally and thus functionally diverse compound libraries. Diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) provides strategies for the generation of such libraries, of which the build/couple/pai...

  5. Orientation-dependent imaging of electronically excited quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Goings, Joshua J.; Nguyen, Huy A.; Lyding, Joseph; Li, Xiaosong; Gruebele, Martin

    2018-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that we can image electronic excitations of quantum dots by single-molecule absorption scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM). With this technique, a modulated laser beam periodically saturates an electronic transition of a single nanoparticle, and the resulting tunneling current modulation ΔI(x0, y0) maps out the SMA-STM image. In this paper, we first derive the basic theory to calculate ΔI(x0, y0) in the one-electron approximation. For near-resonant tunneling through an empty orbital "i" of the nanostructure, the SMA-STM signal is approximately proportional to the electron density |φi) (x0,y0)|imaged. We then show experimentally that we can nudge quantum dots on the surface and roll them, thus imaging excited state electronic structure of a single quantum dot at different orientations. We use density functional theory to model ODMs at various orientations, for qualitative comparison with the SMA-STM experiment. The model demonstrates that our experimentally observed signal monitors excited states, localized by defects near the surface of an individual quantum dot. The sub-nanometer super-resolution imaging technique demonstrated here could become useful for mapping out the three-dimensional structure of excited states localized by defects within nanomaterials.

  6. Orientational imaging of a single plasmonic nanoparticle using dark-field hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nishir; Mahigir, Amirreza; Veronis, Georgios; Gartia, Manas Ranjan

    2017-08-01

    Orientation of plasmonic nanostructures is an important feature in many nanoscale applications such as catalyst, biosensors DNA interactions, protein detections, hotspot of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) experiments. However, due to diffraction limit, it is challenging to obtain the exact orientation of the nanostructure using standard optical microscope. Hyperspectral Imaging Microscopy is a state-of-the-art visualization technology that combines modern optics with hyperspectral imaging and computer system to provide the identification and quantitative spectral analysis of nano- and microscale structures. In this work, initially we use transmitted dark field imaging technique to locate single nanoparticle on a glass substrate. Then we employ hyperspectral imaging technique at the same spot to investigate orientation of single nanoparticle. No special tagging or staining of nanoparticle has been done, as more likely required in traditional microscopy techniques. Different orientations have been identified by carefully understanding and calibrating shift in spectral response from each different orientations of similar sized nanoparticles. Wavelengths recorded are between 300 nm to 900 nm. The orientations measured by hyperspectral microscopy was validated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) electrodynamics calculations and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The combination of high resolution nanometer-scale imaging techniques and the modern numerical modeling capacities thus enables a meaningful advance in our knowledge of manipulating and fabricating shaped nanostructures. This work will advance our understanding of the behavior of small nanoparticle clusters useful for sensing, nanomedicine, and surface sciences.

  7. Histopathological Image Classification using Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, UK Arvind

    2016-01-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available. PMID:26513781

  8. Goal-oriented rectification of camera-based document images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nikolaos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Perantonis, Stavros J

    2011-04-01

    Document digitization with either flatbed scanners or camera-based systems results in document images which often suffer from warping and perspective distortions that deteriorate the performance of current OCR approaches. In this paper, we present a goal-oriented rectification methodology to compensate for undesirable document image distortions aiming to improve the OCR result. Our approach relies upon a coarse-to-fine strategy. First, a coarse rectification is accomplished with the aid of a computationally low cost transformation which addresses the projection of a curved surface to a 2-D rectangular area. The projection of the curved surface on the plane is guided only by the textual content's appearance in the document image while incorporating a transformation which does not depend on specific model primitives or camera setup parameters. Second, pose normalization is applied on the word level aiming to restore all the local distortions of the document image. Experimental results on various document images with a variety of distortions demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed rectification methodology using a consistent evaluation methodology that encounters OCR accuracy and a newly introduced measure using a semi-automatic procedure.

  9. ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF ORIENTATION PARAMETERS OF UAV IMAGES THROUGH IMAGE REGISTRATION WITH AERIAL OBLIQUE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Onyango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have gained popularity in acquiring geotagged, low cost and high resolution images. However, the images acquired by UAV-borne cameras often have poor georeferencing information, because of the low quality on-board Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. In addition, lightweight UAVs have a limited payload capacity to host a high quality on-board Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Thus, orientation parameters of images acquired by UAV-borne cameras may not be very accurate. Poorly georeferenced UAV images can be correctly oriented using accurately oriented airborne images capturing a similar scene by finding correspondences between the images. This is not a trivial task considering the image pairs have huge variations in scale, perspective and illumination conditions. This paper presents a procedure to successfully register UAV and aerial oblique imagery. The proposed procedure implements the use of the AKAZE interest operator for feature extraction in both images. Brute force is implemented to find putative correspondences and later on Lowe’s ratio test (Lowe, 2004 is used to discard a significant number of wrong matches. In order to filter out the remaining mismatches, the putative correspondences are used in the computation of multiple homographies, which aid in the reduction of outliers significantly. In order to increase the number and improve the quality of correspondences, the impact of pre-processing the images using the Wallis filter (Wallis, 1974 is investigated. This paper presents the test results of different scenarios and the respective accuracies compared to a manual registration of the finally computed fundamental and essential matrices that encode the orientation parameters of the UAV images with respect to the aerial images.

  10. The relationship between religious orientation, and marital satisfaction among couples of Qom City

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Seddighi; Somayyeh Jaberi; Parham Khoshdani Farahani; Marzieh Shahsiah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Marital satisfaction is a positive relationship with spouse’s family, positive dynamism in the original family, self-esteem and religious homogeneity of couples. Religion is one of the most effective spiritual fulcrums that are able to provide the meaning of life in every moment of life. Religious beliefs and credence are important factors in marital satisfaction. The main purpose of this study was the survey of the relationship between religious orientation, and marital s...

  11. Western Image of the Orient and Oriental in Agatha Christie’s Death on the Nile: A Postcolonial Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüde ZENGİN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to read Agatha Christie’s Death on the Nile (1937, a Hercule Poirot detective novel from a postcolonial stand in general but in particular it seeks traces of Orientalism in it. Expertly plotted and set in Egypt, an exotic background, Death on the Nile is analyzed in this study, through Edward W. Said’s critique of Orientalism, to detect the novel’s projection of the Orient and oriental. Orientalism is defined by Edward Said in his groundbreaking book Orientalism (1978 as a scholarly discipline involving the negative portrayal of the East and eastern people, values and culture by westerners and as western construction of the Orient in occidental discourse through western perspective. Composed of two sections the essay begins with a brief introduction to postcolonial criticism and the critique of Orientalism. Next Death on the Nile is analyzed in the light of the criticism of Orientalism in the second section. The projection of the Orient and oriental people, places, values, concepts and so forth detected in the novel are presented in two subsections of this part. The study concludes that Death on the Nilebeing a detective novel has an orientalist quality when it comes to the reflection of the Orient and oriental though Christie does not foreground this quality of the novel. Another conclusion reached at the end of this study is that for Christie, the Queen of detective fiction has been considered to be a best-selling novelist of all time, her novel, Death on the Nile with its orientalist attitude to the East and easterner, must have contributed to the construction of a negative and false image of the Orient in western mind and discourse

  12. Self-image and value orientations of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-image or self-consciousness comprises thoughts, feelings, evaluations and predictions about oneself and one's own behavior. Subject of the research is the linkage between self-conceptualization of adolescents and their value orientations. The aim is to determine whether there exists a correlation between locus of control and general self-esteem as elements of self-conceptualisation, on the one side, and value orientations of adolescents on the other. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the locus of control scale by Bezinović and Savčić were used for studying the components of self-conceptualisation. Values were operationalised using the desirability of certain goals in life and preference of different lifestyles. Research was conducted on the sample of 176 grammar school pupils aged 15 to 18. The findings indicate that adolescents who are characterized by the external locus of control accept hedonist, activist, social and cognitive lifestyle in a larger degree. Self-esteem is positively correlated with the aspiration towards becoming rich, and negatively with the desire for acquiring knowledge, care about others and activist way of living. The finding that the young of higher self-esteem are not oriented towards education, helping others and advocating for common good, can be ascribed to insufficient appreciation of these values in the environment they live in. The obtained findings point out to the need to reaffirm and encourage these values in youth, as well as to pay more attention to value education of pupils in school.

  13. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging for Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K. S.; Popovics, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Ultrasonic tomography is a powerful tool for identifying defects within an object or structure. Ultrasonic tomography is limited by time consuming transducer coupling. Air-coupled UPV may eliminate this problem and allow for more rapid data collection. This research aims to integrate recent developments in air-coupled ultrasonic measurements with the current tomography technology to image inclusions within solids. Air-coupled ultrasonic signals are collected though large PVC samples. Volumetric and planar inclusions within the samples are identified in the constructed velocity tomographs.

  14. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  15. OBTAINING APPROXIMATE VALUES OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION ELEMENTS OF MULTI-INTERSECTION IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm

  16. Detection and segmentation of intersection and branch structures in medical images using orientation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jian; Sato, Yoshinobu; Tamura, Shinichi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present appropriate line segmentation for intersections (X-junctions) and branches (T-junctions). In the local regions of intersections and branches, multiple orientations occur. We propose a novel representation called the ''orientation space'', which is derived by adding the orientation axis to the abscissa and the ordinate of the image. The orientation space representation is constructed by treating the orientation parameter, to which Gabor filters can be tuned, as a continuous variable. The problem of multiple orientation line segmentation is dealt with by thresholding 3D images of the orientation space and then detecting the connected components therein. In this way, X-junctions and T-junctions can be separated effectively. Experimental results obtained using synthesized and real biomedical images are presented. In particular, overlapping vessels in an X-ray coronary angiogram were well segmented by orientation space filtering. (author)

  17. Computer assisted determination of acetabular cup orientation using 2D-3D image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan

    2010-01-01

    2D-3D image-based registration methods have been developed to measure acetabular cup orientation after total hip arthroplasty (THA). These methods require registration of both the prosthesis and the CT images to 2D radiographs and compute implant position with respect to a reference. The application of these methods is limited in clinical practice due to two limitations: (1) the requirement of a computer-aided design (CAD) model of the prosthesis, which may be unavailable due to the proprietary concerns of the manufacturer, and (2) the requirement of either multiple radiographs or radiograph-specific calibration, usually unavailable for retrospective studies. In this paper, we propose a new method to address these limitations. A new formulation for determination of post-operative cup orientation, which couples a radiographic measurement with 2D-3D image matching, was developed. In our formulation, the radiographic measurement can be obtained with known methods so that the challenge lies in the 2D-3D image matching. To solve this problem, a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining a landmark-to-ray 2D-3D alignment with a robust intensity-based 2D-3D registration was used. The hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme allows computing both the post-operative cup orientation with respect to an anatomical reference and the pelvic tilt and rotation with respect to the X-ray imaging table/plate. The method was validated using 2D adult cadaver hips. Using the hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme, our method showed a mean accuracy of 1.0 ± 0.7 (range from 0.1 to 2.0 ) for inclination and 1.7 ± 1.2 (range from 0.0 to 3.9 ) for anteversion, taking the measurements from post-operative CT images as ground truths. Our new solution formulation and the hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme facilitate estimation of post-operative cup orientation and measurement of pelvic tilt and rotation. (orig.)

  18. Oriented coupling of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to sensor surfaces using light assisted immobilisation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabe, Torben; Røder, Gustav Andreas; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    histocompatibility complex (MHC class I) to a sensor surface is presented. The coupling was performed using light assisted immobilisation--a novel immobilisation technology which allows specific opening of particular disulphide bridges in proteins which then is used for covalent bonding to thiol-derivatised surfaces...... via a new disulphide bond. Light assisted immobilisation specifically targets the disulphide bridge in the MHC-I molecule alpha(3)-domain which ensures oriented linking of the complex with the peptide binding site exposed away from the sensor surface. Structural analysis reveals that a similar...

  19. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  20. Convolutional Oriented Boundaries: From Image Segmentation to High-Level Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninis, Kevis-Kokitsi; Pont-Tuset, Jordi; Arbelaez, Pablo; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-04-01

    We present Convolutional Oriented Boundaries (COB), which produces multiscale oriented contours and region hierarchies starting from generic image classification Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). COB is computationally efficient, because it requires a single CNN forward pass for multi-scale contour detection and it uses a novel sparse boundary representation for hierarchical segmentation; it gives a significant leap in performance over the state-of-the-art, and it generalizes very well to unseen categories and datasets. Particularly, we show that learning to estimate not only contour strength but also orientation provides more accurate results. We perform extensive experiments for low-level applications on BSDS, PASCAL Context, PASCAL Segmentation, and NYUD to evaluate boundary detection performance, showing that COB provides state-of-the-art contours and region hierarchies in all datasets. We also evaluate COB on high-level tasks when coupled with multiple pipelines for object proposals, semantic contours, semantic segmentation, and object detection on MS-COCO, SBD, and PASCAL; showing that COB also improves the results for all tasks.

  1. Singular point detection algorithm based on the transition line of the fingerprint orientation image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathekga, ME

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for identifying and locating singular points on a fingerprint image is presented. This algorithm is based on properties of the fingerprint orientation image, including a feature defined as a transition line. The transition line...

  2. Charge coupled device open circuit image detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    An open circuit photodiode includes a capacitor plate formed monolithically with a forward biased P-N junction diode. The capacitor plate, together with one side of the P-N junction, forms a capacitor which is charged by the photocurrent of the diode. The voltage across the capacitor controls the output current of a charge coupled device (CCD) register. The invention operates in an open circuit configuration so that no net current flows across the diode junction as long as the flux of incident radiation is constant. If the incident radiation flux changes, current flows across the diode junction so that the capacitor is charged (or discharged) to a new voltage level corresponding to the new radiation flux level. As a result, the open circuit voltage of the capacitor modulates as a function of the change in incident radiation flux. The non-linearity inherent in the open circuit voltage response of the diode to incident radiation flux compensates for the nonlinearity in the output current response of the CCD register so that the total response is linear

  3. Microstructural orientation of isotactic polypropylene studied by computerized scanning eletron microscopy image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Giovanna; Luca,Maria Augusta de; Samios,Dimitrios

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate the orientation of microstructural elements of isotatic polypropylene (i-PP) before and after deformation using computerized "Quantikov" software analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. We observed that before deformation through uniaxial compression, the polymeric material doesn’t exhibit any significant orientation. After deformation at 1349 MPa the material clearly showed preferential orientation that was attested by the orientation axis seen between two petals o...

  4. The use of image analysis to quantify the orientation of cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Einar N.; Elbrønd, Andreas B.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    of the crack orientation is a time consuming manual process. In this paper, a method using automatic image analysis is proposed. The method is based on using image gradients to detect cracks and their orientation. The method produces results that concur with visual observation and manual counting in addition...

  5. Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.

  6. Imaging quality evaluation method of pixel coupled electro-optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Yuan, Li; Jin, Chunqi; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    With advancements in high-resolution imaging optical fiber bundle fabrication technology, traditional photoelectric imaging system have become ;flexible; with greatly reduced volume and weight. However, traditional image quality evaluation models are limited by the coupling discrete sampling effect of fiber-optic image bundles and charge-coupled device (CCD) pixels. This limitation substantially complicates the design, optimization, assembly, and evaluation image quality of the coupled discrete sampling imaging system. Based on the transfer process of grayscale cosine distribution optical signal in the fiber-optic image bundle and CCD, a mathematical model of coupled modulation transfer function (coupled-MTF) is established. This model can be used as a basis for following studies on the convergence and periodically oscillating characteristics of the function. We also propose the concept of the average coupled-MTF, which is consistent with the definition of traditional MTF. Based on this concept, the relationships among core distance, core layer radius, and average coupled-MTF are investigated.

  7. Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Evgeny M; Catanzaro, Alessandro; Skrypka, Oleksandr V; Nayak, Pramoda K; Ahn, Seongjoon; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Jung Inn; Novoselov, Kostya S; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Tartakovskii, Alexander I

    2017-09-13

    Vertically stacked atomic layers from different layered crystals can be held together by van der Waals forces, which can be used for building novel heterostructures, offering a platform for developing a new generation of atomically thin, transparent, and flexible devices. The performance of these devices is critically dependent on the layer thickness and the interlayer electronic coupling, influencing the hybridization of the electronic states as well as charge and energy transfer between the layers. The electronic coupling is affected by the relative orientation of the layers as well as by the cleanliness of their interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for monitoring interlayer coupling in heterostructures made from transition metal dichalcogenides using photoluminescence imaging in a bright-field optical microscope. The color and brightness in such images are used here to identify mono- and few-layer crystals and to track changes in the interlayer coupling and the emergence of interlayer excitons after thermal annealing in heterobilayers composed of mechanically exfoliated flakes and as a function of the twist angle in atomic layers grown by chemical vapor deposition. Material and crystal thickness sensitivity of the presented imaging technique makes it a powerful tool for characterization of van der Waals heterostructures assembled by a wide variety of methods, using combinations of materials obtained through mechanical or chemical exfoliation and crystal growth.

  8. Probing the crystallography of ordered Phases by coupling of orientation microscopy with atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, S; Nandwana, P; Rojhirunsakool, T; Tiley, J; Banerjee, R

    2015-01-01

    The determination of atomic scale structural and compositional information using atom probe tomography is currently limited to elemental solids and dilute alloys. In the present article, a unique coupling of orientation microscopy and atom probe tomography successfully facilitates the crystallographic study of non-dilute alloy systems, with high evaporation fields. This reproducible methodology affords a new perspective to the conventional atom probe tomography of ordered precipitate strengthened superalloys. The high accuracy in crystallographic site-specific sample preparation results in high spatial resolution in APT, which has been demonstrated in Co-base superalloys. The practical applications of this technique can be extended to accurately characterize the nature of buried order/disorder interfaces at the atomic scale, as well as the site occupancies associated with different solute atoms in multi-component superalloys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupled dictionary training for image super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchao; Wang, Zhaowen; Lin, Zhe; Cohen, Scott; Huang, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coupled dictionary training method for single image super-resolution based on patchwise sparse recovery, where the learned couple dictionaries relate the low- and high-resolution image patch spaces via sparse representation. The learning process enforces that the sparse representation of a low-resolution image patch in terms of the low-resolution dictionary can well reconstruct its underlying high-resolution image patch with the dictionary in the highresolution image patch space. We model the learning problem as a bilevel optimization problem, where the optimization includes an 1-norm minimization problem in its constraints. Implicit differentiation is employed to calculate the desired gradient for stochastic gradient descent. We demonstrate that our coupled dictionary learning method can outperform the existing joint dictionary training method both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, for real applications, we speed up the algorithm approximately 10 times by learning a neural network model for fast sparse inference and selectively processing only those visually salient regions. Extensive experimental comparisons with stateof- the-art super-resolution algorithms validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  10. Couple-oriented prenatal HIV counseling for HIV primary prevention: an acceptability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamkamidze George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care workers in Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Georgia and India. Methods Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants. Results In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services. Conclusions One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.

  11. SU-E-J-15: Automatically Detect Patient Treatment Position and Orientation in KV Portal Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, J [Washington University in St Louis, Taian, Shandong (China); Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In the course of radiation therapy, the complex information processing workflow will Result in potential errors, such as incorrect or inaccurate patient setups. With automatic image check and patient identification, such errors could be effectively reduced. For this purpose, we developed a simple and rapid image processing method, to automatically detect the patient position and orientation in 2D portal images, so to allow automatic check of positions and orientations for patient daily RT treatments. Methods: Based on the principle of portal image formation, a set of whole body DRR images were reconstructed from multiple whole body CT volume datasets, and fused together to be used as the matching template. To identify the patient setup position and orientation shown in a 2D portal image, the 2D portal image was preprocessed (contrast enhancement, down-sampling and couch table detection), then matched to the template image so to identify the laterality (left or right), position, orientation and treatment site. Results: Five day’s clinical qualified portal images were gathered randomly, then were processed by the automatic detection and matching method without any additional information. The detection results were visually checked by physicists. 182 images were correct detection in a total of 200kV portal images. The correct rate was 91%. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect patient setup and orientation quickly and automatically. It only requires the image intensity information in KV portal images. This method can be useful in the framework of Electronic Chart Check (ECCK) to reduce the potential errors in workflow of radiation therapy and so to improve patient safety. In addition, the auto-detection results, as the patient treatment site position and patient orientation, could be useful to guide the sequential image processing procedures, e.g. verification of patient daily setup accuracy. This work was partially supported by research grant from

  12. SU-E-J-15: Automatically Detect Patient Treatment Position and Orientation in KV Portal Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, J; Yang, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the course of radiation therapy, the complex information processing workflow will Result in potential errors, such as incorrect or inaccurate patient setups. With automatic image check and patient identification, such errors could be effectively reduced. For this purpose, we developed a simple and rapid image processing method, to automatically detect the patient position and orientation in 2D portal images, so to allow automatic check of positions and orientations for patient daily RT treatments. Methods: Based on the principle of portal image formation, a set of whole body DRR images were reconstructed from multiple whole body CT volume datasets, and fused together to be used as the matching template. To identify the patient setup position and orientation shown in a 2D portal image, the 2D portal image was preprocessed (contrast enhancement, down-sampling and couch table detection), then matched to the template image so to identify the laterality (left or right), position, orientation and treatment site. Results: Five day’s clinical qualified portal images were gathered randomly, then were processed by the automatic detection and matching method without any additional information. The detection results were visually checked by physicists. 182 images were correct detection in a total of 200kV portal images. The correct rate was 91%. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect patient setup and orientation quickly and automatically. It only requires the image intensity information in KV portal images. This method can be useful in the framework of Electronic Chart Check (ECCK) to reduce the potential errors in workflow of radiation therapy and so to improve patient safety. In addition, the auto-detection results, as the patient treatment site position and patient orientation, could be useful to guide the sequential image processing procedures, e.g. verification of patient daily setup accuracy. This work was partially supported by research grant from

  13. Neutron Imaging with Timepix Coupled Lithium Indium Diselenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The material lithium indium diselenide, a single crystal neutron sensitive semiconductor, has demonstrated its capabilities as a high resolution imaging device. The sensor was prepared with a 55 μ m pitch array of gold contacts, designed to couple with the Timepix imaging ASIC. The resulting device was tested at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, demonstrating a response to cold neutrons when enriched in 95% 6 Li. The imaging system performed a series of experiments resulting in a <200 μ m resolution limit with the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI Siemens star mask and a feature resolution of 34 μ m with a knife-edge test. Furthermore, the system was able to resolve the University of Tennessee logo inscribed into a 3D printed 1 cm 3 plastic block. This technology marks the application of high resolution neutron imaging using a direct readout semiconductor.

  14. Optical Tomography System: Charge-coupled Device Linear Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idroas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed an optical tomography system based on charge-coupled device (CCD linear image sensors. The developed system consists of a lighting system, a measurement section and a data acquisition system. Four CCD linear image sensors are configured around a flow pipe with an octagonal-shaped measurement section, for a four projections system. The four CCD linear image sensors consisting of 2048 pixels with a pixel size of 14 micron by 14 micron are used to produce a high-resolution system. A simple optical model is mapped into the system’s sensitivity matrix to relate the optical attenuation due to variations of optical density within the measurement section. A reconstructed tomographic image is produced based on the model using MATLAB software. The designed instrumentation system is calibrated and tested through different particle size measurements from different projections.

  15. Coupled Deep Autoencoder for Single Image Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kun; Yu, Jun; Wang, Ruxin; Li, Cuihua; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    Sparse coding has been widely applied to learning-based single image super-resolution (SR) and has obtained promising performance by jointly learning effective representations for low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) image patch pairs. However, the resulting HR images often suffer from ringing, jaggy, and blurring artifacts due to the strong yet ad hoc assumptions that the LR image patch representation is equal to, is linear with, lies on a manifold similar to, or has the same support set as the corresponding HR image patch representation. Motivated by the success of deep learning, we develop a data-driven model coupled deep autoencoder (CDA) for single image SR. CDA is based on a new deep architecture and has high representational capability. CDA simultaneously learns the intrinsic representations of LR and HR image patches and a big-data-driven function that precisely maps these LR representations to their corresponding HR representations. Extensive experimentation demonstrates the superior effectiveness and efficiency of CDA for single image SR compared to other state-of-the-art methods on Set5 and Set14 datasets.

  16. An Efficient Image Compressor for Charge Coupled Devices Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT- based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the lp-norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000.

  17. 3D diffraction imaging and orientation mapping in deformed ice crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donges, Jörn, E-mail: joern.donges@desy.de [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Montagnat, Maurine [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, UJF – Grenoble 1/CNRS, 54 rue Molière, F-38402 St Martin d’Hères cedex (France); Bastie, Pierre [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique,UMR UJF – Grenoble 1/CNRS no 5588, BP 87, F-38402 St. Martin d’Hères cedex (France); Grennerat, Fanny [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, UJF – Grenoble 1/CNRS, 54 rue Molière, F-38402 St Martin d’Hères cedex (France)

    2013-04-01

    A method to acquire three dimensional diffraction data and orientation mapping with the 2D imaging setup of Hasylab beamline G3 is presented. The method has been successfully applied to undeformed large grains extracted from ice samples and extended to the 2D determination of lattice misorientation and lattice orientation distribution within deformed grains.

  18. Microstructure and properties of laser clad coatings studied by orientation imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Furar, I.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), based on electron backscatter diffraction in scanning electron microscopy, was employed to examine in detail the relationship between laser cladding processing parameters and he properties and the microstructure of single and overlapping laser

  19. Analysis of the Transition in Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic 5083 Aluminum Alloys by Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrell, James

    2001-01-01

    Recently developed Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) methods have been applied to the analysis of microstructure and microtexture of 5083 aluminum alloy materials that have been processed to enable superplasticity...

  20. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images

    OpenAIRE

    Ga?parovi?, Mateo; Jurjevi?, Luka

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV...

  1. Microstructural orientation of isotactic polypropylene studied by computerized scanning eletron microscopy image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Giovanna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the orientation of microstructural elements of isotatic polypropylene (i-PP before and after deformation using computerized "Quantikov" software analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images. We observed that before deformation through uniaxial compression, the polymeric material doesn?t exhibit any significant orientation. After deformation at 1349 MPa the material clearly showed preferential orientation that was attested by the orientation axis seen between two petals of the rose of the number of intercepts. This effect was more pronounced after deformation at 2699 MPa.

  2. W-transform method for feature-oriented multiresolution image retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, M.K.; Lin, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

    1995-07-01

    Image database management is important in the development of multimedia technology. Since an enormous amount of digital images is likely to be generated within the next few decades in order to integrate computers, television, VCR, cables, telephone and various imaging devices. Effective image indexing and retrieval systems are urgently needed so that images can be easily organized, searched, transmitted, and presented. Here, the authors present a local-feature-oriented image indexing and retrieval method based on Kwong, and Tang`s W-transform. Multiresolution histogram comparison is an effective method for content-based image indexing and retrieval. However, most recent approaches perform multiresolution analysis for whole images but do not exploit the local features present in the images. Since W-transform is featured by its ability to handle images of arbitrary size, with no periodicity assumptions, it provides a natural tool for analyzing local image features and building indexing systems based on such features. In this approach, the histograms of the local features of images are used in the indexing, system. The system not only can retrieve images that are similar or identical to the query images but also can retrieve images that contain features specified in the query images, even if the retrieved images as a whole might be very different from the query images. The local-feature-oriented method also provides a speed advantage over the global multiresolution histogram comparison method. The feature-oriented approach is expected to be applicable in managing large-scale image systems such as video databases and medical image databases.

  3. Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene/Au(111) interface: Coupling, molecular orientation, and thermal stability

    KAUST Repository

    Gnoli, Andrea

    2014-10-02

    The assembly and the orientation of functionalized pentacene at the interface with inorganics strongly influence both the electric contact and the charge transport in organic electronic devices. In this study electronic spectroscopies and theoretical modeling are combined to investigate the properties of the bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-Pc)/Au(111) interface as a function of the molecular coverage to compare the molecular state in the gas phase and in the adsorbed phase and to determine the thermal stability of TIPS-Pc in contact with gold. Our results show that in the free molecule only the acene atoms directly bonded to the ligands are affected by the functionalization. Adsorption on Au(111) leads to a weak coupling which causes only modest binding energy shifts in the TIPS-Pc and substrate core level spectra. In the first monolayer the acene plane form an angle of 33 ± 2° with the Au(111) surface at variance with the vertical geometry reported for thicker solution-processed or evaporated films, whereas the presence of configurational disorder was observed in the multilayer. The thermal annealing of the TIPS-Pc/Au(111) interface reveals the ligand desorption at ∼470 K, which leaves the backbone of the decomposed molecule flat-lying on the metal surface as in the case of the unmodified pentacene. The weak interaction with the metal substrate causes the molecular dissociation to occur 60 K below the thermal decomposition taking place in thick drop-cast films.

  4. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oil exploration oriented multi-sensor image fusion algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately forecast the fracture and fracture dominance direction in oil exploration, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor image fusion algorithm. The main innovations of this paper lie in that we introduce Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT in data fusion and divide an image to several regions before image fusion. DTCWT refers to a new type of wavelet transform, and it is designed to solve the problem of signal decomposition and reconstruction based on two parallel transforms of real wavelet. We utilize DTCWT to segment the features of the input images and generate a region map, and then exploit normalized Shannon entropy of a region to design the priority function. To test the effectiveness of our proposed multi-sensor image fusion algorithm, four standard pairs of images are used to construct the dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy in multi-sensor image fusion, especially for images of oil exploration.

  6. A cloud collaborative medical image platform oriented by social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Frederico B.; Araújo, Luciano V.; Nunes, Fátima L. S.

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis systems using medical images and three-dimensional models as input data have greatly expanded and developed, but in terms of building suitable image databases to assess them, the challenge remains. Although there are some image databases available for this purpose, they are generally limited to certain types of exams or contain a limited number of medical cases. The objective of this work is to present the concepts and the development of a collaborative platform for sharing medical images and three-dimensional models, providing a resource to share and increase the number of images available for researchers. The collaborative cloud platform, called CATALYZER, aims to increase the availability and sharing of graphic objects, including 3D images, and their reports that are essential for research related to medical images. A survey conducted with researchers and health professionals indicated that this could be an innovative approach in the creation of medical image databases, providing a wider variety of cases together with a considerable amount of shared information among its users.

  7. Background-oriented schlieren imaging of flow around a circular cylinder at low Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Hannes; Bauknecht, André; Siegrist, Silvan; Flesch, Robert; Wolf, C. Christian; van Hinsberg, Nils; Jacobs, Markus

    2017-09-01

    The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging method has, for the first time, been applied in the investigation of the flow around a circular cylinder at low Mach numbers (Msuccessive imaging at incremental angular positions around the cylinder. This density distribution has been found to agree well with the pressure measurements and with potential theory where appropriate.

  8. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke

    2014-08-05

    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  9. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface.

  10. Comparison research on iot oriented image classification algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image classification belongs to the machine learning and computer vision fields, it aims to recognize and classify objects in the image contents. How to apply image classification algorithms to large-scale data in the IoT framework is the focus of current research. Based on Anaconda, this article implement sk-NN, SVM, Softmax and Neural Network algorithms by Python, performs data normalization, random search, HOG and colour histogram feature extraction to enhance the algorithms, experiments on them in CIFAR-10 datasets, then conducts comparison from three aspects of training time, test time and classification accuracy. The experimental results show that: the vectorized implementation of the algorithms is more efficient than the loop implementation; The training time of k-NN is the shortest, SVM and Softmax spend more time, and the training time of Neural Network is the longest; The test time of SVM, Softmax and Neural Network are much shorter than of k-NN; Neural Network gets the highest classification accuracy, SVM and Softmax get lower and approximate accuracies, and k-NN gets the lowest accuracy. The effects of three algorithm improvement methods are obvious.

  11. ORIENTATION AND DENSE RECONSTRUCTION OF UNORDERED TERRESTRIAL AND AERIAL WIDE BASELINE IMAGE SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartelsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach for detailed and precise automatic dense 3D reconstruction using images from consumer cameras. The major difference between our approach and many others is that we focus on wide-baseline image sets. We have combined and improved several methods, particularly, least squares matching, RANSAC, scale-space maxima and bundle adjustment, for robust matching and parameter estimation. Point correspondences and the five-point algorithm lead to relative orientation. Due to our robust matching method it is possible to orient images under much more unfavorable conditions, for instance concerning illumination changes or scale differences, than for often used operators such as SIFT. For dense reconstruction, we use our orientation as input for Semiglobal Matching (SGM resulting into dense depth images. The latter can be fused into a 2.5D model for eliminating the redundancy of the highly overlapping depth images. However, some applications require full 3D models. A solution to this problem is part of our current work, for which preliminary results are presented in this paper. With very small unmanned aerial systems (Micro UAS it is possible to acquire images which have a perspective similar to terrestrial images and can thus be combined with them. Such a combination is useful for an almost complete 3D reconstruction of urban scenes. We have applied our approach to several hundred aerial and terrestrial images and have generated detailed 2.5D and 3D models of urban areas.

  12. Object-oriented framework for high-performance electronic medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.; Harrison, Timothy H.; Pyarali, Irfan

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an object-oriented communication framework we developed to meet the demands of next-generation distributed electronic medical imaging systems. Our framework combines the flexibility of high-level distributed object computing middleware (like CORBA) with the performance of low-level network programming mechanisms (like sockets). In the paper, we outline the design goals and software architecture of our framework, illustrate the performance of the framework over ATM, and describe how we resolved design challenges we faced when developing an object- oriented communication framework for distributed medical imaging.

  13. The effect of an attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early treatment phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Hansen, Dorte Gilså

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients and partners both cope individually and as a dyad with challenges related to a breast cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a psychological attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early...... treatment phase. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial including 198 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients and their partners. Couples were randomised to the Hand in Hand (HiH) intervention in addition to usual care or to usual care only. Self-report assessments were conducted for both patients......H intervention cancer-related distress. The results suggest that most couples can cope with cancer-related distress in the context of usual care. However, the positive effect on dyadic adjustment implies that the HiH intervention benefitted both patients and partners. Future studies should investigate how...

  14. Binding and dissociation kinetics using fractals: an analysis of electrostatic effects and randomly coupled and oriented coupled receptors on biosensor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Harshala D; Sadana, Ajit

    2004-03-15

    A fractal analysis is used to analyze the influence of: (a) electrostatic interactions on binding and dissociation rate coefficients for antibodies HH8, HH10, and HH26 in solution to hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]; and (b) the binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip surface [Methods 20 (2000) 310]. Single- and dual-fractal models were employed to fit the data. Values of the binding and the dissociation rate coefficient(s) and the fractal dimensions were obtained from a regression analysis provided by Corel Quattro Pro 8.0 (Corel Corporation Limited, Ottawa, Canada. 1997). The binding rate coefficients are quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity on the sensor chip surface. It is of interest to compare the results obtained by the fractal analysis with that of the original analysis [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 2946]. For example, as one goes from the binding of 21 nM HH10/HEL to the binding of 640 nM HH10/HEL(K97A), Sinha et al. [Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 29461 indicate that the enhancement of diffusional encounter rates may be due to 'electrostatic steering' (a long-range interaction). Our analysis indicates that there is an increase in the value of the fractal dimension, Df1 by a factor of 1.12 from a value of 2.133-2.385. This increase in the degree of heterogeneity on the surface leads to an increase in the binding rate coefficient, k1 by a factor of 1.59 from 12.92 to 20.57. The fractal analysis of binding and dissociation of recombinant Fab in solution to random NHS-coupled Cys-HEL and oriented thiol-coupled Cys-HEL immobilized on a sensor chip [Methods 20 (2000) 310] surface are consistent with the degree of heterogeneity present on the sensor chip surface for the random and the oriented case. As expected, the random case will exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity than the oriented case

  15. Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Following US States Recognition of Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Corliss, Heather L; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-12-01

    To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one's reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports.

  16. Celebrity chefs put their left cheek forward: Cover image orientation in celebrity cookbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2017-09-01

    Portrait pose orientations influence perception: the left cheek is more emotionally expressive; females' right cheeks appear more attractive. Posing biases are established in paintings, photographs, and advertisements, however, book covers have not previously been examined. This paper assesses cover image orientation in a book genre that frequently features a cover portrait: the celebrity cookbook. If marketers intuitively choose to enhance chefs' emotional expressivity, left cheek poses should predominate; if attractiveness is more important, right cheek poses will be more frequent for females, with a left or no cheek bias for males. Celebrity cookbook covers (N = 493) were sourced online; identity, portrait orientation, photo type, and sex were coded. For celebrity cookbooks, left cheek covers (39.6%) were more frequent than right cheek (31.6%) or midline covers (28.8%); sex did not predict pose orientation. An interaction between photo type and sex bordered on significance: photo type did not influence females' pose orientation; for males, the left cheek bias present for head and torso images was absent for full body and head only photos. Overall, the left cheek bias for celebrity cookbook covers implies that marketers intuitively select images that make the chefs appear happier and/or more emotionally expressive, enhancing engagement with the audience.

  17. Content Based Radiographic Images Indexing and Retrieval Using Pattern Orientation Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Lakdashti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a method of image searching and retrieval in a  database. In medical applications, CBIR is a tool used by physicians to compare the previous and current  medical images associated with patients pathological conditions. As the volume of pictorial information  stored in medical image databases is in progress, efficient image indexing and retrieval is increasingly  becoming a necessity.  Materials and Methods: This paper presents a new content based radiographic image retrieval approach  based on histogram of pattern orientations, namely pattern orientation histogram (POH. POH represents  the  spatial  distribution  of  five  different  pattern  orientations:  vertical,  horizontal,  diagonal  down/left,  diagonal down/right and non-orientation. In this method, a given image is first divided into image-blocks  and  the  frequency  of  each  type  of  pattern  is  determined  in  each  image-block.  Then,  local  pattern  histograms for each of these image-blocks are computed.   Results: The method was compared to two well known texture-based image retrieval methods: Tamura  and  Edge  Histogram  Descriptors  (EHD  in  MPEG-7  standard.  Experimental  results  based  on  10000  IRMA  radiography  image  dataset,  demonstrate  that  POH  provides  better  precision  and  recall  rates  compared to Tamura and EHD. For some images, the recall and precision rates obtained by POH are,  respectively, 48% and 18% better than the best of the two above mentioned methods.    Discussion and Conclusion: Since we exploit the absolute location of the pattern in the image as well as  its global composition, the proposed matching method can retrieve semantically similar medical images.

  18. Polarization modulation laser scanning microscopy: A powerful tool to image molecular orientation and order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K.; Kornfield, Julia A.

    1994-09-01

    To image the orientational order in a broad class of biological and manufactured materials, a new microscope has been developed that integrates laser scanning microscopy with polarization modulation polarimetry. Polarimetry allows quantitative characterization of the molecular orientation and the degree of order through characterization of optical anisotropy. Combined with laser scanning microscopy, it is used here to image the anisotropy with high spatial resolution, sensitivity, and speed. The design of the microscope is presented; and the vast improvement in sensitivity achieved using PM-LSM over conventional polarization microscopy is illustrated by imaging the linear dichroism of ultrathin Langmuir-Blodgett polymer films. PM-LSM allows imaging of the magnitude and orientation of linear dichroism in films as thin as three molecular layers (˜66 Å) at high resolution by rastering a diffraction limited spot of laser light across the sample. The rate of image acquisition is over 2000 pixels/s, two to three orders of magnitude faster than the previous methods of imaging optical anisotropy.

  19. Automatic Orientation of Aerial Images on Topographic Databases-An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    The contents of modern topographic databases as well as the demands for updating of these data are explained with the example of Denmark. Methods for the automatic orientation are then presented. They are based on matching of patches extracted from an existing orthoimage and from a new aerial image...

  20. Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.

  1. Elastography as a hybrid imaging technique : coupling with photoacoustics and quantitative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widlak, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    While classical imaging methods, such as ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, are well-known and mathematically understood, a host of physiological parameters relevant for diagnostic purposes cannot be obtained by them. This gap is recently being closed by the introduction of hybrid, or coupled-physics imaging methods. They connect more then one physical modality, and aim to provide quantitative information on optical, electrical or mechanical parameters with high resolution. Central to this thesis is the mechanical contrast of elastic tissue, especially Young’s modulus or the shear modulus. Different methods of qualitative elastography provide interior information of the mechanical displacement field. From this interior data the nonlinear inverse problem of quantitative elastography aims to reconstruct the shear modulus. In this thesis, the elastography problem is seen from a hybrid imaging perspective; methods from coupled-physics inspired literature and regularization theory have been employed to recover displacement and shear modulus information. The overdetermined systems approach by G. Bal is applied to the quantitative problem, and ellipticity criteria are deduced, for one and several measurements, as well as injectivity results. Together with the geometric theory of G. Chavent, the results are used for analyzing convergence of Tikhonov regularization. Also, a convergence analysis for the Levenberg Marquardt method is provided. As a second mainstream project in this thesis, elastography imaging is developed for extracting displacements from photoacoustic images. A novel method is provided for texturizing the images, and the optical flow problem for motion estimation is shown to be regularized with this texture generation. The results are tested in cooperation with the Medical University Vienna, and the methods for quantitative determination of the shear modulus evaluated in first experiments. In summary, the overdetermined systems

  2. RELATIVE ORIENTATION AND MODIFIED PIECEWISE EPIPOLAR RESAMPLING FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution, optical satellite sensors are boosted to a new era in the last few years, because satellite stereo images at half meter or even 30cm resolution are available. Nowadays, high resolution satellite image data have been commonly used for Digital Surface Model (DSM generation and 3D reconstruction. It is common that the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs provided by the vendors have rough precision and there is no ground control information available to refine the RPCs. Therefore, we present two relative orientation methods by using corresponding image points only: the first method will use quasi ground control information, which is generated from the corresponding points and rough RPCs, for the bias-compensation model; the second method will estimate the relative pointing errors on the matching image and remove this error by an affine model. Both methods do not need ground control information and are applied for the entire image. To get very dense point clouds, the Semi-Global Matching (SGM method is an efficient tool. However, before accomplishing the matching process the epipolar constraints are required. In most conditions, satellite images have very large dimensions, contrary to the epipolar geometry generation and image resampling, which is usually carried out in small tiles. This paper also presents a modified piecewise epipolar resampling method for the entire image without tiling. The quality of the proposed relative orientation and epipolar resampling method are evaluated, and finally sub-pixel accuracy has been achieved in our work.

  3. Orientation sensors by defocused imaging of single gold nano-bipyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fanwei; Li, Qiang; Rao, Wenye; Hu, Hongjin; Gao, Ye; Wu, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    Optical probes for nanoscale orientation sensing have attracted much attention in the field of single-molecule detections. Noble metal especially Au nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit extraordinary plasmonic properties, great photostability, excellent biocompatibility and nontoxicity, and thereby could be alternative labels to conventional applied organic dyes or quantum dots. One type of the most interesting metallic NPs is Au nanorods (AuNRs). Its anisotropic emission accompanied with anisotropic shape is potentially applicable in orientation sensing. Recently, we resolved the 3D orientation of single AuNRs within one frame by deliberately introducing an aberration (slight shift of the dipole away from the focal plane) to the imaging system1 . This defocused imaging technique is based on the electron transition dipole approximation and the fact that the dipole radiation exhibits an angular anisotropy. Since the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) can be enhanced by the "lightning rod effect" (at a sharp angled surface) and localized SPR modes, that of the single Au nano-bipyramid (AuNB) with more sharp tips or edges was found to be doubled comparing to AuNRs with a same effective size2. Here, with a 532 nm excitation, we find that the PL properties of individual AuNBs can be described by three perpendicularly-arranged dipoles (with different ratios). Their PL defocused images are bright, clear and exhibit obvious anisotropy. These properties suggest that AuNBs are excellent candidates for orientation sensing labels in single molecule detections.

  4. Object-Oriented Hierarchy Radiation Consistency for Different Temporal and Different Sensor Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Yan, Yiming; Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Liguo

    2018-02-25

    In the paper, we propose a novel object-oriented hierarchy radiation consistency method for dense matching of different temporal and different sensor data in the 3D reconstruction. For different temporal images, our illumination consistency method is proposed to solve both the illumination uniformity for a single image and the relative illumination normalization for image pairs. Especially in the relative illumination normalization step, singular value equalization and linear relationship of the invariant pixels is combined used for the initial global illumination normalization and the object-oriented refined illumination normalization in detail, respectively. For different sensor images, we propose the union group sparse method, which is based on improving the original group sparse model. The different sensor images are set to a similar smoothness level by the same threshold of singular value from the union group matrix. Our method comprehensively considered the influence factors on the dense matching of the different temporal and different sensor stereoscopic image pairs to simultaneously improve the illumination consistency and the smoothness consistency. The radiation consistency experimental results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method by comparing two other methods. Moreover, in the dense matching experiment of the mixed stereoscopic image pairs, our method has more advantages for objects in the urban area.

  5. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in the substantia nigra in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagata, Koji; Hatano, Taku; Okuzumi, Ayami; Motoi, Yumiko; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Hattori, Nobutaka; Aoki, Shigeki

    2016-08-01

    We used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to quantify changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum in Parkinson disease (PD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 58 PD patients and 36 age- and sex-matched controls. The intracellular volume fraction (Vic), orientation dispersion index (OD), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the basal ganglia were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which diffusion parameters were independent predictors of PD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis compared the diagnostic accuracies of the evaluated indices. Pearson coefficient analysis correlated each diffusional parameter with disease severity. Vic in the contralateral SNpc and putamen were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P disease severity. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that Vic (P = 0.0000046) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.019) in the contralateral SNpc were the independent predictors of PD. In the ROC analysis, Vic in the contralateral SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.88; specificity, 0.83). NODDI is likely to be useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its progression. • Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a new diffusion MRI technique • NODDI estimates neurite microstructure more specifically than diffusion tensor imaging • By using NODDI, nigrostriatal alterations in PD can be evaluated in vivo • NOODI is useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its disease progression.

  6. Spin re-orientation in magnetostatically coupled Ni(80)Fe(20) ellipsoidal nanomagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S; Adeyeye, A O; Singh, N

    2010-07-16

    We investigate the influence of magnetostatic coupling on the spin configurations and magnetization reversal mechanism in a one-dimensional linear chain of densely packed Ni(80)Fe(20) ellipsoidal nanomagnets arranged in two basic configurations (elements coupled along the major or minor axes). Using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) we observed that for geometrically identical ellipsoidal nanomagnets the magnetic states at remanence are strongly dependent on the arrangement of the ellipsoid due to competition between the inherent shape and configuration anisotropies. When the elements are coupled along the major axis, the individual elements adopt a single domain magnetic state at remanence for field applied along the linear chain. This is in contrast with a wide range of magnetic states (single vortex states, double vortex states and modified single domain states) observed for elements coupled along the minor axis and also isolated elements. We have conducted a detailed investigation on the magnetization reversal mechanisms for both configurations and have correlated our experimental results with micromagnetic simulations.

  7. Effects of Orientation and Anisometry of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisitions on Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Structural Connectomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Tudela

    Full Text Available Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI quantifies water molecule diffusion within tissues and is becoming an increasingly used technique. However, it is very challenging as correct quantification depends on many different factors, ranging from acquisition parameters to a long pipeline of image processing. In this work, we investigated the influence of voxel geometry on diffusion analysis, comparing different acquisition orientations as well as isometric and anisometric voxels. Diffusion-weighted images of one rat brain were acquired with four different voxel geometries (one isometric and three anisometric in different directions and three different encoding orientations (coronal, axial and sagittal. Diffusion tensor scalar measurements, tractography and the brain structural connectome were analyzed for each of the 12 acquisitions. The acquisition direction with respect to the main magnetic field orientation affected the diffusion results. When the acquisition slice-encoding direction was not aligned with the main magnetic field, there were more artifacts and a lower signal-to-noise ratio that led to less anisotropic tensors (lower fractional anisotropic values, producing poorer quality results. The use of anisometric voxels generated statistically significant differences in the values of diffusion metrics in specific regions. It also elicited differences in tract reconstruction and in different graph metric values describing the brain networks. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the geometric aspects of acquisitions, especially when comparing diffusion data acquired using different geometries.

  8. Estimating cardiac fiber orientations in pig hearts using registered ultrasound and MR image volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, James D.; Meng, Yuguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Rong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2017-03-01

    Heart fiber mechanics can be important predictors in current and future cardiac function. Accurate knowledge of these mechanics could enable cardiologists to provide a diagnosis before conditions progress. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) has been used to determine cardiac fiber orientations. Ultrasound is capable of providing anatomical information in real time, enabling a physician to quickly adjust parameters to optimize image scans. If known fiber orientations from a template heart measured using DTI can be accurately deformed onto a cardiac ultrasound volume, fiber orientations could be estimated for the patient without the need for a costly MR scan while still providing cardiologists valuable information about the heart mechanics. In this study, we apply the method to pig hearts, which are a close representation of human heart anatomy. Experiments from pig hearts show that the registration method achieved an average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.819 +/- 0.050 between the ultrasound and deformed MR volumes and that the proposed ultrasound-based method is able to estimate the cardiac fiber orientation in pig hearts.

  9. Geometric Context and Orientation Map Combination for Indoor Corridor Modeling Using a Single Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligh Jahromi, Ali; Sohn, Gunho

    2016-06-01

    Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected and converted to a 3D

  10. Fast Orientation of Video Images of Buildings Acquired from a UAV without Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kedzierski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of conducting an absolute orientation procedure for video imagery, in which the external orientation for the first image was typical for aerial photogrammetry whereas the external orientation of the second was typical for terrestrial photogrammetry. Starting from the collinearity equations, assuming that the camera tilt angle is equal to 90°, a simplified mathematical model is proposed. The proposed method can be used to determine the X, Y, Z coordinates of points based on a set of collinearity equations of a pair of images. The use of simplified collinearity equations can considerably shorten the processing tine of image data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, especially in low cost systems. The conducted experiments have shown that it is possible to carry out a complete photogrammetric project of an architectural structure using a camera tilted 85°–90° ( φ or ω and simplified collinearity equations. It is also concluded that there is a correlation between the speed of the UAV and the discrepancy between the established and actual camera tilt angles.

  11. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  12. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values.

  13. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes.

  14. Target-oriented imaging of hydraulic fractures by applying the staining algorithm for downhole microseismic migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Zhang, Haijiang; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    For microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing, microseismic migration can be used to image the fracture network with scattered microseismic waves. Compared with conventional microseismic location-based fracture characterization methods, microseismic migration can better constrain the stimulated reservoir volume regardless of the completeness of detected and located microseismic sources. However, the imaging results from microseismic migration may suffer from the contamination of other structures and thus the target fracture zones may not be illuminated properly. To solve this issue, in this study we propose a target-oriented staining algorithm for microseismic reverse-time migration. In the staining algorithm, the target area is first stained by constructing an imaginary velocity field and then a synchronized source wavefield only concerning the target structure is produced. As a result, a synchronized image from imaging with the synchronized source wavefield mainly contains the target structures. Synthetic tests based on a downhole microseismic monitoring system show that the target-oriented microseismic reverse-time migration method improves the illumination of target areas.

  15. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  16. coupling the image analysis and the artificial neural networks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Y. Mahdi, L. Mouhi, N. Guemras and K. Daoud

    mixture, we use the method of Image processing, figure 2. Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the image acquisition setup. The pictures taken during the processes of mixture at the wall of the blenders have been analyzed using ImageJ software and have been validated with the results obtained by the. UV-vis spectrophotometer ...

  17. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, Mateo; Jurjević, Luka

    2017-02-18

    In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32). Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  18. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Gašparović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32. Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  19. Evaluating fibre orientation dispersion in white matter: Comparison of diffusion MRI, histology and polarized light imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollink, Jeroen; Kleinnijenhuis, Michiel; Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie van; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Cottaar, Michiel; Mirfin, Christopher; Heinrich, Mattias P; Jenkinson, Mark; Pallebage-Gamarallage, Menuka; Ansorge, Olaf; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion MRI is an exquisitely sensitive probe of tissue microstructure, and is currently the only non-invasive measure of the brain's fibre architecture. As this technique becomes more sophisticated and microstructurally informative, there is increasing value in comparing diffusion MRI with microscopic imaging in the same tissue samples. This study compared estimates of fibre orientation dispersion in white matter derived from diffusion MRI to reference measures of dispersion obtained from polarized light imaging and histology. Three post-mortem brain specimens were scanned with diffusion MRI and analyzed with a two-compartment dispersion model. The specimens were then sectioned for microscopy, including polarized light imaging estimates of fibre orientation and histological quantitative estimates of myelin and astrocytes. Dispersion estimates were correlated on region - and voxel-wise levels in the corpus callosum, the centrum semiovale and the corticospinal tract. The region-wise analysis yielded correlation coefficients of r = 0.79 for the diffusion MRI and histology comparison, while r = 0.60 was reported for the comparison with polarized light imaging. In the corpus callosum, we observed a pattern of higher dispersion at the midline compared to its lateral aspects. This pattern was present in all modalities and the dispersion profiles from microscopy and diffusion MRI were highly correlated. The astrocytes appeared to have minor contribution to dispersion observed with diffusion MRI. These results demonstrate that fibre orientation dispersion estimates from diffusion MRI represents the tissue architecture well. Dispersion models might be improved by more faithfully incorporating an informed mapping based on microscopy data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sizing of photovoltaic system coupled with hydrogen/oxygen storage based on the ORIENTE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, C.; Sailler, S.; Thibault, C.; Muselli, M.; Poggi, P. [University of Corsica, UMR CNRS SPE 6134, Route des Sanguinaires, F-20000 Ajaccio (France); Hoguet, J.C.; Melscoet, S. [HELION Hydrogen Power, Domaine du Petit Arbois - Batiment Jules Verne, BP 71, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Pinton, E.; Grehant, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/LITEN), 17 rue des Martyrs, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gailly, F.; Turpin, C.; Astier, S.; Fontes, G. [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), ENSEEIHT, 2 rue Charles Camichel, BP 7122, F-31071 Toulouse Cedex 7 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

    2010-04-15

    PEPITE is a project funded by the French ANR PAN-H research program. This project concerns, among various other tasks, a demonstration of a weather station electricity supply with help of a PV/FC/EL hybrid system located at the CEA center of Cadarache (France). To design a relevant sizing for this demonstration system, a complete sizing tool has been developed via a new numerical optimizing code named ORIENTE. It uses Matlab software based on sequential running time. The demonstration system will be composed of a PV array, a PEM fuel cell system and a PEM electrolyzer, batteries, storage tanks for H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, as well as associated converters. This paper presents the obtained optimal sizing curves for the hybrid system (P{sub pv} [kWp], Q{sub H{sub 2}}{sub max} [kg]) by taking into account the predefined constant load (6.5 kW) functioning 24/24 hours and the system energy balance for a loss-of-load probability LLP = 0. These results give the sizes of each subsystem and will make possible to build the best energy flows control mode. (author)

  1. Algorithm for image retrieval based on edge gradient orientation statistical code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiexian; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Weiye; Fu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Image edge gradient direction not only contains important information of the shape, but also has a simple, lower complexity characteristic. Considering that the edge gradient direction histograms and edge direction autocorrelogram do not have the rotation invariance, we put forward the image retrieval algorithm which is based on edge gradient orientation statistical code (hereinafter referred to as EGOSC) by sharing the application of the statistics method in the edge direction of the chain code in eight neighborhoods to the statistics of the edge gradient direction. Firstly, we construct the n-direction vector and make maximal summation restriction on EGOSC to make sure this algorithm is invariable for rotation effectively. Then, we use Euclidean distance of edge gradient direction entropy to measure shape similarity, so that this method is not sensitive to scaling, color, and illumination change. The experimental results and the algorithm analysis demonstrate that the algorithm can be used for content-based image retrieval and has good retrieval results.

  2. Multi-image screening technique applied to a general orientation training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Campbell, T.O.; Evans, A.D.; Hickey, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A general orientation and training program is a prerequisite for personnel to have unescorted access to various site locations at a nuclear power plant. A new general orientation and training program is being developed for the Toledo Edison Company to be used at the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The program is presented in a multi-image and stereo sound format that has the unique capability to present the magnitude and scale of the plant, to arouse and maintain the interest of the viewer, and to instill in him a feeling of importance and pride about his job. Satisfactory completion of the program by individuals is assessed and certified by a machine scored test that is administered as an integral part of the presentation

  3. Single lens photometric machine vision with 3D imaging for fiber-to-chip coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Hu, Hongmei; Sun, Xiaohan

    2012-03-01

    A single lens photometric machine vision (SLPMV) optical microbench is presented and built for fiber-to-chip coupling. By a rotation mechanics in SLPMV, the multi-view-camera can scan the various surface status of the chips coupled. To realize 3D imaging more explicitly, the modified photometric stereo algorithm is proposed through acquiring the images of weak saturation, matching the scanning illuminative angles, and rectifying rectangularly the original images. The reconstructed images have had similar qualities as those obtained by scanning electron microscopy and have unveiled the detailed information obscured in the 2D images. For the InP-based optical waveguide chip coupled with wedge-shaped fiber, the insertion loss tested on the SLPMV is 3 dB less than one on the conventional testing station. The SLPMV could serve as a more cost-effective and compact scientific observation instrumentation in imaging informatics than commercial ones.

  4. Fast and Robust Registration of Multimodal Remote Sensing Images via Dense Orientated Gradient Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a fast and robust method for the registration of multimodal remote sensing data (e.g., optical, LiDAR, SAR and map). The proposed method is based on the hypothesis that structural similarity between images is preserved across different modalities. In the definition of the proposed method, we first develop a pixel-wise feature descriptor named Dense Orientated Gradient Histogram (DOGH), which can be computed effectively at every pixel and is robust to non-linear intensity differences between images. Then a fast similarity metric based on DOGH is built in frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. Finally, a template matching scheme is applied to detect tie points between images. Experimental results on different types of multimodal remote sensing images show that the proposed similarity metric has the superior matching performance and computational efficiency than the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, based on the proposed similarity metric, we also design a fast and robust automatic registration system for multimodal images. This system has been evaluated using a pair of very large SAR and optical images (more than 20000 × 20000 pixels). Experimental results show that our system outperforms the two popular commercial software systems (i.e. ENVI and ERDAS) in both registration accuracy and computational efficiency.

  5. Optical Flow for Flight and Wind Tunnel Background Oriented Schlieren Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathanial T.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.

    2017-01-01

    Background oriented Schlieren images have historically been generated by calculating the observed pixel displacement between a wind-on and wind-o image pair using normalized cross-correlation. This work uses optical flow to solve the displacement fields which generate the Schlieren images. A well established method used in the computer vision community, optical flow is the apparent motion in an image sequence due to brightness changes. The regularization method of Horn and Schunck is used to create Schlieren images using two data sets: a supersonic jet plume shock interaction from the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and a transonic flight test of a T-38 aircraft using a naturally occurring background, performed in conjunction with NASA Ames and Armstrong Research Centers. Results are presented and contrasted with those using normalized cross-correlation. The optical flow Schlieren images are found to provided significantly more detail. We apply the method to historical data sets to demonstrate the broad applicability and limitations of the technique.

  6. FAST AND ROBUST REGISTRATION OF MULTIMODAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGES VIA DENSE ORIENTATED GRADIENT FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast and robust method for the registration of multimodal remote sensing data (e.g., optical, LiDAR, SAR and map. The proposed method is based on the hypothesis that structural similarity between images is preserved across different modalities. In the definition of the proposed method, we first develop a pixel-wise feature descriptor named Dense Orientated Gradient Histogram (DOGH, which can be computed effectively at every pixel and is robust to non-linear intensity differences between images. Then a fast similarity metric based on DOGH is built in frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT technique. Finally, a template matching scheme is applied to detect tie points between images. Experimental results on different types of multimodal remote sensing images show that the proposed similarity metric has the superior matching performance and computational efficiency than the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, based on the proposed similarity metric, we also design a fast and robust automatic registration system for multimodal images. This system has been evaluated using a pair of very large SAR and optical images (more than 20000 × 20000 pixels. Experimental results show that our system outperforms the two popular commercial software systems (i.e. ENVI and ERDAS in both registration accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Heteroepitaxial growth of wafer scale highly oriented graphene using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Libo; Xu, Hai; Li, Linjun; Loh, Kian Ping; Yang, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on Cu has attracted much attention because of its industrial scalability. Herein, we report inductively coupled plasma-assisted CVD of epitaxially grown graphene on (111)-textured Cu film alloyed with a small amount of Ni, where large area high quality graphene film can be grown in less than 5 min at 800 °C, thus affording industrial scalability. The epitaxially grown graphene films on (111)-textured Cu contain grains which are predominantly aligned with the Cu lattice and about 10% of 30°-rotated grains (anti-grains). Such graphene films are exclusively monolayer and possess good electrical conductivity, high carrier mobility, and room temperature quantum Hall effect. Magnetoresistance measurements reveal that the reduction of the grain sizes from 150 nm to 50 nm produce increasing Anderson localization and the appearance of a transport gap. Owing to the presence of grain boundaries in these anti-grains, epitaxially grown graphene films possess n-type characteristics and exhibit ultra-high sensitivity to adsorbates. (letter)

  8. Age-dependent differences in brain tissue microstructure assessed with neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Andrew P; Dean, Douglas C; Adluru, Nagesh; Suryawanshi, Gaurav S; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Oh, Jennifer M; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay; Zhang, Hui; Johnson, Sterling C; Alexander, Andrew L; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2016-07-01

    Human aging is accompanied by progressive changes in executive function and memory, but the biological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not fully understood. Using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we sought to examine the relationship between age, cellular microstructure, and neuropsychological scores in 116 late middle-aged, cognitively asymptomatic participants. Results revealed widespread increases in the volume fraction of isotropic diffusion and localized decreases in neurite density in frontal white matter regions with increasing age. In addition, several of these microstructural alterations were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and executive function. These results suggest that neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging is capable of measuring age-related brain changes and the neural correlates of poorer performance on tests of cognitive functioning, largely in accordance with published histological findings and brain-imaging studies of people of this age range. Ultimately, this study sheds light on the processes underlying normal brain development in adulthood, knowledge that is critical for differentiating healthy aging from changes associated with dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping reveals nanocrystal orientation patterns in carbonate biominerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Pupa U.P.A., E-mail: pupa@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal orientation shown by Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIC-mapping of carbonate biominerals reveals their ultrastructure at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanisms of biominerals is discovered by PIC-mapping using PEEM. -- Abstract: Carbonate biominerals are one of the most interesting systems a physicist can study. They play a major role in the CO{sub 2} cycle, they master templation, self-assembly, nanofabrication, phase transitions, space filling, crystal nucleation and growth mechanisms. A new imaging modality was introduced in the last 5 years that enables direct observation of the orientation of carbonate single crystals, at the nano- and micro-scale. This is Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping, which is based on X-ray linear dichroism, and uses PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (PEEM). Here we present PIC-mapping results from biominerals, including the nacre and prismatic layers of mollusk shells, and sea urchin teeth. We describe various PIC-mapping approaches, and show that these lead to fundamental discoveries on the formation mechanisms of biominerals.

  10. Fast Fiber-Coupled Imaging of X-rays Events, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HyperV Technologies Corp. proposes to construct a long-record-length, fiber-coupled, fast imaging diagnostic for recording X-ray back-lit material flows and X-ray...

  11. Assessment of fibre orientation in reinforced concrete using Fourier image transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon; Chermant; Chermant; Coster

    1998-09-01

    In this study, ribbon-shaped amorphous cast-iron fibres were used to reinforce a concrete matrix. X-ray photographs have been taken to detect fibres in situ. Their orientation has been investigated by automatic image analysis methods. However, this measurement should not be influenced by the digitization on the square frame of the analyser. For that purpose, the Fourier transform was used rather than the rose of direction method. This analysis revealed the transverse isotropic nature of the spatial arrangement of these fibres, whose axis of revolution corresponds to the concrete casting axis. Such a morphological characterization of the fibre-reinforced concrete reveals its mechanical behaviour.

  12. Coupling the image analysis and the artificial neural networks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from a non-destructive method (Image Analysis) which was used in order to characterize the homogeneity of powder mixture in a V-Blender as well as a Cubic Blender which are most used in the pharmaceutical industry. Keywords: ANN; Image analysis; Homogeneity; Back-propagation algorithm; multi-layer perceptron ...

  13. Sustainability, innovative orientation and export performance of manufacturing SMEs: An empirical analysis of the mediating role of corporate image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villena-Manzanares, F.; Souto-Pérez, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research is to empirically analyze the role played by corporate image, sustainability, and innovative orientation on export performance. Hypothesis testing was conducted with a sample of 180 manufacturing SMEs in Seville (Spain) and a structural equation system is modeled using the technique Partial Least Squares (PLS). The research model includes the following variables: corporate image, sustainability, and innovative orientation on export performance. The results show the positive effect of sustainability and innovative orientation on export performance, as well as the mediator effect of corporate image on these relationships. The results may be more general if we had used a national sample and cross cultural. The conclusions cannot be directly extrapolated to other countries. This work propose future research doing the same study with other types companies. Corporate image requires special attention, as it acts as a filter of the impacts of sustainability and innovative orientation. The creation of corporate image not only as a result of tangible items, but as a result of the actions and behavior of the company. In this research is showed that there is a high level of complexity in the management of intangibles since the intangibles influence each other, such as the influence of sustainability and innovative orientation on corporate image. Managers should focus on proper design and management of the company image, in order to compete and grow in the international area. (Author)

  14. Fuzzy rule-based model for optimum orientation of solar panels using satellite image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaher, A; Thiery, F; Grieu, S; Traoré, A; N’goran, Y

    2017-01-01

    In solar energy converting systems, a particular attention is paid to the orientation of solar collectors in order to optimize the overall system efficiency. In this context, the collectors can be fixed or oriented by a continuous solar tracking system. The proposed approach is based on METEOSAT images processing in order to detect the cloud coverage and its duration. These two parameters are treated by a fuzzy inference system deciding the optimal position of the solar panel. In fact, three weather cases can be considered: clear, partly covered or overcast sky. In the first case, the direct sunlight is more important than the diffuse radiation, thus the panel is always pointed towards the sun. In the overcast case, the solar beam is close to zero and the panel is placed horizontally to receive the diffuse radiation. Under partly covered conditions, the fuzzy inference system decides which of the previous positions is more efficient. The proposed approach is implemented using experimental prototype located in Perpignan (France). On a period of 17 months, the results are very satisfactory, with power gains of up to 23 % compared to the collectors oriented by a continuous solar tracking. (paper)

  15. Fuzzy rule-based model for optimum orientation of solar panels using satellite image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, A.; N'goran, Y.; Thiery, F.; Grieu, S.; Traoré, A.

    2017-01-01

    In solar energy converting systems, a particular attention is paid to the orientation of solar collectors in order to optimize the overall system efficiency. In this context, the collectors can be fixed or oriented by a continuous solar tracking system. The proposed approach is based on METEOSAT images processing in order to detect the cloud coverage and its duration. These two parameters are treated by a fuzzy inference system deciding the optimal position of the solar panel. In fact, three weather cases can be considered: clear, partly covered or overcast sky. In the first case, the direct sunlight is more important than the diffuse radiation, thus the panel is always pointed towards the sun. In the overcast case, the solar beam is close to zero and the panel is placed horizontally to receive the diffuse radiation. Under partly covered conditions, the fuzzy inference system decides which of the previous positions is more efficient. The proposed approach is implemented using experimental prototype located in Perpignan (France). On a period of 17 months, the results are very satisfactory, with power gains of up to 23 % compared to the collectors oriented by a continuous solar tracking.

  16. Relationships between body image, sexual satisfaction, and relationship quality in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Vollmann, Manja; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies found important associations between body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived romantic relationship quality, but mainly focused on one individual's perceptions rather than both partners. To take the interdependency of romantic partners into account, the present study examined these associations in romantic couples with a dyadic approach. In a cross-sectional design, 151 Dutch heterosexual couples completed an online survey measuring body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived relationship quality. Hypotheses were tested using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) and an APIM extended with a mediator (APIMeM), with couple members' body image as predictors, couple members' sexual satisfaction as mediators, and couple members' relationship quality as outcomes. Results indicated that within individuals, a more positive body image was linked to higher perceived romantic relationship quality through greater sexual satisfaction. No gender differences were found, implying that body image and sexual satisfaction are equally strongly associated with perceived relationship quality in women and men. Results revealed no associations of an individual's body image and sexual satisfaction with the partner's perceived relationship quality. These findings implicate that interventions focusing on developing and maintaining a positive body image may be helpful in building on a more satisfying sex life and higher perceived relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Study of Residual Image in Charged-Coupled Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For an image sensor CCD, electrons can be trapped at the front-side Si-SiO_2 surface interface in a case of exceeding the full well by bright source. Residual images can be made by the electrons remaining in the interface. These residual images are seen in the front-side-illuminated CCDs especially. It is not easy to find a quantitative analysis for this phenomenon in the domestic reports, although it is able to contaminate observation data. In this study, we find residual images in dark frames which were obtained from the front-side-illuminated CCD at Mt. Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO, and analyze the effect to contaminated observation data by residual charges.

  18. A perceptually oriented method for contrast enhancement and segmentation of dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Garcia, Irene Fondón; Emre Celebi, M; Ahmad, Waqar; Mushtaq, Qaisar

    2013-02-01

    Dermoscopy images often suffer from low contrast caused by different light conditions, which reduces the accuracy of lesion border detection. Accordingly for lesion recognition, automatic melanoma border detection (MBD) is an initial as well as crucial task. In this article, a novel perceptually oriented approach for MBD is presented by combing region and edge-based segmentation techniques. The MBD system for color contrast and segmentation improvement consists of four main steps: first, the RGB dermoscopy image is transformed to CIE L*a*b* color space, lesion contrast is then enhanced by adjusting and mapping the intensity values of the lesion pixels in the specified range using the three channels of CIE L*a*b*, a hill-climbing algorithm is used later to detect region-of-interest (ROI) map in a perceptually oriented color space using color channels (L*,a*,b*) and finally, an adaptive thresholding is applied to determine the optimal lesion border. Manually drawn borders obtained from an experienced dermatologist are utilized as a ground truth for performance evaluation. The proposed MBD method is tested on a total of 100 dermoscopy images. A comparative study with three state-of-the-art color and texture-based segmentation techniques (JSeg, dermatologists-like tumor area extraction: DTEA and region-based active contours: RAC), is also conducted to show the effectiveness of our MBD method using measures of true positive rate (TPR), false positive rate (FPR), and error probability (EP). Among different algorithms, our MBD algorithm achieved TPR of 94.25%, FPR of 3.56%, and EP of 4%. The proposed MBD approach is highly accurate to detect the lesion border area. The MBD software and sample of dermoscopy images can be downloaded at http://cs.ntu.edu.pk/research.php. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in the substantia nigra in idiopathic Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Aoki, Shigeki; Hatano, Taku; Okuzumi, Ayami; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo; Kamiya, Kouhei

    2016-01-01

    We used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to quantify changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum in Parkinson disease (PD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 58 PD patients and 36 age- and sex-matched controls. The intracellular volume fraction (Vic), orientation dispersion index (OD), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the basal ganglia were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which diffusion parameters were independent predictors of PD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis compared the diagnostic accuracies of the evaluated indices. Pearson coefficient analysis correlated each diffusional parameter with disease severity. Vic in the contralateral SNpc and putamen were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.00058). Vic and OD in the SNpc and putamen showed significant negative correlations (P < 0.05) with disease severity. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that Vic (P = 0.0000046) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.019) in the contralateral SNpc were the independent predictors of PD. In the ROC analysis, Vic in the contralateral SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.88; specificity, 0.83). NODDI is likely to be useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its progression. (orig.)

  20. Enhancing nanoscale SEM image segmentation and reconstruction with crystallographic orientation data and machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, Matthew I.; Fullwood, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods of image segmentation and reconstructions from scanning electron micrographs can be inadequate for resolving nanoscale gaps in composite materials (1–20 nm). Such information is critical to both accurate material characterizations and models of piezoresistive response. The current work proposes the use of crystallographic orientation data and machine learning for enhancing this process. It is first shown how a machine learning algorithm can be used to predict the connectivity of nanoscale grains in a Nickel nanostrand/epoxy composite. This results in 71.9% accuracy for a 2D algorithm and 62.4% accuracy in 3D. Finally, it is demonstrated how these algorithms can be used to predict the location of gaps between distinct nanostrands — gaps which would otherwise not be detected with the sole use of a scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • A method is proposed for enhancing the segmentation/reconstruction of SEM images. • 3D crystallographic orientation data from a nickel nanocomposite is collected. • A machine learning algorithm is used to detect trends in adjacent grains. • This algorithm is then applied to predict likely regions of nanoscale gaps. • These gaps would otherwise be unresolved with the sole use of an SEM

  1. Automatic Object-Oriented Roundabouts Extrction from High Resolution Multispectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, W.

    2017-09-01

    Road roundabouts, a typical class of road facilities to avoid collision, are generally not directed extracted in existing road extraction methods. This paper presents a novel four-step approach for automatic vegetated roundabout extractions from high resolution multispectral satellite images, which combines object-oriented extraction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification and spatial relationship estimation. Firstly, after proper preconditioning, the vegetated roundabouts are extracted by object-oriented extract algorithm in ENVI with rules that simultaneously taking area, roundness and vegetation index (NDVI) into consideration. After a certain number of experiments, the set of three items' thresholds can be found, which may stand as the general rules for vegetated roundabouts extraction in similar conditions. Next, the roads are classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the outputs are several band shaped polygons. Then, the holes in road polygons will be detected by examining the topological relation in ArcGIS. Lastly, since the margin of extracted roundabout and the biggest detected hole may not strictly coincide, by comparing the distance between central points of both the extracted roundabout and the hole with the threshold, convincing determination can be made. The proposed automatic approach has been proved to have very high production accuracy that all above 85 % in each case of the test set, which is good enough for automatic vegetated roundabouts extraction from high resolution remote sensing images without manual interpretation.

  2. Novel technique for spatially resolved imaging of molecular bond orientations using x-ray birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M., E-mail: HarrisKDM@cardiff.ac.uk; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Kariuki, Benson M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2016-07-27

    Birefringence has been observed in anisotropic materials transmitting linearly polarized X-ray beams tuned close to an absorption edge of a specific element in the material. Synchrotron bending magnets provide X-ray beams of sufficiently high brightness and cross section for spatially resolved measurements of birefringence. The recently developed X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) technique has been successfully applied for the first time using the versatile test beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source. Orientational distributions of the C–Br bonds of brominated “guest” molecules within crystalline “host” tunnel structures (in thiourea or urea inclusion compounds) have been studied using linearly polarized incident X-rays near the Br K-edge. Imaging of domain structures, changes in C–Br bond orientations associated with order-disorder phase transitions, and the effects of dynamic averaging of C–Br bond orientations have been demonstrated. The XBI setup uses a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator upstream from the sample and a horizontally deflecting single-crystal polarization analyzer downstream, with a Bragg angle as close as possible to 45°. In this way, the ellipticity and rotation angle of the polarization of the beam transmitted through the sample is measured as in polarizing optical microscopy. The theoretical instrumental background calculated from the elliptical polarization of the bending-magnet X-rays, the imperfect polarization discrimination of the analyzer, and the correlation between vertical position and photon energy introduced by the monochromator agrees well with experimental observations. The background is calculated analytically because the region of X-ray phase space selected by this setup is sampled inefficiently by standard methods.

  3. The use of diffusional kurtosis imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging of the brain in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miho; Noda, Takamasa; Sato, Noriko; Hidese, Shinsuke; Teraishi, Toshiya; Setoyama, Shiori; Sone, Daichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) are new diffusional magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques for the characterization of neural tissues in human brain. In this study, we used these dMRI techniques to evaluate the whole-brain microstructural changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Twenty-three patients with MDD and 26 healthy subjects underwent dMRI. We compared the dMRI metrics between the 2 groups and examined the relationships between the metrics and the clinical symptoms of MDD. The MDD patients showed significant fractional anisotropy reduction in the bilateral parietal, right parieto-occipital, and right superior temporal corti, compared with the controls. Mean kurtosis values were significantly reduced in MDD patients in the right superior temporal cortex and bilateral posterior thalamic radiation. Neurite density index reductions were found in the right superior temporal cortex, bilateral insulae, right inferior frontal cortex, left parahippocampal region, left middle cerebellar peduncle, and right cerebellum. Regarding the orientation dispersion index (ODI), we detected significant decreases in the left thalamus and left occipital cortex, and significant increases in the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi and left posterior thalamic radiation tract. Further, there were significant positive correlations between the total Hamilton Depression Rating scale-21 scores and the ODI values in the right frontal gyri. These results suggest that the DKI and NODDI methods may provide more information about microstructural abnormalities in patients with MDD than the DTI method. It is thus expected that these techniques will be adopted as the informative methods for neuroimaging study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Super-resolution reconstruction of diffusion parameters from diffusion-weighted images with different slice orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Jeurissen, Ben; Veraart, Jelle; den Dekker, Arnold J; Parizel, Paul M; Poot, Dirk H J; Sijbers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion MRI is hampered by long acquisition times, low spatial resolution, and a low signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, methods have been proposed to improve the trade-off between spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition time of diffusion-weighted images via super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) techniques. However, during the reconstruction, these SRR methods neglect the q-space relation between the different diffusion-weighted images. An SRR method that includes a diffusion model and directly reconstructs high resolution diffusion parameters from a set of low resolution diffusion-weighted images was proposed. Our method allows an arbitrary combination of diffusion gradient directions and slice orientations for the low resolution diffusion-weighted images, optimally samples the q- and k-space, and performs motion correction with b-matrix rotation. Experiments with synthetic data and in vivo human brain data show an increase of spatial resolution of the diffusion parameters, while preserving a high signal-to-noise ratio and low scan time. Moreover, the proposed SRR method outperforms the previous methods in terms of the root-mean-square error. The proposed SRR method substantially increases the spatial resolution of MRI that can be obtained in a clinically feasible scan time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assigning Tie Points to a Generalised Building Model for Uas Image Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses the integration of a building model into the pose estimation of image sequences. Images are captured by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) equipped with a camera flying in between buildings. Two approaches to assign tie points to a generalised building model in object space are presented. A direct approach is based on the distances between the object coordinates of tie points and planes of the building model. An indirect approach first finds planes within the tie point cloud that are subsequently matched to model planes; finally based on these matches, tie points are assigned to model planes. For both cases, the assignments are used in a hybrid bundle adjustment to refine the poses (image orientations). Experimental results for an image sequence demonstrate improvements in comparison to an adjustment without the building model. Differences and limitations of the two approaches for point-plane assignment are discussed - in the experiments they perform similar with respect to estimated standard deviations of tie points.

  6. Registration and analysis for images couple : application to mammograms

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Advisor: Nicole Vincent. Date and location of PhD thesis defense: 10 January 2013, University of Paris Descartes In this thesis, the problem addressed is the development of a computer-aided diagnosis system (CAD) based on conjoint analysis of several images, and therefore on the comparison of these medical images. The particularity of our approach is to look for evolutions or aberrant new tissues in a given set, rather than attempting to characterize, with a strong a priori, the type of ti...

  7. The study on the perceptions of radiological technologist in medical imaging equipment used by the oriental doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Ho; Kang, Gi Bong; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine how Radiological Technologists perceive the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment, surveys were conducted for the members of the Korean Radiological Technologists Association. The total number of respondents were 515 and 481, with 34 insincere responses removed caused of nonvalidated answer. The results of the analysis are as follows. Although there were no statistical significance in the difference in perception by location of residence, work place, and educational background, respondents with higher education showed a tendency to agree on the use of comprehensive medical imaging equipment, but tended to oppose the use of special medical imaging equipment. Differences in perception by gender showed a greater negative perception toward the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment by women than men. In particular, women showed more negative tendency for oriental doctor's use of special medical imaging equipment such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound equipment compared to men, and this was statistically significant. The difference in perception by age showed that the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment was negative in the 20∼30s, neutral in the 40∼50s, and positive in the 60s, which were statistically significant. The difference in perception by work experience showed that the longer the work experience was, the more positive it was toward oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment. Specifically, the most favorable tendency was found with work experience of more than 30 years, which was statistically significant. The results of this study revealed the Radiological Technologists' perceptions on the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment and this can contribute to the direction of public health promotion in the future

  8. The study on the perceptions of radiological technologist in medical imaging equipment used by the oriental doctor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gi Bong [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Shinhan University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-03-15

    In order to examine how Radiological Technologists perceive the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment, surveys were conducted for the members of the Korean Radiological Technologists Association. The total number of respondents were 515 and 481, with 34 insincere responses removed caused of nonvalidated answer. The results of the analysis are as follows. Although there were no statistical significance in the difference in perception by location of residence, work place, and educational background, respondents with higher education showed a tendency to agree on the use of comprehensive medical imaging equipment, but tended to oppose the use of special medical imaging equipment. Differences in perception by gender showed a greater negative perception toward the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment by women than men. In particular, women showed more negative tendency for oriental doctor's use of special medical imaging equipment such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound equipment compared to men, and this was statistically significant. The difference in perception by age showed that the oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment was negative in the 20∼30s, neutral in the 40∼50s, and positive in the 60s, which were statistically significant. The difference in perception by work experience showed that the longer the work experience was, the more positive it was toward oriental doctor's use of medical imaging equipment. Specifically, the most favorable tendency was found with work experience of more than 30 years, which was statistically significant. The results of this study revealed the Radiological Technologists' perceptions on the oriental doctor's use of Medical Imaging Equipment and this can contribute to the direction of public health promotion in the future.

  9. [An object-oriented remote sensing image segmentation approach based on edge detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Min; Huai, Jian-Zhu; Tang, Zhong-Shi

    2010-06-01

    Satellite sensor technology endorsed better discrimination of various landscape objects. Image segmentation approaches to extracting conceptual objects and patterns hence have been explored and a wide variety of such algorithms abound. To this end, in order to effectively utilize edge and topological information in high resolution remote sensing imagery, an object-oriented algorithm combining edge detection and region merging is proposed. Susan edge filter is firstly applied to the panchromatic band of Quickbird imagery with spatial resolution of 0.61 m to obtain the edge map. Thanks to the resulting edge map, a two-phrase region-based segmentation method operates on the fusion image from panchromatic and multispectral Quickbird images to get the final partition result. In the first phase, a quad tree grid consisting of squares with sides parallel to the image left and top borders agglomerates the square subsets recursively where the uniform measure is satisfied to derive image object primitives. Before the merger of the second phrase, the contextual and spatial information, (e. g., neighbor relationship, boundary coding) of the resulting squares are retrieved efficiently by means of the quad tree structure. Then a region merging operation is performed with those primitives, during which the criterion for region merging integrates edge map and region-based features. This approach has been tested on the QuickBird images of some site in Sanxia area and the result is compared with those of ENVI Zoom Definiens. In addition, quantitative evaluation of the quality of segmentation results is also presented. Experiment results demonstrate stable convergence and efficiency.

  10. Inter-domain orientation and motions in VAT-N explored by residual dipolar couplings and 15N backbone relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Mandar V; John, Michael; Coles, Murray; Peters, Jürgen; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Kessler, Horst

    2006-07-01

    The N-terminal domain of VAT (Valosine-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum), VAT-N (20.5 kDa), is considered to be the primary substrate-recognition site of the complex. The solution structure of VAT-N derived in our laboratory using conventionally obtained NMR restraints shows the existence of two equally sized sub-domains, VAT-Nn and VAT-Nc, together forming a kidney-shaped overall structure. The putative substrate-binding site of VAT-N involves free loops and a highly charged groove located on the surface of the protein. Alternatively, the opening of the cleft between the domains to accommodate substrate has been proposed to be part of the functional mechanism. We have used the residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) obtained in a bicelle medium to refine the structure of VAT-N. The long-range information available from RDCs both defines the sub-domain orientation and probes possible inter-domain motions. In addition, 15N backbone relaxation data were obtained and analysed within the model-free framework. Together, the data provides a refined structure with improved local geometry, but with the overall kidney shape intact. Further, the protein is rigid overall, with no evidence of inter-domain motions. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Full waveform inversion using oriented time-domain imaging method for vertical transverse isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-07-11

    Full waveform inversion for reection events is limited by its linearized update re-quirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate, the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In our approach, we consider mild lateral variation in the model, and thus, use a gradient given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. Specifically, we apply the oriented time-domain imaging on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. After updating the model in the time domain, we convert the perturbation from the time domain to depth using the average velocity. Considering density is constant, we can expand the conventional 1D impedance inversion method to 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of full waveform inversion. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, we utilize what we consider being an optimal parametrization for this step. To do so, we extend the prestack time-domain migration image in incident angle dimension to incorporate angular dependence needed by the multiparameter inversion. For simple models, this approach provides an efficient and stable way to do full waveform inversion or modified seismic inversion and makes the anisotropic inversion more practicable. The proposed method still needs kinematically accurate initial models since it only recovers the high-wavenumber part as conventional full waveform inversion method does. Results on synthetic data of isotropic and anisotropic cases illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  12. Archetypal Images of Orientalism: A Moral Mirror of Aeneas’ New Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Tomažinčič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the general perception, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity by Benjamin Isaac recognizes the ancient society as racist and tries to detect the early forms of racist attitudes and behaviour in the Greek and Roman antiquity. Thus Isaac introduces a new concept in understanding the ancient attitudes toward the Others, at the same time offering a new explanation model for collective group characteristics, which are, by his definition of racism, based on environmental determinism and the impossibility of change at an individual or collective level. Isaac’s model, however, raises certain reservations and counter-arguments. Firstly, there are crucial divergences from racism in the modern sense of the term, which recognizes the collective group characteristics not as environmentally but as biologically determined; this is also perceived by Isaac, who therefore defines the ancient attitudes toward Others as protoracism rather than racism. Secondly, contrary to Isaac’s view, the Greek and Roman explanations of collective differences between peoples were not dominated by the environmental-determinist approach but rather by historical, political, cultural, social, and – in particular – linguistic differences. The use of the term ‘racism’ in ancient contexts therefore seems anachronistic, misleading and somewhat narrow. By contrast, the term The Other and the concept of the derogatory and stereotypicalUniversal Other, invented during the Persian Wars, prove much more stimulating and useful in attempts to define the attitude to other individuals and groups. Introduced by a storm caused by Juno, which breaks the linear journey from Troy to Rome and brings Aeneas to the Libyan shores, the Carthage passage in Books 1–4 of the Aeneid draws the image of a historical and literary Other. To this end, Vergil attempts to ascribe the negative stereotype of the Phoenicians and Orientals in general to the Carthaginians

  13. Transferability of Object-Oriented Image Analysis Methods for Slum Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Updated spatial information on the dynamics of slums can be helpful to measure and evaluate progress of policies. Earlier studies have shown that semi-automatic detection of slums using remote sensing can be challenging considering the large variability in definition and appearance. In this study, we explored the potential of an object-oriented image analysis (OOA method to detect slums, using very high resolution (VHR imagery. This method integrated expert knowledge in the form of a local slum ontology. A set of image-based parameters was identified that was used for differentiating slums from non-slum areas in an OOA environment. The method was implemented on three subsets of the city of Ahmedabad, India. Results show that textural features such as entropy and contrast derived from a grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and the size of image segments are stable parameters for classification of built-up areas and the identification of slums. Relation with classified slum objects, in terms of enclosed by slums and relative border with slums was used to refine classification. The analysis on three different subsets showed final accuracies ranging from 47% to 68%. We conclude that our method produces useful results as it allows including location specific adaptation, whereas generically applicable rulesets for slums are still to be developed.

  14. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15–20cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  15. Structure tensor analysis of serial optical coherence scanner images for mapping fiber orientations and tractography in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lenglet, Christophe; Akkin, Taner

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative investigations of fiber orientation and structural connectivity at microscopic resolution have led to great challenges for current neuroimaging techniques. Here, we present a structure tensor (ST) analysis of ex vivo rat brain images acquired by a multicontrast (MC) serial optical coherence scanner. The ST considers the gradients of images in local neighbors to generate a matrix whose eigen-decomposition can estimate the local features such as the edges, anisotropy, and orientation of tissue constituents. This computational analysis is applied on the conventional- and polarization-based contrasts of optical coherence tomography. The three-dimensional (3-D) fiber orientation maps are computed from the image stacks of sequential scans both at mesoresolution for a global view and at high-resolution for the details. The computational orientation maps demonstrate a good agreement with the optic axis orientation contrast which measures the in-plane fiber orientation. Moreover, tractography is implemented using the directional information extracted from the 3-D ST. The study provides a unique opportunity to leverage MC high-resolution information to map structural connectivity of the whole brain.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking with reliable tracking orientation and flexible step size☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Manning; Chen, Xinrong; Nie, Shengdong; Li, Zhexu; Xu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xuelong; Song, Zhijian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method of reliable tracking orientation and flexible step size fiber tracking. A new directional strategy was defined to select one optimal tracking orientation from each directional set, which was based on the single-tensor model and the two-tensor model. The directional set of planar voxels contained three tracking directions: two from the two-tensor model and one from the single-tensor model. The directional set of linear voxels contained only one principal vector. In addition, a flexible step size, rather than fixable step sizes, was implemented to improve the accuracy of fiber tracking. We used two sets of human data to assess the performance of our method; one was from a healthy volunteer and the other from a patient with low-grade glioma. Results verified that our method was superior to the single-tensor Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking and the two-tensor eXtended Streamline Tractography for showing detailed images of fiber bundles. PMID:25206444

  17. Image processing for quantifying fracture orientation and length scale transitions during brittle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, R. E.; Healy, D.; Farrell, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    We have implemented a novel image processing tool, namely two-dimensional (2D) Morlet wavelet analysis, capable of detecting changes occurring in fracture patterns at different scales of observation, and able of recognising the dominant fracture orientations and the spatial configurations for progressively larger (or smaller) scale of analysis. Because of its inherited anisotropy, the Morlet wavelet is proved to be an excellent choice for detecting directional linear features, i.e. regions where the amplitude of the signal is regular along one direction and has sharp variation along the perpendicular direction. Performances of the Morlet wavelet are tested against the 'classic' Mexican hat wavelet, deploying a complex synthetic fracture network. When applied to a natural fracture network, formed triaxially (σ1>σ2=σ3) deforming a core sample of the Hopeman sandstone, the combination of 2D Morlet wavelet and wavelet coefficient maps allows for the detection of characteristic scale orientation and length transitions, associated with the shifts from distributed damage to the growth of localised macroscopic shear fracture. A complementary outcome arises from the wavelet coefficient maps produced by increasing the wavelet scale parameter. These maps can be used to chart the variations in the spatial distribution of the analysed entities, meaning that it is possible to retrieve information on the density of fracture patterns at specific length scales during deformation.

  18. Apero, AN Open Source Bundle Adjusment Software for Automatic Calibration and Orientation of Set of Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot Deseilligny, M.; Clery, I.

    2011-09-01

    IGN has developed a set of photogrammetric tools, APERO and MICMAC, for computing 3D models from set of images. This software, developed initially for its internal needs are now delivered as open source code. This paper focuses on the presentation of APERO the orientation software. Compared to some other free software initiatives, it is probably more complex but also more complete, its targeted user is rather professionals (architects, archaeologist, geomophologist) than people. APERO uses both computer vision approach for estimation of initial solution and photogrammetry for a rigorous compensation of the total error; it has a large library of parametric model of distortion allowing a precise modelization of all the kind of pinhole camera we know, including several model of fish-eye; there is also several tools for geo-referencing the result. The results are illustrated on various application, including the data-set of 3D-Arch workshop.

  19. APERO, AN OPEN SOURCE BUNDLE ADJUSMENT SOFTWARE FOR AUTOMATIC CALIBRATION AND ORIENTATION OF SET OF IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pierrot Deseilligny

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IGN has developed a set of photogrammetric tools, APERO and MICMAC, for computing 3D models from set of images. This software, developed initially for its internal needs are now delivered as open source code. This paper focuses on the presentation of APERO the orientation software. Compared to some other free software initiatives, it is probably more complex but also more complete, its targeted user is rather professionals (architects, archaeologist, geomophologist than people. APERO uses both computer vision approach for estimation of initial solution and photogrammetry for a rigorous compensation of the total error; it has a large library of parametric model of distortion allowing a precise modelization of all the kind of pinhole camera we know, including several model of fish-eye; there is also several tools for geo-referencing the result. The results are illustrated on various application, including the data-set of 3D-Arch workshop.

  20. Orientation guide for imaging examinations. Recommendation of the radiation protection commission. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Due to the wide range of medical diagnostic method that include partially high radiation exposures of the patients (for instance CT examinations) the mean radiation exposure of the public is increasing in Germany. In 2006 the German Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) has published a catalogue for the different diagnostic questions including recommendations for the best imaging technique. This orientation guide was actualized in 2012. The catalogue is aimed to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to simultaneously improve the medical diagnostics. Nevertheless the applying physician has to justify and document the selected diagnostic technique for the individual case. The guide covers the following issues: head, neck, spinal cord, skeleton and muscles, cardiovascular system, thorax, digestive system, urogenital tract, gynecology, mammary glands, trauma, oncology, pediatrics, interventional radiology.

  1. Non-contact optoacoustic imaging with focused air-coupled transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Pang, Genny A.; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); School of Medicine, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich (Germany); Montero de Espinosa, Francisco [CSIC, Institute of Physics and Communication Technologies, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-03

    Non-contact optoacoustic imaging employing raster-scanning of a spherically focused air-coupled ultrasound transducer is showcased herein. Optoacoustic excitation with laser fluence within the maximal permissible human exposure limits in the visible and near-infrared spectra is applied to objects with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm and absorption properties representative of the whole blood at near-infrared wavelengths, and these signals are shown to be detectable without contact to the sample using an air-coupled transducer with reasonable signal averaging. Optoacoustic images of vessel-mimicking tubes embedded in an agar phantom captured with this non-contact sensing technique are also showcased. These initial results indicate that an air-coupled ultrasound detection approach can be suitable for non-contact biomedical imaging with optoacoustics.

  2. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  3. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E.; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  4. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  5. Volume estimation from multiplanar 2D ultrasound images using a remote electromagnetic position and orientation sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S W; D'Arcy, T J; Maxwell, D J; Chiu, W; Milner, A; Saunders, J E; Sheppard, R J

    1996-01-01

    A system is described for calculating volume from a sequence of multiplanar 2D ultrasound images. Ultrasound images are captured using a video digitising card (Hauppauge Win/TV card) installed in a personal computer, and regions of interest transformed into 3D space using position and orientation data obtained from an electromagnetic device (Polhemus, Fastrak). The accuracy of the system was assessed by scanning 10 water filled balloons (13-141 mL), 10 kidneys (147-200 mL) and 16 fetal livers (8-37 mL) in water using an Acuson 128XP/10 (5 MHz curvilinear probe). Volume was calculated using the ellipsoid, planimetry, tetrahedral and ray tracing methods and compared with the actual volume measured by weighing (balloons) and water displacement (kidneys and livers). The mean percentage error for the ray tracing method was 0.9 +/- 2.4%, 2.7 +/- 2.3%, 6.6 +/- 5.4% for balloons, kidneys and livers, respectively. So far the system has been used clinically to scan fetal livers and lungs, neonate brain ventricles and adult prostate glands.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of plants using a liquid crystal tunable filter and charge coupled device imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasunori; Matsubara, Tomohiro; Koga, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Fumitoshi; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Nomura, Akio

    2005-10-01

    We developed a laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for plant monitoring use, with which it was possible to make an image at any wavelength between 430 and 750nm. The excitation source for the fluorescence was a cw ultraviolet laser diode with 398nm, and the detector was an image-intensified charge coupled device. A liquid crystal tunable filter was used as the fluorescence wavelength selection device. All of the system performance including the wavelength tuning was electrically controlled, so that it could be operated with no mechanical vibration noise. The fluorescence images of a coffee tree leaf obtained at 440, 530, 685, and 740nm clearly showed a distribution pattern of the fluorescence intensity over the leaf. The pattern reflected the different physiological statuses of the plant. Advantages of the imaging system were experimentally discussed on a point of detection of inhomogeneous physiological activities over a plant leaf.

  7. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Vincis; Lagier; van de Ville; Rodriguez; Carleton

    2015-01-01

    Summary Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely ...

  8. Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional

  9. Heterotrimeric G protein beta1gamma2 subunits change orientation upon complex formation with G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) on a model membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Andrew P; Yang, Pei; Tesmer, Valerie M; Ding, Bei; Tesmer, John J G; Chen, Zhan

    2011-09-13

    Few experimental techniques can assess the orientation of peripheral membrane proteins in their native environment. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was applied to study the formation of the complex between G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2) and heterotrimeric G protein β(1)γ(2) subunits (Gβγ) at a lipid bilayer, without any exogenous labels. The most likely membrane orientation of the GRK2-Gβγ complex differs from that predicted from the known protein crystal structure, and positions the predicted receptor docking site of GRK2 such that it would more optimally interact with GPCRs. Gβγ also appears to change its orientation after binding to GRK2. The developed methodology is widely applicable for the study of other membrane proteins in situ.

  10. A Deep Convolutional Coupling Network for Change Detection Based on Heterogeneous Optical and Radar Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Gong, Maoguo; Qin, Kai; Zhang, Puzhao

    2018-03-01

    We propose an unsupervised deep convolutional coupling network for change detection based on two heterogeneous images acquired by optical sensors and radars on different dates. Most existing change detection methods are based on homogeneous images. Due to the complementary properties of optical and radar sensors, there is an increasing interest in change detection based on heterogeneous images. The proposed network is symmetric with each side consisting of one convolutional layer and several coupling layers. The two input images connected with the two sides of the network, respectively, are transformed into a feature space where their feature representations become more consistent. In this feature space, the different map is calculated, which then leads to the ultimate detection map by applying a thresholding algorithm. The network parameters are learned by optimizing a coupling function. The learning process is unsupervised, which is different from most existing change detection methods based on heterogeneous images. Experimental results on both homogenous and heterogeneous images demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed network compared with several existing approaches.

  11. Cell division orientation is coupled to cell-cell adhesion by the E-cadherin/LGN complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie M.; Siemers, Kathleen A.; Cohen, Daniel J.; Nelson, W. James

    2017-01-01

    Both cell-cell adhesion and oriented cell division play prominent roles in establishing tissue architecture, but it is unclear how they might be coordinated. Here, we demonstrate that the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin functions as an instructive cue for cell division orientation. This is

  12. Bit-level plane image encryption based on coupled map lattice with time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiupin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Most of the existing image encryption algorithms had two basic properties: confusion and diffusion in a pixel-level plane based on various chaotic systems. Actually, permutation in a pixel-level plane could not change the statistical characteristics of an image, and many of the existing color image encryption schemes utilized the same method to encrypt R, G and B components, which means that the three color components of a color image are processed three times independently. Additionally, dynamical performance of a single chaotic system degrades greatly with finite precisions in computer simulations. In this paper, a novel coupled map lattice with time-varying delay therefore is applied in color images bit-level plane encryption to solve the above issues. Spatiotemporal chaotic system with both much longer period in digitalization and much excellent performances in cryptography is recommended. Time-varying delay embedded in coupled map lattice enhances dynamical behaviors of the system. Bit-level plane image encryption algorithm has greatly reduced the statistical characteristics of an image through the scrambling processing. The R, G and B components cross and mix with one another, which reduces the correlation among the three components. Finally, simulations are carried out and all the experimental results illustrate that the proposed image encryption algorithm is highly secure, and at the same time, also demonstrates superior performance.

  13. Estimating Full Regional Skeletal Muscle Fibre Orientation from B-Mode Ultrasound Images Using Convolutional, Residual, and Deconvolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Cunningham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the feasibility of using deep learning methods for developing arbitrary full spatial resolution regression analysis of B-mode ultrasound images of human skeletal muscle. In this study, we focus on full spatial analysis of muscle fibre orientation, since there is an existing body of work with which to compare results. Previous attempts to automatically estimate fibre orientation from ultrasound are not adequate, often requiring manual region selection, feature engineering, providing low-resolution estimations (one angle per muscle and deep muscles are often not attempted. We build upon our previous work in which automatic segmentation was used with plain convolutional neural network (CNN and deep residual convolutional network (ResNet architectures, to predict a low-resolution map of fibre orientation in extracted muscle regions. Here, we use deconvolutions and max-unpooling (DCNN to regularise and improve predicted fibre orientation maps for the entire image, including deep muscles, removing the need for automatic segmentation and we compare our results with the CNN and ResNet, as well as a previously established feature engineering method, on the same task. Dynamic ultrasound images sequences of the calf muscles were acquired (25 Hz from 8 healthy volunteers (4 male, ages: 25–36, median 30. A combination of expert annotation and interpolation/extrapolation provided labels of regional fibre orientation for each image. Neural networks (CNN, ResNet, DCNN were then trained both with and without dropout using leave one out cross-validation. Our results demonstrated robust estimation of full spatial fibre orientation within approximately 6° error, which was an improvement on previous methods.

  14. An Improved Technology of Remote Sensing Image Fusion Based Waveled Packet and Pulse Coupled Neural Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Bao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of multi-spectral remote sensing image fusion ?in this paper, we put forward an algorithm based on the wavelet packet and pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN of remote sensing image fusion .The algorithm will be carried out as follows. Firstly, the TM images will be converted into HIS space, and then the luminance component and the high-resolution image will be broken into multi-scale by wavelet packet. Secondly, according to the frequency domain characteristics of the wavelet packet decomposition, we respectively use a method of weighted average in the low-frequency domain and a method of PCNN in the high frequency domain to select reconstruction coefficient.We can get a fused luminance component by taking inverse wavelet packet transform to be reconstructed. Finally, we can obtain the fusion image by taking inverse HIS transform. The experimental results show that the algorithm can be better to retain the image edge and texture details.   Keywords: image fusion; HSI; wavelet packet; pulse coupled neural networks  

  15. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vincis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging.

  16. Novel method of estimating proton proton dipolar couplings to aid the analyses of NMR spectra of oriented molecules using two-dimensional inverse experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, S.; Suryaprakash, N.

    2001-04-01

    NMR spectroscopy of molecules oriented in liquid crystalline matrices provides information on the molecular structure and order parameters. Analyses of such spectra are generally carried out by numerical iterative calculations. The iterative analysis requires an initial estimate of proton-proton dipolar couplings. In the present study it is shown, for an AA 'MM 'X spin system, the two-dimensional HMQC experiment provides the magnitude of proton-proton dipolar couplings. In the case of an AA 'A″A ‴X spin system the experiment provides the initial starting dipolar couplings values for the iterative analysis. The use of this experiment in combination with two-dimensional HSQC experiments has been demonstrated for the analyses of 1,1-difluoro-1,2-dibromoethane and p-dibromobenzene.

  17. Hierarchical oriented predictions for resolution scalable lossless and near-lossless compression of CT and MRI biomedical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Jonathan; Labit, Claude

    2012-05-01

    We propose a new hierarchical approach to resolution scalable lossless and near-lossless (NLS) compression. It combines the adaptability of DPCM schemes with new hierarchical oriented predictors to provide resolution scalability with better compression performances than the usual hierarchical interpolation predictor or the wavelet transform. Because the proposed hierarchical oriented prediction (HOP) is not really efficient on smooth images, we also introduce new predictors, which are dynamically optimized using a least-square criterion. Lossless compression results, which are obtained on a large-scale medical image database, are more than 4% better on CTs and 9% better on MRIs than resolution scalable JPEG-2000 (J2K) and close to nonscalable CALIC. The HOP algorithm is also well suited for NLS compression, providing an interesting rate-distortion tradeoff compared with JPEG-LS and equivalent or a better PSNR than J2K for a high bit rate on noisy (native) medical images.

  18. Anisotropic propagation imaging of elastic waves in oriented columnar thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffy, E.; Dodane, G.; Euphrasie, S.; Mosset, A.; Vairac, P.; Martin, N.; Baida, H.; Rampnoux, J. M.; Dilhaire, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the observation of strongly anisotropic surface acoustic wave propagation on nanostructured thin films. Two kinds of tungsten samples were prepared by sputtering on a silicon substrate: a conventional thin film with columns normal to the substrate surface, and an oriented columnar architecture using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Pseudo-Rayleigh waves (PRWs) were imaged as a function of time in x and y directions for both films thanks to a femtosecond heterodyne pump-probe setup. A strong anisotropic propagation as well as a high velocity reduction of the PRWs were exhibited for the GLAD sample. For the wavevector k/2π  =  3  ×  105 m-1 the measured group velocities v x and v y equal 2220 m s-1 for the sample prepared with conventional sputtering, whereas a strong anisotropy appears (v x   =  1600 m s-1 and v y   =  870 m s-1) for the sample prepared with the GLAD process. Using the finite element method, the anisotropy is related to the structural anisotropy of the thin film’s architecture. The drop of PRWs group velocities is mainly assigned to the porous microstructure, especially favored by atomic shadowing effects which appear during the growth of the inclined columns. Such GLAD thin films constitute a new tool for the control of the propagation of surface elastic waves and for the design of new devices with useful properties.

  19. Dual Channel Pulse Coupled Neural Network Algorithm for Fusion of Multimodality Brain Images with Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha SRINIVASAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the review of medical imaging techniques, an important fact that emerged is that radiologists and physicians still are in a need of high-resolution medical images with complementary information from different modalities to ensure efficient analysis. This requirement should have been sorted out using fusion techniques with the fused image being used in image-guided surgery, image-guided radiotherapy and non-invasive diagnosis. Aim: This paper focuses on Dual Channel Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN Algorithm for fusion of multimodality brain images and the fused image is further analyzed using subjective (human perception and objective (statistical measures for the quality analysis. Material and Methods: The modalities used in fusion are CT, MRI with subtypes T1/T2/PD/GAD, PET and SPECT, since the information from each modality is complementary to one another. The objective measures selected for evaluation of fused image were: Information Entropy (IE - image quality, Mutual Information (MI – deviation in fused to the source images and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR – noise level, for analysis. Eight sets of brain images with different modalities (T2 with T1, T2 with CT, PD with T2, PD with GAD, T2 with GAD, T2 with SPECT-Tc, T2 with SPECT-Ti, T2 with PET are chosen for experimental purpose and the proposed technique is compared with existing fusion methods such as the Average method, the Contrast pyramid, the Shift Invariant Discrete Wavelet Transform (SIDWT with Harr and the Morphological pyramid, using the selected measures to ascertain relative performance. Results: The IE value and SNR value of the fused image derived from dual channel PCNN is higher than other fusion methods, shows that the quality is better with less noise. Conclusion: The fused image resulting from the proposed method retains the contrast, shape and texture as in source images without false information or information loss.

  20. The extraction of land use around Grand Canal in Nanwang based on Quick Bird image using object-oriented method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Nie, Yueping

    2008-12-01

    The Grand Canal of China is the longest ancient canal in the world. It is an astonishingly huge project in the history of Chinese civilization. However, some sections have already disappeared as the development of society and change of environment. It can be detected by using very high resolution image. Object-oriented method based on image segmentation is being actively studied in the high resolution image process and interpretation to extract a variety of thematic information. It includes two consecutive processes: first the image is subdivided into separated regions according to the spectral and spatial heterogeneity in the image segmentation process and then the objects are assigned to a specific class according to the class's detailed description in the image classification process. The result shows that the object-oriented approach can realize the full potential of the very high resolution image, have higher accuracy compared with traditional classification and allow quantitative analysis of land use, simplification of Remote Sensing and GIS integration.

  1. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change (with consequences on temperature and precipitation patterns), persons involved in agricultural management have the imperative to combine: sufficient productivity (as a response of the increment of the necessary foods) and durability of the resources (in order to restrain waste of water, fertilizer or environmental damages). To this end, a detailed knowledge of land use will improve the management of food and water, while preserving the ecosystems. Among the wide range of available monitoring tools, numerous studies demonstrated the interest of satellite images for agricultural mapping. Recently, the launch of several radar and optical sensors offer new perspectives for the multi-wavelength crop monitoring (Terrasar-X, Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1, Landsat-8…) allowing surface survey whatever the cloud conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated the interest of using multi-temporal approaches for crop classification, requiring several images for suitable classification results. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited (due to the satellite orbit cycle) and require waiting several days, week or month before offering an accurate land use map. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of object-oriented classification (random forest algorithm combined with vector layer coming from segmentation) to map winter crop (barley, rapeseed, grasslands and wheat) and soil states (bare soils with different surface roughness) using quasi-synchronous images. Satellite data are composed of multi-frequency and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH) images acquired near the 14th of April, 2010, over a studied area (90km²) located close to Toulouse in France. This is a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate. Remote sensing images are provided by Formosat-2 (04/18), Radarsat-2 (C-band, 04/15), Terrasar-X (X-band, 04/14) and ALOS (L-band, 04/14). Ground data are collected

  2. Nanomechanical coupling enables detection and imaging of 5 nm superparamagnetic particles in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Christian; Herruzo, Elena T; Lozano, Jose R; Garcia, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.garcia@imm.cnm.csic.es [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-25

    We demonstrate that a force microscope operated in a bimodal mode enables the imaging and detection of superparamagnetic particles down to 5 nm. The bimodal method exploits the nanomechanical coupling of the excited modes to enhance the sensitivity of the higher mode to detect changes in material properties. The coupling requires the presence of nonlinear forces. Remarkably, bimodal operation enables us to identify changes of slowly varying forces (quasi-linear) in the presence of a stronger nonlinear force. Thus, unambiguous identification of single apoferritin (non-magnetic) and ferritin (magnetic) molecules in air and liquid is accomplished.

  3. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  4. [Object-oriented segmentation and classification of forest gap based on QuickBird remote sensing image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xue Gang; Du, Zi Han; Liu, Jia Qian; Chen, Shu Xin; Hou, Ji Yu

    2018-01-01

    Traditional field investigation and artificial interpretation could not satisfy the need of forest gaps extraction at regional scale. High spatial resolution remote sensing image provides the possibility for regional forest gaps extraction. In this study, we used object-oriented classification method to segment and classify forest gaps based on QuickBird high resolution optical remote sensing image in Jiangle National Forestry Farm of Fujian Province. In the process of object-oriented classification, 10 scales (10-100, with a step length of 10) were adopted to segment QuickBird remote sensing image; and the intersection area of reference object (RA or ) and intersection area of segmented object (RA os ) were adopted to evaluate the segmentation result at each scale. For segmentation result at each scale, 16 spectral characteristics and support vector machine classifier (SVM) were further used to classify forest gaps, non-forest gaps and others. The results showed that the optimal segmentation scale was 40 when RA or was equal to RA os . The accuracy difference between the maximum and minimum at different segmentation scales was 22%. At optimal scale, the overall classification accuracy was 88% (Kappa=0.82) based on SVM classifier. Combining high resolution remote sensing image data with object-oriented classification method could replace the traditional field investigation and artificial interpretation method to identify and classify forest gaps at regional scale.

  5. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-01-18

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image capture device and records IMU data associated with the image data. The image processor includes one or more processing units and memory for storing instructions that are executed by the one or more processing units, wherein the image processor receives the image data and the IMU data as inputs and utilizes the IMU data to pre-align the first image and the second image, and wherein the image processor utilizes a registration algorithm to register the pre-aligned first and second images.

  6. Use of Engineered Unique Cysteine Residues to Facilitate Oriented Coupling of Proteins Directly to a Gold Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, G.J; Olsen, J.D.; Reynolds, N.P.; Leggett, G.J.; Hunter, C.N.; Aartsma, T.J.; Frese, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for any "lab on a chip" device that utilizes an electrical signal from the sensor protein is the ability to attach the protein in a specific orientation onto a conducting substrate. Here, we demonstrate the covalent attachment to a gold surface of light-harvesting membrane proteins,

  7. Cross-Modality Image Synthesis via Weakly Coupled and Geometry Co-Regularized Joint Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yawen; Shao, Ling; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2018-03-01

    Multi-modality medical imaging is increasingly used for comprehensive assessment of complex diseases in either diagnostic examinations or as part of medical research trials. Different imaging modalities provide complementary information about living tissues. However, multi-modal examinations are not always possible due to adversary factors, such as patient discomfort, increased cost, prolonged scanning time, and scanner unavailability. In additionally, in large imaging studies, incomplete records are not uncommon owing to image artifacts, data corruption or data loss, which compromise the potential of multi-modal acquisitions. In this paper, we propose a weakly coupled and geometry co-regularized joint dictionary learning method to address the problem of cross-modality synthesis while considering the fact that collecting the large amounts of training data is often impractical. Our learning stage requires only a few registered multi-modality image pairs as training data. To employ both paired images and a large set of unpaired data, a cross-modality image matching criterion is proposed. Then, we propose a unified model by integrating such a criterion into the joint dictionary learning and the observed common feature space for associating cross-modality data for the purpose of synthesis. Furthermore, two regularization terms are added to construct robust sparse representations. Our experimental results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed model over state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Parallel-hierarchical processing and classification of laser beam profile images based on the GPU-oriented architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovyi, Andrii A.; Timchenko, Leonid I.; Kozhemiako, Volodymyr P.; Kokriatskaia, Nataliya I.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kulyk, Oleksandr O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Amirgaliyev, Yedilkhan; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with a problem of insufficient productivity of existing computer means for large image processing, which do not meet modern requirements posed by resource-intensive computing tasks of laser beam profiling. The research concentrated on one of the profiling problems, namely, real-time processing of spot images of the laser beam profile. Development of a theory of parallel-hierarchic transformation allowed to produce models for high-performance parallel-hierarchical processes, as well as algorithms and software for their implementation based on the GPU-oriented architecture using GPGPU technologies. The analyzed performance of suggested computerized tools for processing and classification of laser beam profile images allows to perform real-time processing of dynamic images of various sizes.

  9. Mapping local orientation of aligned fibrous scatterers for cancerous tissues using backscattering Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghui; Sun, Minghao; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; Liu, Shaoxiong; Guo, Yihong; Wu, Jian; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Polarization measurements are sensitive to the microstructure of tissues and can be used to detect pathological changes. Many tissues contain anisotropic fibrous structures. We obtain the local orientation of aligned fibrous scatterers using different groups of the backscattering Mueller matrix elements. Experiments on concentrically well-aligned silk fibers and unstained human papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues show that the m22, m33, m23, and m32 elements have better contrast but higher degeneracy for the extraction of orientation angles. The m12 and m13 elements show lower contrast, but allow us to determine the orientation angle for the fibrous scatterers along all directions. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere-cylinder scattering model indicate that the oblique incidence of the illumination beam introduces some errors in the orientation angles obtained by both methods. Mapping the local orientation of anisotropic tissues may not only provide information on pathological changes, but can also give new leads to reduce the orientation dependence of polarization measurements.

  10. High-resolution, air-coupled ultrasonic imaging of thin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tat-Hean; Hutchins, David A; Billson, Duncan R; Schindel, David W

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a focused air-coupled capacitance transducer combined with pulse compression techniques to form high-resolution images of thin materials in air. The focusing of the device is achieved by using an off-axis parabolic mirror. The lateral resolution of the focused transducer, operating over a bandwidth of 1.2 MHz, was found to be less than 0.5 mm. A combination of the focused transducer as a source and a planar receiver in through-transmission mode has been developed for the measurement of different features in paper products, with a lateral resolution in through-transmission imaging of approximately 0.4 mm. Images in air of thin samples such as bank notes, high-quality writing paper, stamps, and sealed joints were obtained without contact to the sample.

  11. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging of the ankle joint -visualization of ligaments and tendons by standard slice orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R.J.; Siewert, C.; Maeurer, J.; Vogl, T.J.; Suedkamp, N.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the capability of high field strength MRI in depicting clinically important tendons and ligaments of the ankle joint using slice orientations parallel to the standard space directions without angulation. Materials and methods: 65 patients whose ankle joint complaints were not sufficiently clarified by conventional radiology sphere underwent MRI using plain T 1 -weighted spin echo sequences. Tendons and ligaments were classified by three independent radiologists with regard to their perceptibility on images of the different slice orientations. Results: Good perceptibility of at least two-thirds of each structure with the possibility for a decision regarding continuity or rupture of the remaining part was given most frequently in the following slice orientations: Axially for the tendons of peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and extensor hallucis longus muscles, and for the calcanear tendor (each over 94% of cases), anterior (68%) talofibular ligament, deltoid (77%), anterior (63%), and posterior (72%) tibiofibular ligaments and coronally for the calcaneofibular (39%) and posterior talofibular ligaments (70%). The sagittal orientation was never the favoured one. Conclusions: All tendons and ligaments of the ankle joint, except for the calcaneofibular and anterior tibiofibular ligaments, can be sufficiently visualized in the majority of cases by non-angulated spin echo sequences in standard slice orientations if the examination is performed in at least two slice directions. Thus, the minimal examination program should be: one T 2 -weighted sequence, T 1 -weighted sequences axially and in a further orientation, i.e. slightly angulated coronally for depicting the calcaneofibular ligament. (orig.) [de

  12. Discharge dynamics of self-oriented microplasma coupling between cross adjacent cavities in micro-structure device driven by a bipolar pulse waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaogong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Liu, Lingguang; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Chunliang; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-04-01

    The excitation dynamics and self-oriented plasma coupling of a micro-structure plasma device with a rectangular cross-section are investigated. The device consists of 7 × 7 microcavity arrays, which are blended into a unity by a 50 μm-thick bulk area above them. The device is operated in argon with a pressure of 200 Torr, driven by a bipolar pulse waveform of 20 kHz. The discharge evolution is characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission profiles. It has been found that different emission patterns are observed within microcavities. The formation of these patterns induced by the combined action between the applied electric field and surface deactivation is discussed. The microplasma distribution in some specific regions along the diagonal direction of cavities in the bulk area is observed, and self-oriented microplasma coupling is explored, while the plasma interaction occurred between cross adjacent cavities, contributed by the ionization wave propagation. The velocity of ionization wave propagation is measured to be 1.2 km/s to 3.5 km/s. The exploration of this plasma interaction in the bulk area is of value to applications in electromagnetics and signal processing.

  13. Imaging of post-embryonic stage model organisms at high resolution using multi-orientation optoacoustic mesoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Murad; Rebling, Johannes; Wicker, Kai; Schmitt-Manderbach, Tobias; Schwarz, Mathias; Gateau, Jerome; Lopez-Schier, Hernan; Mappes, Timo; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2017-03-01

    Model organisms such as zebrafish play an important role for developmental biologists and experimental geneticists. Still, as they grow into their post-embryonic stage of development it becomes more and more difficult to image them because of high light scattering inside biological tissue. Optoacoustic mesoscopy based on spherically focused, high frequency, ultrasound detectors offers an alternative, where it relies on the focusing capabilities of the ultrasound detectors in generating the image rather than on the focusing of light. Nonetheless, because of the limited numerical aperture the resolution is not isotropic, and many structures, especially elongated ones, such as blood vessels and other organs, are either invisible, or not clearly identifiable on the final image. Herein, based on high frequency ultrasound detectors at 100 MHz and 50 MHz we introduce multi orientation (view) optoacoustic mesoscopy. We collect a rich amount of signals from multiple directions and combine them using a weighted sum in the Fourier domain and a Wiener deconvolution into a single high resolution three-dimensional image. The new system achieves isotropic resolutions on the order of 10 μm in-plane, 40 μm axially, and SNR enhancement of 15 dB compared to the single orientation case. To showcase the system we imaged a juvenile zebrafish ex vivo, which is too large to image using optical microscopic techniques, the reconstructed images show unprecedented performance in terms of SNR, resolution, and clarity of the observed structures. Using the system we see the inner organs of the zebrafish, the pigmentation, and the vessels with unprecedented clarity.

  14. Diversity oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA) for live cell imaging probe development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong-Wook; Kang, Nam-Young; Park, Sung-Jin; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Yun Kyung; Lee, Jun-Seok; Chang, Young-Tae

    2014-04-15

    A cell is the smallest functional unit of life. All forms of life rely on cellular processes to maintain normal functions, and changes in cell function induced by metabolic disturbances, physicochemical damage, infection, or abnormal gene expression may cause disease. To understand basic biology and to develop therapeutics for diseases, researchers need to study live cells. Along with advances in fluorescence microscopy and in vitro cell culture, live-cell imaging has become an essential tool in modern biology for the study of molecular and cellular events. Although researchers have often used fluorescent proteins to visualize cell-type-specific markers, this method requires genetic manipulations, which may not be appropriate in nontransgenic cells. Immunodetection of cellular markers requires the use of xenogenic antibodies, which may not detect intracellular markers in live cells. One option for overcoming these problems is the use of fluorescent small molecules targeted to specific cell types, which can enter live cells and interact with molecules of interest. We have used combinatorial chemistry to develop a large number of fluorescent small molecules as new imaging probes even without prior information about the probes' binding targets and mechanism, a strategy that we call the diversity oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA). We have used DOFLA to produce novel sensors and probes that detect a variety of biological and chemical molecules in vivo as well as in vitro. In this Account, we describe a series of fluorescent small molecules developed using DOFLA that bind specifically to particular cell types. These molecules provide new ways to detect and isolate these cells. The fluorescent probes CDy1, CDg4, and CDb8 tag embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells but not fibroblasts or germ-line cells. CDr3 binds to an intracellular neural stem cell marker, fatty acid binding protein 7, which allows researchers to separate neural stem cells

  15. Effects of Body Orientation and Retinal Image Pitch on the Perception of Gravity-Referenced Eye Level (GREL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Guzy, Larry T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It has been asserted that the pitch orientation of a visual array and of an observer's body jointly determine the perception of GREL. The current study formally tests this assertion over an extended range with multiple combinations of visual and body pitch orientations. Ten subjects were individually secured in a Circolectric bed surrounded by a room (pitchroom) with walls that could be pitched at various angles with respect to gravity. The bed and the walls of the room were independently adjusted to each of five positions relative to gravitational vertical: -15, -7.5, 0, +7.5, and +15 degrees, yielding 25 combinations of body x room pitch angles, and retinal image pitch (RIP) conditions ranging from -30 to +30 degrees. Each subject set a target to apparent GREL while viewing it against a background of two electroluminescent strips on the outer edges of the far wall of the room. As determined by ANOVA, the orientation of the room, and its interaction with that of the observer, significantly altered GREL (p less than 0.01). Regression analysis showed that GREL was best described as a linear summation of the weighted independent contributions from a body-referenced mechanism (B) and a visual mechanism given by the orientation of the background array on the retina (RIP). The equation for this relationship is: GREL = .74 (B) +.64 (RIP) - 1.42; r-squared = .994.

  16. Low-pass imaging of dynamic acquisitions (LIDA) with a group-oriented registration (GOREG) for proton MR imaging of lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Gutberlet, Marcel; Kaireit, Till F; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2017-10-01

    To compare low-pass imaging dynamic acquisitions (LIDA) approach in combination with a group-oriented registration (GOREG) scheme with conventional Fourier decomposition (FD). Dynamic images of six healthy volunteers and one chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient were acquired on a 1.5 Tesla scanner using a spoiled gradient echo sequence. For the volunteers each slice was acquired during regular (RB) and irregular breathing (IB). For conventional registration (CR), all images were directly registered to the intermediate respiratory position. For the group-oriented registration (GOREG) a group-based step-by-step scheme was used. The registered datasets were evaluated with FD and LIDA. The image quality was assessed by image sharpness metric and parenchyma-vessel contrast. The GOREG+LIDA and CR+FD results were compared with computed tomography (CT) in a patient with COPD. To show feasibility of the presented method at 3 Tesla (T), a healthy volunteer was included, who was scanned at 1.5T and 3T on the same day. Improved image sharpness (predominantly by GOREG, P < 0.0125) and contrast (predominantly by LIDA, P < 0.0125) were obtained for RB and IB. Synergetic improvements were found for GOREG+LIDA. Hypoventilated regions in the COPD patient calculated with GOREG+LIDA showed a good agreement with emphysema identified by CT. GOREG+LIDA can be used to calculate quantitative ventilation images with improved image quality, which is an important step toward clinical translation of this method. The presented method is also feasible at 3T. Magn Reson Med 78:1496-1505, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Coupling image processing and stress analysis for damage identification in a human premolar tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreaus, U; Colloca, M; Iacoviello, D

    2011-08-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions are characterized by the loss of dental hard tissue at the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). Exceeding stresses are therefore generated in the cervical region of the tooth that cause disruption of the bonds between the hydroxyapatite crystals, leading to crack formation and eventual loss of enamel and the underlying dentine. Damage identification was performed by image analysis techniques and allowed to quantitatively assess changes in teeth. A computerized two-step procedure was generated and applied to the first left maxillary human premolar. In the first step, dental images were digitally processed by a segmentation method in order to identify the damage. The considered morphological properties were the enamel thickness and total area, the number of fragments in which the enamel is chipped. The information retrieved by the data processing of the section images allowed to orient the stress investigation toward selected portions of the tooth. In the second step, a three-dimensional finite element model based on CT images of both the tooth and the periodontal ligament was employed to compare the changes occurring in the stress distributions in normal occlusion and malocclusion. The stress states were analyzed exclusively in the critical zones designated in the first step. The risk of failure at the CEJ and of crack initiation at the dentin-enamel junction through the quantification of first and third principal stresses, von Mises stress, and normal and tangential stresses, were also estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrothermal–galvanic couple synthesis of directionally oriented BaTiO3 thin films on TiN-coated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Di-You; Chan, Pei-Hsuan; Wu, Chu-Tsun; Lu, Fu-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    BaTiO 3 films were synthesized on TiN-coated Si substrate below 100 °C by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique in barium contained alkaline solutions. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction results show that the BaTiO 3 thin films were directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates, i.e., (111) BaTiO 3 over (111) TiN. The surface morphologies revealed that BaTiO 3 nucleated and grew over the TiN surface with a single layer. From kinetic analyses, the growth rates of BaTiO 3 films prepared by the hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique were faster than a hydrothermal method. The galvanic effects were confirmed by investigating the induced currents and energies. The galvanic currents were generated and controlled by both the dissolution of TiN and the formation of BaTiO 3 . The output electric energies increased rapidly with the reaction time and leveled off at the full coverage of BaTiO 3 . - Highlights: • Cubic BaTiO 3 films are synthesized by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple method (HT–GC). • Growth rates of BaTiO 3 films made by HT–GC are faster than a hydrothermal method. • BaTiO 3 films are directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates. • Galvanic currents are controlled by dissolution of TiN and formation of BaTiO 3

  19. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  20. Choice of scalar measure for crystal curvature to image dislocation substructure in terms of discrete orientation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Starting from Nye's tensor, alternative characteristics of crystal curvature indicative of dislocation content are considered subject to very low thickness of investigated matter under the free surface and discreteness of orientation sampling. Analysis within the framework of continuum mechanics, undertaken to allow for such conditions peculiar to the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique, has shown the variable part of orientations expressed in a vector form to be most sensitive to lattice defects when projected to the free surface plane. Hence, as verified with EBSD data on a grain junction in a low deformed IF steel, magnitude of the projected field allows one to map plastic strains inhomogeneous within grains whereas divergence of this field distinctly images and quantifies low-angle dislocation boundaries formed at low strains.

  1. TReacLab: An object-oriented implementation of non-intrusive splitting methods to couple independent transport and geochemical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Daniel; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Cochepin, Benoit

    2017-12-01

    Reactive transport modeling contributes to understand geophysical and geochemical processes in subsurface environments. Operator splitting methods have been proposed as non-intrusive coupling techniques that optimize the use of existing chemistry and transport codes. In this spirit, we propose a coupler relying on external geochemical and transport codes with appropriate operator segmentation that enables possible developments of additional splitting methods. We provide an object-oriented implementation in TReacLab developed in the MATLAB environment in a free open source frame with an accessible repository. TReacLab contains classical coupling methods, template interfaces and calling functions for two classical transport and reactive software (PHREEQC and COMSOL). It is tested on four classical benchmarks with homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions at equilibrium or kinetically-controlled. We show that full decoupling to the implementation level has a cost in terms of accuracy compared to more integrated and optimized codes. Use of non-intrusive implementations like TReacLab are still justified for coupling independent transport and chemical software at a minimal development effort but should be systematically and carefully assessed.

  2. Automated quantification and sizing of unbranched filamentous cyanobacteria by model-based object-oriented image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Michael; Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Köster, Oliver; Felder, Kathrin M; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2010-03-01

    Quantification and sizing of filamentous cyanobacteria in environmental samples or cultures are time-consuming and are often performed by using manual or semiautomated microscopic analysis. Automation of conventional image analysis is difficult because filaments may exhibit great variations in length and patchy autofluorescence. Moreover, individual filaments frequently cross each other in microscopic preparations, as deduced by modeling. This paper describes a novel approach based on object-oriented image analysis to simultaneously determine (i) filament number, (ii) individual filament lengths, and (iii) the cumulative filament length of unbranched cyanobacterial morphotypes in fluorescent microscope images in a fully automated high-throughput manner. Special emphasis was placed on correct detection of overlapping objects by image analysis and on appropriate coverage of filament length distribution by using large composite images. The method was validated with a data set for Planktothrix rubescens from field samples and was compared with manual filament tracing, the line intercept method, and the Utermöhl counting approach. The computer program described allows batch processing of large images from any appropriate source and annotation of detected filaments. It requires no user interaction, is available free, and thus might be a useful tool for basic research and drinking water quality control.

  3. GENERATION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE IMAGE THROUGH LONG-STRIP ALOS PRISM ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ravanbakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Geographic Reference Image (AGRI is a national satellite image mosaic that covers the vast Australian continent. Formed from 9560 ALOS PRISM images, AGRI provides a spatially correct reference image at 2.5 m resolution, with 1-pixel accuracy. The production of AGRI was made feasible by the development and implementation of a long-strip adjustment technique that facilitated a refinement in the georeferencing process of orbit and attitude parameters for orbital segments comprising 50 or more images. The strip of images is effectively treated as a single image. The ground control requirements for such full-pass georeferencing, which does not require the measurement of tie or pass points, amount to only 4–8 GCPs for the complete strip rather than 4 or more per image within the strip. Once the adjusted orbit parameters are obtained, the georeferencing and orthorectification process can revert to a fully automatic image-by-image computation. This paper first overviews AGRI and then describes the longstrip adjustment technique that made its production possible. Testing and validation are then discussed via the example of the georeferencing of a 1527 km single strip of 55 PRISM images. The testing phase verified that 1-pixel accuracy georeferencing could be achieved with the long-strip adjustment approach, and in the production of AGRI accuracy checks against 2460 checkpoints yielded an RMS discrepancy of close to 2.5 m and a 90% Circular Error (CEP90 of 5.5 m.

  4. Application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to a tau pathology model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colgan, N

    2015-10-23

    Increased hyperphosphorylated tau and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are associated with the loss of neurons and cognitive decline in Alzheimer\\'s disease, and related neurodegenerative conditions. We applied two diffusion models, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), to in vivo diffusion magnetic resonance images (dMRI) of a mouse model of human tauopathy (rTg4510) at 8.5months of age. In grey matter regions with the highest degree of tau burden, microstructural indices provided by both NODDI and DTI discriminated the rTg4510 (TG) animals from wild type (WT) controls; however only the neurite density index (NDI) (the volume fraction that comprises axons or dendrites) from the NODDI model correlated with the histological measurements of the levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Reductions in diffusion directionality were observed when implementing both models in the white matter region of the corpus callosum, with lower fractional anisotropy (DTI) and higher orientation dispersion (NODDI) observed in the TG animals. In comparison to DTI, histological measures of tau pathology were more closely correlated with NODDI parameters in this region. This in vivo dMRI study demonstrates that NODDI identifies potential tissue sources contributing to DTI indices and NODDI may provide greater specificity to pathology in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  5. Rapid, all-optical crystal orientation imaging of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Sabrina N.; Zhai, Yao; Zande, Arend M. van der; O'Brien, Kevin; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Hone, James C.; Zhang, Xiang; Yin, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant research and industrial interest for their electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. While large-area crystal growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition have been demonstrated, the presence of grain boundaries and orientation of grains arising in such growths substantially affect the physical properties of the materials. There is currently no scalable characterization method for determining these boundaries and orientations over a large sample area. We here present a second-harmonic generation based microscopy technique for rapidly mapping grain orientations and boundaries of 2D TMDCs. We experimentally demonstrate the capability to map large samples to an angular resolution of ±1° with minimal sample preparation and without involved analysis. A direct comparison of the all-optical grain orientation maps against results obtained by diffraction-filtered dark-field transmission electron microscopy plus selected-area electron diffraction on identical TMDC samples is provided. This rapid and accurate tool should enable large-area characterization of TMDC samples for expedited studies of grain boundary effects and the efficient characterization of industrial-scale production techniques

  6. Multispectral imaging and analysis system. [using charge coupled devices and linear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Landawer, F. P., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Arrays of charge coupled devices or linear detector arrays simultaneously obtain spectral reflectance data of different wavelengths for a target area. Several accommodating a particular bandwidth, are individually associated with each array. Data from the arrays are read out in parallel and applied to a computer or microprocessor for processing. The microprocessor serves to analyze the data in real time and if possible, in accordance with hard-wired algorithms. The data are then displayed as an image on an appropriate display unit and also recorded for further use. The display system may be operationally connected to receive a terrain image such that the target area and the analyzed spectral reflectance data are superimposed and simultaneously displayed.

  7. Woodland Mapping at Single-Tree Levels Using Object-Oriented Classification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav) Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, A.; Erfanifard, Y.; Dehghani, M.; Pourghasemi, H. R.

    2017-09-01

    Remotely sensed datasets offer a reliable means to precisely estimate biophysical characteristics of individual species sparsely distributed in open woodlands. Moreover, object-oriented classification has exhibited significant advantages over different classification methods for delineation of tree crowns and recognition of species in various types of ecosystems. However, it still is unclear if this widely-used classification method can have its advantages on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) digital images for mapping vegetation cover at single-tree levels. In this study, UAV orthoimagery was classified using object-oriented classification method for mapping a part of wild pistachio nature reserve in Zagros open woodlands, Fars Province, Iran. This research focused on recognizing two main species of the study area (i.e., wild pistachio and wild almond) and estimating their mean crown area. The orthoimage of study area was consisted of 1,076 images with spatial resolution of 3.47 cm which was georeferenced using 12 ground control points (RMSE=8 cm) gathered by real-time kinematic (RTK) method. The results showed that the UAV orthoimagery classified by object-oriented method efficiently estimated mean crown area of wild pistachios (52.09±24.67 m2) and wild almonds (3.97±1.69 m2) with no significant difference with their observed values (α=0.05). In addition, the results showed that wild pistachios (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.92) and wild almonds (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.89) were well recognized by image segmentation. In general, we concluded that UAV orthoimagery can efficiently produce precise biophysical data of vegetation stands at single-tree levels, which therefore is suitable for assessment and monitoring open woodlands.

  8. Image restoration via patch orientation-based low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; He, Jiazhong; Du, Minghui

    2016-03-01

    Low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means (NLM) are two popular techniques for image restoration. Although the basic principle for applying these two techniques is the same, i.e., similar image patches are abundant in the image, previously published related algorithms use either low-rank matrix approximation or NLM because they manipulate the information of similar patches in different ways. We propose a method for image restoration by jointly using low-rank matrix approximation and NLM in a unified minimization framework. To improve the accuracy of determining similar patches, we also propose a patch similarity measurement based on curvelet transform. Extensive experiments on image deblurring and compressive sensing image recovery validate that the proposed method achieves better results than many state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both quantitative measures and visual perception.

  9. The effect of an attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early treatment phase: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, A; Hagedoorn, M; Hansen, D G; Flyger, H L; Christensen, R; Rottmann, N; Lunn, P B; Terp, H; Soee, K; Johansen, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients and partners both cope individually and as a dyad with challenges related to a breast cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a psychological attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early treatment phase. A randomised controlled trial including 198 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients and their partners. Couples were randomised to the Hand in Hand (HiH) intervention in addition to usual care or to usual care only. Self-report assessments were conducted for both patients and partners at baseline, postintervention (5 months), and follow-up (10 months), assessing cancer-related distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dyadic adjustment. Patients' cancer-related distress was the primary outcome. Cancer-related distress decreased over time in both patients and partners, but the intervention did not significantly affect this decrease at postintervention (P = .08) or follow-up (P = .71). A significant positive effect was found on dyadic adjustment at follow-up for both patients (P = .04) and partners (P = .02). There was no significant effect of the HiH intervention cancer-related distress. The results suggest that most couples can cope with cancer-related distress in the context of usual care. However, the positive effect on dyadic adjustment implies that the HiH intervention benefitted both patients and partners. Future studies should investigate how to integrate a couple focus in usual cancer care to improve dyadic coping in the early treatment phase. © 2017 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of inter-tissue inductive coupling on multi-frequency imaging of intracranial hemorrhage by magnetic induction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhili; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a promising technique for continuous monitoring of intracranial hemorrhage due to its contactless nature, low cost and capacity to penetrate the high-resistivity skull. The inter-tissue inductive coupling increases with frequency, which may lead to errors in multi-frequency imaging at high frequency. The effect of inter-tissue inductive coupling was investigated to improve the multi-frequency imaging of hemorrhage. An analytical model of inter-tissue inductive coupling based on the equivalent circuit was established. A set of new multi-frequency decomposition equations separating the phase shift of hemorrhage from other brain tissues was derived by employing the coupling information to improve the multi-frequency imaging of intracranial hemorrhage. The decomposition error and imaging error are both decreased after considering the inter-tissue inductive coupling information. The study reveals that the introduction of inter-tissue inductive coupling can reduce the errors of multi-frequency imaging, promoting the development of intracranial hemorrhage monitoring by multi-frequency MIT.

  11. Mandibular Defect Reconstruction with the Help of Mirror Imaging Coupled with Laser Stereolithographic Modeling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wei Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of microsurgery, composite defect in the mandible can be repaired with various forms of osteocutaneous free flaps. However, it is difficult to accurately reconstruct a large defect in the mandible when not enough mandibular reference blueprints remain. This case report describes a large ameloblastoma at the left lower molar region and ascending ramus of the mandible in a 53-year-old male patient. Before surgery, spiral computed tomography scanning of the whole skull of the patient was performed. Using three-dimensional reconstruction and mirror imaging coupled with laser stereolithographic technique, a complete mandibular biomodel with idealized shape was fabricated. A titanium reconstruction plate was made using the biomodel as a guide. The tumor mass together with the left mandible from the second premolar to the condylar head area was resected en bloc. The large mandibular defect was then reconstructed with the precontoured titanium plate and three segments of vascularized fibular bone graft fixed along the plate. The temporomandibular joint was restored with temporalis muscle as an interpositional disc replacement. The complex defect in the mandible was thus repaired with satisfactory functioning and esthetic result. We suggest that with the help of mirror imaging coupled with laser stereolithographic technique, a precontoured titanium plate can be made for the reconstruction of large mandibular defects. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:244-250

  12. Two faces of group-based shame: moral shame and image shame differentially predict positive and negative orientations to ingroup wrongdoing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allpress, Jesse A; Brown, Rupert; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Deonna, Julien A; Teroni, Fabrice

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes distinctions between guilt and two forms of shame: Guilt arises from a violated norm and is characterized by a focus on specific behavior; shame can be characterized by a threatened social image (Image Shame) or a threatened moral essence (Moral Shame). Applying this analysis to group-based emotions, three correlational studies are reported, set in the context of atrocities committed by (British) ingroup members during the Iraq war (Ns = 147, 256, 399). Results showed that the two forms of shame could be distinguished. Moreover, once the other form of shame was controlled for, they were differentially related to orientations toward the outgroup: Image Shame was associated with negative orientations, whereas Moral Shame had associations with positive outgroup orientations. These associations were distinct from the associations of guilt and rejection. Study 3 used a longitudinal design and provided evidence suggestive of a causal direction from emotions to outgroup orientation. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Measurement sensitivity and resolution for background oriented schlieren during image recording

    OpenAIRE

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Kamishi, Burim; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) visualization technique is examined by means of optical geometry. Two most important results are the calculation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of a BOS system, which allows for the determination of the experiment design space. A set of relations that characterize the performance of a BOS measurement is given, with emphasis on the design of background pattern and spatial placement of optical components.

  14. ROSI--an object-oriented and parallel-computing Monte Carlo simulation for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giersch, Juergen; Weidemann, Andreas; Anton, Gisela

    2003-01-01

    In the field of X-ray imaging, Monte Carlo simulation is an important tool. It gives the possibility of understanding experimental results and it allows the construction of virtual imaging setups with predictions of their quality. For these reasons, we developed the Roentgen Simulation (ROSI) which is based on the object-oriented C++ class library GISMO. The interaction algorithms are based on the established EGS4-code and its current LSCAT-extension. ROSI introduces random variables for modelling physical parameters by a given random distribution, e.g. the source position or the direction and energy of the photons to be emitted. It is possible to run ROSI in parallel on a local computer network (Beowulf cluster) to obtain simulation data in shorter time. Finally, it has an easy-to-use interface. We will present the concept of ROSI and demonstrate its flexibility by an example

  15. New applications of orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) for characterizing nuclear component failure modes, reliability assessment, and fitness-for-service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehockey, E.M.; Brennenstuhl, A.M.; Pagan, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Clark, M.A.; Perovic, V. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) has proved a valuable asset for evaluating material performance as far as establishing the root cause and mechanism(s) of in-service degradation, and the likelihood of the onset of future degradation. Strains from deformation/cold work are imaged based on the spatial density of sub-structure distributed globally or surrounding defects/irregularities, which concentrate stresses responsible for driving degradation. This is complimented with measurements of material properties including texture, Taylor Factor, grain boundary structure, and grain size that contribute to resisting propagation of pre-existing defects and/or nucleating future attack. From evaluating the factors driving degradation within the context of microstructure properties that govern material susceptibility come estimates for the likelihood of attack as a necessary element of establishing fitness for service. By way of numerous examples the merits and limitations of OIM are summarized and compared with other characterization techniques. (author)

  16. Image fusion in open-architecture quality-oriented nuclear medicine and radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjonen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Imaging examinations of patients belong to the most widely used diagnostic procedures in hospitals. Multimodal digital imaging is becoming increasingly common in many fields of diagnosis and therapy planning. Patients are frequently examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound imaging (US) in addition to single photon (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of the study was to provide means for improving the quality of the whole imaging and viewing chain in nuclear medicine and radiology. The specific aims were: (1) to construct and test a model for a quality assurance system in radiology based on ISO standards, (2) to plan a Dicom based image network for fusion purposes using ATM and Ethernet technologies, (3) to test different segmentation methods in quantitative SPET, (4) to study and implement a registration and visualisation method for multimodal imaging, (5) to apply the developed method in selected clinical brain and abdominal images, and (6) to investigate the accuracy of the registration procedure for brain SPET and MRI

  17. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  18. Image fusion in open-architecture quality-oriented nuclear medicine and radiology departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjonen, H

    1997-12-31

    Imaging examinations of patients belong to the most widely used diagnostic procedures in hospitals. Multimodal digital imaging is becoming increasingly common in many fields of diagnosis and therapy planning. Patients are frequently examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound imaging (US) in addition to single photon (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of the study was to provide means for improving the quality of the whole imaging and viewing chain in nuclear medicine and radiology. The specific aims were: (1) to construct and test a model for a quality assurance system in radiology based on ISO standards, (2) to plan a Dicom based image network for fusion purposes using ATM and Ethernet technologies, (3) to test different segmentation methods in quantitative SPET, (4) to study and implement a registration and visualisation method for multimodal imaging, (5) to apply the developed method in selected clinical brain and abdominal images, and (6) to investigate the accuracy of the registration procedure for brain SPET and MRI 90 refs. The thesis includes also six previous publications by author

  19. Simultaneous Manipulation and Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Individual Kinetochores Coupled to Microtubule Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Asbury, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Kinetochores are large multiprotein complexes that drive mitotic chromosome movements by mechanically coupling them to the growing and shortening tips of spindle microtubules. Kinetochores are also regulatory hubs, somehow sensing when they are erroneously attached and, in response, releasing their incorrect attachments and generating diffusible wait signals to delay anaphase until proper attachments can form. The remarkable ability of a kinetochore to sense and respond to its attachment status might stem from attachment- or tension-dependent changes in the structural arrangement of its core subcomplexes. However, direct tests of the relationship between attachment, tension, and core kinetochore structure have not previously been possible because of the difficulties of applying well-controlled forces and determining unambiguously the attachment status of individual kinetochores in vivo. The recent purification of native yeast kinetochores has enabled in vitro optical trapping-based assays of kinetochore tip-coupling and, in separate experiments, fluorescence imaging of single kinetochore particles. Here we introduce a dual instrument, combining optical trapping with multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging, to allow kinetochore structure to be monitored directly with nanometer precision while mechanical tension is simultaneously applied. Our instrument incorporates differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging as well, to minimize the photo-bleaching of fluorescent tags during preparative bead and microtubule manipulations. A simple modification also allows the trapping laser to be easily converted into a real-time focus detection and correction system. Using this combined instrument, the distance between specific subcomplexes within a single kinetochore particle can be measured with 2-nm precision after 50 s observation time, or with 11-nm precision at 1 s temporal resolution. While our instrument was constructed specifically for

  20. Mean magnetic susceptibility regularized susceptibility tensor imaging (MMSR-STI) for estimating orientations of white matter fibers in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-09-01

    An increasing number of studies show that magnetic susceptibility in white matter fibers is anisotropic and may be described by a tensor. However, the limited head rotation possible for in vivo human studies leads to an ill-conditioned inverse problem in susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). Here we suggest the combined use of limiting the susceptibility anisotropy to white matter and imposing morphology constraints on the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) for regularizing the STI inverse problem. The proposed MMS regularized STI (MMSR-STI) method was tested using computer simulations and in vivo human data collected at 3T. The fiber orientation estimated from both the STI and MMSR-STI methods was compared to that from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Computer simulations show that the MMSR-STI method provides a more accurate estimation of the susceptibility tensor than the conventional STI approach. Similarly, in vivo data show that use of the MMSR-STI method leads to a smaller difference between the fiber orientation estimated from STI and DTI for most selected white matter fibers. The proposed regularization strategy for STI can improve estimation of the susceptibility tensor in white matter. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Thematic review series: patient-oriented research. Imaging atherosclerosis: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John R

    2006-08-01

    The ability to image obstructive arterial disease brought about a revolution in clinical cardiovascular care; the development of newer technologies that image arterial wall thicknesses, areas, volumes, and composition allows valid imaging of atherosclerosis for the first time. Development of noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis has further led to a quantum shift in research in the field by enabling the study of asymptomatic populations and thus allowing investigators to focus on preclinical disease without the many biases associated with the study of symptomatic patients. These noninvasive investigations have broad implications for clinical care as well. Coronary angiography, computed tomographic (CT) imaging of coronary calcium, intravascular ultrasound, multidetector CT angiography, B mode ultrasound of the carotid arteries, and MRI of the carotid arteries all have unique strengths and weaknesses for imaging atherosclerosis. Certain of these techniques are extremely useful as outcome variables for clinical trials, and others are uniquely useful as predictors of the risk of cardiovascular disease. All are informative in one way or another with regard to the role of plaque remodeling and composition in disease causation. CT and MRI technology are advancing very rapidly, and research and clinical uses of these imaging modalities promise to further advance our understanding of atherosclerosis and its prevention.

  2. Body image and sexual orientation: The experiences of lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie L; Telford, Elina; Tree, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Western cultures promote a thin and curvaceous ideal body size that most women find difficult to achieve by healthy measures, resulting in poor body image and increased risk for eating pathology. Research focusing on body image in lesbian and bisexual women has yielded inconsistent results. In total, 11 lesbian and bisexual women were interviewed regarding their experiences with body image. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that these women experienced similar mainstream pressures to conform to a thin body ideal. Furthermore, participants perceived additional pressure to conform to heteronormative standards of beauty since the normalisation of homosexuality and the increase in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender representation in mainstream media.

  3. Quantitative images of metals in plant tissues measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietrich, R.C.; Matusch, A.; Pozebon, D.; Dressler, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of toxic and essential elements in thin sections (thickness of 30 or 40 μm) of tobacco plant tissues. Two-dimensional images of Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Rh, Pt and Pb in leaves, shoots and roots of tobacco were produced. Sections of the plant tissues (fixed onto glass slides) were scanned by a focused beam of a Nd:YAG laser in a laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to the ICP ion source at a quadrupole ICP-MS instrument. Ion intensities of the investigated elements were measured together with 13 C + , 33 S + and 34 S + within the entire plant tissue section. Matrix matching standards (prepared using powder of dried tobacco leaves) were used to constitute calibration curves, whereas the regression coefficient of the attained calibration curves was typically 0.99. The variability of LA-ICP-MS process, sample heterogeneity and water content in the sample were corrected by using 13 C + as internal standard. Quantitative imaging of the selected elements revealed their inhomogeneous distribution in leaves, shoots and roots

  4. IMPROVING VERTICAL AND LATERAL RESOLUTION BY STRETCH-FREE, HORIZON-ORIENTED IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The pre-stack Kirchhoff migration is implemented for delivering wavelet stretch-free imaged data, if the migration is (ideally limited to the wavelet corresponding to a target horizon. Avoiding wavelet stretch provides long-offset imaged data, far beyond what is reached in conventional migration and results in images from the target with improved vertical and lateral resolution and angular illumination. Increasing the range of imaged offsets also increases the sensitivity to event-crossing, velocity errors and anisotropy. These issues must be addressed to fully achieve the greatest potential of this technique. These ideas are further illustrated with a land survey seismic data application in Texas, U.S.

  5. Using Vascular Landmarks to Orient 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Mouse Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Mark P

    2017-09-08

    Comparing 3D structural information obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires accurate alignment of images acquired from individual subjects. Despite the widespread use of OCT to image the anterior and posterior mouse eye, few approaches to align the resulting image data have been described, in part due to a lack of well-characterized landmarks that are suitable for alignment. Here, we provide an OCT acquisition and analysis protocol that incorporates the use of the long posterior ciliary arteries as landmarks. In mammals, these two large choroidal vessels lie in a plane approximately parallel to the horizon. Our OCT imaging approach resolves these vessels in the mouse eye and suggests that their location is reproducible. The protocol may be useful for preparing 3D OCT data to compare experimental cohorts of mice and for standardizing results from independent research laboratories. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. The effect of functionality-focused and appearance-focused images of models of mixed body sizes on women's state-oriented body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gina; Karazsia, Bryan T

    2018-01-20

    Research demonstrates that exposure to appearance-focused images of models depicting societal standards of beauty negatively affect women's state-oriented body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this research was to extend this experimental research to women's state-oriented body appreciation. The 374 women participants were randomly assigned to view images that were either depicting a model who was representative or not representative of the thin ideal (body size), while this model was in either an appearance-focused pose or a function-oriented pose (pose type). State body appreciation increased significantly after viewing images depicting models who did not conform to societal standards of thinness (p body appreciation (p = 0.049). These findings provide insight into the construct of state body appreciation and offer implications for future positive body image research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unsupervised Word Spotting in Historical Handwritten Document Images using Document-oriented Local Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoris, Konstantinos; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Gatos, Basilis

    2017-05-03

    Word spotting strategies employed in historical handwritten documents face many challenges due to variation in the writing style and intense degradation. In this paper, a new method that permits effective word spotting in handwritten documents is presented that it relies upon document-oriented local features which take into account information around representative keypoints as well a matching process that incorporates spatial context in a local proximity search without using any training data. Experimental results on four historical handwritten datasets for two different scenarios (segmentation-based and segmentation-free) using standard evaluation measures show the improved performance achieved by the proposed methodology.

  8. Examination of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis: A problem-orientated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarland Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has brought in several benefits to the study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. It provides accurate measurement of disease activity, facilitates precise diagnosis, and aid in the assessment of newer therapies. The imaging guidelines for MS are broadly divided in to approaches for imaging patients with suspected MS or clinically isolated syndromes (CIS or for monitoring patients with established MS. In this review, the technical aspects of MR imaging for MS are briefly discussed. The imaging process need to capture the twin aspects of acute MS viz. the autoimmune acute inflammatory process and the neurodegenerative process. Gadolinium enhanced MRI can identify acute inflammatory lesions precisely. The commonly applied MRI marker of disease progression is brain atrophy. Whole brain magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS are two other techniques use to monitor disease progression. A variety of imaging techniques such as Double Inversion Recovery (DIR, Spoiled Gradient Recalled (SPGR acquisition, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR have been utilized to study the cortical changes in MS. MRI is now extensively used in the Phase I, II and III clinical trials of new therapies. As the technical aspects of MRI advance rapidly, and higher field strengths become available, it is hoped that the impact of MRI on our understanding of MS will be even more profound in the next decade.

  9. Efficient smart CMOS camera based on FPGAs oriented to embedded image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ignacio; Baliñas, Javier; Gardel, Alfredo; Lázaro, José L; Espinosa, Felipe; García, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an image processing system based on an intelligent ad-hoc camera, whose two principle elements are a high speed 1.2 megapixel Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensor and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The latter is used to control the various sensor parameter configurations and, where desired, to receive and process the images captured by the CMOS sensor. The flexibility and versatility offered by the new FPGA families makes it possible to incorporate microprocessors into these reconfigurable devices, and these are normally used for highly sequential tasks unsuitable for parallelization in hardware. For the present study, we used a Xilinx XC4VFX12 FPGA, which contains an internal Power PC (PPC) microprocessor. In turn, this contains a standalone system which manages the FPGA image processing hardware and endows the system with multiple software options for processing the images captured by the CMOS sensor. The system also incorporates an Ethernet channel for sending processed and unprocessed images from the FPGA to a remote node. Consequently, it is possible to visualize and configure system operation and captured and/or processed images remotely.

  10. Efficient Smart CMOS Camera Based on FPGAs Oriented to Embedded Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bravo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an image processing system based on an intelligent ad-hoc camera, whose two principle elements are a high speed 1.2 megapixel Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS sensor and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The latter is used to control the various sensor parameter configurations and, where desired, to receive and process the images captured by the CMOS sensor. The flexibility and versatility offered by the new FPGA families makes it possible to incorporate microprocessors into these reconfigurable devices, and these are normally used for highly sequential tasks unsuitable for parallelization in hardware. For the present study, we used a Xilinx XC4VFX12 FPGA, which contains an internal Power PC (PPC microprocessor. In turn, this contains a standalone system which manages the FPGA image processing hardware and endows the system with multiple software options for processing the images captured by the CMOS sensor. The system also incorporates an Ethernet channel for sending processed and unprocessed images from the FPGA to a remote node. Consequently, it is possible to visualize and configure system operation and captured and/or processed images remotely.

  11. Thermal neutron imaging through XRQA2 GAFCHROMIC films coupled with a cadmium radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, D. [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); INAIL – DIT, Via di Fontana Candida n.1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); Bortot, D. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN – Milano, Via Celoria16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Palomba, M. [ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, S. Maria di Galeria, 00123 Roma (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN – Milano, Via Celoria16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Introini, M.V.; Lorenzoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Gentile, A. [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); Strigari, L. [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Roma (Italy); Pressello, C. [Department of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Circonvallazione Gianicolense 87, 00152 Roma (Italy); Soriani, A. [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Roma (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-21

    A simple and inexpensive method to perform passive thermal neutron imaging on large areas was developed on the basis of XRQA2 GAFCHROMIC films, commonly employed for quality assurance in radiology. To enhance their thermal neutron response, the sensitive face of film was coupled with a 1 mm thick cadmium radiator, forming a sandwich. By exchanging the order of Cd filter and sensitive film with respect to the incident neutron beam direction, two different configurations (beam-Cd-film and beam-film-Cd) were identified. These configurations were tested at thermal neutrons fluence values in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}, using the ex-core radial thermal neutron column of the ENEA Casaccia – TRIGA reactor. The results are presented in this work.

  12. Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Tanderup, Kari; Bergstrand, Eva Stabell

    2007-01-01

    in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method...... applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR), (2) reconstruction...... was significantly lower (p Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator...

  13. L’image de l’Orient dans les Fleurs du Mal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Nasser Nada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we try to shed light on the important place that the East occupies in the literary library in the world and particularly in France. Indeed, the East attracts much attention of men of letters since the Crusades (Chateaubriands, Lamartine, Hugo, Rousseau... etc. and love for him grew with time especially in the 19th century (the era of progress and science. However, Baudelaire did not see the Orient as a geographical place but an idea and a literary aesthetic that adds beauty to his poetry. Through this research, we try to reveal the mechanism by which Baudelaire introduced the East in his Flowers speaking of his ability to link the concrete (the East to the abstract (the beauty and perfection.

  14. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-11-07

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their gender and sexual orientation. While unaware of the suppressed pictures, heterosexual males' attention was attracted to invisible female nudes, heterosexual females' attention was attracted to invisible male nudes, gay males behaved similarly to heterosexual females, and gay/bisexual females performed in-between heterosexual males and females.

  15. The Prediction of Position and Orientation Parameters of Uav for Video Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of the prediction for the parameters of the position and orientation of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with compact digital camera. Issue focus in this paper is to achieve optimal accuracy and reliability of the geo-referenced video frames on the basis of data from the navigation sensors mounted on UAV. In experiments two mathematical models were used for the process of the prediction: the polynomial model and the trigonometric model. The forecast values of position and orientation of UAV were compared with readings low cost GPS and INS sensors mounted on the unmanned Trimble UX-5 platform. Research experiment was conducted on the preview of navigation data from 23 measuring epochs. The forecast coordinate values and angles of the turnover and the actual readings of the sensor Trimble UX-5 were compared in this paper. Based on the results of the comparison it was determined that: the best results of co-ordinate comparison of an unmanned aerial vehicle received for the storage with, whereas worst for the coordinate Y on the base of both prediction models, obtained value of standard deviation for the coordinate XYZ from both prediction models does not cross over a admissible criterion 10 m for the term of the exactitudes of the position of a unmanned aircraft. The best results of the comparison of the angles of the turn of a unmanned aircraft received for the angle Pitch, whereas worst for the angles Heading and Roll on the base of both prediction models. Obtained value of standard deviation for the angles of turn HPR from both prediction models does not exceed a admissible exactitude 5° only for the angle Pitch, however crosses over this value for the angles Heading and Roll.

  16. Sparse Representations of Image Gradient Orientations for Visual Recognition and Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Recent results have shown that sparse linear representations of a query object with respect to an overcomplete basis formed by the entire gallery of objects of interest can result in powerful image-based object recognition schemes. In this paper, we propose a framework for visual recognition and

  17. Structural Content in Paintings II: Artists Commissioned to Reproduce a Specific Image Over-Regularize Orientation Biases in Their Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essock, Edward A; Schweinhart, April M

    2016-02-25

    Measurements of psychophysical performance show that the visual system is biased in ways that counteract statistical regularities of natural scenes thereby allowing efficient coding. Here we consider the perceptual effects of these encoding biases in a "holistic" way by measuring characteristics of the paintings produced by artists making perceptual matches to a natural scene image; 10 artists were asked to produce an exact copy of a single outdoor landscape scene. The structural content of the paintings produced and the "ground truth" image were compared in the frequency domain. The artists were found to over-regularize the orientation content in the paintings: The anisotropy existing only at the lowest spatial scales in the natural scene image was produced across all spatial scales in these commissioned paintings. These results were compared to those from two other methods of comparing paintings and natural scenes reported previously in a companion paper and all three methodologies indicate very similar over-regularization. We suggest that artists may have a general canonical representation of structural relations of scenes that they apply broadly within their creations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 1: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baraldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to existing literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the degree of automation, accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and timeliness of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. The present first paper provides a multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches that augments similar analyses proposed in recent years. In line with constraints stemming from human vision, this SWOT analysis promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification. Hence, a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage accomplishes image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the second part of this work a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design; (b information/knowledge representation; (c algorithm design; and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a

  19. Image-word: the iconicity of writing in Milton Hatoum’s "Relato de um certo oriente"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Carneiro Pimentel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to demonstrate that Milton Hatoum’s novel Relato de um Certo Oriente (1989 explains the affinity between the acts of reading and seeing, such affinity dates back to the iconic origins of writing. Despite not presenting any material image in yours pages or exploiting the graphic dimension of letters in which is composed, the work in question reestablishes the links between the verbal and the visual by reference to arabic alphabet, coffee grounds reading, Soraya Ângela’s expressive forms and comet written/drawn by Dorner. Thus, Hatoum’s novel, when addressing the writing iconicity, not only suggests the similarity between the gesture of writers and visual artists but also confirms the critique of “alphabet-centrism”, which, selon Roland Barthes (2004, neglects the cryptographic, ritualistic and symbolic aspect that characterizes the writing practice.

  20. Computer-Generated Abstract Paintings Oriented by the Color Composition of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Designers and artists often require reference images at authoring time. The emergence of computer technology has provided new conditions and possibilities for artistic creation and research. It has also expanded the forms of artistic expression and attracted many artists, designers and computer experts to explore different artistic directions and collaborate with one another. In this paper, we present an efficient k-means-based method to segment the colors of an original picture to analyze the composition ratio of the color information and calculate individual color areas that are associated with their sizes. This information is transformed into regular geometries to reconstruct the colors of the picture to generate abstract images. Furthermore, we designed an application system using the proposed method and generated many works; some artists and designers have used it as an auxiliary tool for art and design creation. The experimental results of datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and can give us inspiration for our work.

  1. PathGrid: a service-orientated architecture for microscopy image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N A; Brenton, J D; Caldas, C; Irwin, M J; Akram, A; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Lewis, J R; Maccallum, P H; Morris, L J; Rixon, G T

    2010-08-28

    This paper describes 'PathGrid'--an analysis and data integration system, developed initially to meet the demands in the analysis of medical microscopy imaging data. An overview of the current system is given, describing the techniques used in developing the data handling infrastructure and the analysis algorithm development. The use of software created in the context of systems designed for the astronomy domain is noted, specifically infrastructure from the astronomy virtual observatory movement for data discovery, access and workflow management, and astronomical image analysis software adapted for the analysis of high-throughput astronomy imaging surveys. This paper notes the applicability of the techniques from the astronomy domain. The testbed infrastructure deployment is described, emphasizing its speed and ease of use and support. The validity of the analysis techniques is confirmed through the pilot study described here--with the application to a large sample of immunohistochemistry microscopy data obtained in part for assessing the oestrogen receptor status of breast cancers. The analysis showed that the specificity and sensitivity values for the automatic scoring using PathGrid were within the errors of those obtained via a 'gold standard' manual pathologist scoring.

  2. Determining the orientation angle of directional leads for deep brain stimulation using computed tomography and digital x-ray imaging: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitz, Alexander; Hoevels, Mauritius; Hellerbach, Alexandra; Gierich, Andreas; Luyken, Klaus; Dembek, Till A; Klehr, Martin; Wirths, Jochen; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Treuer, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Orientating the angle of directional leads for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in an axial plane introduces a new degree of freedom that is indicated by embedded anisotropic directional markers. Our aim was to develop algorithms to determine lead orientation angles from computed tomography (CT) and stereotactic x-ray imaging using standard clinical protocols, and subsequently assess the accuracy of both methods. In CT the anisotropic marker artifact was taken as a signature of the lead orientation angle and analyzed using discrete Fourier transform of circular intensity profiles. The orientation angle was determined from phase angles at a frequency 2/360° and corrected for aberrations at oblique leads. In x-ray imaging, frontal and lateral images were registered to stereotactic space and sub-images containing directional markers were extracted. These images were compared with projection images of an identically located virtual marker at different orientation angles. A similarity index was calculated and used to determine the lead orientation angle. Both methods were tested using epoxy phantoms containing directional leads (Cartesia™, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, USA) with known orientation. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to compare both methods for DBS cases. Mean deviation between CT and x-ray was 1.5° ± 3.6° (range: -2.3° to 7.9°) for epoxy phantoms and 3.6° ± 7.1° (range: -5.6° to 14.6°) for anthropomorphic phantoms. After correction for imperfections in the epoxy phantoms, the mean deviation from ground truth was 0.0° ± 5.0° (range: -12° to 14°) for x-ray. For CT the results depended on the polar angle of the lead in the scanner. Mean deviation was -0.3° ± 1.9° (range: -4.6° to 6.6°) or 1.6° ± 8.9° (range: -23° to 34°) for polar angles ≤ 40° or > 40°. The results show that both imaging modalities can be used to determine lead orientation angles with high accuracy. CT is superior to x-ray imaging, but oblique leads (polar

  3. Regional coupling between chest wall and lung expansion during HFV: A positron imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, J.G.; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Fox, B.J.; Simon, B.A.; Hales, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Apparently conflicting differences between the regional chest wall motion and gas transport have been observed during high-frequency ventilation (HFV). To elucidate the mechanism responsible for such differences, a positron imaging technique capable of assessing dynamic chest wall volumetric expansion, regional lung volume, and regional gas transport was developed. Anesthetized supine dogs were studied at ventilatory frequencies (f) ranging from 1 to 15 Hz and eucapnic tidal volumes. The regional distribution of mean lung volume was found to be independent of f, but the apex-to-base ratio of regional chest wall expansion favored the lung bases at low f and become more homogeneous at higher f. Regional gas transport per unit of lung volume, assessed from washout maneuvers, was homogeneous at 1 Hz, favored the bases progressively as f increased to 9 Hz, and returned to homogeneity at 15 Hz. Interregional asynchrony (pendelluft) and right-to-left differences were small at this large regional scale. Analysis of the data at a higher spatial resolution showed that the motion of the diaphragm relative to the excursions of the rib cage decreased as f increased. These differences from apex to base in regional chest wall expansion and gas transport were consistent with a simple model including lung, rib cage, and diaphragm regional impedances and a viscous coupling between lungs and chest wall caused by the relative sliding between pleural surfaces. To further test this model, the authors studied five additional animals under open chest conditions. These studies resulted in a homogeneous and f-independent regional gas transport. They conclude that the apex-to-base distribution of gas transport observed during HFV is not caused by intrinsic lung heterogeneity but rather is a result of chest wall expansion dynamics and its coupling to the lung. 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The use of broadband acoustic transducers and pulse-compression techniques for air-coupled ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, T H; Hutchins, D A; Billson, D R; Schindel, D W

    2001-04-01

    A pulse-compression technique has been applied to air-coupled testing of solid materials. Capacitance transducers were used to generate wide bandwidth swept-frequency (chirp) signals in air, which were then used to measure and image solid samples in through transmission. The results demonstrate that such signal processing techniques lead to an improvement in the signal to noise ratio and timing accuracy for air-coupled testing. Measurements of thickness and spectroscopic experiments are presented. Images of defects in a wide range of materials, including metals and carbon-fibre composites have also been obtained. This combination of capacitive transducers with pulse-compression techniques is shown to be a powerful tool for non-contact air-coupled ultrasonic measurements.

  5. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P < 0.05). According to the logistic model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  6. Managing Pan-European mammography images and data using a service oriented architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D; Solomonides, T

    2004-01-01

    Medical conditions such as breast cancer, and mammograms as images, are extremely complex with many degrees of variability across the population. An effective solution for the management of disparate mammogram data sources that provides sufficient statistics for complex epidemiological study is a federation of autonomous multi- centre sites which transcends national boundaries. Grid-based technologies are emerging as open-source standards-based solutions for managing and collaborating distributed resources. In the light of these new computing solutions, the MammoGrid project, as one example of a HealthGrid, is developing a Grid-aware medical application which manages a European-wide database of mammograms. The MammoGrid solution utilizes the grid technologies in seamlessly integrating distributed data sets and is investigating the potential of the Grid to support effective co-working among mammogram analysts throughout the EU.

  7. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unveiling Inherent Degeneracies in Determining Population-Weighted Ensembles of Interdomain Orientational Distributions Using NMR Residual Dipolar Couplings: Application to RNA Helix Junction Helix Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M

    2015-07-30

    A growing number of studies employ time-averaged experimental data to determine dynamic ensembles of biomolecules. While it is well-known that different ensembles can satisfy experimental data to within error, the extent and nature of these degeneracies, and their impact on the accuracy of the ensemble determination remains poorly understood. Here, we use simulations and a recently introduced metric for assessing ensemble similarity to explore degeneracies in determining ensembles using NMR residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) with specific application to A-form helices in RNA. Various target ensembles were constructed representing different domain-domain orientational distributions that are confined to a topologically restricted (<10%) conformational space. Five independent sets of ensemble averaged RDCs were then computed for each target ensemble and a "sample and select" scheme used to identify degenerate ensembles that satisfy RDCs to within experimental uncertainty. We find that ensembles with different ensemble sizes and that can differ significantly from the target ensemble (by as much as ∑Ω ∼ 0.4 where ∑Ω varies between 0 and 1 for maximum and minimum ensemble similarity, respectively) can satisfy the ensemble averaged RDCs. These deviations increase with the number of unique conformers and breadth of the target distribution, and result in significant uncertainty in determining conformational entropy (as large as 5 kcal/mol at T = 298 K). Nevertheless, the RDC-degenerate ensembles are biased toward populated regions of the target ensemble, and capture other essential features of the distribution, including the shape. Our results identify ensemble size as a major source of uncertainty in determining ensembles and suggest that NMR interactions such as RDCs and spin relaxation, on their own, do not carry the necessary information needed to determine conformational entropy at a useful level of precision. The framework introduced here provides a general

  9. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  10. Out-of-plane orientation of cellulose elementary fibrils on spruce tracheid wall based on imaging with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Mehedi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2014-09-01

    A 3D model of the tracheid wall has been proposed based on high-resolution cryo-TEM where, in contrast to the current understanding, the cellulose elementary fibrils protrude from the cell wall plane. The ultrastructure of the tracheid walls of Picea abies was examined through imaging of ultrathin radial, tangential and transverse sections of wood by transmission electron microscopy and with digital image processing. It was found that the elementary fibrils (EFs) of cellulose were rarely deposited in the plane of the concentric cell wall layers, in contrast to the current understanding. In addition to the adopted concept of longitudinal fibril angle, EFs protruded from the cell wall plane in varying angles depending on the layer. Moreover, the out-of-plane fibril angle varied between radial and tangential walls. In the tangential S2 layers, EFs were always out-of-plane whereas planar orientation was typical for the S2 layer in radial walls. The pattern of protruding EFs was evident in almost all axial and transverse images of the S1 layer. Similar out-of-plane orientation was found in the transverse sections of the S3 layer. A new model of the tracheid wall with EF orientation is presented as a summary of this study. The outcome of this study will enhance our understanding of the elementary fibril orientation in the tracheid wall.

  11. Stereodirectional images of molecules oriented by a variable-voltage hexapolar field: Fragmentation channels of 2-bromobutane electronically excited at two photolysis wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Yang, Shiun-Jr; Lin, King-Chuen; Kasai, Toshio; Che, Dock-Chil; Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    The asymmetric-top molecule 2-bromobutane is oriented by means of a hexapole state selector; the angular distribution of the bromine atom photofragment, for the two fine-structure components, is acquired by velocity-map ion imaging. The molecular beam, spatially oriented along the time-of-flight axis, is intersected with a linearly polarized laser, whose polarization is tilted by 45° with respect to the detector surface. To obtain the mixing ratio of the perpendicular and parallel transitions, the fragment ion images and angular distributions can be appropriately simulated to give insight on the population mechanism of the specific electronic state involved at each selected excitation wavelength. The photofragment images obtained at 238.6 nm yielded an asymmetry factor β1 of 0.67, indicative of the extent of molecular orientation, and an anisotropy parameter β2 of 1.03, which is a signature of a prevailing parallel transition along the C-Br axis. When the photolysis wavelength is tuned to 254.1 nm, the corresponding angular distribution is less asymmetric (β1 = 0.24) and the obtained small value β2 = 0.12 is a characteristic of a predominantly perpendicular transition. The photofragment angular distributions are also affected by hexapole voltage, especially regarding the asymmetry factor, and this aspect provides information on the effect of molecular orientation.

  12. Defect detection in slab surface: a novel dual Charge-coupled Device imaging-based fuzzy connectedness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Dengfu; Udupa, Jayaram K; Wang, Huiqian; Zeng, Yuebin

    2014-11-01

    To provide an accurate surface defects inspection system and make the automation of robust image segmentation method a reality in routine production line, a general approach is presented for continuous casting slab (CC-slab) surface defects extraction and delineation. The applicability of the system is not tied to CC-slab exclusively. We combined the line array CCD (Charge-coupled Device) traditional scanning imaging (LS-imaging) and area array CCD laser three-dimensional (3D) scanning imaging (AL-imaging) strategies in designing the system. Its aim is to suppress the respective imaging system's limitations. In the system, the images acquired from the two CCD sensors are carefully aligned in space and in time by maximum mutual information-based full-fledged registration schema. Subsequently, the image information is fused from these two subsystems such as the unbroken 2D information in LS-imaging and 3D depressed information in AL-imaging. Finally, on the basis of the established dual scanning imaging system the region of interest (ROI) localization by seed specification was designed, and the delineation for ROI by iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was utilized to get a precise inspection result. Our method takes into account the complementary advantages in the two common machine vision (MV) systems and it performs competitively with the state-of-the-art as seen from the comparison of experimental results. For the first time, a joint imaging scanning strategy is proposed for CC-slab surface defect inspection that allows a feasible way of powerful ROI delineation strategies to be applied to the MV inspection field. Multi-ROI delineation by using IRFC in this research field may further improve the results.

  13. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenggang; Ge, Bilin; Chen, Ru; Zhu, Xiangdong; Mi, Lan; Ma, Jiong; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2018-02-09

    Total internal reflection (TIR) is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane) is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD) in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm² with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  14. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  15. A numerical analysis of a semi-dry coupling configuration in photoacoustic computed tomography for infant brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Meimani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the application of photoacoustic human infant brain imaging, debubbled ultrasound gel or water is commonly used as a couplant for ultrasonic transducers due to their acoustic properties. The main challenge in using such a couplant is its discomfort for the patient. In this study, we explore the feasibility of a semi-dry coupling configuration to be used in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT systems. The coupling system includes an inflatable container consisting of a thin layer of Aqualene with ultrasound gel or water inside of it. Finite element method (FEM is used for static and dynamic structural analysis of the proposed configuration to be used in PACT for infant brain imaging. The outcome of the analysis is an optimum thickness of Aqualene in order to meet the weight tolerance requirement with the least attenuation and best impedance match to recommend for an experimental setting.

  16. Role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging in acute optic neuritis: a comparison with axial orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping [Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institution of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Sha, Yan; Wan, Hailin; Wang, Feng [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Tian, Guohong [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Through a comparison with the axial orientation, we aimed to evaluate the role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute optic neuritis based on diagnostic accuracy and the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Orbital DWI, using readout-segmented, parallel imaging, and 2D navigator-based reacquisition (RESOLVE-DWI), was performed on 49 patients with acute vision loss. The coronal (thickness = 3 mm) and axial (thickness = 2 mm) diffusion images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists retrospectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated through diagnostic test; the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were assessed with a weighted Cohen's kappa test. In addition, the agreement of ADC measurement among observers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and Bland-Altman plots. Comparison of ADC values was also performed by unpaired t test. Among the 49 patients, 47 clinically positive optic nerves and 51 clinically negative optic nerves were found. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85.1/87.2%, 90.2/94.12%, and 87.8/90.8%, respectively, for coronal RESOLVE-DWI and 83.0/85.1%, 66.7/76.5%, and 75.5/79.6%, respectively, for axial RESOLVE-DWI. The inter-observer kappa values were 0.710 and 0.806 for axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, respectively, and the intra-observer kappa values were 0.822 and 0.909, respectively (each P < 0.0001). Regarding the reproducibility of ADC measurements on axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, the ICCs among observers were 0.846 and 0.941, respectively, and the CV values were 7.046 and 4.810%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed smaller inter-observer variability on coronal RESOLVE-DWI. ADC values were significantly lower in positive group (each P < 0.0001). Higher specificity and better reproducibility of ADC measurements were found for coronal RESOLVE-DWI, which demonstrated the

  17. Images of Couples and Families in Disney Feature-Length Animated Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Litsa Renee; Haddock, Shelley A.; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Lund, Lori K.

    2003-01-01

    Examines themes about couples and families portrayed in 26 Disney animated classics and recent movies. Four overarching themes were identified: family relationships are a strong priority; families are diverse, but the diversity is often simplified; fathers are elevated, while mothers are marginalized; and couple relationships are created by…

  18. Marital Construction of Family Power among Male-out-Migrant Couples in a Chinese Village: A Relation-Oriented Exchange Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiping

    2008-01-01

    This study examines marital construction of family power among male-out-migrant couples in a Chinese village in Guangxi Province. In-depth interviews show that male-out-migrant couples prefer joint decision making. When couples are in disputes, power tends to go to the ones who shoulder greater household-based responsibilities; in this case, they…

  19. ORIENTATION ON STAKEHOLDERS’ OBJECTIVES AS A KEY COMPETENCE OF IMAGE FORMATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION (GERMAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Kovaleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Creating relevant targets activities of marketing model of image formation of the educational organization of higher education is not possible without a systematic approach to understanding the purpose of the key stakeholder organizations that are not only state controls system (one of the stakeholders, but also a number of other, no less important: applicants, students, alumni, members of the business community. In Russia, the opinion of stakeholders in the organization of the learning process is not widely used in the practice of evaluation of educational institutions of higher education, with the exception of the activities implemented in some universities of quality management systems. The article explains the need to reorient the objectives and criteria for measuring the efficiency of the educational institutions of higher education in the target key stakeholder groups. The author has made a comparative analysis of the basic regulations of Russia and Germany in the field of higher education to establish the objectives of the universities and their orientation to target stakeholders. It revealed a possible mechanism for measuring the satisfaction of the stakeholders of the educational activities of the organization on the basis of benchmarking analysis of multi-dimensional ranking higher education programs in Germany. The activities of the state and the public in Germany shows that the estimate legitimate stakeholder groups can be used to assess the activity of educational institutions, the formation of a rational demand for educational services, improve the activities of universities and the formation of objective information field of competitive relations of universities. Focusing on the needs of the stakeholders may not be manifested hypothetical task of universities and law enshrined in the form of goals and objectives of universities imperative to correlate with national interests, the interests of the professional community as

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of vertically oriented lateral collateral ligament as an indirect sign of anterior cruciate ligament tear on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palle, Lalitha; Reddy, Balaji; Reddy, Jagannath [Focus Diagnostics, Sai Baba Temple Lane, Dwarakapuri Colony, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the correlation between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and straightened, vertically oriented lateral collateral ligament (LCL). This study included 556 patients who underwent MRI of the knee and were divided into three subsets based on ACL morphology. Subset 1 included patients with unequivocal normal ACL. Subset 2 included patients with unequivocal ACL tears. Subset 3 included patients with doubtful ACL who underwent arthroscopy. MR images were reviewed and sensitivity and specificity of vertically oriented LCL as an indirect sign of ACL tear were calculated. The MRI results were as follows: subset 1, out of 282 patients, 270 had oblique LCL and 12 demonstrated vertical LCL; subset 2, out of 212 patients, 189 demonstrated vertical LCL and 23 revealed oblique LCL; subset 3, out of 62 patients, 28 patients with vertical orientation of LCL had a possible ACL tear. Patients with oblique LCL orientation (34) were reported as probably having normal ACL. On comparison with arthroscopy, in 28 patients who we reported as having possible ACL tears, there were 17 patients with torn ACL. The rest of the 11 patients revealed no ACL tears. In the group of 34 patients in whom we reported possible normal, arthroscopy-confirmed tear in 5 patients. Sensitivity and specificity of vertical LCL as an indirect sign of ACL tear was found to be 88% and the specificity 92.85%. Vertically oriented LCL is a useful indirect MRI sign of ACL tear and aids in making a diagnosis, when ACL appearance is equivocal. (orig.)

  1. Leaders’ Expressed Humility and Followers’ Feedback Seeking: The Mediating Effects of Perceived Image Cost and Moderating Effects of Power Distance Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and tested a model to identify the role of leaders’ expressed humility on employees’ feedback-seeking processes. The data used in our study was from a sample of 248 employees and 57 of their immediate supervisors. The results revealed that: (1 leader’s expressed humility positively related to employees’ feedback seeking mediated by employees’ perceived image cost; and (2 power distance orientation moderated the relationship between leader’s expressed humility and employees’ perceived image costs, such that the relationship was stronger when the power distance orientation was lower rather than higher. The results offer new insight into potential managerial practices that aim at stimulating feedback seeking. We conclude with a discussion for future research.

  2. Image processing using pulse-coupled neural networks applications in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblad, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Image processing algorithms based on the mammalian visual cortex are powerful tools for extraction information and manipulating images. This book reviews the neural theory and translates them into digital models. Applications are given in areas of image recognition, foveation, image fusion and information extraction. The third edition reflects renewed international interest in pulse image processing with updated sections presenting several newly developed applications. This edition also introduces a suite of Python scripts that assist readers in replicating results presented in the text and to further develop their own applications.

  3. Towards secondary use of heterogeneous radio-oncological data for retrospective clinical trials: service-oriented connection of a central research database with image analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougatf, Nina; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Our overall objective is the utilization of heterogeneous and distributed radio-oncological data in retrospective clinical trials. Previously, we have successfully introduced a central research database for collection of heterogeneous data from distributed systems. The next step is the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process. Hence, analyses for complex medical questions can be processed automatically and facilitated immensely. In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is a central approach for the evaluation of therapeutic concepts. However, various analysis steps have to be performed like image registration, dose transformation and dose statistics. In this paper we show the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process by connecting them with our central research database using a service-oriented approach. A concrete problem from recurrence analysis has been selected to prove our concept exemplarily. We implemented service-oriented data collection and analysis tools to use them in a central analysis platform, which is based on a work flow management system. An analysis work flow has been designed that, at first, identifies patients in the research database fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Then the relevant imaging data is collected. Finally the imaging data is analyzed automatically. After the successful work flow execution, the results are available for further evaluation by a physician. As a result, the central research database has been connected successfully with automatic data collection and image analysis tools and the feasibility of our service-oriented approach has been demonstrated. In conclusion, our approach will simplify retrospective clinical trials in our department in future.

  4. Single molecule fluorescence image patterns linked to dipole orientation and axial position: application to myosin cross-bridges in muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Burghardt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoactivatable fluorescent probes developed specifically for single molecule detection extend advantages of single molecule imaging to high probe density regions of cells and tissues. They perform in the native biomolecule environment and have been used to detect both probe position and orientation.Fluorescence emission from a single photoactivated probe captured in an oil immersion, high numerical aperture objective, produces a spatial pattern on the detector that is a linear combination of 6 independent and distinct spatial basis patterns with weighting coefficients specifying emission dipole orientation. Basis patterns are tabulated for single photoactivated probes labeling myosin cross-bridges in a permeabilized muscle fiber undergoing total internal reflection illumination. Emitter proximity to the glass/aqueous interface at the coverslip implies the dipole near-field and dipole power normalization are significant affecters of the basis patterns. Other characteristics of the basis patterns are contributed by field polarization rotation with transmission through the microscope optics and refraction by the filter set. Pattern recognition utilized the generalized linear model, maximum likelihood fitting, for Poisson distributed uncertainties. This fitting method is more appropriate for treating low signal level photon counting data than χ(2 minimization.Results indicate that emission dipole orientation is measurable from the intensity image except for the ambiguity under dipole inversion. The advantage over an alternative method comparing two measured polarized emission intensities using an analyzing polarizer is that information in the intensity spatial distribution provides more constraints on fitted parameters and a single image provides all the information needed. Axial distance dependence in the emission pattern is also exploited to measure relative probe position near focus. Single molecule images from axial scanning fitted

  5. The impact of sexual orientation on body image, self-esteem, urinary and sexual functions in the experience of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Wootten, A C; Robinson, P; Law, P C F; McKenzie, D P

    2018-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) poses a large health burden globally. Research indicates that men experience a range of psychological challenges associated with PCa including changes to identity, self-esteem and body image. The ways in which sexual orientation plays a role in the experience of PCa, and the subsequent impact on quality of life (QoL), body image and self-esteem have only recently been addressed. By addressing treatment modality, where participant numbers were sufficient, we also sought to explore whether gay (homosexual) men diagnosed with PCa (PCaDx) and with a primary treatment modality of surgery would report differences in body image and self-esteem compared with straight (heterosexual) men with PCaDx with a primary treatment modality of surgery, compared with gay and straight men without PCaDx. The results of our study identified overall differences with respect to PCaDx (related to urinary function, sexual function and health evaluation), and sexual orientation (related to self-esteem), rather than interactions between sexual orientation and PCaDx. Gay men with PCaDx exhibited higher levels of urinary functioning than straight men with PCaDx, the difference being reversed for gay and straight men without PCaDx; but this result narrowly failed to achieve statistical significance, suggesting a need for further research, with larger samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Resolution Properties of a Calcium Tungstate (CaWO4) Screen Coupled to a CMOS Imaging Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, Vaia; Martini, Niki; Valais, Ioannis; Bakas, Athanasios; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Fountos, George; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Michail, Christos

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the current work was to assess the resolution properties of a calcium tungstate (CaWO4) screen (screen coating thickness: 50.09 mg/cm2, actual thickness: 167.2 μm) coupled to a high resolution complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital imaging sensor. A 2.7x3.6 cm2 CaWO4 sample was extracted from an Agfa Curix universal screen and was coupled directly with the active area of the active pixel sensor (APS) CMOS sensor. Experiments were performed following the new IEC 62220-1-1:2015 International Standard, using an RQA-5 beam quality. Resolution was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), using the slanted-edge method. The CaWO4/CMOS detector configuration was found with linear response, in the exposure range under investigation. The final MTF was obtained through averaging the oversampled edge spread function (ESF), using a custom-made software developed by our team, according to the IEC 62220-1-1:2015. Considering the renewed interest in calcium tungstate for various applications, along with the resolution results of this work, CaWO4 could be also considered for use in X-ray imaging devices such as charged-coupled devices (CCD) and CMOS.

  7. COUPLING REGULAR TESSELLATION WITH RJMCMC ALGORITHM TO SEGMENT SAR IMAGE WITH UNKNOWN NUMBER OF CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image segmentation approach with unknown number of classes, which is based on regular tessellation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC' algorithm. First of all, an image domain is portioned into a set of blocks by regular tessellation. The image is modeled on the assumption that intensities of its pixels in each homogeneous region satisfy an identical and independent Gamma distribution. By Bayesian paradigm, the posterior distribution is obtained to build the region-based image segmentation model. Then, a RJMCMC algorithm is designed to simulate from the segmentation model to determine the number of homogeneous regions and segment the image. In order to further improve the segmentation accuracy, a refined operation is performed. To illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two real SAR image is tested.

  8. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  9. Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-Ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    Full Text Available Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST. RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by pulmonary artery (PA banding. The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors and Green-Lagrangian strain tensors were computed in the RV myocardium using the biaxial testing combined with 3D-UST. A previously established non-linear curve-fitting algorithm was applied to fit experimental data to a Strain Energy Function (SEF for computation of myofiber orientation. The fiber orientations obtained by the biaxial testing with 3D-UST compared well with the fiber orientations computed from the histology. In addition, the re-orientation of myofiber in the right ventricular free wall (RVFW along longitudinal direction (apex-to-outflow-tract direction was noticeable in response to PH. For normotensive RVFW samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test spiraled from 20° at the endo-cardium to -42° at the epi-cardium (Δ = 62°. For PHRV samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test had much less spiral across tissue thickness: 3° at endo-cardium to -7° at epi-cardium (Δ = 10°, P<0.005 compared to normotensive.

  10. Detection and Correction of Under-/Overexposed Optical Soundtracks by Coupling Image and Audio Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Jonathan; Besserer, Bernard; Hassaine, Abdelali; Decenciere, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    Film restoration using image processing, has been an active research field during the last years. However, the restoration of the soundtrack has been mainly performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, despite the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. While the very few published approaches focus on removing dust particles or concealing larger corrupted areas, no published works are devoted to the restoration of soundtracks degraded by substantial underexposure or overexposure. Digital restoration of optical soundtracks is an unexploited application field and, besides, scientifically rich, because it allows mixing both image and signal processing approaches. After introducing the principles of optical soundtrack recording and playback, this contribution focuses on our first approaches to detect and cancel the effects of under and overexposure. We intentionally choose to get a quantification of the effect of bad exposure in the 1D audio signal domain instead of 2D image domain. Our measurement is sent as feedback value to an image processing stage where the correction takes place, building up a "digital image and audio signal" closed loop processing. The approach is validated on both simulated alterations and real data.

  11. Detection and Correction of Under-/Overexposed Optical Soundtracks by Coupling Image and Audio Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Decenciere

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Film restoration using image processing, has been an active research field during the last years. However, the restoration of the soundtrack has been mainly performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, despite the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. While the very few published approaches focus on removing dust particles or concealing larger corrupted areas, no published works are devoted to the restoration of soundtracks degraded by substantial underexposure or overexposure. Digital restoration of optical soundtracks is an unexploited application field and, besides, scientifically rich, because it allows mixing both image and signal processing approaches. After introducing the principles of optical soundtrack recording and playback, this contribution focuses on our first approaches to detect and cancel the effects of under and overexposure. We intentionally choose to get a quantification of the effect of bad exposure in the 1D audio signal domain instead of 2D image domain. Our measurement is sent as feedback value to an image processing stage where the correction takes place, building up a “digital image and audio signal” closed loop processing. The approach is validated on both simulated alterations and real data.

  12. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-07-21

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  13. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG, which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  14. Coating barium titanate nanoparticles with polyethylenimine improves cellular uptake and allows for coupled imaging and gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Christopher; Lee, Isac; Cowan, Katie R; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-01

    Barium titanate nanoparticles (BT NP) belong to a class of second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes that have recently demonstrated promise in biological imaging. Unfortunately, BT NPs display low cellular uptake efficiencies, which may be a problem if cellular internalization is desired or required for a particular application. To overcome this issue, while concomitantly developing a particle platform that can also deliver nucleic acids into cells, we coated the BT NPs with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI)-one of the most effective nonviral gene delivery agents. Coating of BT with PEI yielded complexes with positive zeta potentials and resulted in an 8-fold increase in cellular uptake of the BT NPs. Importantly, we were able to achieve high levels of gene delivery with the BT-PEI/DNA complexes, supporting further efforts to generate BT platforms for coupled imaging and gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity-oriented approach to macrocyclic cyclophane derivatives by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and olefin metathesis as key steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Chavan, Arjun S; Shaikh, Mobin

    2012-01-06

    Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura (SM) cross-coupling reaction with allylboronic acid pinacol ester and titanium assisted cross-metathesis (CM)/ring-closing metathesis (RCM) cascade has been used to synthesize macrocyclic cyclophane derivatives.

  16. The use of image analysis in evaluation of the fibers orientation in Wood-polymer composites (WPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Arkadiusz; Frącz, Wiesław; Janowski, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    In this paper a novel way of a digital analysis of fibers orientation with a five-step algorithmwas presented. In the study, a molded piece with a dumbbell shape prepared from wood-polymer composite was used. The injection molding process was examined in experimental and numerical way. Based on the developed mathematical algorithm, a significant compliance of fiber orientation in different areas of the molded piece was obtained. The main aim of thisworkwas fiber orientation analysis of wood-polymer composites. An additional goal of thiswork was the comparison of the results reached in numerical analysis with results obtained from an experiment. The results of this research were important for the scientific and also from the practical point of view. In future works the prepared algorithm could be used to reach optimal parameters of the injection molding process.

  17. Transportal femoral drilling creates more horizontal ACL graft orientation compared to transtibial drilling: A 3D CT imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clockaerts, S; Van Haver, A; Verhaegen, J; Vuylsteke, K; Leenders, T; Lagae, K C; Verdonk, P

    2016-06-01

    The principle of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to create a femoral and tibial tunnel that resembles the insertion of the native ACL. Anatomic reconstruction leads to a more horizontal graft orientation that provides more rotational stability. The aim of this study is to investigate the best method to achieve anatomical reconstruction of femoral insertion of the ACL and thus, a more horizontal orientation of the ACL. We compared tunnel position and orientation between transportal femoral drilling technique and transtibial technique. Thirty-two patients were included. Post-operative CT scans were obtained and femur, tibia and ACL tunnels were reconstructed. The position and orientation of tibial and femoral tunnels were quantified using the quadrant method, and femoral tunnel length, ellipticity and posterior wall breakage were assessed. We also investigated clinical outcome. Analyses show that transportal drilled femoral tunnels were situated significantly lower than transtibial drilled tunnels (p<0.0001), resulting in a significantly more horizontal oriented ACL in the transportal group in coronal (p<0.0001) and sagittal plane (p=0.01). No differences were observed in depth of femoral tunnel position (p=0.44). Femoral tunnel length was shorter in the transportal group (p=0.01) with a more ellipsoidal femoral aperture (p=0.01). There were no differences between both groups in tibial position. There were no differences in clinical outcome measure between the transportal and transtibial groups. This study indicates that transportal drilling of the femoral tunnel leads to a more horizontal graft orientation of the ACL, without differences in clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ru Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR region (380–1030 nm were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits.

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380–1030 nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  20. A novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronized random bit generated in cascade-coupled chaotic semiconductor ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Xiang, Shuiying; Wang, Haoning; Gong, Junkai; Wen, Aijun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronization of physical random bit generated in a cascade-coupled semiconductor ring lasers (CCSRL) system is proposed, and the security analysis is performed. In both transmitter and receiver parts, the CCSRL system is a master-slave configuration consisting of a master semiconductor ring laser (M-SRL) with cross-feedback and a solitary SRL (S-SRL). The proposed image encryption algorithm includes image preprocessing based on conventional chaotic maps, pixel confusion based on control matrix extracted from physical random bit, and pixel diffusion based on random bit stream extracted from physical random bit. Firstly, the preprocessing method is used to eliminate the correlation between adjacent pixels. Secondly, physical random bit with verified randomness is generated based on chaos in the CCSRL system, and is used to simultaneously generate the control matrix and random bit stream. Finally, the control matrix and random bit stream are used for the encryption algorithm in order to change the position and the values of pixels, respectively. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and able to resist various typical attacks, and thus is an excellent candidate for secure image communication application.

  1. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Zhao, Xiaojian [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Jakowski, Amy B.; Soeller, Walter C.; Treadway, Judith L. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton CT (United States)

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution

  2. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  3. Coupling multistripe laser triangulation with hyperspectral imaging VisNIR spectroscopy to elucidate the feedbacks between soil structure, hydrology, and organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirmas, Daniel; Steffens, Markus; Sullivan, Pamela; Zhang, Chi; Giménez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning techniques and reflectance spectroscopy provide the high-resolution quantitative measures needed to unravel the feedbacks mechanism between soil structure, hydrology, and organic matter at the pedon scale. Multistripe laser triangulation (MLT) can be used to quantify the shape, size, orientation, abundance, and spatial distribution of soil peds and associated macropore networks, while imaging visible light near infrared spectroscopy (imVisIR) can be used to examine the spatial distribution, quality and quantity of total, labile, and non-labile organic matter (SOM), iron, and manganese oxides at high spatial resolutions. In this work, we sought to investigate the potential for coupling these two disparate sensors (MLT and imVisIR) to examine relationships between soil structure, soil hydrology, and SOM. Soils were sampled from four landscape positions (summit, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) along an oak-hickory forest catena at the University of Kansas Field Station (KUFS) Fitch Natural History Reserve in conjunction with the installation of a National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) site. Soil pits were excavated at each position to 1 m, described in detail by US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resource Conservation (USDA-NRCS) soil scientists, and sampled by morphological horizon for standard chemical and physical soil analyses. In addition, samples were taken from each horizon for root density and size determination, cores sampled to estimate water content, pore-size distribution, and hydraulic conductivity via low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and clods taken for water retention determination. Two intact soil monoliths per pit, carefully carved from the excavation walls at two depths (0-40 and 30-70 cm), were sampled in custom steel trays that were 15 cm wide by 40 cm long with a lip around the edge approximately 2 cm deep. The monoliths were prepared and dried at 40° C for 12

  4. Sensitivity study of an ultrasound coupled transrectal electrical impedance tomography system for prostate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y; Halter, R; Borsic, A; Manwaring, P; Hartov, A; Paulsen, K

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, prostate cancer ranked as the most common cancer and the second most fatal cancer in men in the United States. Unfortunately, the current clinical diagnostic methods (e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, endorectal MRI, transrectal ultrasound, biopsy) used for detecting and staging prostate cancer are limited. It has been shown that cancerous prostate tissue has significantly different electrical properties when compared to benign tissues. Based on these electrical property findings, a transrectal electrical impedance tomography (TREIT) system is proposed as a novel prostate imaging modality. The TREIT system comprises an array of electrodes interfaced with a clinical transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. We evaluate this imaging system through a series of phantom imaging experiments to assess the system's ability to image high and low contrast objects at various positions. We found that the TREIT system can easily discern high contrast inclusions of 1 cm in diameter at distances centered at two times the radius of the TREIT probe away from the probe surface. Furthermore, this technology's ability to detect low contrast inclusions suggests that it has the potential to successfully detect prostate cancer

  5. Non-destructive detection of dicyandiamide in infant formula powder using multi-spectral imaging coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Dicyandiamide (DCD) contamination of milk and milk products has become an urgent and broadly recognised topic as a result of several food safety scares. This study investigated the potential of using multi-spectral imaging (405-970 nm) coupled with chemometrics for detection of DCD in infant formula powder. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN considerably improved the prediction performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP2) = 0.935 and 0.873, residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 3.777 and 3.060 for brand 1 and brand 2 of infant formula powders, respectively. Besides, multi-spectral imaging was able to differentiate unadulterated infant formula powder from samples containing 0.01% DCD with no misclassification using BPNN model. The study demonstrated that multi-spectral imaging combined with chemometrics enables rapid and non-destructive detection of DCD in infant formula powder. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Histograms of Oriented 3D Gradients for Fully Automated Fetal Brain Localization and Robust Motion Correction in 3 T Magnetic Resonance Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Ahmed; Macnaught, Gillian; Denison, Fiona C; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Semple, Scott I; Boardman, James P

    2017-01-01

    Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly emerging diagnostic imaging tool. However, automated fetal brain localization is one of the biggest obstacles in expediting and fully automating large-scale fetal MRI processing. We propose a method for automatic localization of fetal brain in 3 T MRI when the images are acquired as a stack of 2D slices that are misaligned due to fetal motion. First, the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) feature descriptor is extended from 2D to 3D images. Then, a sliding window is used to assign a score to all possible windows in an image, depending on the likelihood of it containing a brain, and the window with the highest score is selected. In our evaluation experiments using a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy, we achieved 96% of complete brain localization using a database of 104 MRI scans at gestational ages between 34 and 38 weeks. We carried out comparisons against template matching and random forest based regression methods and the proposed method showed superior performance. We also showed the application of the proposed method in the optimization of fetal motion correction and how it is essential for the reconstruction process. The method is robust and does not rely on any prior knowledge of fetal brain development.

  7. Histograms of Oriented 3D Gradients for Fully Automated Fetal Brain Localization and Robust Motion Correction in 3 T Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Serag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a rapidly emerging diagnostic imaging tool. However, automated fetal brain localization is one of the biggest obstacles in expediting and fully automating large-scale fetal MRI processing. We propose a method for automatic localization of fetal brain in 3 T MRI when the images are acquired as a stack of 2D slices that are misaligned due to fetal motion. First, the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG feature descriptor is extended from 2D to 3D images. Then, a sliding window is used to assign a score to all possible windows in an image, depending on the likelihood of it containing a brain, and the window with the highest score is selected. In our evaluation experiments using a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy, we achieved 96% of complete brain localization using a database of 104 MRI scans at gestational ages between 34 and 38 weeks. We carried out comparisons against template matching and random forest based regression methods and the proposed method showed superior performance. We also showed the application of the proposed method in the optimization of fetal motion correction and how it is essential for the reconstruction process. The method is robust and does not rely on any prior knowledge of fetal brain development.

  8. Mass spectrometry coupled to imaging techniques: the better the view the greater the challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn eBarceló-Coblijn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available These are definitively exciting times for membrane lipid researchers. Once considered just as the cell membrane building blocks, the important role these lipids play is steadily being acknowledged. The improvement occurred in mass spectrometry techniques (MS allows the establishment of the precise lipid composition of biological extracts. However, to fully understand the biological function of each individual lipid species, we need to know its spatial distribution and dynamics. In the past ten years, the field has experienced a profound revolution thanks to the development of MS-based techniques allowing lipid imaging (MSI. Images reveal and verify what many lipid researchers had already shown by different means, but none as convincing as an image: each cell type presents a specific lipid composition, which is highly sensitive to its physiological and pathological state. While these techniques will help to place membrane lipids in the position they deserve, they also open the black box containing all the unknown regulatory mechanisms accounting for such tailored lipid composition. Thus, these results urges to different disciplines to redefine their paradigm of study by including the complexity revealed by the MSI techniques.

  9. Direct Coupling of SiPMs to Scintillator Tiles for Imaging Calorimetry and Triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank; Joram, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers allows the direct readout of blue emitting plastic scintillator tiles without the use of a wavelength shifting fiber. Such directly read out tiles, without light guides, are attractive for the use in highly granular calorimeters that use large numbers of individual cells and in other applications where very compact designs are needed. However, the total signal amplitude and the uniformity of the response can be problematic in such cases. We have developed a scanning setup to investigate the response of scintillator tiles with SiPM readout in detail. It was used to develop optimized scintillator tile geometries for highly granular hadronic calorimetry at future colliders and to investigate the feasibility of a SiPM readout for the trigger of the ATLAS ALFA luminosity detectors. We report on results obtained with specialized scintillator tile geometries, discuss first results obtained with directly coupled SiPM readout of the ATLAS ALFA trigger ...

  10. Wavelet Imaging on Multiple Scales (WIMS) reveals focal adhesion distributions, dynamics and coupling between actomyosin bundle stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Tim; Palmieri, Benoit; Juanes-García, Alba; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Grant, Martin; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce and use Wavelet Imaging on Multiple Scales (WIMS) as an improvement to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure physical processes and features that occur across multiple length scales. In this study, wavelet transforms of cell images are used to characterize molecular dynamics at the cellular and subcellular levels (i.e. focal adhesions). We show the usefulness of the technique by applying WIMS to an image time series of a migrating osteosarcoma cell expressing fluorescently labelled adhesion proteins, which allows us to characterize different components of the cell ranging from optical resolution scale through to focal adhesion and whole cell size scales. Using WIMS we measured focal adhesion numbers, orientation and cell boundary velocities for retraction and protrusion. We also determine the internal dynamics of individual focal adhesions undergoing assembly, disassembly or elongation. Thus confirming as previously shown, WIMS reveals that the number of adhesions and the area of the protruding region of the cell are strongly correlated, establishing a correlation between protrusion size and adhesion dynamics. We also apply this technique to characterize the behavior of adhesions, actin and myosin in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a mutant form of myosin IIB (1935D) that displays decreased filament stability and impairs front-back cell polarity. We find separate populations of actin and myosin at each adhesion pole for both the mutant and wild type form. However, we find these populations move rapidly inwards toward one another in the mutant case in contrast to the cells that express wild type myosin IIB where those populations remain stationary. Results obtained with these two systems demonstrate how WIMS has the potential to reveal novel correlations between chosen parameters that belong to different scales. PMID:29049414

  11. In-Process Control Assay of Pharmaceutical Microtablets Using Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Tewari, Jagdish; Gopinathan, Nishanth; Boulas, Pierre; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-11-15

    Monitoring the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in finished dosage form is important to ensure the content uniformity of the product. In this report, we summarize the development and validation of a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique for rapid in-line prediction of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in microtablets with concentrations varying from 60 to 130% API (w/w). The tablet spectra of different API concentrations were collected in-line using an HSI system within the visible/near-infrared (vis/NIR; 400-1000 nm) and short-wave infrared (SWIR; 1100-2500 nm) regions. The ability of the HSI technique to predict the API concentration in the tablet samples was validated against a reference high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The prediction efficiency of two different types of multivariate data modeling methods, that is, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and principle component regression (PCR), were compared. The prediction ability of the regression models was cross-validated against results generated with the reference HPLC method. The results obtained from the PLSR models showed reliable performance for predicting the API concentration in SWIR region. The highest coefficient of determination (R 2 p) was 0.96, associated with the lowest predicted error and bias of 4.45 and -0.35%, respectively. Furthermore, the concentration-mapped images of PLSR and PCR models were used to visually characterize the API concentration present on the tablet surface. Based on these results, we suggest that HSI measurement combined with multivariate data analysis and chemical imaging could be implemented in the production environment for rapid in-line determination of pharmaceutical product quality.

  12. Bessel Fourier Orientation Reconstruction (BFOR): An Analytical Diffusion Propagator Reconstruction for Hybrid Diffusion Imaging and Computation of q-Space Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinbor, A. Pasha; Chung, Moo K.; Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble average propagator (EAP) describes the 3D average diffusion process of water molecules, capturing both its radial and angular contents. The EAP can thus provide richer information about complex tissue microstructure properties than the orientation distribution function (ODF), an angular feature of the EAP. Recently, several analytical EAP reconstruction schemes for multiple q-shell acquisitions have been proposed, such as diffusion propagator imaging (DPI) and spherical polar Fourier imaging (SPFI). In this study, a new analytical EAP reconstruction method is proposed, called Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR), whose solution is based on heat equation estimation of the diffusion signal for each shell acquisition, and is validated on both synthetic and real datasets. A significant portion of the paper is dedicated to comparing BFOR, SPFI, and DPI using hybrid, non-Cartesian sampling for multiple b-value acquisitions. Ways to mitigate the effects of Gibbs ringing on EAP reconstruction are also explored. In addition to analytical EAP reconstruction, the aforementioned modeling bases can be used to obtain rotationally invariant q-space indices of potential clinical value, an avenue which has not yet been thoroughly explored. Three such measures are computed: zero-displacement probability (Po), mean squared displacement (MSD), and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA). PMID:22963853

  13. Pancreatic Tumor Growth Prediction With Elastic-Growth Decomposition, Image-Derived Motion, and FDM-FEM Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ken C L; Summers, Ronald M; Kebebew, Electron; Yao, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are abnormal growths of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. Unlike the brain which is protected by the skull, the pancreas can be significantly deformed by its surrounding organs. Consequently, the tumor shape differences observable from images at different time points arise from both tumor growth and pancreatic motion, and tumor growth model personalization may be compromised if such motion is ignored. Therefore, we incorporate pancreatic motion information derived from deformable image registration in model personalization. For more accurate mechanical interactions between tumor growth and pancreatic motion, elastic-growth decomposition is used with a hyperelastic constitutive law to model the mass effect, which allows growth modeling while conserving the mechanical properties. Furthermore, a way of coupling the finite difference method and the finite element method is proposed to greatly reduce the computation time. With both 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomographic and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images, functional, structural, and motion data are combined for a patient-specific model. Experiments on synthetic and clinical data show the importance of image-derived motion on estimating pathophysiologically plausible mechanical properties and the promising performance of our framework. From seven patient data sets, the recall, precision, Dice coefficient, relative volume difference, and average surface distance between the personalized tumor growth simulations and the measurements were 83.2 ±8.8%, 86.9 ±8.3%, 84.4 ±4.0%, 13.9 ±9.8%, and 0.6 ±0.1 mm, respectively.

  14. 3-D illustration of network orientations of interstitial cells of Cajal subgroups in human colon as revealed by deep-tissue imaging with optical clearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-An; Chung, Yuan-Chiang; Pan, Shien-Tung; Hou, Yung-Chi; Peng, Shih-Jung; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2012-05-15

    Morphological changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been proposed to characterize motility disorders. However, a global view of the network orientations of ICC subgroups has not been established to illustrate their three-dimensional (3-D) architectures in the human colon. In this research, we integrate c-kit immunostaining, 3-D microscopy with optical clearing, and image rendering to present the location-dependent network orientations with high definition. Full-depth colonic tissues were obtained from colectomies performed for nonobstructing carcinoma. Specimens of colon wall were prepared away from the tumor site. C-kit and nuclear fluorescent staining were used to identify the ICC processes and cell body. Optical clearing was used to generate transparent colon specimens, which led to panoramic visualization of the fluorescence-labeled ICC networks at the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY), longitudinal (ICC-LM) and circular (ICC-CM) muscles, and submucosal boundary (ICC-SM) up to 300 μm in depth via confocal microscopy with subcellular level resolution. We observed four distinct network patterns: 1) periganglionic ICC-MY that connect with ICC-LM and ICC-CM, 2) plexuses of ICC-LM within the longitudinal muscle and extending toward the serosa, 3) repetitive and organized ICC-CM layers running parallel to the circular muscle axis and extending toward the submucosa, and 4) a condensed ICC-SM layer lining the submucosal border. Among the four patterns, the orderly aligned ICC-CM layers provide an appropriate target for quantitation. Our results demonstrate the location-dependent network orientations of ICC subgroups and suggest a practical approach for in-depth imaging and quantitative analysis of ICC in the human colon specimen.

  15. OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS OF SATELLITE IMAGES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE BUILDINGS CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khodaverdi zahraee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake is one of the most divesting natural events that threaten human life during history. After the earthquake, having information about the damaged area, the amount and type of damage can be a great help in the relief and reconstruction for disaster managers. It is very important that these measures should be taken immediately after the earthquake because any negligence could be more criminal losses. The purpose of this paper is to propose and implement an automatic approach for mapping destructed buildings after an earthquake using pre- and post-event high resolution satellite images. In the proposed method after preprocessing, segmentation of both images is performed using multi-resolution segmentation technique. Then, the segmentation results are intersected with ArcGIS to obtain equal image objects on both images. After that, appropriate textural features, which make a better difference between changed or unchanged areas, are calculated for all the image objects. Finally, subtracting the extracted textural features from pre- and post-event images, obtained values are applied as an input feature vector in an artificial neural network for classifying the area into two classes of changed and unchanged areas. The proposed method was evaluated using WorldView2 satellite images, acquired before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 93% proved the ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake buildings change detection.

  16. Object-Oriented Analysis of Satellite Images Using Artificial Neural Networks for Post-Earthquake Buildings Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi zahraee, N.; Rastiveis, H.

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake is one of the most divesting natural events that threaten human life during history. After the earthquake, having information about the damaged area, the amount and type of damage can be a great help in the relief and reconstruction for disaster managers. It is very important that these measures should be taken immediately after the earthquake because any negligence could be more criminal losses. The purpose of this paper is to propose and implement an automatic approach for mapping destructed buildings after an earthquake using pre- and post-event high resolution satellite images. In the proposed method after preprocessing, segmentation of both images is performed using multi-resolution segmentation technique. Then, the segmentation results are intersected with ArcGIS to obtain equal image objects on both images. After that, appropriate textural features, which make a better difference between changed or unchanged areas, are calculated for all the image objects. Finally, subtracting the extracted textural features from pre- and post-event images, obtained values are applied as an input feature vector in an artificial neural network for classifying the area into two classes of changed and unchanged areas. The proposed method was evaluated using WorldView2 satellite images, acquired before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 93% proved the ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake buildings change detection.

  17. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28

  18. Design and evaluation of a high-performance charge coupled device camera for astronomical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jie; Guan, Yong; Zhang, Weigong; Pan, Wei; Liu, Hui

    2009-10-01

    The Space Solar Telescope (SST) is the first Chinese space astronomy mission. This paper introduces the design of a high-performance 2K × 2K charge coupled device (CCD) camera that is an important payload in the Space Solar Telescope. The camera is composed of an analogue system and a digital embedded system. The analogue system is first discussed in detail, including the power and bias voltage supply circuit, power protection unit, CCD clock driver circuit, 16 bit A/D converter and low-noise amplifier circuit. The digital embedded system integrated with an NIOS II soft-core processor serves as the control and data acquisition system of the camera. In addition, research on evaluation methods for CCDs was carried out to evaluate the performance of the TH7899 CCD camera in relation to the requirements of the SST project. We present the evaluation results, including readout noise, linearity, quantum efficiency, dark current, full-well capacity, charge transfer efficiency and gain. The results show that this high-performance CCD camera can satisfy the specifications of the SST project.

  19. Cancer cell-oriented migration of mesenchymal stem cells engineered with an anticancer gene (PTEN: an imaging demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang ZS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhuo-Shun Yang,1,* Xiang-Jun Tang,2,* Xing-Rong Guo,1 Dan-Dan Zou,1 Xu-Yong Sun,3 Jing-Bo Feng,1 Jie Luo,1 Long-Jun Dai,1,4 Garth L Warnock4 1Hubei Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China; 3Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of PLA, Nanning, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been considered to hold great potential as ideal carriers for the delivery of anticancer agents since the discovery of their tumor tropism. This study was performed to demonstrate the effects of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN engineering on MSCs’ capacity for cancer cell-oriented migration. Methods: MSCs were engineered with a PTEN-bearing plasmid and the expression was confirmed with Western blotting. A human glioma cell line (DBTRG was used as the target cell; DBTRG cell-oriented migration of MSCs was monitored with a micro speed photographic system. Results: The expression of transfected PTEN in MSCs was identified by immunoblotting analysis and confirmed with cell viability assessment of target cells. The DBTRG cell-oriented migration of PTEN-engineered MSCs was demonstrated by a real-time dynamic monitoring system, and a phagocytosis-like action of MSCs was also observed. Conclusion: MSCs maintained their capacity for cancer cell-directed migration after they were engineered with anticancer genes. This study provides the first direct evidence of MSCs’ tropism post-anticancer gene engineering. Keywords: gene therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, phosphatase and tensin homolog, cancer

  20. Automatic image-based analyses using a coupled quadtree-SBFEM/SCM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenkamp, Hauke; Duczek, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    Quadtree-based domain decomposition algorithms offer an efficient option to create meshes for automatic image-based analyses. Without introducing hanging nodes the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) can directly operate on such meshes by only discretizing the edges of each subdomain. However, the convergence of a numerical method that relies on a quadtree-based geometry approximation is often suboptimal due to the inaccurate representation of the boundary. To overcome this problem a combination of the SBFEM with the spectral cell method (SCM) is proposed. The basic idea is to treat each uncut quadtree cell as an SBFEM polygon, while all cut quadtree cells are computed employing the SCM. This methodology not only reduces the required number of degrees of freedom but also avoids a two-dimensional quadrature in all uncut quadtree cells. Numerical examples including static, harmonic, modal and transient analyses of complex geometries are studied, highlighting the performance of this novel approach.

  1. Phase synchrony facilitates binding and segmentation of natural images in a coupled neural oscillator network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eFinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization has been suggested as a mechanism of binding distributed feature representations facilitating segmentation of visual stimuli. Here we investigate this concept based on unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli. We simulate dual-variable neural oscillators with separate activation and phase variables. The binding of a set of neurons is coded by synchronized phase variables. The network of tangential synchronizing connections learned from the induced activations exhibits small-world properties and allows binding even over larger distances. We evaluate the resulting dynamic phase maps using segmentation masks labeled by human experts. Our simulation results show a continuously increasing phase synchrony between neurons within the labeled segmentation masks. The evaluation of the network dynamics shows that the synchrony between network nodes establishes a relational coding of the natural image inputs. This demonstrates that the concept of binding by synchrony is applicable in the context of unsupervised learning using natural visual stimuli.

  2. Two-dimensional polarimeter with a charge-coupled-device image sensor and a piezoelastic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povel, H P; Keller, C U; Yadigaroglu, I A

    1994-07-01

    We present the first measurements and scientific observations of the solar photosphere obtained with a new two-dimensional polarimeter based on piezoelastic modulators and synchronous demodulation in a CCD imager. This instrument, which is developed for precision solar-vector polarimetry, contains a specially masked CCD that has every second row covered with an opaque mask. During exposure the charges are shifted back and forth between covered and light-sensitive rows synchronized with the modulation. In this way Stokes I and one of the other Stokes parameters can be recorded. Since the charge shifting is performed at frequencies well above the seeing frequencies and both polarization states are measured with the same pixel, highly sensitive and accurate polarimetry is achieved. We have tested the instrument in laboratory conditions as well as at three solar telescopes.

  3. Innovative mutually inductively coupled radiofrequency coils for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomanek, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the author's thesis based on the work carried out at the Institute for Bio diagnostics in Canada and published in years 2000-2006. A patented new generation of the RF coils were introduced to MRI and MRS techniques what significantly reduced SNR and improved image resolution of MR diagnostic procedure. Examples of the applications of the RF coils are presented. The intraoperative MRI system with a movable magnet used during the brain surgery included RF probe. This coil was efficiently used for breast screening and detection of submillimeter tumors. Quantification of the tissue metabolites by combining MRT with 31 P MRS can be achieved using dual - frequency RF coils. It was successfully tested on a rat liver. The innovative RF coil design was supported by the theoretical analysis and performed experiments. As an extension of the design an idea and the theory construction of multi - frequency multi - ring coil and its possible applications are also considered

  4. Changes in electrical activation modify the orientation of left ventricular flow momentum: novel observations using echocardiographic particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Martiniello, Alfonso R; Bianchi, Valter; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Caso, Pio; Tonti, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Changes in electrical activation sequence are known to affect the timing of cardiac mechanical events. We aim to demonstrate that these also modify global properties of the intraventricular blood flow pattern. We also explore whether such global changes present a relationship with clinical outcome. We investigated 30 heart failure patients followed up after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). All subjects underwent echocardiography before implant and at follow-up after 6+ months. Left ventricular mechanics was investigated at follow-up during active CRT and was repeated after a temporary interruption volumetric reduction after CRT. Changes in electrical activation alter the orientation of blood flow momentum. The long-term CRT outcome correlates with the degree of re-alignment of haemodynamic forces. These preliminary results suggest that flow orientation could be used for optimizing the biventricular pacing setting. However, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pushing back the limits of Raman imaging by coupling super-resolution and chemometrics for aerosols characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Moreau, Myriam; Sobanska, Sophie; Milanfar, Peyman; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in nanoscience in many research fields like physics, chemistry, and biology, including the environmental fate of the produced nano-objects, requires instrumental improvements to address the sub-micrometric analysis challenges. The originality of our approach is to use both the super-resolution concept and multivariate curve resolution (MCR-ALS) algorithm in confocal Raman imaging to surmount its instrumental limits and to characterize chemical components of atmospheric aerosols at the level of the individual particles. We demonstrate the possibility to go beyond the diffraction limit with this algorithmic approach. Indeed, the spatial resolution is improved by 65% to achieve 200 nm for the considered far-field spectrophotometer. A multivariate curve resolution method is then coupled with super-resolution in order to explore the heterogeneous structure of submicron particles for describing physical and chemical processes that may occur in the atmosphere. The proposed methodology provides new tools for sub-micron characterization of heterogeneous samples using far-field (i.e. conventional) Raman imaging spectrometer. PMID:26201867

  6. Fast-neutron and gamma-ray imaging with a capillary liquid xenon converter coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, I.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Vartsky, D.; Arazi, L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Caspi, E. N.; Breskin, A.

    2017-09-01

    Gamma-ray and fast-neutron imaging was performed with a novel liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation detector read out by a Gaseous Photomultiplier (GPM). The 100 mm diameter detector prototype comprised a capillary-filled LXe converter/scintillator, coupled to a triple-THGEM imaging-GPM, with its first electrode coated by a CsI UV-photocathode, operated in Ne/5%CH4 at cryogenic temperatures. Radiation localization in 2D was derived from scintillation-induced photoelectron avalanches, measured on the GPM's segmented anode. The localization properties of 60Co gamma-rays and a mixed fast-neutron/gamma-ray field from an AmBe neutron source were derived from irradiation of a Pb edge absorber. Spatial resolutions of 12± 2 mm and 10± 2 mm (FWHM) were reached with 60Co and AmBe sources, respectively. The experimental results are in good agreement with GEANT4 simulations. The calculated ultimate expected resolutions for our application-relevant 4.4 and 15.1 MeV gamma-rays and 1-15 MeV neutrons are 2-4 mm and ~ 2 mm (FWHM), respectively. These results indicate the potential applicability of the new detector concept to Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR) and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography (DDEGR) of large objects.

  7. Performance of a compact position-sensitive photon counting detector with image charge coupling to an air-side anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagutzki, O.; Czasch, A.; Schössler, S.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss a novel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier with resistive screen (RS-PMT) as a detection device for space- and time-correlated single photon counting, illustrated by several applications. The photomultiplier tube resembles a standard image intensifier device. However, the rear phosphor screen is replaced by a ceramic "window" with resistive coating. The MCP output is transferred through the ceramic plate to the read-out electrode (on the air side) via capacity-coupling of the image charge. This design allows for an easy reconfiguration of the read-out electrode (e.g. pixel, charge-sharing, cross-strip, delay-line) without breaking the vacuum for optimizing the detector performance towards a certain task. It also eases the design and manufacturing process of such a multi-purpose photomultiplier tube. Temporal and spatial resolutions well below 100 ps and 100 microns, respectively, have been reported at event rates as high as 1 MHz, for up to 40 mm effective detection diameter. In this paper we will discuss several applications like wide-field fluorescence microscopy and dual γ/fast-neutron radiography for air cargo screening and conclude with an outlook on large-area detectors for thermal neutrons based on MCPs.

  8. Application of a charge coupled device Raman microscope imaging system for quantitative analysis of aqueous surfactant phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millichope, A.J.

    2000-04-01

    Tile development of the molecular optical laser examiner Raman microprobe during the 70's has provided the ability to acquire analytical quality Raman spectra with spatial resolution of the order of one micron. In recent years, with the introduction of charge coupled device detectors and holographic filters, this technology has become efficient enough to allow spectral mapping experiments to be possible. The main aim of this project was to modify the Jobin Yvon/Spex confocal Raman spectrometer to provide line imaging capabilities and use this feature to provide a rapid means of producing a phase composition diagram of a surface active agent with water. The surfactants chosen for phase behavior were polyoxyethylenes C 12 H 25 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) x OH [C 12 EO 8 ] and C 12 H 25 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) 6 OH [C 12 EO 6 ]. Each solid surfactant was placed at one end in a 0.4 mm pathlength borosilicate cell and water introduced at the other end. The different phases and boundaries were allowed to develop, in the cell by means of the diffuse interfacial transport method at different temperatures. These were then examined by line imaging and their corresponding composition determined using a series of external ethoxylate standards. The resulting phase boundaries were found to be comparable with those obtained using alternative methods, however the time taken to obtain them was considerably reduced. (author)

  9. Mechanical and dynamic characteristics of encapsulated microbubbles coupled by magnetic nanoparticles as multifunctional imaging and drug delivery agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gepu; Lu, Lu; Yin, Leilei; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Wu, Junru; Xu, Di; Zhang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    Development of magnetic encapsulated microbubble agents that can integrate multiple diagnostic and therapeutic functions is a key focus in both biomedical engineering and nanotechnology and one which will have far-reaching impact on medical diagnosis and therapies. However, properly designing multifunctional agents that can satisfy particular diagnostic/therapeutic requirements has been recognized as rather challenging, because there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of how the integration of magnetic nanoparticles to microbubble encapsulating shells affects their mechanical properties and dynamic performance in ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. Here, a multifunctional imaging contrast and in-situ gene/drug delivery agent was synthesized by coupling super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) into albumin-shelled microbubbles. Systematical studies were performed to investigate the SPIO-concentration-dependence of microbubble mechanical properties, acoustic scattering response, inertial cavitation activity and ultrasound-facilitated gene transfection effect. These demonstrated that, with the increasing SPIO concentration, the microbubble mean diameter and shell stiffness increased and ultrasound scattering response and inertial cavitation activity could be significantly enhanced. However, an optimized ultrasound-facilitated vascular endothelial growth factor transfection outcome would be achieved by adopting magnetic albumin-shelled microbubbles with an appropriate SPIO concentration of 114.7 µg ml-1. The current results would provide helpful guidance for future development of multifunctional agents and further optimization of their diagnostic/therapeutic performance in clinic.

  10. THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN AKF BASED TIGHTLY-COUPLED INS/GPS INTEGRATED POSITIONING AND ORIENTATION SCHEME WITH ODOMETER AND NON-HOLONOMIC CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Peng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INS/GPS integration scheme can overcome the shortcoming of GPS or INS alone to provide superior performance, thus this study implements a tightly-coupled INS/GPS integration scheme using AKF as the core estimator by tuning the measurement noise matrix R adaptively. The AKF is based on the maximum likelihood criterion for choosing the most appropriate weight and thus the Kalman gain factors. The conventional EKF implementation suffers uncertain results while the update measurement noise matrix R and/or the process noise matrix Q does not meet the case. The primary advantage of AKF is that the filter has less relationship with the priori statistical information because R and/or Q vary with time. The innovation sequence is used to derive the measurement weights through the covariance matrices, innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE in this study. The covariance matrices R are adapted in the study when measurements update with time. A window based approach is implemented to update the quality of GPS pseudo-range measurements by adaptively replace the measurement weights through the latest estimated covariance matrices R. The use of odometer is particularly recommended when a low cost and precise vehicle localization system has to be implemented and there is the risk of GPS coverage failure, which is prone to happen when the vehicle enters a tunnel or cross deep valleys. Odometers are applied in land-vehicle navigation to provide augmented host velocity observations for standalone INS system in this study. There are two non-holonomic constraints (NHC available for land vehicles. Land vehicles will not jump off the ground or slid on the ground under normal condition. Using these constraints, the velocity of the vehicle in the plane perpendicular to the forward direction is almost zero. EKF and AKF based tightly-coupled scheme with NHC is implemented in the study. To validate the performance of AKF based tightly-coupled INS/GPS integration scheme

  11. Temporary organ displacement coupled with image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy for paraspinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Thornton, Raymond H; Yamada, Yoshiya; Solomon, Stephen B; Maybody, Majid; Housman, Douglas; Niyazov, Greg; Riaz, Nadeem; Lovelock, Michael; Spratt, Daniel E; Erinjeri, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and dosimetric improvements of a novel technique to temporarily displace critical structures in the pelvis and abdomen from tumor during high-dose radiotherapy. Between 2010 and 2012, 11 patients received high-dose image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temporary organ displacement (TOD) at our institution. In all cases, imaging revealed tumor abutting critical structures. An all-purpose drainage catheter was introduced between the gross tumor volume (GTV) and critical organs at risk (OAR) and infused with normal saline (NS) containing 5-10% iohexol. Radiation planning was performed with the displaced OARs and positional reproducibility was confirmed with cone-beam CT (CBCT). Patients were treated within 36 hours of catheter placement. Radiation plans were re-optimized using pre-TOD OARs to the same prescription and dosimetrically compared with post-TOD plans. A two-tailed permutation test was performed on each dosimetric measure. The bowel/rectum was displaced in six patients and kidney in four patients. One patient was excluded due to poor visualization of the OAR; thus 10 patients were analyzed. A mean of 229 ml (range, 80–1000) of NS 5-10% iohexol infusion resulted in OAR mean displacement of 17.5 mm (range, 7–32). The median dose prescribed was 2400 cGy in one fraction (range, 2100–3000 in 3 fractions). The mean GTV D min and PTV D min pre- and post-bowel TOD IG-IMRT dosimetry significantly increased from 1473 cGy to 2086 cGy (p=0.015) and 714 cGy to 1214 cGy (p=0.021), respectively. TOD increased mean PTV D95 by 27.14% of prescription (p=0.014) while the PTV D05 decreased by 9.2% (p=0.011). TOD of the bowel resulted in a 39% decrease in mean bowel D max (p=0.008) confirmed by CBCT. TOD of the kidney significantly decreased mean kidney dose and D max by 25% (0.022). TOD was well tolerated, reproducible, and facilitated dose escalation to previously radioresistant tumors abutting critical structures while

  12. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Omer; Zaritsky, Assaf; Yaffe, Yakey; Mutukula, Naresh; Edri, Reuven; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture) and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII) reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  13. A Classification-oriented Method of Feature Image Generation for Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Bisheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method of feature image generation of point clouds to automatically classify dense point clouds into different categories is proposed, such as terrain points, building points. The method first uses planar projection to sort points into different grids, then calculates the weights and feature values of grids according to the distribution of laser scanning points, and finally generates the feature image of point clouds. Thus, the proposed method adopts contour extraction and tracing means to extract the boundaries and point clouds of man-made objects (e.g. buildings and trees in 3D based on the image generated. Experiments show that the proposed method provides a promising solution for classifying and extracting man-made objects from vehicle-borne laser scanning point clouds.

  14. Orientation of mineral crystals by collagen fibers during in vivo bone engineering: An X-ray diffraction imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedola, A.; Mastrogiacomo, M.; Lagomarsino, S.; Cancedda, R.; Giannini, C.; Guagliardi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Burghammer, M.; Rustichelli, F.; Komlev, V.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of mineralized bone matrix deposition was investigated taking advantage of a tissue engineering approach in which bone tissue is formed when porous ceramic scaffold is loaded with bone marrow stromal cells and implanted in vivo. The aim of our study is to point out the interaction between the newly formed mineral crystals and the scaffold imposing the three-dimensional desired architecture to the growing bone. High spatial resolution Small Angle X-ray Scattering measurements obtained using synchrotron radiation and X-ray waveguide as optical element allowed a local structural study at the bone-scaffold interface. Using an original methodology for data analysis, we obtained a two-dimensional microscopic map of the mineralization degree, the collagen presence and the mineral orientation degree around the scaffold pore

  15. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  16. Saposin C coupled lipid nanovesicles specifically target arthritic mouse joints for optical imaging of disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Qi

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 1% of the population and is characterized by cartilage and bone destruction ultimately leading to loss of joint function. Early detection and intervention of disease provides the best hope for successful treatment and preservation of joint mobility and function. Reliable and non-invasive techniques that accurately measure arthritic disease onset and progression are lacking. We recently developed a novel agent, SapC-DOPS, which is composed of the membrane-associated lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS lipid nanovesicles. SapC-DOPS has a high fusogenic affinity for phosphatidylserine-enriched microdomains on surfaces of target cell membranes. Incorporation of a far-red fluorophore, CellVue Maroon (CVM, into the nanovesicles allows for in vivo non-invasive visualization of the agent in targeted tissue. Given that phosphatidylserine is present only on the inner leaflet of healthy plasma membranes but is "flipped" to the outer leaflet upon cell damage, we hypothesized that SapC-DOPS would target tissue damage associated with inflammatory arthritis due to local surface-exposure of phosphatidylserine. Optical imaging with SapC-DOPS-CVM in two distinct models of arthritis, serum-transfer arthritis (e.g., K/BxN and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA revealed robust SapC-DOPS-CVM specific localization to arthritic paws and joints in live animals. Importantly, intensity of localized fluorescent signal correlated with macroscopic arthritic disease severity and increased with disease progression. Flow cytometry of cells extracted from arthritic joints demonstrated that SapC-DOPS-CVM localized to an average of 7-8% of total joint cells and primarily to CD11b+Gr-1+ cells. Results from the current studies strongly support the application of SapC-DOPS-CVM for advanced clinical and research applications including: detecting

  17. Chromatic X-ray imaging with a fine pitch CdTe sensor coupled to a large area photon counting pixel ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, R.; Spandre, G.; Brez, A.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Mozzo, P.

    2013-02-01

    An innovative X-ray imaging sensor based on Chromatic Photon Counting technology with intrinsic digital characteristics is presented. The system counts individually the incident X-ray photons and selects them according to their energy to produce two color images per exposure. The energy selection occurs in real time and at radiographic imaging speed (GHz global counting rate). Photon counting, color mode and a very fine spatial resolution (more than 10 LP/mm at MTF50) allow to obtain a high ratio between image quality and absorbed dose. The individual building block of the imaging system is a two-side buttable semiconductor radiation detector made of a thin pixellated CdTe crystal coupled to a large area VLSI CMOS pixel ASIC. Modules with 1, 2, 4, and 8 block units have been built. The largest module has 25 × 2.5 cm2 sensitive area. Results and images obtained from testing different modules are presented.

  18. Anatomically oriented right ventricular volume measurements with dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography validated by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Petra S; Pinho, Luiz; Balbach, Thomas; Galuschky, Christian; Blankenhagen, Michael; Silberbach, Michael; Broberg, Craig; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Sahn, David J

    2007-10-23

    We tested a newly developed 4-dimensional (4D) right ventricular (RV) analysis method for computing RV volumes for both 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. Asymmetry and the anatomical complexity of the RV make accurate determination of RV shape and volume difficult. Thirty patients, 14 with grossly normal cardiac anatomy and 16 with major congenital heart disease, were studied at the same visit with both 3D echocardiography (echo) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for RV size and function. Ultrasound images were acquired on a Philips 7500 system (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, Massachusetts) with a matrix-array transducer (real-time 3D echo) with full volume sweeps from apical and subcostal views. Sagittal, 4-chamber, and coronal views were derived for contour detection (all 12 to 24 slices). The MR images were acquired with a 3-T MRI magnet with segmented cine-loop gradient echo sequences in short- and rotated long-axis views to cover the RV inflow, body, and outflow tract. The RV volumes were analyzed with the new software applicable to 3D echo MR images. New software aided delineation of the RV free wall, tricuspid valve, RV outflow tract, and apex on 3D echo volumes. Although there was a slightly higher variability measuring right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and volumes obtained by US compared with MRI, both imaging methods showed closely correlated results. The RVEF was measured with 4% variability for US and 5% variability for MRI with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. The RV end-diastolic volume was measured at 70.97 +/- 15.0 ml with 3D US and at 70.06 +/- 14.8 ml with MRI (r = 0.99), end-systolic volume measured 39.8 +/- 10.4 ml with 3D US and 39.1 +/- 10.2 ml with MRI (r = 0.98). The new RV analysis software allowed validation of the accuracy of 4D echo RV volume data compared with MRI.

  19. Orientation guide for imaging examinations. Recommendation of the radiation protection commission. 2. rev. ed.; Orientierungshilfe fuer bildgebende Untersuchungen. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Due to the wide range of medical diagnostic method that include partially high radiation exposures of the patients (for instance CT examinations) the mean radiation exposure of the public is increasing in Germany. In 2006 the German Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) has published a catalogue for the different diagnostic questions including recommendations for the best imaging technique. This orientation guide was actualized in 2012. The catalogue is aimed to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to simultaneously improve the medical diagnostics. Nevertheless the applying physician has to justify and document the selected diagnostic technique for the individual case. The guide covers the following issues: head, neck, spinal cord, skeleton and muscles, cardiovascular system, thorax, digestive system, urogenital tract, gynecology, mammary glands, trauma, oncology, pediatrics, interventional radiology.

  20. Single-molecule X-ray free-electron laser imaging : Interconnecting sample orientation with explosion data

    OpenAIRE

    Östlin, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has been around for 100 years and remains the preferred technique for solving molecular structures today. However, its reliance on the production of sufficiently large crystals is limiting, considering that crystallization cannot be achieved for a vast range of biomolecules. A promising way of circumventing this problem is the method of serial femtosecond imaging of single-molecules or nanocrystals utilizing an X-ray free-electron laser. In such an approach, X-ray pulses...

  1. Object-Oriented Semisupervised Classification of VHR Images by Combining MedLDA and a Bilateral Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian hierarchical model is presented to classify very high resolution (VHR images in a semisupervised manner, in which both a maximum entropy discrimination latent Dirichlet allocation (MedLDA and a bilateral filter are combined into a novel application framework. The primary contribution of this paper is to nullify the disadvantages of traditional probabilistic topic models on pixel-level supervised information and to achieve the effective classification of VHR remote sensing images. This framework consists of the following two iterative steps. In the training stage, the model utilizes the central labeled pixel and its neighborhood, as a squared labeled image object, to train the classifiers. In the classification stage, each central unlabeled pixel with its neighborhood, as an unlabeled object, is classified as a user-provided geoobject class label with the maximum posterior probability. Gibbs sampling is adopted for model inference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms two classical SVM-based supervised classification methods and probabilistic-topic-models-based classification methods.

  2. Separation, Sizing, and Quantitation of Engineered Nanoparticles in an Organism Model Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monique E; Hanna, Shannon K; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Sims, Christopher M; Elliott, Lindsay C C; Lingayat, Akshay; Johnston, Adrian C; Nikoobakht, Babak; Elliott, John T; Holbrook, R David; Scott, Keana C K; Murphy, Karen E; Petersen, Elijah J; Yu, Lee L; Nelson, Bryant C

    2017-01-24

    For environmental studies assessing uptake of orally ingested engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), a key step in ensuring accurate quantification of ingested ENPs is efficient separation of the organism from ENPs that are either nonspecifically adsorbed to the organism and/or suspended in the dispersion following exposure. Here, we measure the uptake of 30 and 60 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, using a sucrose density gradient centrifugation protocol to remove noningested AuNPs. Both conventional inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and single particle (sp)ICP-MS are utilized to measure the total mass and size distribution, respectively, of ingested AuNPs. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) imaging confirmed that traditional nematode washing procedures were ineffective at removing excess suspended and/or adsorbed AuNPs after exposure. Water rinsing procedures had AuNP removal efficiencies ranging from 57 to 97% and 22 to 83%, while the sucrose density gradient procedure had removal efficiencies of 100 and 93 to 98%, respectively, for the 30 and 60 nm AuNP exposure conditions. Quantification of total Au uptake was performed following acidic digestion of nonexposed and Au-exposed nematodes, whereas an alkaline digestion procedure was optimized for the liberation of ingested AuNPs for spICP-MS characterization. Size distributions and particle number concentrations were determined for AuNPs ingested by nematodes with corresponding confirmation of nematode uptake via high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution resin preparation and large-area SEM imaging. Methods for the separation and in vivo quantification of ENPs in multicellular organisms will facilitate robust studies of ENP uptake, biotransformation, and hazard assessment in the environment.

  3. Temporal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging activation of heterosexual couples for visual stimuli of loved partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won; Kim, Seungyeon; Jeong, Jaeseung; Lee, Kyung-Uk; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Chung, Yong-An; Hong, Keun-Young; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2009-03-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies on romantic love have focused on determining how the visual stimuli that serve as a representation of loved ones induce the neural activation patterns of romantic love. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal changes in romantic love over a period of 6 months and their correlated neurophysiological changes. Five heterosexual couples (n=10, mean age 21.1+/-1.97) who started dating not less than 100 days previously were recruited to measure their blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while showing them pictures of their loved ones and their previously identified, opposite-sex friends. Subsequently, the subjects were scanned under the same experimental conditions to assess possible changes in their brain activities after 180 days. WE FOUND THAT THEIR PASSIONATE LOVE SCORE (PLS) VALUES (M: 118.6+/-9.1, F: 120.2+/-7.0) were significantly reduced after 6 months (M: 110.8+/-4.0, F: 106.2+/-3.0). Furthermore, significantly increased activations were found in the cingulate gyri, inferior frontal gyri, supramarginal gyri, etc., after 6 months, whereas the head and tail of the right caudate nucleus were deactivated, which is indicative of the inhibition of expression and sensory neglect. These findings suggest that dynamic neural processes in the cortical-subcortical regions are involved in temporal changes in romantic love.

  4. Determining mode I cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by coupling double cantilever beam test with digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct identification of the cohesive law in pure mode I of Pinus pinaster is addressed. The approach couples the double cantilever beam (DCB test with digital image correlation (DIC. Wooden beam specimens loaded in the radial-longitudinal (RL fracture propagation system are used. The strain energy release rate in mode I ( is uniquely determined from the load-displacement ( curve by means of the compliance-based beam method (CBBM. This method relies on the concept of equivalent elastic crack length ( and therefore does not require the monitoring of crack propagation during test. The crack tip opening displacement in mode I is determined from the displacement field at the initial crack tip. The cohesive law in mode I is then identified by numerical differentiation of the relationship. Moreover, the proposed procedure is validated by finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is adequate for assessing the cohesive law in pure mode I of P. pinaster

  5. T1 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to detect myocarditis—Impact of slice orientation on the diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnen, Sebastian, E-mail: s.bohnen@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); Radunski, Ulf K., E-mail: u.radunski@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); Lund, Gunnar K., E-mail: glund@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Tahir, Enver, E-mail: e.tahir@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Stehning, Christian, E-mail: christian.stehning@philips.com [Philips Research, Hamburg (Germany); Schnackenburg, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schnackenburg@philips.com [Philips Healthcare Germany, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Blankenberg, Stefan, E-mail: s.blankenberg@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); Muellerleile, Kai, E-mail: kamuellerleile@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Background: T1 mapping is a promising diagnostic tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, there are currently no data on the potential influence of slice orientation on the diagnostic performance of CMR. Thus, we compared the diagnostic performance of global myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) values to differentiate patients with myocarditis from healthy individuals between different slice orientations. Methods: This study included 48 patients with clinically defined myocarditis and 13 healthy controls who underwent CMR at 1.5 T. A modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence was used for T1 mapping before and 15 min after administration of 0.075 mmol/kg Gadolinium-BOPTA. T1 mapping was performed on three short and on three long axes slices, respectively. Native T1, post-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) −BOPTA maps were calculated using a dedicated plug-in written for the OsiriX software and compared between the mean value of three short-axes slices (3SAX), the central short-axis (1SAX), the mean value of three long-axes slices (3LAX), the four-chamber view (4CH), the three-chamber view (3CH) and the two-chamber view (2CH). Results: There were significantly lower native T1 values on 3LAX (1081 ms (1037–1131 ms)) compared to 3SAX (1107 ms (1069–1143 ms), p = 0.0022) in patients with myocarditis, but not in controls (1026 ms (1009–1059 ms) vs. 1039 ms (1023–1055 ms), p = 0.2719). The areas under the curve (AUC) to discriminate between myocarditis and healthy controls by native myocardial T1 were 0.85 (p < 0.0001) on 3SAX, 0.85 (p < 0.0001) on 1SAX, 0.76 (p = 0.0002) on 3LAX, 0.70 (p = 0.0075) on 4CH, 0.72 (p = 0.0020) on 3CH and 0.75 (p = 0.0003) on 2CH. The AUCs for ECV-BOPTA were 0.83 (p < 0.0001) on 3 SAX, 0.82 (p < 0.0001) on 1SAX, 0.77 (p = 0.0005) on 3LAX, 0.71 (p = 0.0079) on 4CH, 0.69 (p = 0.0371) on 3CH and 0.75 (p = 0.0006) on

  6. Recycling-oriented characterization of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from mobile phones by electronic and chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    This study characterizes the composition of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from end-of-life mobile phones. This knowledge may help define an optimal processing strategy for using these items as potential raw materials. Correct handling of such a waste is essential for its further "sustainable" recovery, especially to maximize the extraction of base, rare and precious metals, minimizing the environmental impact of the entire process chain. A combination of electronic and chemical imaging techniques was thus examined, applied and critically evaluated in order to optimize the processing, through the identification and the topological assessment of the materials of interest and their quantitative distribution. To reach this goal, end-of-life mobile phone derived wastes have been systematically characterized adopting both "traditional" (e.g. scanning electronic microscopy combined with microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy) and innovative (e.g. hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared field) techniques, with reference to frames and printed circuit boards. Results showed as the combination of both the approaches (i.e. traditional and classical) could dramatically improve recycling strategies set up, as well as final products recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  8. INFRARED MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION (IR-MALDESI) IMAGING SOURCE COUPLED TO A FT-ICR MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Guillaume; Barry, Jeremy A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) allows for the direct monitoring of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical compounds over the surface of a tissue sample. This technology has opened the field of mass spectrometry to numerous innovative applications over the past 15 years. First used with SIMS and MALDI MS that operate under vacuum, interest has grown for mass spectrometry ionization sources that allow for effective imaging but where the analysis can be performed at ambient pressure with minimal or no sample preparation. We introduce here a versatile source for MALDESI imaging analysis coupled to a hybrid LTQ-FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The imaging source offers single shot or multi-shot capability per pixel with full control over the laser repetition rate and mass spectrometer scanning cycle. Scanning rates can be as fast as 1 pixel/second and a spatial resolution of 45 μm was achieved with oversampling. PMID:23208743

  9. A new methodical approach in neuroscience: assessing inter-personal brain coupling using functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI hyperscanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eScholkmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first demonstration of how to simultaneously measure brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI on two subjects about 10 years ago, a new paradigm in neuroscience is emerging: the assessment of the inter-brain coupling between two or more subjects, termed hyperscanning. The hyperscanning approach has the potential to enable a new view on how the brain works and will reveal as yet undiscovered brain functions based on brain-to-brain coupling, since the single-subject setting cannot capture them. In particular, functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI hyperscanning is a promising new method, offering a cost-effective, easy to apply and reliable technology to measure inter-personal interactions in a natural context. In this short review we report on fNIRI hyperscanning studies published so far and summarize opportunities and challenges for future studies.

  10. Simulation of coupled-spin systems in the steady-state free-precession acquisition mode for fast magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Starčuková, Jana; Štrbák, Oliver; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2009), 104033:1-9 ISSN 0957-0233 Grant - others:EC 6FP(XE) MRTN-CT-2006-035801 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : magnetic resonance * fast spectroscopic imaging * steady-state free-precession * coupled-spin system * density matrix simulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.317, year: 2009

  11. Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rübsamen Rudolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing. In this paradigm, sounds are played directly from behind and the direction of turn is recorded. This assay rests on the assumption that a hemispheric asymmetry in processing is coupled to an orienting bias towards the contralateral side. To examine this largely untested assumption, speech stimuli as well as artificial sounds were presented to 224 right-handed human subjects shopping in supermarkets in Germany and in the UK. To verify the lateralized processing of the speech stimuli, we additionally assessed the brain activation in response to presentation of the different stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results In the naturalistic behavioural experiments, there was no difference in orienting behaviour in relation to the stimulus material (speech, artificial sounds. Contrary to our predictions, subjects revealed a significant left bias, irrespective of the sound category. This left bias was slightly but not significantly stronger in German subjects. The fMRI experiments confirmed that the speech stimuli evoked a significant left lateralized activation in BA44 compared to the artificial sounds. Conclusion These findings suggest that in adult humans, orienting biases are not necessarily coupled with lateralized processing of acoustic stimuli. Our results – as well as the inconsistent orienting biases found in different animal species – suggest that the orienting assay should be used with caution. Apparently, attention biases, experience, and experimental conditions may all affect head turning

  12. Raman Imaging Spectroscopy of a Putative Microfossil from the ∼3.46 Ga Apex Chert: Insights from Quartz Grain Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, D M; Steele, A; Fries, M D; Green, O R; Lindsay, J F

    2016-02-01

    The utility of nondestructive laser Raman for testing the biogenicity of microfossil-like structures in ancient rocks is promising, yet results from deposits like the ∼3.46 Ga Apex chert remain contentious. The essence of the debate is that associated microstructures, which are not purported to be microfossils, also contain reduced carbon that displays Raman D- and G-band peaks similar to those seen in the purported microfossils. This has led to the hypothesis that all features including reported microfossils are due to compression of nonfossil carbon during crystal growth around quartz spherulites or more angular crystals. In this scenario, the precursor to this macromolecular carbon may or may not have been of biogenic origin, while the arcuate and linear features described would be pseudofossils. To test this hypothesis, we have undertaken 2-D micro-Raman imaging of the Eoleptonema apex holotype and associated features using instrumentation with a high spatial and spectral resolution. In addition to this, we utilized the ratio of two Raman active quartz mode intensities (I129/I461) to assess quartz grain orientation and grain-splitting artifacts. These data lead us to conclude that the holotype of Eoleptonema apex is a sheet-shaped pseudofossil that appears to be a carbon infilled intragranular crack; therefore other holotypes should be carefully reexamined for syngenicity.

  13. Atmospheric characterization of Proxima b by coupling the SPHERE high-contrast imager to the ESPRESSO spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, C.; Snellen, I.; Mouillet, D.; Pepe, F.; Wildi, F.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Bonfils, X.; Cheetham, A.; Conod, U.; Delfosse, X.; Ehrenreich, D.; Figueira, P.; Forveille, T.; Martins, J. H. C.; Quanz, S. P.; Santos, N. C.; Schmid, H.-M.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The temperate Earth-mass planet Proxima b is the closest exoplanet to Earth and represents what may be our best ever opportunity to search for life outside the Solar System. Aims: We aim at directly detecting Proxima b and characterizing its atmosphere by spatially resolving the planet and obtaining high-resolution reflected-light spectra. Methods: We propose to develop a coupling interface between the SPHERE high-contrast imager and the new ESPRESSO spectrograph, both installed at ESO VLT. The angular separation of 37 mas between Proxima b and its host star requires the use of visible wavelengths to spatially resolve the planet on a 8.2-m telescope. At an estimated planet-to-star contrast of 10-7 in reflected light, Proxima b is extremely challenging to detect with SPHERE alone. However, the combination of a 103-104 contrast enhancement from SPHERE to the high spectral resolution of ESPRESSO can reveal the planetary spectral features and disentangle them from the stellar ones. Results: We find that significant but realistic upgrades to SPHERE and ESPRESSO would enable a 5σ detection of the planet and yield a measurement of its true mass and albedo in 20-40 nights of telescope time, assuming an Earth-like atmospheric composition. Moreover, it will be possible to probe the O2 bands at 627, 686 and 760 nm, the water vapour band at 717 nm, and the methane band at 715 nm. In particular, a 3.6σ detection of O2 could be made in about 60 nights of telescope time. Those would need to be spread over three years considering optimal observability conditions for the planet. Conclusions: The very existence of Proxima b and the SPHERE-ESPRESSO synergy represent a unique opportunity to detect biosignatures on an exoplanet in the near future. It is also a crucial pathfinder experiment for the development of extremely large telescopes and their instruments, in particular the E-ELT and its high-resolution visible and near-IR spectrograph.

  14. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  15. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  16. Power distribution and substrate noise coupling investigations on the behavioral level for photon counting imaging readout circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; Abdalla, Suliman; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    In modern mixed-signal system design, there are increasing problems associated with noise coupling caused by switching digital parts to sensitive analog parts. As a consequence, there is a growing necessity to understand these problems. In order to avoid costly design iterations, noise coupling simulations should be initiated as early as possible in the design chain. The problems associated with on-chip noise coupling have been discovered in photon counting pixel detector readout systems, where the level of integration of analog and digital circuits is very high on a very small area, and it would appear that these problems will continue to increase for future system designs in this field. This paper deals with the functionality of utilizing behavioral level models for simulating noise coupling in these readout systems. The methods and models are described and simulation results are shown for a photon counting pixel detector readout system

  17. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    funded Center of Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering: The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this...Tunneling Model," Computers, Materials and Continua , vol. 15, pp. 87-112, 2010.

  18. Electrodynamics and Time Orientability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2017-06-01

    On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.

  19. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  20. A general assignment method for oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR of proteins based on the correlation of resonances through heteronuclear dipolar couplings in samples aligned parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George J; Son, Woo Sung; Opella, Stanley J

    2011-04-01

    A general method for assigning oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR spectra of proteins is demonstrated. In principle, this method requires only a single sample of a uniformly ¹⁵N-labeled membrane protein in magnetically aligned bilayers, and a previously assigned isotropic chemical shift spectrum obtained either from solution NMR on micelle or isotropic bicelle samples or from magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR on unoriented proteoliposomes. The sequential isotropic resonance assignments are transferred to the OS solid-state NMR spectra of aligned samples by correlating signals from the same residue observed in protein-containing bilayers aligned with their normals parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. The underlying principle is that the resonances from the same residue have heteronuclear dipolar couplings that differ by exactly a factor of two between parallel and perpendicular alignments. The method is demonstrated on the membrane-bound form of Pf1 coat protein in phospholipid bilayers, whose assignments have been previously made using an earlier generation of methods that relied on the preparation of many selectively labeled (by residue type) samples. The new method provides the correct resonance assignments using only a single uniformly ¹⁵N-labeled sample, two solid-state NMR spectra, and a previously assigned isotropic spectrum. Significantly, this approach is equally applicable to residues in alpha helices, beta sheets, loops, and any other elements of tertiary structure. Moreover, the strategy bridges between OS solid-state NMR of aligned samples and solution NMR or MAS solid-state NMR of unoriented samples. In combination with the development of complementary experimental methods, it provides a step towards unifying these apparently different NMR approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical approaches to image orientation and stereo digitization applied in the Budnlab software. (Polish Title: Rozwiazania analityczne zwiazane z obsluga procesu orientacji zdjec oraz wykonywaniem opracowan wektorowych w programie Bundlab)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Bundlab software has been developed mainly for academic and research application. This work can be treated as a kind of a report describing the current state of the development of this computer program, focusing especially on the analytical solutions. Firstly, the overall characteristics of the software are provided. Then the description of the image orientation procedure starting from the relative orientation is addressed. The applied solution is based on the coplanarity equation parametrized with the essential matrix. The problem is reformulated in order to solve it using methods of algebraic geometry. The solution is followed by the optimization involving the least square criterion. The formation of the image block from the oriented models as well as the absolute orientation procedure were implemented using the Horn approach as a base algorithm. The second part of the paper is devoted to the tools and methods applied in the stereo digitization module. The solutions that support the user and improve the accuracy are given. Within the paper a few exemplary applications and products are mentioned. The work finishes with the concepts of development and improvements of existing functions.

  2. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  4. Transit oriented development in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Atanacković

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belgrade the process of transition from oriental kasaba to European city was long and thwarted by various economic political and social cultural factors. The European ideal still hasn’t been reached. Transition, as a development process in Belgrade, operates by a specific paradoxical inversion – the logic of harmonised development of urban transport, urban form and structure, which in theories of urban planning appears as a postulate, is in Belgrade influenced by incredible, ephemeral, disfigured, yet authentic transformation. However, quality solutions, conclusions and recommendations for further implementation of the idea about introducing the new public transport system, which is part of the main project for the first light metro line in Belgrade, establishment of a united group of experts, investors, negotiators, public opinion and all actors needed to make decisions, united and uncompromising idea about the future image and quality of urban life in Belgrade, have uncovered an until recently untried field of possibilities for transport management coupled with urban development as the optimal and acceptable model. City life could again become dynamic, productive and attractive.

  5. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system coupled with multivariate methods to predict viability and vigor in muskmelon seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system was used to predict viability and vigor (in term of germination periods) in muskmelon seeds. Hyperspectral images of muskmelon seeds were acquired using a NIR push-broom HSI system covering the spectral range of 948–2494 nm. After NIR spectra ...

  6. Texas Instruments' virtual phase charge-coupled device (CCD) imager operated in the frontside electron-bombarded mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, P.; Hynecek, J.; Zucchino, P.; Lowrance, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the suitability of the virtual phase CCD imager for frontside detection of electrons up to 25 keV. The investigation has the objective to determine if the imager can be used in the frontside mode with a photocathode to detect very low light levels in astronomical applications, the ultimate goal being individual photon detection. It is found that the standard virtual phase imager will function properly over an extended period at low levels of 20 kV electron irradiation consistent with photon counting applications. The imager can detect individual primary electrons with nearly 100 percent efficiency. However, further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms for the flat band shifts so that the imager design may be modified to eliminate or at least reduce them.

  7. The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Southern Central Chile, 38° S: A Reflection seismic image of the subduction zone (Project TIPTEQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Micksch, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Ryberg, T.; Stiller, M.

    2006-12-01

    The multi-disciplinary project TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to mega-Thrust EarthQuake processes) investigates the seismogenic coupling zone in Southern Central Chile and the associated subduction zone processes between the Pacific Ocean and the volcanic arc. The reflection seismic component of TIPTEQ includes a 110 km long profile which spans from the coast over the down-dip end of the seismogenic coupling zone, crossing the 1960 Valdivia earthquake hypocentre. 180 three-component geophones were deployed (100 m spacing) along an 18 km wide spread whereof 4.5 km were shifted in a daily roll-along. With 100 borehole shots, 1.5 km apart, this up to 8-fold covered line delivers a high-resolution image of the seismogenic coupling zone. 15 additional shots in an expanding spread profiling configuration focussed on the seismogenic coupling zone. SH wave source signals were generated to yield an improved picture of the petrophysical contrasts within the system. The SPOC-South wide-angle data velocity model is combined with a first-break tomography velocity model to get an advanced migration image. The subducting Nazca plate can be traced from a depth of 25 km below the coast down to a depth of 50 km at the eastern end of the profile. Structural evidence suggests that material is transported down in a subduction channel. From slow uplift of the Coastal Cordillera we conclude that basal accretion of parts of this material controls the seismic architecture and growth of the south Chilean crust. Between depths of 5 to 25 km several bright reflectivity spots can be seen in the upper plate, which may suggest fluid traps in the accretionary wedge. The tomographic p-wave velocity model reaches approximately 10 km depth. Its segmentation corresponds to the geological units mapped at surface. The sediment thickness in the Central Valley is approx. 3 km, and we see prominent fault systems like the Lanalhue fault zone also in the tomographic model. At present, almost no seismicity

  8. Normative 3D acetabular orientation measurements by the low-dose EOS imaging system in 102 asymptomatic subjects in standing position: Analyses by side, gender, pelvic incidence and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, T; Thelen, P; Demezon, H; Aunoble, S; Le Huec, J-C

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) acetabular orientation is a fundamental topic in orthopedic surgery. Computed tomography (CT) allows 3D measurement of native acetabular orientation, but with a substantial radiation dose. The EOS imaging system was developed to perform this kind of evaluation, but has not been validated in this indication with specific attention to the acetabulum. We therefore performed a prospective study using EOS to assess: (1) the reproducibility of the 3D acetabulum orientation measures; (2) normative asymptomatic acetabular morphology in standing position, according to side and gender; and (3) the relationship between acetabular anteversion and pelvic incidence. The low-dose EOS imaging system is a reproducible method for measuring 3D acetabular orientation in standing position. In a previous prospective study of spine sagittal balance, 165 asymptomatic volunteers were examined on whole-body EOS biplanar X-ray; 102 had appropriate images for pelvic and acetabular analysis, with an equal sex-ratio (53 female, 49 male). These EOS images were reviewed using sterEOS 3D software, allowing automatic measurement of acetabular parameters (anteversion and inclination) and pelvic parameters (pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt and sacral slope) in an anatomical (anterior pelvic plane: APP) and a functional reference plane (patient vertical plane: PVP). Both intra- and inter-observer analysis showed good agreement (ICC>0.90); Bland-Altman plot distributions were good. Acetabular anatomical anteversion and inclination relative to APP (AAAPP and AIAPP, respectively) were significantly greater in women than in men, with no effect of side (right AAA: women 21.3°±3.4° vs. men 16.1°±3.3° (P62°) correlated significantly with functional acetabular orientation in standing position: PVP functional anteversion decreased by 5° relative to APP anteversion with incidence APP with incidence 44-62°, and or was greater by 4° relative to APP with incidence >62°. The use of a

  9. Orientation politique

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberj, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    L’orientation politique constitue l’ensemble des valeurs, normes et préférences (bref l’idéologie) qui guide ou structure les individus vers un parti ou un camp politique. Contrairement à une vision philosophique de la politique fondée sur un citoyen idéal à la fois rationnel et insensible aux contingences de sa situation personnelle, l’électeur n’est pas seul quand il se présente dans l’isoloir, il amène avec lui ses groupes d’appartenance, son histoire individuelle et ses valeurs. En cela, ...

  10. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  11. A new methodical approach in neuroscience: assessing inter-personal brain coupling using functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI) hyperscanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Holper, Lisa; Wolf, Ursula; Wolf, Martin

    2013-11-27

    Since the first demonstration of how to simultaneously measure brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on two subjects about 10 years ago, a new paradigm in neuroscience is emerging: measuring brain activity from two or more people simultaneously, termed "hyperscanning". The hyperscanning approach has the potential to reveal inter-personal brain mechanisms underlying interaction-mediated brain-to-brain coupling. These mechanisms are engaged during real social interactions, and cannot be captured using single-subject recordings. In particular, functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI) hyperscanning is a promising new method, offering a cost-effective, easy to apply and reliable technology to measure inter-personal interactions in a natural context. In this short review we report on fNIRI hyperscanning studies published so far and summarize opportunities and challenges for future studies.

  12. Diversity Oriented Synthesis of Natural 2-Arylbenzofuran, Moracin F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, So-Ra; Jun, Jong-Gab

    2016-01-01

    Diversity oriented synthesis of natural 2-arylbenzofuran, moracin F (1) has been carried out from the commercially available starting materials using Sonogashira coupling, Suzuki coupling, neutral Al 2 O 3 mediated cyclization, and intramolecular Wittig reaction as key steps.

  13. Selective Removal of Natural Occlusal Caries by Coupling Near-infrared Imaging with a CO2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this stud...

  14. Tracking the position and rotational orientation of a catheter using a transmit array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Haydar; Mahcicek, Davut I; Senel, Oytun K; Wright, Graham A; Atalar, Ergin

    2013-04-01

    A new method for detecting the rotational orientation and tracking the position of an inductively coupled radio frequency (ICRF) coil using a transmit array system is proposed. The method employs a conventional body birdcage coil, but the quadrature hybrid is eliminated so that the two excitation channels can be used separately. The transmit array system provides RF excitations such that the body birdcage coil creates linearly polarized and changing RF pulses instead of a conventional rotational forward-polarized excitation. The receive coils and their operations are not modified. Inductively coupled RF coils are constructed on catheters for detecting rotational orientation and for tracking purposes. Signals from the anatomy and from tissue close to the ICRF coil are different due to the new RF excitation scheme: the ICRF coil can be separated from the anatomy in real time, and after doing so, a color-coded image is reconstructed. More importantly, this novel method enables a real-time calculation of the absolute rotational orientation of an ICRF coil constructed on a catheter. Modified FLASH and TrueFISP sequences are used for the experiments. The acquired images from this technique show the feasibility of different applications, such as catheter tracking. Furthermore, applications where knowledge of the rotational orientation of the catheter is important, such as magnetic resonance-guided endoluminal-focused ultrasound, RF ablation, side-looking optical imaging, and catheters with side ports for needles, become feasible with this method.

  15. Selective removal of demineralized enamel using a CO2 laser coupled with near-IR reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Saltiel, Daniel; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Detection and diagnosis of early dental caries lesions can be difficult due to variable tooth coloration, staining of the teeth and poor contrast between sound and demineralized enamel. These problems can be overcome by using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that lasers can be integrated with NIR imaging devices, allowing image-guided ablation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that NIR light at 1500 - 1700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3-μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in-vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions of varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces using a demineralization solution. Sequential NIR reflectance images at 1500 - 1700 nm were used to guide the laser for selective ablation of the lesion areas. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess the selectivity of removal. This study demonstrates that high contrast NIR reflectance images can be used for the image-guided laser ablation of early demineralization from tooth occlusal surfaces.

  16. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  17. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  18. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  20. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  1. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  4. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  8. Orientação sexual em uma escola: recortes de corpos e de gênero Sexual orientation at a school: images of bodies and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Altmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da orientação sexual em uma escola municipal de ensino fundamental do Rio de Janeiro. As reflexões acerca de como uma escola desenvolve esse trabalho são desencadeadas a partir da emergência de um recorte de gênero. O fato de um maior número de meninas do que de meninos ter se disponibilizado a conceder as entrevistas conduz a uma reflexão sobre quem aborda esses assuntos com os/as adolescentes e sobre como o tema da sexualidade é focado, delimitado e inserido na escola. Pode-se dizer que há dois temas centrais em torno dos quais são organizadas as aulas sobre sexualidade - gravidez e DST's/AIDS -, aos quais estão ligados suas formas de prevenção - camisinha e métodos anticoncepcionais. A seguir, são discutidas questões sobre os diferentes modos de a escola recortar e abordar pedagogicamente os corpos de mulheres e de homens, o que é relacionado ao processo histórico de medicalização do corpo da mulher. Por fim, são discutidas algumas questões sobre alguns paradoxos enfrentados por adolescentes em relação à anticoncepção.This article deals with sexual orientation in a municipal grade school (grades 5th to 8th in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The reflections about how a school develops this work are investigated from the perspective of the emergence of an image of gender during the making up of an ethnographic study. The fact that a larger number of girls than boys allowed themselves to be interviewed leads one to question who talks about these subjects with the adolescents and how the topic of sexuality is approached, limited and inserted into the school. It can be said that there are two central topics around which sex education classes are organized: pregnancy and STD/AIDS, to which are linked the forms of prevention - the condom and birth control methods. This is followed by a discussion of issues about how the feminine and masculine bodies are viewed, which is in turn related to the historical process

  9. Feasibility of a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm for tumor segmentation in retrospectively gated PET images: phantom and clinical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Montserrat; Fechter, Tobias; Nemer, Ursula; Nanko, Norbert; Mix, Michael; Nestle, Ursula; Schaefer, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    PET/CT plays an important role in radiotherapy planning for lung tumors. Several segmentation algorithms have been proposed for PET tumor segmentation. However, most of them do not take into account respiratory motion and are not well validated. The aim of this work was to evaluate a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm (COA) for PET tumor segmentation adapted to retrospectively gated (4D) images. The evaluation involved a wide set of 4D-PET/CT acquisitions of dynamic experimental phantoms and lung cancer patients. In addition, segmentation accuracy of 4D-COA was compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms. In phantom evaluation, the physical properties of the objects defined the gold standard. In clinical evaluation, the ground truth was estimated by the STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation) consensus of three manual PET contours by experts. Algorithm evaluation with phantoms resulted in: (i) no statistically significant diameter differences for different targets and movements (Δ φ =0.3+/- 1.6 mm); (ii) reproducibility for heterogeneous and irregular targets independent of user initial interaction and (iii) good segmentation agreement for irregular targets compared to manual CT delineation in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC  =  0.66+/- 0.04 ), Positive Predictive Value (PPV  =  0.81+/- 0.06 ) and Sensitivity (Sen.  =  0.49+/- 0.05 ). In clinical evaluation, the segmented volume was in reasonable agreement with the consensus volume (difference in volume (%Vol)  =  40+/- 30 , DSC  =  0.71+/- 0.07 and PPV  =  0.90+/- 0.13 ). High accuracy in target tracking position (Δ ME) was obtained for experimental and clinical data (Δ ME{{}\\text{exp}}=0+/- 3 mm; Δ ME{{}\\text{clin}}=0.3+/- 1.4 mm). In the comparison with other lung segmentation methods, 4D-COA has shown the highest volume accuracy in both experimental and clinical data. In conclusion, the accuracy in volume

  10. A novel approach coupling neutron imaging and numerical modelling for the analysis of the impact of water on fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, Alfredo; Boillat, Pierre; Oberholzer, Pierre; Guerra, José

    2014-01-01

    A novel modelling framework for the simulation of the diffusive mass transport limitations occurring at GDL local scale of PEFCs is presented, in particular in relation with the distribution of liquid water in the porous media. The distinctive characteristic of this framework is the fact that the distribution of liquid water is not predicted by the model but it is instead mapped into the simulation model from available experimental measurements, obtained with neutron imaging. The presence of liquid water is thus included in the model as a modifier for the gas diffusion transport, and not directly calculated by the model. This allows for a coupling of experimental measurements and model development that is expected to allow a further progress of highly reliable models for the understanding of local fuel cell phenomena. A 1D cell is analyzed, and the effective diffusion coefficient and the n exponent in the diffusion correction factor is calculated from the results of the combination of modelling and experimental data. An extension of the method for a 2D cell is also introduced. - Highlights: • Novel modelling framework for the research of GDL diffusive mass transport. • Liquid water distribution is mapped into the model from neutron imaging data. • The approach provides a stronger coupling of experimental measurements and modelling. • Analysis of 1D and 2D cells presented as introduction to the development approach

  11. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  12. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  13. Front-illuminated full-frame charge-coupled-device image sensor achieves 85% peak quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Antonio S.; Davis, William V.; Des Jardin, William; Doan, Hung; Meisenzahl, Eric J.; Pace, Laurel J.; Putnam, Gloria G.; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Stevens, Eric G.; Summa, Joseph R.; Wetzel, Keith

    2002-04-01

    A high sensitivity front-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) technology has been developed by combining the transparent gate technology introduced by Kodak in 1999 with the microlens technology usually employed on interline CCDs. In this new architecture, the microlens is used to focus the incoming light onto the more transparent of the two electrodes. The new sensors offer significant increases in quantum efficiency while maintaining the performance advantages of front-illuminated full-frame CCDs including 3 pA/cm2 typical dark current at 25 degree(s)C, and 55 ke full well in a 6.8 micrometers pixel.

  14. Validation of the coupling of magnetic resonance imaging velocity measurements with computational fluid dynamics in a U bend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glor, FP; Westenberg, JJM; Vierendeels, J; Danilouchkine, M; Verdonck, P

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in vivo in combination with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to derive velocity profiles in space and time and accordingly, pressure drop and wall shear stress distribution in natural or artificial vessel segments. These hemodynamic data are difficult

  15. Imaging of elements in leaves of tobacco by solid sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, Pierre, E-mail: masson@bordeaux.inra.fr

    2014-12-01

    Plants take up and store elements according to the environment in which they are growing. Because plants are at the base of the food chain, the determination of essential elements or toxic elements in plant materials is of importance. However, it is assumed that the element content determined on selected tissues may provide more specific information than that derived from the whole plant analysis. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of solid sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry analyses for quantitative imaging of Cd and Mg in plant leaves. Leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were selected to be used as samples. To produce a two dimensional image, sections cut from leaf samples were analyzed. Cellulose doped with multi-element solution standards was used as calibration samples. Two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were used to verify the accuracy of measurements with good agreement between the measured concentrations and the certified values. Quantitative imaging revealed the inhomogeneous distribution of the selected elements. Excess of Cd and Mg tended to be focused on peripheral regions and the tip of the leaf.

  16. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  18. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  19. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  1. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  4. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2012-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  12. SU-G-IeP1-08: MR Geometric Distortion Dependency On Imaging Sequence, Acquisition Orientation and Receiver Bandwidth of a Dedicated 1.5T MR-Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M; Yuan, J; Wong, O; Yu, S [Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the 3D geometric distortion of four potential MR sequences for radiotheraptic applications, and its dependency on sequence-type, acquisition-orientation and receiver-bandwidth from a dedicated 1.5T 700mm-wide bore MR-simulator (Magnetom-Aera, Sienmens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany), using a large customized geometric accuracy phantom. Methods: This work studied 3D gradient-echo (VIBE) and spin-echo (SPACE) sequences for anatomical imaging; a specific ultra-short-TE sequence (PETRA) potentially for bone imaging and MR-based dosimetry; and a motion-insensitive sequence (BLADE) for dynamic applications like 4D-MRI. Integrated geometric-correction was employed, three orthogonal acquisition-orientations and up to three receiver-bandwidths were used, yielding 27 acquisitions for testing (Table 1a).A customized geometric accuracy phantom (polyurethane, MR/CT invisible, W×L×H:55×55×32.5cm3) was constructed and filled with 3892 spherical markers (6mm diameter, MR/CT visible) arranged on a 25mm-interval 3D isotropic-grid (Fig.1). The marker positions in MR images were quantitatively calculated and compared against those in the CT-reference using customized MatLab scripts. Results: The average distortion within various diameter-of-spherical-volumes (DSVs) and the usable DSVs under various distortion limits were measured (Tables 1b-c). It was observed that distortions fluctuated when sequence-type, acquisition-orientation or receiver-bandwidth changed (e.g. within 300mm-DSV, the lowest/highest average distortions of VIBE were 0.40mm/0.59mm, a 47.5% difference). According to AAPM-TG66 (<1mm distortion, left-most column of Table 1c), PETRA (Largest-DSV:253.9mm) has the potential on brain treatment, while BLADE (Largest-DSV:207.2mm) may need improvement for thoracic/abdominal applications. The results of VIBE (Largest-DSVs:294.3mm, the best among tested acquisitions) and SPACE (Largest-DSVs:267.7mm) suggests their potentials on head and neck

  13. Photo-orientation at liquid crystal–polymer interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is suggested that liquid crystal–polymer interfaces are coupled systems, in which the components mutually influence the orientational state of each other. The photo-orientation process at liquid crystal–polymer interfaces provides a striking example of such a coupling. Experiments show that the anisotropic structure ...

  14. Coupled transfers; Transferts couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared

  15. Impaired Tilt Suppression of Post-Rotatory Nystagmus and Cross-Coupled Head-Shaking Nystagmus in Cerebellar Lesions: Image Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Choi, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Park, Jeong-Jin; Zee, David S; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the cerebellar structures responsible for tilt suppression of post-rotatory nystagmus. We investigated ocular motor findings and MRI lesions in 73 patients with isolated cerebellar lesions who underwent recording of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) using rotatory chair tests. Tilt suppression of post-rotatory nystagmus was diminished in 27 patients (27/73, 37.0 %). The gains of the VOR and the TCs of per- and post-rotatory nystagmus did not differ between the patients with diminished and with normal tilt suppression. The patients with impaired tilt suppression showed perverted ("cross-coupled") head-shaking nystagmus (pHSN) and central positional nystagmus (CPN) more frequently than those with normal responses. Tilt suppression was impaired in five (71.4 %) of the seven patients with isolated nodulus and uvular infarction. Probabilistic lesion-mapping analysis showed that the nodulus and uvula are responsible for tilt suppression. Impaired tilt suppression may be ascribed to disruption of cerebellar contribution to the vestibular velocity-storage mechanism, which integrates information from the semicircular canals and otolith organs to help derive the brain's estimate of the head orientation relative to the pull of gravity.

  16. Coupling between creep and redox behavior in nickel - yttria stabilized zirconia observed in-situ by monochromatic neutron imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Ni-YSZ (nickel - yttria stabilized zirconia) is a material widely used for electrodes and supports in solid oxide electrochemical cells. The mechanical and electrochemical performance of these layers, and thus the whole cell, depends on their microstructure. During the initial operation of a cell...... selective neutron imaging studies of the accelerated creep phenomenon in Ni/NiO-YSZ composite during reduction and also during oxidation. This approach allowed us to observe the phase transition and the creep behavior simultaneously in-situ under SOC operation-like conditions....

  17. Study of corrosion in archaeological gilded irons by Raman imaging and a coupled scanning electron microscope-Raman system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Costantini, Ilaria; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Garcia, Laura; García, Iñaki; Castro, Kepa; Azkarate, Agustín; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    In this work, analytical and chemical imaging tools have been applied to the study of a gilded spur found in the medieval necropolis of Erenozar (Bizkaia, Spain). As a first step, a lot of portable equipment has been used to study the object in a non-invasive way. The hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment allowed us to characterize the artefact as a rare example of an iron matrix item decorated by means of a fire gilding technique. On the other hand, the use of a portable Raman system helped us to detect the main degradation compounds affecting the spur. Afterwards, further information was acquired in the laboratory by analysing detached fragments. The molecular images obtained using confocal Raman microscopy permitted us to characterize the stratigraphic succession of iron corrosions. Furthermore, the combined use of this technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was achieved owing to the use of a structural and chemical analyser interface. In this way, the molecular characterization, enhanced by the magnification feature of the SEM, allowed us to identify several micrometric degradation compounds. Finally, the effectiveness of one of the most used desalination baths (NaOH) was evaluated by comparing its effects with those provided by a reference bath (MilliQ). The comparison proved that basic treatment avoided any side effects on the spur decorated by fire gilding, compensating for the lack of bibliographic documentation in this field. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  18. Study of corrosion in archaeological gilded irons by Raman imaging and a coupled scanning electron microscope-Raman system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Costantini, Ilaria; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Garcia, Laura; García, Iñaki; Castro, Kepa; Azkarate, Agustín; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-13

    In this work, analytical and chemical imaging tools have been applied to the study of a gilded spur found in the medieval necropolis of Erenozar (Bizkaia, Spain). As a first step, a lot of portable equipment has been used to study the object in a non-invasive way. The hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment allowed us to characterize the artefact as a rare example of an iron matrix item decorated by means of a fire gilding technique. On the other hand, the use of a portable Raman system helped us to detect the main degradation compounds affecting the spur. Afterwards, further information was acquired in the laboratory by analysing detached fragments. The molecular images obtained using confocal Raman microscopy permitted us to characterize the stratigraphic succession of iron corrosions. Furthermore, the combined use of this technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was achieved owing to the use of a structural and chemical analyser interface. In this way, the molecular characterization, enhanced by the magnification feature of the SEM, allowed us to identify several micrometric degradation compounds. Finally, the effectiveness of one of the most used desalination baths (NaOH) was evaluated by comparing its effects with those provided by a reference bath (MilliQ). The comparison proved that basic treatment avoided any side effects on the spur decorated by fire gilding, compensating for the lack of bibliographic documentation in this field.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Coupled retrieval of aerosol properties and land surface reflection using the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; van Harten, Gerard; Diner, David J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Seidel, Felix C.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Dubovik, Oleg

    2017-07-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft since October 2010. In step-and-stare operation mode, AirMSPI acquires radiance and polarization data in bands centered at 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, 865*, and 935 nm (* denotes polarimetric bands). The imaged area covers about 10 km by 11 km and is typically observed from nine viewing angles between ±66° off nadir. For a simultaneous retrieval of aerosol properties and surface reflection using AirMSPI, an efficient and flexible retrieval algorithm has been developed. It imposes multiple types of physical constraints on spectral and spatial variations of aerosol properties as well as spectral and temporal variations of surface reflection. Retrieval uncertainty is formulated by accounting for both instrumental errors and physical constraints. A hybrid Markov-chain/adding-doubling radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to combine the computational strengths of these two methods in modeling polarized RT in vertically inhomogeneous and homogeneous media, respectively. Our retrieval approach is tested using 27 AirMSPI data sets with low to moderately high aerosol loadings, acquired during four NASA field campaigns plus one AirMSPI preengineering test flight. The retrieval results including aerosol optical depth, single-scattering albedo, aerosol size and refractive index are compared with Aerosol Robotic Network reference data. We identify the best angular combinations for 2, 3, 5, and 7 angle observations from the retrieval quality assessment of various angular combinations. We also explore the benefits of polarimetric and multiangular measurements and target revisits in constraining aerosol property and surface reflection retrieval.

  20. Crystallographic orientation of facets and planar defects in functional nanostructures elucidated by nano-focused coherent diffractive X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Fernández, Sara; Eymery, Joël; Hofmann, Jan Philipp; Gao, Lu; Carnis, Jérôme; Labat, Stéphane; Favre-Nicolin, Vincent; Hensen, Emiel J M; Thomas, Olivier; Schülli, Tobias U; Leake, Steven J

    2018-02-23

    The physical and chemical properties of nanostructures depend on their surface facets. Here, we exploit a pole figure approach to determine the three-dimensional orientation matrix of a nanostructure from a single Bragg reflection measured with a coherent nano-focused X-ray beam. The signature of any truncated (faceted) crystal produces a crystal truncation rod, which corresponds to a streak of intensity in reciprocal space normal to the surface. When two or more non-parallel facets are present, both the crystal orientation and the crystal facets can be identified. This enables facets to be rapidly indexed and uncommon facets, and planar defects, that have been difficult to study before to be identified. We demonstrate the technique with (i) epitaxial core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum-wells grown on GaN nanowires, where surface facets and planar defects are determined, and (ii) single randomly oriented highly faceted tetrahedrahexal Pt nanoparticles. The methodology is applicable to a broad range of nanocrystals and provides a unique insight into the connection between structure and properties of nanomaterials.

  1. Studies oriented to optimize the image quality of the small animal PET: Clear PET, modifying some of the parameters of the reconstruction algorithm IMF-OSEM 3D on the data acquisition simulated with GAMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadas, M.; Mendoza, J.; Embid, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents studies oriented to optimize the image quality of the small animal PET: Clear- PET. Certain figures of merit (FOM) were used to assess a quantitative value of the contrast and delectability of lesions. The optimization was carried out modifying some of the parameters in the reconstruction software of the scanner, imaging a mini-Derenzo phantom and a cylinder phantom with background activity and two hot spheres. Specifically, it was evaluated the incidence of the inter-update Metz filter (IMF) inside the iterative reconstruction algorithm 3D OSEM. The data acquisition was simulated using the GAMOS framework (Monte Carlo simulation). Integrating GAMOS output with the reconstruction software of the scanner was an additional novelty of this work, to achieve this, data sets were written with the list-mode format (LMF) of ClearPET. In order to verify the optimum values obtained, we foresee to make real acquisitions in the ClearPET of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs

  2. Oriented Shape Index Histograms for Cell Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    evaluate our new feature descriptor using a public dataset consisting of HEp-2 cell images from indirect immunoflourescence lighting. Our results show that we can improve classification performance significantly when including the shape index orientation. Notably, we show that shape index orientation...

  3. Satisfaction in male homosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W; Bates, J E

    1978-01-01

    Little information exists regarding factors in the satisfaction and stability of male homosexual relationships. On the basis of interviews with 14 male couples an open-ended questionnaire was developed concerning gay couples' relationships. This questionnaire and a modified version of the Marital Relationship Inventory, called here the Couples Relationship Inventory (CRI), were administered to 28 couples who described themselves as in a primary, relatively long-term relationship. Couples' descriptions of the successfulness of their relationships in conventional, heterosexual-oriented terms on the CRI were similar to their descriptions on the more homosexual-oriented, open-ended questionnaire. The study is seen as providing a point of departure for future research on gay relationships and the behavior transactions that may differentiate satisfying from unsatisfying relationships.

  4. funcLAB/G-service-oriented architecture for standards-based analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging in HealthGrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberich, Stephan G; Bhandekar, Manasee; Chervenak, Ann; Kesselman, Carl; Nelson, Marvin D

    2007-01-01

    Functional MRI is successfully being used in clinical and research applications including preoperative planning, language mapping, and outcome monitoring. However, clinical use of fMRI is less widespread due to its complexity of imaging, image workflow, post-processing, and lack of algorithmic standards hindering result comparability. As a consequence, wide-spread adoption of fMRI as clinical tool is low contributing to the uncertainty of community physicians how to integrate fMRI into practice. In addition, training of physicians with fMRI is in its infancy and requires clinical and technical understanding. Therefore, many institutions which perform fMRI have a team of basic researchers and physicians to perform fMRI as a routine imaging tool. In order to provide fMRI as an advanced diagnostic tool to the benefit of a larger patient population, image acquisition and image post-processing must be streamlined, standardized, and available at any institution which does not have these resources available. Here we describe a software architecture, the functional imaging laboratory (funcLAB/G), which addresses (i) standardized image processing using Statistical Parametric Mapping and (ii) its extension to secure sharing and availability for the community using standards-based Grid technology (Globus Toolkit). funcLAB/G carries the potential to overcome the limitations of fMRI in clinical use and thus makes standardized fMRI available to the broader healthcare enterprise utilizing the Internet and HealthGrid Web Services technology.

  5. High performance visible and near-infrared charge-coupled-device array for spectroscopy applications. [in Shuttle Image Spectrometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weng-Lyang; Hudson, Leland R.; Tseng, Hsin-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a scientific CCD array for use in NASA's Shuttle Image Spectrometer Experiment. The device is a four-phase, buried-channel CCD structure that operates in the frame-transfer mode. The sensor consists of 64 x 404 pixels, has a 100 percent fill factor, and operates in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. In operation, the 404 horizontal elements provide spatial information, while the 64 vertical elements give spectral information covering the wavelength range of 400 to 1000 nm in 10 nm increments. The high full-well capacity of each pixel and low noise floor yield a dynamic range of more than 95 dB. In addition, the device has been designed to have good linearity characteristics. The unique dual-output structure allows a horizontal row to be read out to the right or to the left, or it can be split from the middle to both right and left output circuits simultaneously for high speed applications. The power dissipation of the device is about 60 mW.

  6. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  7. Validation of the coupling of magnetic resonance imaging velocity measurements with computational fluid dynamics in a U bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glor, F P; Westenberg, J J M; Vierendeels, J; Danilouchkine, M; Verdonck, P

    2002-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in vivo in combination with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to derive velocity profiles in space and time and accordingly, pressure drop and wall shear stress distribution in natural or artificial vessel segments. These hemodynamic data are difficult or impossible to acquire directly in vivo. Therefore, research has been performed combining MRI and CFD for flow simulations in flow phantoms, such as bends or anastomoses, and even in human vessels such as the aorta, the carotid, and the abdominal bifurcation. There is, however, no unanimity concerning the use of MRI velocity measurements as input for the inflow boundary condition of a CFD simulation. In this study, different input possibilities for the inflow boundary conditions are compared. MRI measurements of steady and pulsatile flow were performed on a U bend phantom, representing the aorta geometry. PAMFLOW (ESI Software, Krimpen aan den Ussel, The Netherlands), an industrial CFD software package, was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. Three main parameters were found to influence the choice of an inflow boundary condition type. First, the flow rate through a vessel should be exact, since it proves to be a determining factor for the accuracy of the velocity profile. The other decisive parameters are the physiology of the flow profile and the required computer processing unit time. Our comparative study indicates that the best way to handle an inflow boundary condition is to use the velocities measured by MRI at the inflow plane as being fixed velocities. However, before using these MRI velocity data, they first should be corrected for the partial volume effect by filtering and second scaled in order to obtain the correct flow rate. This implies that a reliable flow rate measurement absolutely is needed for CFD calculations based on MRI velocity measurements.

  8. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  9. On moths and butterflies, or how to orient oneself through images. Georges-Didi Huberman’s art criticism in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses the motif of the butterfly and other Lepidoptera that Georges Didi-Huberman occasionally addressed in the two volumes of Essais sur l’apparition, Phasmes (1998 and Phalènes (2013. The hypothesis is that this motif can be viewed as a figural model of conceiving two essential elements of all art history, namely the nature of the image and its temporality. The fluttering butterfly becomes an occasion to explain Didi-Huberman’s art history by relating its fundamental dimensions to other key figures with which he is implicitly or explicitly in dialogue: Aloïs Riegl, Franz Wickhoff or Aby Warburg. Whereas the content of their specific art histories differs, they all resist the canonical conception of the image as an entity whose place and ‘immanent sense’ is fixed in a diachronic narrative. Alternatively, they develop an art historical prototype where the image is thought of as an essentially relational entity whose latency of sense emerges when it is dialectically superposed to other images. Art history does not function as the stable chronological juxtaposition of artefacts but as the extraction of a virtual sense through the anachronistic superposition of images kept in movement. When the diachronic arrangement of primary sources whose sense depends on the world where they emerged fails, art history interiorizes a speculative epistemology where sense is equivalent to an associative force of images. Reading Didi-Huberman nowadays confronts the art historiographer with a fundamental epistemological question: what is the structure of the interpretative process presupposed in all story of art? An earlier version of this essay has been published in the Romanian journal Images, Imagini, Images 5/2016.

  10. Shallow subsurface imaging of the Piano di Pezza active normal fault (central Italy) by high-resolution refraction and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Fabio; Tulliani, Valerio; Fierro, Elisa; Sapia, Vincenzo; Civico, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The Piano di Pezza fault is the north-westernmost segment of the >20 km long Ovindoli-Pezza active normal fault-system (central Italy). Although existing paleoseismic data document high vertical Holocene slip rates (~1 mm/yr) and a remarkable seismogenic potential of this fault, its subsurface setting and Pleistocene cumulative displacement are still poorly known. We investigated for the first time by means of high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements the shallow subsurface of a key section of the Piano di Pezza fault. Our surveys cross a ~5 m-high fault scarp that was generated by repeated surface-rupturing earthquakes displacing some Late Holocene alluvial fans. We provide 2-D Vp and resistivity images which clearly show significant details of the fault structure and the geometry of the shallow basin infill material down to 50 m depth. We can estimate the dip (~50°) and the Holocene vertical displacement of the master fault (~10 m). We also recognize in the hangingwall some low-velocity/low-resistivity regions that we relate to packages of colluvial wedges derived from scarp degradation, which may represent the record of several paleo-earthquakes older than the Late Holocene events previously recognized by paleoseismic trenching. Conversely, due to the limited investigation depth of seismic and electrical tomography, the estimation of the cumulative amount of Pleistocene throw is hampered. Therefore, to increase the depth of investigation, we performed 7 TDEM measurements along the electrical profile using a 50 m loop size both in central and offset configuration. The recovered 1-D resistivity models show a good match with 2-D resistivity images in the near surface. Moreover, TDEM inversion results indicate that in the hangingwall, ~200 m away from the surface fault trace, the carbonate pre-Quaternary basement may be found at ~90-100 m depth. The combined approach of electrical and

  11. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging of the ankle joint - visualization of ligaments and tendons by standard slice orientations; Die diagnostische Wertigkeit der Magnetresonanztomographie des oberen Sprunggelenks - Darstellung von Baendern und Sehnen in den Standardschichtorientierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Siewert, C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Maeurer, J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Vogl, T.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Suedkamp, N. [Klinik fuer Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the capability of high field strength MRI in depicting clinically important tendons and ligaments of the ankle joint using slice orientations parallel to the standard space directions without angulation. Patients (65) whose ankle joint complaints were not sufficiently clarified by conventional radiology sphere underwent MRI using plain T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo sequences. Tendons and ligaments were classified by three independent radiologists with regard to their perceptibility on images of the different slice orientations. Good perceptibility of at least two-thirds of each structure was observed with the possibility for a decision regarding continuity or rupture of the remaining part was given most frequently in the following slice orientations: Axially for the tendons of peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and extensor hallucis longus muscles, and for the calcanear tendor (each over 94% of cases), anterior (68%) talofibular ligament, deltoid (77%), anterior (63%), and posterior (72%) tibiofibular ligaments and coronally for the calcaneofibular (39%) and posterior talofibular ligaments (70%). The sagittal orientation was never the favored one. Thus in most cases tendons and ligaments of the ankle joint can be sufficiently visualized by non-angulated spin echo sequences in standard slice orientations if the examination is performed in at least two slice directions. [Deutsch] Studienziel: Bewertung der Darstellungsqualitaet von klinisch bedeutsamen Sehnen- und Bandstrukturen im Bereich des oberen Sprunggelenks in Hochfeld-MRT-Aufnahmen bei Schichtorientierung parallel zu den Standardraumebenen ohne Angulierung. Material und Methodik: Bei Verwendung nativer T{sub 1}-gewichteter Spinechosequenzen wurden 65 Patienten mit konventionell-radiologisch nicht ausreichend abgeklaerten Beschwerden im oberen Sprunggelenkbereich untersucht und

  12. 3D spectrum imaging of multi-wall carbon nanotube coupled π-surface modes utilising electron energy-loss spectra acquired using a STEM/Enfina system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepujak, A.; Bangert, U.; Gutierrez-Sosa, A.; Harvey, A.J.; Blank, V.D.; Kulnitskiy, B.A.; Batov, D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilised electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra acquired in the plasmon (2-10 eV) regime in order to probe delocalised π-electronic states of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Interpretation of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra of MWCNTs in the 2-10 eV regime. Carbon (accepted for publication); Blank et al. J. Appl. Phys. 91 (2002) 1657). In the present contribution, EEL spectra were acquired from a 2D raster defined on a bottle-shaped MWCNT, using a Gatan UHV Enfina system attached to a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The technique utilised to isolate and sequentially filter each of the volume and surface resonances is described in detail. Utilising a scale for the intensity of a filtered mode enables one to 'see' the distribution of each resonance in the raster. This enables striking 3D resonance-filtered spectrum images (SIs) of π-collective modes to be observed. Red-shift of the lower energy split π-surface resonance provides explicit evidence of π-surface mode coupling predicted for thin graphitic films (Lucas et al. Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 2888). Resonance-filtered SIs are also compared to non-filtered SIs with suppressed surface contributions, acquired utilising a displaced collector aperture. The present filtering technique is seen to isolate surface contributions more effectively, and without the significant loss of statistics, associated with the displaced collector aperture mode. Isolation of collective modes utilising 3D resonance-filtered spectrum imaging, demonstrates a valuable method for 'pinpointing' the location of discrete modes in irregularly shaped nanostructures

  13. An evaluation of object-oriented image analysis techniques to identify motorized vehicle effects in semi-arid to arid ecosystems of the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Human disturbance is a leading ecosystem stressor. Human-induced modifications include transportation networks, areal disturbances due to resource extraction, and recreation activities. High-resolution imagery and object-oriented classification rather than pixel-based techniques have successfully identified roads, buildings, and other anthropogenic features. Three commercial, automated feature-extraction software packages (Visual Learning Systems' Feature Analyst, ENVI Feature Extraction, and Definiens Developer) were evaluated by comparing their ability to effectively detect the disturbed surface patterns from motorized vehicle traffic. Each package achieved overall accuracies in the 70% range, demonstrating the potential to map the surface patterns. The Definiens classification was more consistent and statistically valid. Copyright ?? 2010 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Super-resolution imaging with Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4BS enables direct visualization of cellulose orientation and cell connection architecture in onion epidermis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Schulz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    approaches have been developed; in this paper we explore the potential of such approaches for the direct visualization of cellulose. Results To ensure optimal imaging we determined the spectral properties of PFS-stained tissue. PFS was found not to affect cell viability in the onion bulb scale epidermis. We...

  15. N7 dark field two-bar in 0.33NA EUVL: Mitigation of CD Bossung tilts caused by strong coupling between the feature's primary and 1st self-image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, T.; van Adrichem, P.; de Winter, L.; Hsu, S.; Finders, J.; Wittebrood, F.; van de Kerkhof, M.

    2017-03-01

    We report a study into intensity-driven mask 3D effects for N7 dark field two-bars in EUVL. For these features, traditional pupil optimization "rules" are advising to center a symmetric leaf shape illumination at the pupil plane location σY = (-0.64, 0.64). Experimentally determined critical dimension Bossungs for this exposure condition however yield an extreme best focus separation due to an additional Bossung tilt appearing at defocus values beyond 20 nm for the bottom trench. The Bossung tilts are caused by a strong coupling between the primary image of the two-bar and its first local pitch-induced self-image. The coupling to the self-image can be suppressed and, hence, the overlapping process window can be enhanced by the application of asymmetric sources, or by using standard dipole 90Y or leaf shape illuminations in combination with optimally placed sub-resolution assist features.

  16. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with digital image colorimetric analysis for detection of total iron in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Guorong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Shengguo

    2017-09-01

    A simple and low cost assay for total iron in various samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with digital scanning image analysis was proposed. Orthogonal experiment design was utilized to optimize the amount of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, O-phenanthroline concentration and buffer pH. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.047-1.0μgmL -1 (R 2 >0.99) of iron. The limit of detection (LOD) for iron was 14.1μgL -1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 46.5μgL -1 . The relative standard deviations for seven replicate determinations of 0.5μgmL -1 of iron was 3.75%. The method was successfully applied for analysis of total iron in water and food samples without using any spectral instrument and it could have a potential industrial impact in developing fast and portable devices to analyze the iron content in water and certain foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  18. An adaptation of astronomical image processing enables characterization and functional 3D mapping of individual sites of excitation-contraction coupling in rat cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinghai; Kaestner, Lars; Schröder, Laura; Guo, Jia; Lipp, Peter

    2017-11-14

    In beating cardiomyocytes, synchronized localized Ca 2+ transients from thousands of active excitation-contraction coupling sites (ECC couplons) comprising plasma and sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane calcium channels are important determinants of the heart's performance. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the properties of ECC couplons is limited by the lack of appropriate experimental and analysis strategies. We designed CaCLEAN to untangle the fundamental characteristics of ECC couplons by combining the astronomer's CLEAN algorithm with known properties of calcium diffusion. CaCLEAN empowers the investigation of fundamental properties of ECC couplons in beating cardiomyocytes without pharmacological interventions. Upon examining individual ECC couplons at the nanoscopic level, we reveal their roles in the negative amplitude-frequency relationship and in β-adrenergic stimulation, including decreasing and increasing firing reliability, respectively. CaCLEAN combined with 3D confocal imaging of beating cardiomyocytes provides a functional 3D map of active ECC couplons (on average, 17,000 per myocyte). CaCLEAN will further enlighten the ECC-couplon-remodelling processes that underlie cardiac diseases.

  19. Microspatial variability in community structure and photophysiology of calcified macroalgal microbiomes revealed by coupling of hyperspectral and high-resolution fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. G.; Williamson, C. J.; Brodie, J.; Barillé, L.; Launeau, P.; Lavaud, J.; Yallop, M. L.; Jesus, B.

    2016-02-01

    Calcifying coralline macroalgae provide biogenic habitats colonised by epiphytic microalgae that contribute significantly to community productivity. Georeferenced hyperspectral and high-resolution fluorescence imaging were coupled to microspatially mapped community composition and relative biomass of macroalgal host and epiphyte microalgal groups, and their weighted contributions to productivity within host fronds of Corallina officinalis on upper and lower zones of a rocky shore were determined. Lower shore epiphytes were dominated by filamentous diatoms (Bacillariophyta), confined to the apex of the frond structure, which were low light acclimated but retained a high capacity for photoprotective down regulation and contributed up to 51% of total community productivity. Upper shore epiphytes were dominated by green algae (Chlorophyta) and single-celled diatoms (principally Cocconeis spp.), which were high light acclimated but present at far lower relative biomass and contributed negligibly to productivity. The host, C. officinalis was the main primary producer. Variation in light environment resulting from differences in shore height and shading within the host macroalga, likely play a large role in determining patterns in epiphyte community structure, biomass and productivity observed. Additionally, microspatial gradients in photophysiological parameters along the host macroalga likely resulted from age-dependent variation in pigments as well as the gradient in light environment.

  20. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M.

    2016-01-01

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm) 2 pixels.

  1. 3D imaging using X-Ray tomography and SEM combined FIB to study non isothermal creep damage of (111) oriented samples of γ / γ ′ nickel base single crystal superalloy MC2

    KAUST Repository

    Jouiad, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented investigation consisting of the association of X-Ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Focus Ion Beam (SEM-FIB) is conducted to perform a 3D reconstruction imaging. These techniques are applied to study the non-isothermal creep behavior of close (111) oriented samples of MC2 nickel base superalloys single crystal. The issue here is to develop a strategy to come out with the 3D rafting of γ\\' particles and its interaction whether with dislocation structures or/and with the preexisting voids. This characterization is uncommonly performed away from the conventional studied orientation [001] in order to feed the viscoplastic modeling leading to its improvement by taking into account the crystal anisotropy. The creep tests were performed at two different conditions: classical isothermal tests at 1050°C under 140 MPa and a non isothermal creep test consisting of one overheating at 1200°C and 30 seconds dwell time during the isothermal creep life. The X-Ray tomography shows a great deformation heterogeneity that is pronounced for the non-isothermal tested samples. This deformation localization seems to be linked to the preexisting voids. Nevertheless, for both tested samples, the voids coalescence is the precursor of the observed damage leading to failure. SEM-FIB investigation by means of slice and view technique gives 3D views of the rafted γ\\' particles and shows that γ corridors evolution seems to be the main creep rate controlling parameter. © 2012 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  2. Imaging 50,000 Oriented Ovoid Depressions Using LiDAR Elevation Data Elucidates the Enigmatic Character of The Carolina Bays: Wind & Wave, Or Cosmic Impact Detritus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davias, M. E.; Harris, T. H. S.

    2017-12-01

    80 years after aerial photography revealed thousands of aligned oval depressions on the USA's Atlantic Coastal Plain, the geomorphology of the "Carolina bays" remains enigmatic. Geologists and astronomers alike hold that invoking a cosmic impact for their genesis is indefensible. Rather, the bays are commonly attributed to gradualistic fluvial, marine and/or aeolian processes operating during the Pleistocene era. The major axis orientations of Carolina bays are noted for varying statistically by latitude, suggesting that, should there be any merit to a cosmic hypothesis, a highly accurate triangulation network and suborbital analysis would yield a locus and allow for identification of a putative impact site. Digital elevation maps using LiDAR technology offer the precision necessary to measure their exquisitely-carved circumferential rims and orientations reliably. To support a comprehensive geospatial survey of Carolina bay landforms (Survey) we generated about a million km2 of false-color hsv-shaded bare-earth topographic maps as KML-JPEG tile sets for visualization on virtual globes. Considering the evidence contained in the Survey, we maintain that interdisciplinary research into a possible cosmic origin should be encouraged. Consensus opinion does hold a cosmic impact accountable for an enigmatic Pleistocene event - the Australasian tektite strewn field - despite the failure of a 60-year search to locate the causal astroblem. Ironically, a cosmic link to the Carolina bays is considered soundly falsified by the identical lack of a causal impact structure. Our conjecture suggests both these events are coeval with a cosmic impact into the Great Lakes area during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, at 786 ka ± 5 k. All Survey data and imagery produced for the Survey are available on the Internet to support independent research. A table of metrics for 50,000 bays examined for the Survey is available from an on-line Google Fusion Table: https://goo.gl/XTHKC4 . Each bay

  3. The effects of body image perceptions and sociocommunicative orientations on self-esteem, depression, and identification and involvement in the gay community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, Jason S; Knapp, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nonverbally communicated messages based on weight and physical appearance related to antifat attitudes, image fixation, and discrimination based on physical appearance and weight on bisexual, gay, and lesbian people. Using an Internet-based sample of 233 participants (88% Anglo/Saxon or Caucasian), the results indicated Richmond and Valencic's (2000) conceptualization of image fixation negatively related to an individual's self-esteem and positively related to reported levels of depression. Results also indicated people with highly assertive and responsive communicative behaviors were less likely to hold antifat attitudes and less likely to dislike fat people. Differences between gay/bisexual males and lesbian/bisexual females were also analyzed, and gay/bisexual males had significantly higher levels of image fixation, antifat attitudes, dislike of fat people, weight locus of control, perceptions of self physical/weight discrimination, and depression than lesbian/bisexual females. The results also indicated lesbian/bisexual females had significantly higher levels of self-esteem and interaction and involvement within the bisexual and gay and lesbian community than gay/bisexual men.

  4. [Tree-crown information extraction of farmland returned to forests using QuickBird image based on object-oriented approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Dao-li

    2010-09-01

    The improvement of segmentation algorithm and the optimization of feature space are the key factors of improving the accuracy of tree-crown information extraction, and are also the urgent problems of tree-crown information extraction using high resolution images. In the present study, the spectral threshold method was used on the first-class segmentation of QuickBird multi-spectral image to obtain vegetation regions. On the second-class segmentation, the improved algorithm based on edge wa used to segment the panchromatic image, which was processed by the non-linear filtering. Afterwards, the feature space consisting of spectrum, shape and texture features was selected to extract tree-crown information. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 84.67% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.7953. The corresponding results of the traditional method are 67.67% and 0.6273. The method in this paper can achieve a more precise information extraction of the tree-crown and the results can meet the demand of accurate monitoring and decision-making.

  5. A multimodal microcharacterisation of trace-element zonation and crystallographic orientation in natural cassiterite by combining cathodoluminescence, EBSD, EPMA and contribution of confocal Raman-in-SEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, G; Lerouge, C; Schmidt, U

    2018-01-16

    In cassiterite, tin is associated with metals (titanium, niobium, tantalum, indium, tungsten, iron, manganese, mercury). Knowledge of mineral chemistry and trace-element distribution is essential for: the understanding of ore formation, the exploration phase, the feasibility of ore treatment, and disposal/treatment of tailings after the exploitation phase. However, the availability of analytical methods make these characterisations difficult. We present a multitechnical approach to chemical and structural data that includes scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based imaging and microanalysis techniques such as: secondary and backscattered electrons, cathodoluminescence (CL), electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman-imaging integrated in a SEM (RISE). The presented results show the complementarity of the used analytical techniques. SEM, CL, EBSD, EPMA provide information from the interaction of an electron beam with minerals, leading to atomistic information about their composition, whereas RISE, Raman spectroscopy and imaging completes the studies with information about molecular vibrations, which are sensitive to structural modifications of the minerals. The correlation of Raman bands with the presence/absence of Nb, Ta, Fe (heterovalent substitution) and Ti (homovalent substitution) is established at a submicrometric scale. Combination of the different techniques makes it possible to establish a direct link between chemical and crystallographic data of cassiterite. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Orientation field estimation for latent fingerprint enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie; Jain, Anil K

    2013-04-01

    Identifying latent fingerprints is of vital importance for law enforcement agencies to apprehend criminals and terrorists. Compared to live-scan and inked fingerprints, the image quality of latent fingerprints is much lower, with complex image background, unclear ridge structure, and even overlapping patterns. A robust orientation field estimation algorithm is indispensable for enhancing and recognizing poor quality latents. However, conventional orientation field estimation algorithms, which can satisfactorily process most live-scan and inked fingerprints, do not provide acceptable results for most latents. We believe that a major limitation of conventional algorithms is that they do not utilize prior knowledge of the ridge structure in fingerprints. Inspired by spelling correction techniques in natural language processing, we propose a novel fingerprint orientation field estimation algorithm based on prior knowledge of fingerprint structure. We represent prior knowledge of fingerprints using a dictionary of reference orientation patches. which is constructed using a set of true orientation fields, and the compatibility constraint between neighboring orientation patches. Orientation field estimation for latents is posed as an energy minimization problem, which is solved by loopy belief propagation. Experimental results on the challenging NIST SD27 latent fingerprint database and an overlapped latent fingerprint database demonstrate the advantages of the proposed orientation field estimation algorithm over conventional algorithms.

  7. HeNe laser (633 nm)-coupled confocal microscope allows simulating magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography scan of the brain and eye: a noninvasive optical approach applicable to small laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping-Pin; Romme, Edwin; van der Spek, Peter J; Dirven, Clemens M F; Willemsen, Rob; Kros, Johan M

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are noninvasive medical imaging techniques used for the detailed visualization of internal organs of the human body. Because CT uses X-rays for imaging, there is a risk of radiation exposure. In contrast, MRI uses radiowaves and magnetic fields for imaging; thus, there are no reported biological hazards. However, neither MRI nor CT is suitable as a noninvasive imaging tool applicable in small laboratory animals such as zebrafish embryos or larvae. The recently established micro-CT scanner is only suitable for scanning adult fish and a staining procedure is required for imaging. In addition, CT-based scanning is generally more suitable for skeletal imaging but not for visualization of soft tissues because of its lower contrast. In this study, we evaluated whether 633 nm HeNe laser-coupled confocal microscope allows simulating MRI/CT scan and imaging soft tissues such as brain and eye in zebrafish embryos/larvae. We show that the 633 nm HeNe laser can penetrate well into intact brain and eye of zebrafish. It represents a noninvasive imaging method with high resolution while not requiring contrast agents, enabling the detection of differential signals from normal and pathological organs such as brain and eye.

  8. ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini M.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  9. Conception et réalisation d’ un environnement virtuel d'apprentissage collaboratif, orienté métaphore spatiale, couplé avec un système observateur d’usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bousmah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research presented in this article is to describe the design of a virtual environment for collaborative learning based on a (work space metaphor coupled with a multi-agent system (MAS. This MAS monitor serves to extract the relevant data related to the interaction of the various actors with the various functionalities of the environment at different levels of abstractions. We will show that the multi-agents vision of this system allows the visualisation and the reporting for describing a collaborative distance learning sessions.

  10. A conditioned visual orientation requires the ellipsoid body in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm based on a flight simulator in which a stationary flying fly could control the rotation of a visual object. By coupling aversive heat shocks to a fly's orientation toward one side of the visual object, we found that the fly could be conditioned to orientate toward the left or right side of the frontal visual object and retain this conditioned visual orientation. The lower and upper visual fields have different roles in conditioned visual orientation. Transfer experiments showed that conditioned visual orientation could generalize between visual targets of different sizes, compactness, or vertical positions, but not of contour orientation. Rut-Type I adenylyl cyclase and Dnc-phosphodiesterase were dispensable for visual orientation conditioning. Normal activity and scb signaling in R3/R4d neurons of the ellipsoid body were required for visual orientation conditioning. Our studies established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm and examined the behavioral properties and neural circuitry of visual orientation, an important component of the insect's spatial navigation. © 2014 Guo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  12. Resource Contributions, Gender Orientation, and Childbearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource Contributions, Gender Orientation, and Childbearing Decision Making in Ghana; The case of Urban Couples. Akosua Adomako Ampofo. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rrias.v15i2.22886 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Coupled retrieval of water cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties using the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; van Harten, G.; Diner, D. J.; Rheingans, B. E.; Tosca, M.; Seidel, F. C.; Bull, M. A.; Tkatcheva, I. N.; McDuffie, J. L.; Garay, M. J.; Davis, A. B.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Brian, C.; Alexandrov, M. D.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. AirMSPI acquires radiance and polarization data in bands centered at 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, 865*, and 935 nm (*denotes polarimetric bands). In sweep mode, georectified images cover an area of 80-100 km (along track) by 10-25 km (across track) between ±66° off nadir, with a map-projected spatial resolution of 25 meters. An efficient and flexible retrieval algorithm has been developed using AirMSPI polarimetric bands for simultaneous retrieval of cloud and above-cloud aerosol microphysical properties. We design a three-step retrieval approach, namely 1) estimating effective droplet size distribution using polarimetric cloudbow observations and using it as initial guess for Step 2; 2) combining water cloud and aerosol above cloud retrieval by fitting polarimetric signals at all scattering angles (e.g. from 80° to 180°); and 3) constructing a lookup table of radiance for a set of cloud optical depth grids using aerosol and cloud information retrieved from Step 2 and then estimating pixel-scale cloud optical depth based on 1D radiative transfer (RT) theory by fitting the AirMSPI radiance. Retrieval uncertainty is formulated by accounting for instrumental errors and constraints imposed on spectral variations of aerosol and cloud droplet optical properties. As the forward RT model, a hybrid approach is developed to combine the computational strengths of Markov-chain and adding-doubling methods to model polarized RT in a coupled aerosol, Rayleigh and cloud system. Our retrieval approach is tested using 134 AirMSPI datasets acquired during NASA ORACLES field campaign in 09/2016, with low to high aerosol loadings. For validation, the retrieved aerosol optical depths and cloud-top heights are compared to coincident High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) data, and the droplet size parameters including effective radius and

  14. Mobility and orientation aid for blind persons using artificial vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Gusberti, Adrian; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Guzzo, MartIn; Nasisi, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Blind or vision-impaired persons are limited in their normal life activities. Mobility and orientation of blind persons is an ever-present research subject because no total solution has yet been reached for these activities that pose certain risks for the affected persons. The current work presents the design and development of a device conceived on capturing environment information through stereoscopic vision. The images captured by a couple of video cameras are transferred and processed by configurable and sequential FPGA and DSP devices that issue action signals to a tactile feedback system. Optimal processing algorithms are implemented to perform this feedback in real time. The components selected permit portability; that is, to readily get used to wearing the device

  15. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network.......Various effects of coupling between crossed-dipole antennas are analyzed and by using an arbitrary feeding network some generality is preserved. With one cross excited and another cross acting as a parasitic loaded antenna, coupling losses and gain and polarization losses are presented...

  16. Sensitivity analysis for plane orientation in three-dimensional cephalometric analysis based on superimposition of serial cone beam computed tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravère, M O; Major, P W; Carey, J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential errors associated with superimposition of serial cone beam CT (CBCT) images utilizing reference planes based on cranial base landmarks using a sensitivity analysis. Methods CBCT images from 62 patients participating in a maxillary expansion clinical trial were analysed. The left and right auditory external meatus (AEM), dorsum foramen magnum (DFM) and the midpoint between the left and right foramen spinosum (ELSA) were used to define a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical reference co-ordinate system. Intraclass correlation coefficients for all four landmarks were obtained. Transformation of the reference system was carried out using the four landmarks and mathematical comparison of values. Results Excellent intrareliability values for each dimension were obtained for each landmark. Evaluation of the method to transform the co-ordinate system was first done by comparing interlandmark distances before and after transformations, giving errors in lengths in the order of 10–14% (software rounding error). A sensitivity evaluation was performed by adding 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm and 1 mm error in one axis of the ELSA. A positioning error of 0.25 mm in the ELSA can produce up to 1.0 mm error in other cranial base landmark co-ordinates. These errors could be magnified to distant landmarks where in some cases menton and infraorbital landmarks were displaced 4–6 mm. Conclusions Minor variations in location of the ELSA, both the AEM and the DFM landmarks produce large and potentially clinically significant uncertainty in co-ordinate system alignment. PMID:20841457

  17. System for creating orientation maps using TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundenberger, J.J.; Morawiec, A.; Bouzy, E.; Lecomte, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is already extensively used for creating orientation-based microstructure images of polycrystalline materials. In an analogous way, Kikuchi patterns have been recently applied for creating polycrystalline orientation maps using a transmission electron microscope. Main components of the new system are similar to those of the SEM-based systems. The first steps are pattern acquisition and correction of the images. They are subsequently followed by automatic indexing of the patterns. Finally, from orientations obtained in a grid of points, a map is created. The system using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has a good spatial resolution of about 10 nm. Its accuracy in orientation determination (∼0.1 deg. ) is better than the accuracy of EBSD systems

  18. Aesthetic Judgement of Orientation in Modern Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mather

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When creating an artwork, the artist makes a decision regarding the orientation at which the work is to be hung based on their aesthetic judgement and the message conveyed by the piece. Is the impact or aesthetic appeal of a work diminished when it is hung at an incorrect orientation? To investigate this question, Experiment 1 asked whether naïve observers can appreciate the correct orientation (as defined by the artist of 40 modern artworks, some of which are entirely abstract. Eighteen participants were shown 40 paintings in a series of trials. Each trial presented all four cardinal orientations on a computer screen, and the participant was asked to select the orientation that was most attractive or meaningful. Results showed that the correct orientation was selected in 48% of trials on average, significantly above the 25% chance level, but well below perfect performance. A second experiment investigated the extent to which the 40 paintings contained recognisable content, which may have mediated orientation judgements. Recognition rates varied from 0% for seven of the paintings to 100% for five paintings. Orientation judgements in Experiment 1 correlated significantly with “meaningful” content judgements in Experiment 2: 42% of the variance in orientation judgements in Experiment 1 was shared with recognition of meaningful content in Experiment 2. For the seven paintings in which no meaningful content at all was detected, 41% of the variance in orientation judgements was shared with variance in a physical measure of image content, Fourier amplitude spectrum slope. For some paintings, orientation judgements were quite consistent, despite a lack of meaningful content. The origin of these orientation judgements remains to be identified.

  19. Aesthetic judgement of orientation in modern art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George

    2012-01-01

    When creating an artwork, the artist makes a decision regarding the orientation at which the work is to be hung based on their aesthetic judgement and the message conveyed by the piece. Is the impact or aesthetic appeal of a work diminished when it is hung at an incorrect orientation? To investigate this question, Experiment 1 asked whether naïve observers can appreciate the correct orientation (as defined by the artist) of 40 modern artworks, some of which are entirely abstract. Eighteen participants were shown 40 paintings in a series of trials. Each trial presented all four cardinal orientations on a computer screen, and the participant was asked to select the orientation that was most attractive or meaningful. Results showed that the correct orientation was selected in 48% of trials on average, significantly above the 25% chance level, but well below perfect performance. A second experiment investigated the extent to which the 40 paintings contained recognisable content, which may have mediated orientation judgements. Recognition rates varied from 0% for seven of the paintings to 100% for five paintings. Orientation judgements in Experiment 1 correlated significantly with "meaningful" content judgements in Experiment 2: 42% of the variance in orientation judgements in Experiment 1 was shared with recognition of meaningful content in Experiment 2. For the seven paintings in which no meaningful content at all was detected, 41% of the variance in orientation judgements was shared with variance in a physical measure of image content, Fourier amplitude spectrum slope. For some paintings, orientation judgements were quite consistent, despite a lack of meaningful content. The origin of these orientation judgements remains to be identified.

  20. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  1. An ontology-based reengineering methodology for service orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhuopeng

    2009-01-01

    The “Software as a Service” model in service-oriented computing allows loosely coupled software components to be designed and integrated with other software systems. Web services, together with service-oriented architectures, are promising integration technology to facilitate legacy system Webification. However, since most components in a legacy system were not designed and developed as services, the current software systems need to be converted into a set of loosely coupled services. Therefo...

  2. Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Catherine, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

  3. Influence of hydrides orientation on strain, damage and failure of hydrided zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, A.

    2005-09-01

    In pressurized water reactors of nuclear power plants, fuel pellets are contained in cladding tubes, made of Zirconium alloy, for instance Zircaloy-4. During their life in the primary water of the reactor (155 bars, 300 C), cladding tubes are oxidized and consequently hydrided. A part of the hydrogen given off precipitates as Zirconium hydrides in the bulk material and embrittles the material. This embrittlement depends on many parameters, among which hydrogen content and orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress. This investigation is devoted to the influence of the orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress on strain, damage and failure mechanisms. Macroscopic and SEM in-situ ring tensile tests are performed on cladding tube material (unirradiated cold worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4) hydrided with about 200 and 500 wppm hydrogen, and with different main hydrides orientation: either parallel or perpendicular to the circumferential tensile direction. We get the mechanical response of the material as a function of hydride orientation and hydrogen content and we investigate the deformation, damage and failure mechanisms. In both cases, digital image correlation techniques are used to estimate local and global strain distributions. Neither the tensile stress-strain response nor the global and local strain modes are significantly affected by hydrogen content or hydride orientation, but the failure modes are strongly modified. Indeed, only 200 wppm radial hydrides embrittle Zy-4: sample fail in the elastic domain at about 350 MPa before strain bands could develop; whereas in other cases sample reach at least 750 MPa before necking and final failure, in ductile or brittle mode. To model this particular heterogeneous material behavior, a non-coupled damage approach which takes into account the anisotropic distribution of the hydrides is proposed. Its parameters are identified from the macroscopic strain field measurements and a

  4. A method for maintained part oriented visibility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    FANG Xiongbing; LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    To by pass the limitation of the human eyes oriented analysis approach, a maintenance part ori-ented visibility analysis method for maintenance simulation is proposed in this paper by taking the coupling relations among the visibility, accessibility, and operation space into account. Firstly, the general work flow of the traditional human eyes oriented analysis technique is analyzed. Secondly, a new work flow that uses points on the maintained part as vertexes to generate visibility cones to ...

  5. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  6. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  7. Preferred orientation of ettringite in concrete fractures

    KAUST Repository

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2009-05-15

    Sulfate attack and the accompanying crystallization of fibrous ettringite [Ca6Al2(OH)12(SO4) 3·26H2O] cause cracking and loss of strength in concrete structures. Hard synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to quantify the orientation distribution of ettringite crystals. Diffraction images are analyzed using the Rietveld method to obtain information on textures. The analysis reveals that the c axes of the trigonal crystallites are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the fracture surfaces. By averaging single-crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, it is possible to estimate the elastic anisotropy of ettringite aggregates. © 2009 International Union of Crystallography.

  8. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  9. Advanced imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter has been divided into three main sections. The first of these is concerned with things that are orientated to a degree towards novel hardware. This is obviously true of coils - which are essential for high performance in NMR imaging. The section reviews surface coils, and their applications, and closely-coupled coils (although it does not consider resonators, which are the best whole region coil design in high field head and body imaging). Closely-coupled coils are only described cursorily, however, since they, too, can be regarded as approaching a routine solution. The other 'hardware' heading is gating - which is clearly a fair assessment in as far as cardiac gating is concerned, although respiratory gating methods make major demands on software as well as needing appropriate transducers. The second major section is concerned with reconstruction methods. This begins with systems which depend on phase mapping and display (things like flow and field homogeneity and susceptibility imaging). Finally, there is a review of some of the more specialist and unusual uses of sequences to manipulate tissue contrast, and produce effects designed to be applied to solving particular clinical problems

  10. Narcissism and Intimacy: Treating the Wounded Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Marion F.

    1994-01-01

    Couples whose early wounds cause narcissistic and borderline defenses may benefit from treatment with a psychodynamically oriented couples therapist. This article presents a treatment method that helps partners become attuned to each other's underlying injuries and vulnerabilities. The goal is to rebuild damaged structures of the self and to…

  11. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T

    1997-12-01

    Orienteering is an endurance running event which differs from other running sports both in its cognitive element and in the type of terrain encountered. The demands of overcoming this terrain are not manifest in significant differences between orienteers and road runners in somatotype, though elite female orienteers have consistently been shown to have higher levels of adiposity (> 19%) than elite road runners. High aerobic power in orienteers (up to 63 and 76 ml/kg/min in women and men, respectively) is coupled with lower anaerobic performance. While leg strength is generally not high when compared with other athletic specialties, female orienteers have relatively good leg flexion strength. The energy cost of running is greatly increased in rough terrain. Oxygen cost was 26% higher while running in a forest when compared with road running. Biomechanical differences in stride pattern contribute towards this increased demand. Despite the high energy demands during competition, orienteers pace themselves such that their mean heart rate remains within the range of 167 to 172 beats/min, despite large fluctuations. The rough terrain encountered in orienteering results not only in a high energy cost but also in a higher incidence of sport-specific injuries, particularly to the ankle. Minor injuries such as cuts and bruises are common during competition.

  12. Inorganic photosensitizer coupled Gd-based upconversion luminescent nanocomposites for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared-responsive photodynamic therapy in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling'e; Zeng, Leyong; Pan, Yuanwei; Luo, Song; Ren, Wenzhi; Gong, An; Ma, Xuehua; Liang, Hongze; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-03-01

    Inorganic photosensitizer coupled Gd-based upconversion luminescent (UCL) nanocomposites have potential application for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers using the light stability and biocompatibility of TiO2 inorganic photosensitizer. However, TiO2 inorganic photosensitizer could only be excited by ultraviolet (UV) light, which was harmful and weakly penetrable in tissues. In this work, folic acid (FA)-targeted NaGdF4:Yb/Tm@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites (FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs) were constructed and synthesized for both in vivo MRI and near infrared (NIR)-responsive inorganic PDT, in which TiO2 component could be excited by NIR light due to the UCL performance of NaGdF4:Yb/Tm component converting NIR to UV light. The results showed the as-prepared FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs had good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MR study indicated that FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs were good T1-weighted MRI contrast agents with high longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.53 mm(-1) s(-1), also in vivo MRI of nude mice showed "bright" signal in MCF-7 tumor. Under the irradiation of 980 nm laser at the power density of 0.6 W/cm(2) for 20 min, the viability of HeLa and MCF-7 cells incubated with FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs could decrease from about 90 % to 35 % and 31%, respectively. Furthermore, in vivo PDT of MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice model showed that the inhibition ratio of tumors injected with FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs reached up to 88.6% after 2-week treatment, compared with that of nude mice in control group. Based on the deep penetration of NIR light and the good biocompatibility of TiO2 inorganic photosensitizer, the as-prepared FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs could have potential applications in both MRI and NIR-responsive PDT of cancers in deep tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structured-illumination reflectance imaging coupled with spiral phase transform for bruise detection and three-dimensional geometry reconstruction of apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) is a new, promising imaging technique with enhanced, versatile capabilities for quality evaluation of food products. SIRI enables simultaneous acquisition of higher-contrast/resolution and better depth-controlled intensity and phase images for detec...

  14. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect......Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...

  15. Digital fluoroscopy with an optically coupled charge-coupled device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong

    1992-07-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the potential of developing an optically coupled charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging system for some digital fluoroscopic applications. The viability of this concept for fluoroscopic imaging was studied with respect to image intensifier-television (II-TV) techniques. The anticipated advantages of the optically coupled CCD, compared with II-TV, include higher contrast sensitivity, larger dynamic range, moderate spatial resolution and clinically acceptable dose. Following an investigation of some theoretical and practical issues concerning the optical coupling efficiency between the intensifying screen and the CCD imager, mathematical methods were developed to relate the signal, signal-to-noise ratio, and x-ray quantum efficiency of the optically coupled CCD imaging chain. The spatial resolution of the system was also analyzed. Using an ultra-sensitive CCD, as well as improved scintillating and optical coupling techniques, we built a laboratory system for experiments. We conducted measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF), contrast sensitivity, contrast-detail detectability and detector contrast. The results suggest that the lesion detectability of our sub-optimal system was comparable to that of a screen-film technique under the same radiation dose, and was significantly better than II-TV fluoroscopy. Potential clinical applications of our system include mammography, pre-operational localization, pediatric chest radiography, and single tracer autoradiography. Images of selected phantoms, pathological specimens and small animals were acquired to demonstrate the radiologic quality attainable for such procedures. We conclude that developing an x-ray quantum limited, pseudo-real time, digital fluoroscopic imaging system (for some applications) without an II appears to be theoretically and technically feasible. The successful development of optically coupled CCD fluoroscopy has the potential for improving the quality

  16. A novel method combining cellular neural networks and the coupled nonlinear oscillators' paradigm involving a related bifurcation analysis for robust image contrast enhancement in dynamically changing difficult visual environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedjou, Jean Chamberlain; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that a machine vision-based analysis of a dynamic scene, for example in the context of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), does require real-time processing capabilities. Therefore, the system used must be capable of performing both robust and ultrafast analyses. Machine vision in ADAS must fulfil the above requirements when dealing with a dynamically changing visual context (i.e. driving in darkness or in a foggy environment, etc). Among the various challenges related to the analysis of a dynamic scene, this paper focuses on contrast enhancement, which is a well-known basic operation to improve the visual quality of an image (dynamic or static) suffering from poor illumination. The key objective is to develop a systematic and fundamental concept for image contrast enhancement that should be robust despite a dynamic environment and that should fulfil the real-time constraints by ensuring an ultrafast analysis. It is demonstrated that the new approach developed in this paper is capable of fulfilling the expected requirements. The proposed approach combines the good features of the 'coupled oscillators'-based signal processing paradigm with the good features of the 'cellular neural network (CNN)'-based one. The first paradigm in this combination is the 'master system' and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that are (a) the so-called 'van der Pol oscillator' and (b) the so-called 'Duffing oscillator'. It is then implemented or realized on top of a 'slave system' platform consisting of a CNN-processors platform. An offline bifurcation analysis is used to find out, a priori, the windows of parameter settings in which the coupled oscillator system exhibits the best and most appropriate behaviours of interest for an optimal resulting image processing quality. In the frame of the extensive bifurcation analysis carried out, analytical formulae have been derived, which are capable of determining the various

  17. A novel method combining cellular neural networks and the coupled nonlinear oscillators' paradigm involving a related bifurcation analysis for robust image contrast enhancement in dynamically changing difficult visual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain Chedjou, Jean; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that a machine vision-based analysis of a dynamic scene, for example in the context of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), does require real-time processing capabilities. Therefore, the system used must be capable of performing both robust and ultrafast analyses. Machine vision in ADAS must fulfil the above requirements when dealing with a dynamically changing visual context (i.e. driving in darkness or in a foggy environment, etc). Among the various challenges related to the analysis of a dynamic scene, this paper focuses on contrast enhancement, which is a well-known basic operation to improve the visual quality of an image (dynamic or static) suffering from poor illumination. The key objective is to develop a systematic and fundamental concept for image contrast enhancement that should be robust despite a dynamic environment and that should fulfil the real-time constraints by ensuring an ultrafast analysis. It is demonstrated that the new approach developed in this paper is capable of fulfilling the expected requirements. The proposed approach combines the good features of the 'coupled oscillators'-based signal processing paradigm with the good features of the 'cellular neural network (CNN)'-based one. The first paradigm in this combination is the 'master system' and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that are (a) the so-called 'van der Pol oscillator' and (b) the so-called 'Duffing oscillator'. It is then implemented or realized on top of a 'slave system' platform consisting of a CNN-processors platform. An offline bifurcation analysis is used to find out, a priori, the windows of parameter settings in which the coupled oscillator system exhibits the best and most appropriate behaviours of interest for an optimal resulting image processing quality. In the frame of the extensive bifurcation analysis carried out, analytical formulae have been derived, which are capable of determining the various

  18. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  19. Staying oriented while driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, S.N. de

    2002-01-01

    Do elderly drivers have more trouble finding their way and staying spatially oriented than younger drivers do? If spatial orientation is more difficult for elderly drivers it could distract attention from vehicle control resulting in a higher accident rate for elderly drivers. Moreover, it could

  20. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  1. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...

  2. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  3. Competitiveness through strategic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Monferrer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to further the study of the factors that influence the international competitive position of international new ventures and, consequently, their international performance. Specifically, we analyze the role of entrepreneurial and market orientations in the international competitive position of such firms. Data were collected at Spanish and Belgian international new ventures. The structural equations model approach was used to test our hypotheses. Both the Spanish and the Belgian sample revealed a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation. Furthermore, both orientations have a positive and significant effect on the international competitive position of such firms. Finally, any firm’s international competitive position is positively and significantly related to its international performance. The study therefore appears to indicate that, when it comes to international new ventures, the conjunction of these two orientations is a key factor to attaining a superior competitive position and a positive performance in international markets.

  4. Foundations of image science

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Harrison H

    2013-01-01

    Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st

  5. Position and orientation determination system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpring, Lawrence J.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Gordon, John R.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Foley, Trevor Q.

    2017-06-14

    A position determination system and method is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of a detector in a contaminated room. The system includes a detector, a sensor operably coupled to the detector, and a motor coupled to the sensor to move the sensor around the detector. A CPU controls the operation of the motor to move the sensor around the detector and determines distance and angle data from the sensor to an object. The method includes moving a sensor around the detector and measuring distance and angle data from the sensor to an object at incremental positions around the detector.

  6. Antibody orientation on biosensor surfaces: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, Anke K; Beekwilder, Jules; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-03-21

    Detection elements play a key role in analyte recognition in biosensors. Therefore, detection elements with high analyte specificity and binding strength are required. While antibodies (Abs) have been increasingly used as detection elements in biosensors, a key challenge remains - the immobilization on the biosensor surface. This minireview highlights recent approaches to immobilize and study Abs on surfaces. We first introduce Ab species used as detection elements, and discuss techniques recently used to elucidate Ab orientation by determination of layer thickness or surface topology. Then, several immobilization methods will be presented: non-covalent and covalent surface attachment, yielding oriented or random coupled Abs. Finally, protein modification methods applicable for oriented Ab immobilization are reviewed with an eye to future application.

  7. Subject-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, James M.

    Object-Oriented Programming is enabled by advances in compiler technology and programming language design supporting encapsulation and inheritance. This technical adjustment has had a surprisingly broad impact on strategies for design and development of software. This paper explains what Object-Oriented Programming is, why it has attracted so much interest, and then critically examines its impact. The conclusion is that the optimal use of OOP occurs when application clients are empowered to contribute to the inspection, testing and development of the software they need, in a strategy I call Subject-Oriented Programming. The paper concludes by examining what the next important advance in software technology is likely to be.

  8. Orientation of Hittite Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

  9. Influence of hydrides orientation on strain, damage and failure of hydrided zircaloy-4; Influence de l'orientation des hydrures sur les modes de deformation, d'endommagement et de rupture du zircaloy-4 hydrure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, A

    2005-09-15

    In pressurized water reactors of nuclear power plants, fuel pellets are contained in cladding tubes, made of Zirconium alloy, for instance Zircaloy-4. During their life in the primary water of the reactor (155 bars, 300 C), cladding tubes are oxidized and consequently hydrided. A part of the hydrogen given off precipitates as Zirconium hydrides in the bulk material and embrittles the material. This embrittlement depends on many parameters, among which hydrogen content and orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress. This investigation is devoted to the influence of the orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress on strain, damage and failure mechanisms. Macroscopic and SEM in-situ ring tensile tests are performed on cladding tube material (unirradiated cold worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4) hydrided with about 200 and 500 wppm hydrogen, and with different main hydrides orientation: either parallel or perpendicular to the circumferential tensile direction. We get the mechanical response of the material as a function of hydride orientation and hydrogen content and we investigate the deformation, damage and failure mechanisms. In both cases, digital image correlation techniques are used to estimate local and global strain distributions. Neither the tensile stress-strain response nor the global and local strain modes are significantly affected by hydrogen content or hydride orientation, but the failure modes are strongly modified. Indeed, only 200 wppm radial hydrides embrittle Zy-4: sample fail in the elastic domain at about 350 MPa before strain bands could develop; whereas in other cases sample reach at least 750 MPa before necking and final failure, in ductile or brittle mode. To model this particular heterogeneous material behavior, a non-coupled damage approach which takes into account the anisotropic distribution of the hydrides is proposed. Its parameters are identified from the macroscopic strain field measurements and a

  10. RELIABLE ORIENTATION FIELD ESTIMATION OF FINGERPRINT BASED ON ADAPTIVE NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shoba Dyre; C P Sumathi

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprint Orientation estimation is an important step in feature extraction and classification. However, a reliable extraction of fingerprint orientation data is still a challenge for poor quality images. In this paper, a gradient based estimation of orientation field based on the analysis of orientation consistency in the neighborhood for regularizing the orientation field is proposed. Experimental results are analyzed and compared with other existing gradient based methods used in this wo...

  11. Prior implicit knowledge shapes human threshold for orientation noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Bex, Peter J; Fiser, József

    2015-01-01

    Although orientation coding in the human visual system has been researched with simple stimuli, little is known about how orientation information is represented while viewing complex images. We show that, similar to findings with simple Gabor textures, the visual system involuntarily discounts or...

  12. A Synthesis of Star Calibration Techniques for Ground-Based Narrowband Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device Imagers Used in Auroral Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Guy II; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Don; Jahn, Jorg-Micha

    2016-01-01

    A technique is presented for the periodic and systematic calibration of ground-based optical imagers. It is important to have a common system of units (Rayleighs or photon flux) for cross comparison as well as self-comparison over time. With the advancement in technology, the sensitivity of these imagers has improved so that stars can be used for more precise calibration. Background subtraction, flat fielding, star mapping, and other common techniques are combined in deriving a calibration technique appropriate for a variety of ground-based imager installations. Spectral (4278, 5577, and 8446 A ) ground-based imager data with multiple fields of view (19, 47, and 180 deg) are processed and calibrated using the techniques developed. The calibration techniques applied result in intensity measurements in agreement between different imagers using identical spectral filtering, and the intensity at each wavelength observed is within the expected range of auroral measurements. The application of these star calibration techniques, which convert raw imager counts into units of photon flux, makes it possible to do quantitative photometry. The computed photon fluxes, in units of Rayleighs, can be used for the absolute photometry between instruments or as input parameters for auroral electron transport models.

  13. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  14. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion ...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  15. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.

  16. Orthogonal image pairs coupled with OSMS for noncoplanar beam angle, intracranial, single-isocenter, SRS treatments with multiple targets on the Varian Edge radiosurgery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine A. Oliver, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, CR-induced shifts with the Varian Edge radiosurgery system will not produce noticeable dosimetric effects for SRS treatments. Thus, replacing cone beam CT with orthogonal kV/kV pairs coupled with OSMS at the treatment couch angle could reduce the number of cone beam CT scans that are acquired during a standard SRS treatment while providing an accurate and safe treatment with negligible dosimetric effects on the treatment plan.

  17. Spatial coupling in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S. Y.; Surko, C. M.; Maple, M. B.

    1995-11-01

    Spatial coupling mechanisms are studied in the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum at atmospheric pressure under oscillatory conditions. Experiments are conducted in a continuous flow reactor, and the reaction rate is monitored using both infrared imaging and thermocouples. The catalysts are in the form of platinum annular thin films on washer-shaped quartz substrates, and they provide highly repeatable oscillatory behavior. Oscillations are typically spatially synchronized with the entire catalyst ``flashing'' on and off uniformly. Spatial coupling is investigated by introducing various barriers which split the annular ring in half. Infrared images show that coupling through the gas phase dominates coupling via the diffusion of CO on the surface or heat diffusion through the substrate. The introduction of a localized heat perturbation to the catalyst surface does not induce a transition in the reaction rate. Thus, it is likely that the primary mode of communication is through the gas-phase diffusion of reactants.

  18. Selective enhancement of orientation tuning before saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Sven; Kuper, Clara; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Saccadic eye movements cause a rapid sweep of the visual image across the retina and bring the saccade's target into high-acuity foveal vision. Even before saccade onset, visual processing is selectively prioritized at the saccade target. To determine how this presaccadic attention shift exerts its influence on visual selection, we compare the dynamics of perceptual tuning curves before movement onset at the saccade target and in the opposite hemifield. Participants monitored a 30-Hz sequence of randomly oriented gratings for a target orientation. Combining a reverse correlation technique previously used to study orientation tuning in neurons and general additive mixed modeling, we found that perceptual reports were tuned to the target orientation. The gain of orientation tuning increased markedly within the last 100 ms before saccade onset. In addition, we observed finer orientation tuning right before saccade onset. This increase in gain and tuning occurred at the saccade target location and was not observed at the incongruent location in the opposite hemifield. The present findings suggest, therefore, that presaccadic attention exerts its influence on vision in a spatially and feature-selective manner, enhancing performance and sharpening feature tuning at the future gaze location before the eyes start moving.

  19. Coupling an Intercalibration of Radiance-Calibrated Nighttime Light Images and Land Use/Cover Data for Modeling and Analyzing the Distribution of GDP in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatialized GDP data is important for studying the relationships between human activities and environmental changes. Rapid and accurate acquisition of these datasets are therefore a significant area of study. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS radiance-calibrated nighttime light (RC NTL images exhibit the potential for providing superior estimates for GDP spatialization, as they are not restricted by the saturated pixels which exist in nighttime stable light (NSL images. However, the drawback of light overflow is the limited accuracy of GDP estimation, and GDP data estimations based on RC NTL images cannot be directly used for temporal analysis due to a lack of on-board calibration. This study develops an intercalibration method to address the comparability problem. Additionally, NDVI images are used to reduce the light overflow effect. In this way, the secondary and tertiary industry outputs are estimated by using intercalibrated RC NTL images. Primary industry production is estimated by using land use/cover data. Ultimately, four 1 km gridded GDP maps of Guangdong for 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2010 are generated. The verification results of the proposed intercalibration method demonstrate that this method is reasonable and can be effectively implemented. These maps can be used to analyze the distribution and spatiotemporal changes of GDP density in Guangdong.

  20. Surface plasmon-coupled emission from shaped PMMA films doped with fluorescence molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D G; Moh, K J; Yuan, X-C

    2010-06-07

    Surface plasmon-coupled emission from shaped PMMA films doped with randomly oriented fluorescence molecules was investigated. Experimental results show that for different shapes, such as triangle or circular structures, the SPCE ring displays different intensity patterns. For a given shape, it was observed that the relative position and polarization of an incident laser spot on the shaped PMMA can be used to adjust the fluorescence intensity distribution of the SPCE ring. The proposed method enables controlling the fluorescence emission in azimuthal direction in addition to the radial angle controlled by common SPCE, which will further enhances the fluorescence collection efficiency and has applications in fluorescence sensing, imaging and so on.

  1. Beyond the Black Box: Coupling x-ray tomographic imaging of multi-phase flow processes to numerical models and traditional laboratory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Porter, M.L.; Schaap, M.G.

    Quantitative non-invasive imaging has evolved rapidly in the last decade, and is now being used to assess a variety of problems in vadose zone research, including unsaturated flow and transport of water and contaminants, macropore-dominated processes, soil-water-root interactions, more recent work...... on colloidal processes, and significant work on NAPL-water interactions . We are now able to use non-invasive imaging to probe processes that could not previously be quantified because of lack of opacity, resolution, or accurate techniques for quantitative measurement. This work presents an overview of recent...... advances in x-ray microtomography techniques that can generate high-resolution image-based data for (1) validation of pore-scale multi-phase flow models such as the lattice-Boltzmann technique and pore network models (with respect to fluid saturations, fluid distribution, and relationships among capillary...

  2. Measurement of the modulation transfer function of a charge-coupled device array by the combination of the self-imaging effect and slanted edge method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sedigheh; Madanipour, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, by a combination of the self-imaging effect for Ronchi gratings and the standard slanted edge modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement method for CCD cameras, the MTF of the CCD array without optics is measured. For this purpose, a Ronchi-type grating is illuminated by an expanded He-Ne laser. A self-image of the grating appears without optics on the CCD array that is located on the Talbot distance. The lines of the self-image of the grating are used as a slanted edge array. This method has all the advantages of the slanted edge method, and also since the array of the edge is ready, the total area of the CCD can be tested. The measured MTF is related to the CCD array without optics.

  3. PENGARUH CUSTOMER ORIENTATION DAN COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION TERHADAP CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MELALUI SALESPERSON CUSTOMER ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyanto, Yoga; Sunaryo, Deni

    2017-01-01

    The empirical investigation examines the influence of customer orientation and competitive orientation to customer satisfaction mediating with salesperson customer orientation in Smart Telecom company.The objective of this research was investigated the influence of customer orientation and competitive orientation to customer satisfaction mediating with salesperson customer orientation in Smart Telecom company.The design of this research using hypotheses testing in the influence of customer or...

  4. Analysis of Oriented Texture - with application to the Detection of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms with Application to the Detection of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Fabio; Desautels, JE Leo

    2011-01-01

    The presence of oriented features in images often conveys important information about the scene or the objects contained; the analysis of oriented patterns is an important task in the general framework of image understanding. As in many other applications of computer vision, the general framework for the understanding of oriented features in images can be divided into low- and high-level analysis. In the context of the study of oriented features, low-level analysis includes the detection of oriented features in images; a measure of the local magnitude and orientation of oriented features over

  5. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Warthog code was developed to couple codes that are developed in both the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SHARP from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The initial phase of this work, focused on coupling the neutronics code PROTEUS with the fuel performance code BISON. The main technical challenge involves mapping the power density solution determined by PROTEUS to the fuel in BISON. This presents a challenge since PROTEUS uses the MOAB mesh format, but BISON, like all other MOOSE codes, uses the libMesh format. When coupling the different codes, one must consider that Warthog is a light-weight MOOSE-based program that uses the Data Transfer Kit (DTK) to transfer data between the various mesh types. Users set up inputs for the codes they want to run, and then Warthog transfers the data between them. Currently Warthog supports XSProc from SCALE or the Sub-Group Application Programming Interface (SGAPI) in PROTEUS for generating cross sections. It supports arbitrary geometries using PROTEUS and BISON. DTK will transfer power densities and temperatures between the codes where the domains overlap. In the past fiscal year (FY), much work has gone into demonstrating two-way coupling for simple pin cells of various materials. XSProc was used to calculate the cross sections, which were then passed to PROTEUS in an external file. PROTEUS calculates the fission/power density, and Warthog uses DTK to pass this information to BISON, where it is used as the heat source. BISON then calculates the temperature profile of the pin cell and sends it back to XSProc to obtain the temperature corrected cross sections. This process is repeated until the convergence criteria (tolerance on BISON solve, or number of time steps) is reached. Models have been constructed and run for both uranium oxide and uranium silicide fuels. These models demonstrate a clear difference in power shape that is not accounted for in a

  6. An efficient image processing method based on web services for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Vivek, N. K.; Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional image processing system which is based on a centralized computing model has a disadvantage of limiting resources. This can cause troubles in the smooth execution of system in mobile devices. We propose a new system which unlike traditional system uses a distributed model. It can be achieved by adopting web service based image processing system. Our system has the advantages of being component oriented and has low coupling and high encapsulation. Thus our system can solve the main problem of traditional image processing system and avoid the resource bottleneck situation.

  7. Two digital X-ray imaging systems for applications in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Flesher, A.C.; Bryant, C.J.; Lincoln, A.D.; Tucker, P.A.; Swanton, S.W.

    1986-08-01

    Two digital X-ray imaging systems developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are described:- the Mark I and the Mark II. Both use a bidimensionally sensitive Multiwire proportional counter as the basic X-ray image transducer coupled to a digital microcomputer system. The Mark I system provides the advantages of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging directly into the computer with the potential for software control of the sample orientation and environment. The Mark II system adds the novel features of signal averaging and multi-frame exposures. (author)

  8. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  9. Raman Reporter-Coupled Ag(core)@Au(shell) Nanostars for in Vivo Improved Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Imaging and Near-infrared-Triggered Photothermal Therapy in Breast Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leyong; Pan, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouju; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Xinmei; Ren, Wenzhi; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-08-05

    Noble-metal nanomaterials were widely investigated as theranostic systems for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging, and also for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancers. However, it was still a major challenge to explore multifunctional nanoprobes with high performance, high stability, and low toxicity. In this work, Raman reporter (DTTC)-coupled Agcore@Aushell nanostars (Ag@Au-DTTC) were synthesized and investigated for in vivo improved SERS imaging and near-infrared (NIR)-triggered PTT of breast cancers. By the two-step coupling of DTTC, the SERS signal was improved obviously, and the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was also decreased by coating Au nanostars onto Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars showed high photostability and excellent photothermal performance, in which the photothermal conversion efficiency was up to 79.01% under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser. The in vitro and in vivo SERS measurements of Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars showed that the many sharp and narrow Raman peaks located at 508, 782, 844, 1135, 1242, 1331, 1464, 1510, and 1580 cm(-1) could be obviously observed in MCF-7 cells and in MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice, compared with that in pure DTTC. In 14-day treatments, the tumor volume of MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice injected with Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars and irradiated by an 808 nm laser almost disappeared. This study demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars could be excellent multifunctional agents for improved SERS imaging and NIR-triggered PTT of breast cancers with low risk.

  10. Development of annular coupled structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A π/2-mode standing-wave linac of an Annular Coupled Structure (ACS) has been developed for the 1-GeV proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). This ACS has four coupling slots between accelerating and coupling cells in order to overcome difficulties in putting the ACS to practical use. Two prototypes of a four-slot ACS (f = 1296 MHz, β = v/c = 0.8) have been constructed and tested: one with a staggered slot-orientation from cell to cell; and the other with a uniform one. The staggered configuration gives a larger coupling constant and a larger shunt impedance than the uniform one with the same size of coupling slot. Both models have been conditioned up to the design input RF power. The four-slot ACS gives a distortion-free accelerating field around the beam axis, while a Side-Coupled Structure cavity gives an accelerating field mixed with a TE111-like mode. (Author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  11. APPROACH FOR IMPROVING THE INTEGRATED SENSOR ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mitishita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOP of aerial images via integration of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and GPS is often used in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. The accuracies of the EOP depend on the accurate parameters related to sensors mounting when the job is performed (offsets of the IMU relative to the projection centre and the angles of boresigth misalignment between the IMU and the photogrammetric coordinate system. In principle, when the EOP values do not achieve the required accuracies for the photogrammetric application, the approach, known as Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO, is used to refine the direct EOP. ISO approach requires accurate Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP and standard deviation of the EOP under flight condition. This paper investigates the feasibility of use the in situ camera calibration to obtain these requirements. The camera calibration uses a small sub block of images, extracted from the entire block. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to APPLANIX POS AVTM system was used to get two small blocks of images that were use in this study. The blocks have different flight heights and opposite flight directions. The proposed methodology improved significantly the vertical and horizontal accuracies of the 3D point intersection. Using a minimum set of control points, the horizontal and vertical accuracies achieved nearly one image pixel of resolution on the ground (GSD. The experimental results are shown and discussed.

  12. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  13. Preferred orientation of ettringite in concrete fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Lutterotti, Luca; Delacroz, John

    2009-01-31

    Sulfate attack and the accompanying crystallization of fibrous ettringite [Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 26H{sub 2}O] cause cracking and loss of strength in concrete structures. Hard synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to quantify the orientation distribution of ettringite crystals. Diffraction images are analyzed using the Rietveld method to obtain information on textures. The analysis reveals that the c axes of the trigonal crystallites are preferentially oriented perpendicular to the fracture surfaces. By averaging single-crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, it is possible to estimate the elastic anisotropy of ettringite aggregates.

  14. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future......LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...

  15. Coupling 2D/3D registration method and statistical model to perform 3D reconstruction from partial x-rays images data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, T; Chav, R; Branchaud, D; Humbert, L; Godbout, B; Aubert, B; Skalli, W; De Guise, J A

    2009-01-01

    3D reconstructions of the spine from a frontal and sagittal radiographs is extremely challenging. The overlying features of soft tissues and air cavities interfere with image processing. It is also difficult to obtain information that is accurate enough to reconstruct complete 3D models. To overcome these problems, the proposed method efficiently combines the partial information contained in two images from a patient with a statistical 3D spine model generated from a database of scoliotic patients. The algorithm operates through two simultaneous iterating processes. The first one generates a personalized vertebra model using a 2D/3D registration process with bone boundaries extracted from radiographs, while the other one infers the position and the shape of other vertebrae from the current estimation of the registration process using a statistical 3D model. Experimental evaluations have shown good performances of the proposed approach in terms of accuracy and robustness when compared to CT-scan.

  16. Construction of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE equipment: validation using annatto and fennel and extract analysis by thin layer chromatography coupled to image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Flores JOHNER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work describes setting up a laboratory unit for supercritical fluid extraction. In addition to its construction, a survey of cost was done to compare the cost of the homemade unit with that of commercial units. The equipment was validated using an extraction of annatto seeds’ oil, and the extraction and fractionation of fennel oil were used to validate the two separators; for both systems, the solvent was carbon dioxide. The chemical profiles of annatto and fennel extracts were assessed using thin layer chromatography; the images of the chromatographic plates were processed using the free ImageJ software. The cost survey showed that the homemade equipment has a very low cost (~US$ 16,000 compared to commercial equipment. The extraction curves of annatto were similar to those obtained in the literature (yield of 3.8% oil. The separators were validated, producing both a 2.5% fraction of fennel seed extract rich in essential oils and another extract fraction composed mainly of oleoresins. The ImageJ software proved to be a low-cost tool for obtaining an initial evaluation of the chemical profile of the extracts.

  17. Beyond the Black Box: Coupling x-ray tomographic imaging of multi-phase flow processes to numerical models and traditional laboratory measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenschild, D.; Porter, M. L.; Schaap, M. G.; Joekar-Niasar, V.; Schjonning, P.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.; Moldrup, P.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative non-invasive imaging has evolved rapidly in the last decade, and is now being used to assess a variety of problems in vadose zone research, including unsaturated flow and transport of water and contaminants, macropore-dominated processes, soil-water-root interactions, more recent work on colloidal processes, and significant work on NAPL-water interactions . We are now able to use non-invasive imaging to probe processes that could not previously be quantified because of lack of opacity, resolution, or accurate techniques for quantitative measurement. This work presents an overview of recent advances in x-ray microtomography techniques that can generate high-resolution image-based data for (1) validation of pore-scale multi-phase flow models such as the lattice-Boltzmann technique and pore network models (with respect to fluid saturations, fluid distribution, and relationships among capillary pressure, saturation, fluid-fluid interfacial area, etc.), and (2) making the link between tomographic data and more traditional laboratory-based soil/vadose zone characterization such as hydraulic conductivity, air permeability, and pycnometer-based porosity measurements). Finally, limitations and advantages of these various approaches, as well as tomography specific issues such as resolution vs. REV requirement, access to the different types of equipment, etc. will be discussed.

  18. Landscape–oriented new town development in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    to approach environmental sustainability in this setting. Hence, the study aims to shed light on the prospects for landscape-oriented development of new towns in China and the subsequent practical implications for Western design firms. The study introduces site-reading, inspired by site theories and theory......-oriented urbanism through ecological infrastructure (EI), informed by landscape ecology, inspired by vernacular principles and more clearly coupled to smart growth principles. To tactically operate with EI in this setting, a basic orientation framework is developed together with a set of recommendations...

  19. Perceived Sexual Orientation Based on Vocal and Facial Stimuli Is Linked to Self-Rated Sexual Orientation in Czech Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Havlíček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions. PMID:24358180

  20. Perceived sexual orientation based on vocal and facial stimuli is linked to self-rated sexual orientation in Czech men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions.

  1. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  2. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  3. QUANTIFYING WILDLIFE ORIENTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment (P);. Attitudes expressed towards the natural environment (A);. Activity, or the involvement of a person in conservation actions in the broader sense {I). Different combinations of these functions give rise to four typologies of orientation. (Newgard et al., 1986) in the following way: TYPOLOGY. CHARACTERISTICS.

  4. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deirdre Beneken genaamd Kolmer; René Schalk; Renske J.M. van der Zwet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  5. Dark coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed

  6. A novel method combining cellular neural networks and the coupled nonlinear oscillators' paradigm involving a related bifurcation analysis for robust image contrast enhancement in dynamically changing difficult visual environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chedjou, Jean Chamberlain; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere, E-mail: kyandoghere.kyamakya@uni-klu.ac.a, E-mail: jean.chedjou@uni-klu.ac.a [Transportation Informatics Group, Institute of Smart Systems Technologies, University of Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    It is well known that a machine vision-based analysis of a dynamic scene, for example in the context of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), does require real-time processing capabilities. Therefore, the system used must be capable of performing both robust and ultrafast analyses. Machine vision in ADAS must fulfil the above requirements when dealing with a dynamically changing visual context (i.e. driving in darkness or in a foggy environment, etc). Among the various challenges related to the analysis of a dynamic scene, this paper focuses on contrast enhancement, which is a well-known basic operation to improve the visual quality of an image (dynamic or static) suffering from poor illumination. The key objective is to develop a systematic and fundamental concept for image contrast enhancement that should be robust despite a dynamic environment and that should fulfil the real-time constraints by ensuring an ultrafast analysis. It is demonstrated that the new approach developed in this paper is capable of fulfilling the expected requirements. The proposed approach combines the good features of the 'coupled oscillators'-based signal processing paradigm with the good features of the 'cellular neural network (CNN)'-based one. The first paradigm in this combination is the 'master system' and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that are (a) the so-called 'van der Pol oscillator' and (b) the so-called 'Duffing oscillator'. It is then implemented or realized on top of a 'slave system' platform consisting of a CNN-processors platform. An offline bifurcation analysis is used to find out, a priori, the windows of parameter settings in which the coupled oscillator system exhibits the best and most appropriate behaviours of interest for an optimal resulting image processing quality. In the frame of the extensive bifurcation analysis carried out, analytical formulae have

  7. Accuracy analysis of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax in POS-supported aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenli; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2009-10-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax, especially using the orientation parameters of aerial images obtained by a POS (Positioning and Orientation System) after calibration. Firstly, based on the theory of analytical relative orientation of consecutive photo connection, the exterior orientation elements can be easily translated to relative orientation elements. Then, the formula of vertical parallax can be deduced. The results of vertical parallax in left image space coordinate system are compared with the results calculated in the image coordinate system which are parallel to those of the object coordinate system. The validity and feasibility of the mathematical model are tested using two sets of actual data at different images scales. Finally, the differences between the effects of exterior orientation parameters on vertical parallax are compared using exterior orientation parameters obtained by traditional bundle block adjustment and by a POS after calibrated. And how the single element of exterior orientation effected on vertical parallax and how they worked together are analyzed. The empirical results indicate that the effects of different elements of exterior orientation on vertical parallax are different, all exterior orientation parameters can be affected by each other, so the overall effect of vertical parallax accuracy can be restricted by all exterior orientation parameters.

  8. The Transition From Thinness-Oriented to Muscularity-Oriented Disordered Eating in Adolescent Males: A Clinical Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan M

    2017-03-01

    Robust empirical evidence has illustrated a rising prevalence of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among males, noting that both may be oriented more toward muscularity-as opposed to thinness-oriented concerns. While an elevated prevalence of premorbid anorexia nervosa (AN) has been noted among those with muscle dysmorphia, little evidence has examined the process of this transition from thinness-oriented to muscularity-oriented disordered eating. This clinical observation presents a case of AN in an adolescent male, whose symptom presentation transitioned during the course of treatment for AN, into more muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Despite the core body image disturbance and disordered eating behaviors being retained, the behavioral expression of muscularity-oriented disordered eating was difficult to detect during treatment for AN, and he was discharged from treatment as his muscularity-oriented disordered eating escalated. Transdiagnostic crossover between thinness-oriented and muscularity-oriented disordered eating represents an important clinical concern, which may be challenging to measure and assess. Implications for treatment are discussed, and the early detection of muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Market oriented approach by public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, J.J.; Verkuil, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    Public utilities, especially the larger ones, have an image of being inefficient, technocratic and bureaucratic institutions, unresponsive to modern lifestyles, growing consumerism, differentiated customer needs and changing social values. Improving this image and increasing customer satisfaction requires the adoption of a systematic market oriented approach, based on an appropriate segmentation of the client and general public. This article gives the broad outline of such an approach followed by some generally applicable practical recommendations. Finally it stresses the importance of human aspects of organizational behaviour and, consequently, the crucial part of corporate culture. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Reuse Metrics for Object Oriented Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieman, James M.

    1998-01-01

    One way to increase the quality of software products and the productivity of software development is to reuse existing software components when building new software systems. In order to monitor improvements in reuse, the level of reuse must be measured. In this NASA supported project we (1) derived a suite of metrics which quantify reuse attributes for object oriented, object based, and procedural software, (2) designed prototype tools to take these measurements in Ada, C++, Java, and C software, (3) evaluated the reuse in available software, (4) analyzed the relationship between coupling, cohesion, inheritance, and reuse, (5) collected object oriented software systems for our empirical analyses, and (6) developed quantitative criteria and methods for restructuring software to improve reusability.

  11. Lower maximum standardized uptake value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography imaging in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kwang Hyun; Park, Joo Kyung; Lee, Sang Hyub; Hwang, Dae Wook; Cho, Jai Young; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2015-04-01

    The effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on sensitivity of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) for diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) is not well known. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of DM on the validity of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in PDAC. A total of 173 patients with PDACs who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled (75 in the DM group and 98 in the non-DM group). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVsmax) were compared. The mean SUVmax was significantly lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group (4.403 vs 5.998, P = .001). The sensitivity of SUVmax (cut-off value 4.0) was significantly lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group (49.3% vs 75.5%, P < .001) and also lower in normoglycemic DM patients (n = 24) than in non-DM patients (54.2% vs 75.5%, P = .038). DM contributes to a lower SUVmax of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients with PDACs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Reference-Free and Non-Contact Method for Detecting and Imaging Damage in Adhesive-Bonded Structures Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotius Yonathan Sunarsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive bonded structures have been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and marine industries. Due to the complex nature of the failure mechanisms of bonded structures, cost-effective and reliable damage detection is crucial for these industries. Most of the common damage detection methods are not adequately sensitive to the presence of weakened bonding. This paper presents an experimental and analytical method for the in-situ detection of damage in adhesive-bonded structures. The method is fully non-contact, using air-coupled ultrasonic transducers (ACT for ultrasonic wave generation and sensing. The uniqueness of the proposed method relies on accurate detection and localization of weakened bonding in complex adhesive bonded structures. The specimens tested in this study are parts of real-world structures with critical and complex damage types, provided by Hyundai Heavy Industries® and IKTS Fraunhofer®. Various transmitter and receiver configurations, including through transmission, pitch-catch scanning, and probe holder angles, were attempted, and the obtained results were analyzed. The method examines the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic waves over a target inspection area, and the spatial variation of the time-of-flight information was examined to visualize and locate damage. The proposed method works without relying on reference data obtained from the pristine condition of the target specimen. Aluminum bonded plates and triplex adhesive layers with debonding and weakened bonding were used to examine the effectiveness of the method.

  13. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchel Alioscha-Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale. Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in

  14. Quantitative analysis of an enlarged area Solid State X-ray Image Intensifier (SSXII) detector based on Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetadri, Vasan S N; Sharma, P; Singh, V; Jain, A; Ionita, Ciprian N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2013-03-06

    Present day treatment for neurovascular pathological conditions involves the use of devices with very small features such as stents, coils, and balloons; hence, these interventional procedures demand high resolution x-ray imaging under fluoroscopic conditions to provide the capability to guide the deployment of these fine endovascular devices. To address this issue, a high resolution x-ray detector based on EMCCD technology is being developed. The EMCCD field-of-view is enlarged using a fiber-optic taper so that the detector features an effective pixel size of 37 µm giving it a Nyquist frequency of 13.5 lp/mm, which is significantly higher than that of the state of the art Flat Panel Detectors (FPD). Quantitative analysis of the detector, including gain calibration, instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE) and modulation transfer function (MTF) determination, are presented in this work. The gain of the detector is a function of the detector temperature; with the detector cooled to 5° C, the highest relative gain that could be achieved was calculated to be 116 times. At this gain setting, the lowest INEE was measured to be 0.6 µR/frame. The MTF, measured using the edge method, was over 2% up to 7 cycles/ mm. To evaluate the performance of the detector under clinical conditions, an aneurysm model was placed over an anthropomorphic head phantom and a coil was guided into the aneurysm under fluoroscopic guidance using the detector. Image sequences from the procedure are presented demonstrating the high resolution of this SSXII.

  15. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  16. AEGIS: Agent Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Unland, R.; Kirn, S.; Wanka, U.; O'Hare, G. M. P. (Greg M. P.); Abbas, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today's enterprises are faced with highly dynamic, sometimes even hostile environments. This paper dicovers that the two most prominent organizational strategies addressing these challenges, namely that of widespread decentralization and of business process orientation, are inherently conflicting. We argue that cooperative knowledge processing technology can contribute to dissolve this conflict. For this purpose, we introduce the reader into the field of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. O...

  17. Cerro Largo South orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  18. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  19. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  20. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...