WorldWideScience

Sample records for coupled 2d systems

  1. 2D-DOA and Mutual Coupling Estimation in Vehicle Communication System via Conformal Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation algorithms have been proposed recently. However, the effect of mutual coupling among antenna elements has not been taken into consideration. In this paper, a novel DOA and mutual coupling coefficient estimation algorithm is proposed in intelligent transportation systems (ITS via conformal array. By constructing the spectial mutual coupling matrix (MCM, the effect of mutual coupling can be eliminated via instrumental element method. Then the DOA of incident signals can be estimated based on parallel factor (PARAFAC theory. The PARAFAC model is constructed in cumulant domain using covariance matrices. The mutual coupling coefficients are estimated based on the former DOA estimation and the matrix transformation between MCM and the steering vector. Finally, due to the drawback of the parameter pairing method in Wan et al., 2014, a novel method is given to improve the performance of parameter pairing. The computer simulation verifies the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Influences of quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in 2D electronic spectra of photosynthetic systems: Strong electronic coupling cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    In 2D electronic spectroscopy studies, long-lived quantum beats have recently been observed in photosynthetic systems, and it has been suggested that the beats are produced by quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states. Concerning the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures, the impact of protein-induced fluctuations was examined by calculating the 2D electronic spectra of a weakly coupled dimer with vibrational modes in the resonant condition [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 212403 (2015)]. This analysis demonstrated that quantum mixtures of the vibronic resonance are rather robust under the influence of the fluctuations at cryogenic temperatures, whereas the mixtures are eradicated by the fluctuations at physiological temperatures. However, this conclusion cannot be generalized because the magnitude of the coupling inducing the quantum mixtures is proportional to the inter-pigment coupling. In this study, we explore the impact of the fluctuations on electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures in a strongl...

  3. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  4. Free-breathing imaging of the heart using 2D cine-GRICS (generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems) with assessment of ventricular volumes and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuissoz, Pierre-André; Odille, Freddy; Fernandez, Brice; Lohezic, Maelene; Benhadid, Adnane; Mandry, Damien; Felblinger, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    To assess cardiac function by means of a novel free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy. A stack of ungated 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP) slices was acquired during free breathing and reconstructed as cardiac cine imaging based on the generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS). A motion-compensated sliding window approach allows reconstructing cine movies with most motion artifacts cancelled. The proposed reconstruction uses prior knowledge from respiratory belts and electrocardiogram recordings and features a piecewise linear model that relates the electrocardiogram signal to cardiac displacements. The free-breathing protocol was validated in six subjects against a standard breath-held protocol. Image sharpness, as assessed by the image gradient entropy, was comparable to that of breath-held images and significantly better than in uncorrected images. Volumetric parameters of cardiac function in the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) were similar, including end-systolic volumes, end-diastolic volumes and mass, stroke volumes, and ejection fractions (with differences of 3% ± 2.4 in the LV and 2.9% ± 4.4 in the RV). The duration of the free-breathing protocol was nearly the same as the breath-held protocol. Free-breathing cine-GRICS enables accurate assessment of volumetric parameters of cardiac function with efficient correction of motion. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Deterministic Coupling of Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials to Plasmonic Nanocavity Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Toan Trong; Wang, Danqing; Xu, Zai-Quan; Yang, Ankun; Toth, Milos; Odom, Teri W; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-04-12

    Quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for studies of light-matter interaction and next generation, integrated on-chip quantum nanophotonics. However, the realization of integrated nanophotonic systems requires the coupling of emitters to optical cavities and resonators. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid systems in which quantum emitters in 2D hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are deterministically coupled to high-quality plasmonic nanocavity arrays. The plasmonic nanoparticle arrays offer a high-quality, low-loss cavity in the same spectral range as the quantum emitters in hBN. The coupled emitters exhibit enhanced emission rates and reduced fluorescence lifetimes, consistent with Purcell enhancement in the weak coupling regime. Our results provide the foundation for a versatile approach for achieving scalable, integrated hybrid systems based on low-loss plasmonic nanoparticle arrays and 2D materials.

  6. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós str. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hartmann, Peter [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós str. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER), One Bear Place 97310, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Donkó, Zoltán [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós str. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Physics Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 20467 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  7. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water

  8. Study on Development of 1D-2D Coupled Real-time Urban Inundation Prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungsoo

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we are suffering abnormal weather condition due to climate change around the world. Therefore, countermeasures for flood defense are urgent task. In this research, study on development of 1D-2D coupled real-time urban inundation prediction model using predicted precipitation data based on remote sensing technology is conducted. 1 dimensional (1D) sewerage system analysis model which was introduced by Lee et al. (2015) is used to simulate inlet and overflow phenomena by interacting with surface flown as well as flows in conduits. 2 dimensional (2D) grid mesh refinement method is applied to depict road networks for effective calculation time. 2D surface model is coupled with 1D sewerage analysis model in order to consider bi-directional flow between both. Also parallel computing method, OpenMP, is applied to reduce calculation time. The model is estimated by applying to 25 August 2014 extreme rainfall event which caused severe inundation damages in Busan, Korea. Oncheoncheon basin is selected for study basin and observed radar data are assumed as predicted rainfall data. The model shows acceptable calculation speed with accuracy. Therefore it is expected that the model can be used for real-time urban inundation forecasting system to minimize damages.

  9. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3...... responses and receptor occupancies. The distinct CBV magnitudes between putamen and caudate at matched occupancies approximately matched literature differences in basal dopamine levels, suggesting that the relative fMRI measurements reflect basal D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy. These results can provide...... a basis for models that relate dopaminergic occupancies to hemodynamic changes in the basal ganglia. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of simultaneous PET/fMRI for investigations of neurovascular coupling that correlate neurochemistry with hemodynamic changes in vivo for any receptor system...

  10. Stochastic process of pragmatic information for 2D spiral wave turbulence in globally and locally coupled Alief-Panfilov oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Jun; Miyata, Hajime; Konno, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Recently, complex dynamics of globally coupled oscillators have been attracting many researcher's attentions. In spite of their numerous studies, their features of nonlinear oscillator systems with global and local couplings in two-dimension (2D) are not understood fully. The paper focuses on 2D states of coherent, clustered and chaotic oscillation especially under the effect of negative global coupling (NGC) in 2D Alief-Panfilov model. It is found that the tuning NGC can cause various new coupling-parameter dependency on the features of oscillations. Then quantitative characterization of various states of oscillations (so called spiral wave turbulence) is examined by using the pragmatic information (PI) which have been utilized in analyzing multimode laser, solar activity and neuronal systems. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the PI for various oscillations can be characterized successfully by the Hyper-Gamma stochastic process.

  11. 2D electron systems: Metals in flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible for a metal to exist in a strictly two-dimensional system? This may seem trivial, but it is actually a longstanding problem. The electrical characteristics of an array of superconducting islands on a normal metal suggests that the answer could be 'yes'.

  12. Coherent phenomena in terahertz 2D plasmonic structures: strong coupling, plasmonic crystals, and induced transparency by coupling of localized modes

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, Gregory C; Allen, S James; Grine, Albert D; Bethke, Don; Reno, John L; Shaner, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    The device applications of plasmonic systems such as graphene and two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in III-V heterostructures include terahertz detectors, mixers, oscillators and modulators. These two dimensional (2D) plasmonic systems are not only well-suited for device integration, but also enable the broad tunability of underdamped plasma excitations via an applied electric field. We present demonstrations of the coherent coupling of multiple voltage tuned GaAs/AlGaAs 2D plasmonic resonators under terahertz irradiation. By utilizing a plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism to downconvert the near field of plasma waves to a DC signal, we directly detect the spectrum of coupled plasmonic micro-resonator structures at cryogenic temperatures. The 2DEG in the studied devices can be interpreted as a plasmonic waveguide where multiple gate terminals control the 2DEG kinetic inductance. When the gate tuning of the 2DEG is spatially periodic, a one-dimensional finite plasmonic crystal forms. This results in a sub...

  13. Universal horizons and Hawking radiation in nonprojectable 2d Hořava gravity coupled to a nonrelativistic scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Fei; Bhattacharjee, Madhurima; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we study the nonprojectable 2d Hořava gravity coupled with a nonrelativistic scalar field, where the coupling is, in general, nonminimal and of the form f (ϕ )R , where f (ϕ ) is an arbitrary function of the scalar field ϕ , and R denotes the 2d Ricci scalar. In particular, we first investigate the Hamiltonian structure and show that there are two first- and two second-class constraints, similar to the pure gravity case, but now the local degrees of freedom is one due to the presence of the scalar field. Then, we present various exact stationary solutions of this coupled system, and find that some of them represent black holes, but now with universal horizons as their boundaries. At these horizons, the Hawking radiation is thermal with temperatures proportional to their surface gravities, which normally depend on the nonlinear dispersion relations of the particles radiated, similar to the (3 +1 )-dimensional case.

  14. Couple stress theory of curved rods. 2-D, high order, Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New models for plane curved rods based on linear couple stress theory of elasticity have been developed.2-D theory is developed from general 2-D equations of linear couple stress elasticity using a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod as well as special hypothesis based on assumptions that take into account the fact that the rod is thin. High order theory is based on the expansion of the equations of the theory of elasticity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. First, stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements and rotation along with body forces have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate.Thereby, all equations of elasticity including Hooke’s law have been transformed to the corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then, in the same way as in the theory of elasticity, a system of differential equations in terms of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients have been obtained. Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli theories are based on the classical hypothesis and the 2-D equations of linear couple stress theory of elasticity in a special curvilinear system. The obtained equations can be used to calculate stress-strain and to model thin walled structures in macro, micro and nano scales when taking into account couple stress and rotation effects.

  15. A computational approach for coupled 1D and 2D/3D CFD modelling of pulse Tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The physics behind Stirling-type cryocoolers are complicated. One dimensional (1D) simulation tools offer limited details and accuracy, in particular for cryocoolers that have non-linear configurations. Multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods are useful but are computationally expensive in simulating cyrocooler systems in their entirety. In view of the fact that some components of a cryocooler, e.g., inertance tubes and compliance tanks, can be modelled as 1D components with little loss of critical information, a 1D-2D/3D coupled model was developed. Accordingly, one-dimensional – like components are represented by specifically developed routines. These routines can be coupled to CFD codes and provide boundary conditions for 2D/3D CFD simulations. The developed coupled model, while preserving sufficient flow field details, is two orders of magnitude faster than equivalent 2D/3D CFD models. The predictions show good agreement with experimental data and 2D/3D CFD model.

  16. Approaches to Modeling Coupled Flow and Reaction in a 2-D Cementation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Cochepin, B.; Trotignon, L.; Bildstein, O.; Steefel, C.; Lagneau, V.; van der Lee, J.

    2008-04-01

    Porosity evolution at reactive interfaces is a key process that governs the evolution and performances of many engineered systems that have important applications in earth and environmental sciences. This is the case, for example, at the interface between cement structures and clays in deep geological nuclear waste disposals. Although in a different transport regime, similar questions arise for permeable reactive barriers used for biogeochemical remediation in surface environments. The COMEDIE project aims at investigating the coupling between transport, hydrodynamics and chemistry when significant variations of porosity occur. The present work focuses on a numerical benchmark used as a design exercise for the future COMEDIE-2D experiment. The use of reactive transport simulation tools like Hytec and Crunch provides predictions of the physico-chemical evolutions that are expected during the future experiments in laboratory. Focus is given in this paper on the evolution during the simulated experiment of precipitate, permeability and porosity fields. A first case is considered in which the porosity is constant. Results obtained with Crunch and Hytec are in relatively good agreement. Differences are attributable to the models of reactive surface area taken into account for dissolution/precipitation processes. Crunch and Hytec simulations taking into account porosity variations are then presented and compared. Results given by the two codes are in qualitative agreement, with differences attributable in part to the models of reactive surface area for dissolution/precipitation processes. As a consequence, the localization of secondary precipitates predicted by Crunch leads to lower local porosities than for predictions obtained by Hytec and thus to a stronger coupling between flow and chemistry. This benchmark highlights the importance of the surface area model employed to describe systems in which strong porosity variations occur as a result of dissolution

  17. Protein Structure Validation and Identification from Unassigned Residual Dipolar Coupling Data Using 2D-PDPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Arjang; Mukhopadhyay, Rishi; Yandle, Ryan; Prestegard, James H.; Valafar, Homayoun

    2014-01-01

    More than 90% of protein structures submitted to the PDB each year are homologous to some previously characterized protein structure. The extensive resources that are required for structural characterization of proteins can be justified for the 10% of the novel structures, but not for the remaining 90%. This report presents the 2D-PDPA method, which utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling in order to address the economics of structure determination of routine proteins by reducing the data acquisition and processing time. 2D-PDPA has been demonstrated to successfully identify the correct structure of an array of proteins that range from 46 to 445 residues in size from a library of 619 decoy structures by using unassigned simulated RDC data. When using experimental data, 2D-PDPA successfully identified the correct NMR structures from the same library of decoy structures. In addition, the most homologous X-ray structure was also identified as the second best structural candidate. Finally, success of 2D-PDPA in identifying and evaluating the most appropriate structure from a set of computationally predicted structures in the case of a previously uncharacterized protein Pf2048.1 has been demonstrated. This protein exhibits less than 20% sequence identity to any protein with known structure and therefore presents a compelling and practical application of our proposed work. PMID:23973992

  18. The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N.Shalaev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.

  19. Nonlinear to Linear Elastic Code Coupling in 2-D Axisymmetric Media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Explosions within the earth nonlinearly deform the local media, but at typical seismological observation distances, the seismic waves can be considered linear. Although nonlinear algorithms can simulate explosions in the very near field well, these codes are computationally expensive and inaccurate at propagating these signals to great distances. A linearized wave propagation code, coupled to a nonlinear code, provides an efficient mechanism to both accurately simulate the explosion itself and to propagate these signals to distant receivers. To this end we have coupled Sandia's nonlinear simulation algorithm CTH to a linearized elastic wave propagation code for 2-D axisymmetric media (axiElasti) by passing information from the nonlinear to the linear code via time-varying boundary conditions. In this report, we first develop the 2-D axisymmetric elastic wave equations in cylindrical coordinates. Next we show how we design the time-varying boundary conditions passing information from CTH to axiElasti, and finally we demonstrate the coupling code via a simple study of the elastic radius.

  20. Long-lived magnetoexcitons in 2D-fermion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L. V.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Kukushkin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the experimental technique that, when applied to a 2D-electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime with filling factor ν = 2 (the Hall insulating state), allows resonant excitation of magnetoexcitons, their detection, control of an ensemble of long-lived triplet excitons and investigation of their radiationless decay related to exciton spin relaxation into the ground state. The technique proposed enables independent control of photoexcited electrons and Fermi-holes using photoinduced resonance reflection spectra as well as estimate with a reasonable degree of accuracy the resulting density of photoinduced electron-hole pairs bound into magnetoexcitons. The mere existence of triplet excitons was directly established by inelastic light scattering spectra which were analyzed to determine the value of singlet-triplet exciton splitting. It was found that the lifetimes of triplet excitons conditioned by electron spin relaxation in highly perfect GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with highly mobile 2D electrons are extremely long exceeding 100 μs at T spin relaxation lifetimes which are unprecedented for translation-invariant 2D systems. This enabled us to create sufficiently high concentrations of triplet magnetoexcitons, electrically neutral excitations following Bose-Einstein statistics, in a Fermi electron system and investigate their collective properties. At sufficiently high densities of triplet magnetoexcitons and low temperatures, T magnetic translation vectors). The occurrence of a condensed phase is accompanied with a significant decrease in the viscosity of the photoexcited system, which is responsible for electron spin transport at macroscopic distances, as well as with the effects of threshold enhancement of the system response to the external action of the electromagnetic field and emergence of a new intensive radiative recombination channel.

  1. Comparison between a coupled 1D-2D model and a fully 2D model for supercritical flow simulation in crossroads

    KAUST Repository

    Ghostine, Rabih

    2014-12-01

    In open channel networks, flow is usually approximated by the one-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations coupled with an empirical junction model. In this work, a comparison in terms of accuracy and computational cost between a coupled 1D-2D shallow water model and a fully two-dimensional (2D) model is presented. The paper explores the ability of a coupled model to simulate the flow processes during supercritical flows in crossroads. This combination leads to a significant reduction in the computational time, as a 1D approach is used in branches and a 2D approach is employed in selected areas only where detailed flow information is essential. Overall, the numerical results suggest that the coupled model is able to accurately simulate the main flow processes. In particular, hydraulic jumps, recirculation zones, and discharge distribution are reasonably well reproduced and clearly identified. Overall, the proposed model leads to a 30% reduction in run times. © 2014 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

  2. Coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow: Influence of modeling parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcome of our investigation on the influence of modeling parameters on 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow, developed through coupling of an existing 1D sewer network model (SWMM and 2D inundation model (BREZO. The 1D-2D hydrodynamic model was developed for the purpose of examining flood incidence due to surcharged water on overland surface. The investigation was carried out by performing sensitivity analysis on the developed model. For the sensitivity analysis, modeling parameters, such as mesh resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution and roughness were considered. The outcome of the study shows the model is sensitive to changes in these parameters. The performance of the model is significantly influenced, by the Manning's friction value, the DEM resolution and the area of the triangular mesh. Also, changes in the aforementioned modeling parameters influence the Flood characteristics, such as the inundation extent, the flow depth and the velocity across the model domain.

  3. 2D acoustic-elastic coupled waveform inversion in the Laplace domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Hoseuk

    2010-04-01

    Although waveform inversion has been intensively studied in an effort to properly delineate the Earth\\'s structures since the early 1980s, most of the time- and frequency-domain waveform inversion algorithms still have critical limitations in their applications to field data. This may be attributed to the highly non-linear objective function and the unreliable low-frequency components. To overcome the weaknesses of conventional waveform inversion algorithms, the acoustic Laplace-domain waveform inversion has been proposed. The Laplace-domain waveform inversion has been known to provide a long-wavelength velocity model even for field data, which may be because it employs the zero-frequency component of the damped wavefield and a well-behaved logarithmic objective function. However, its applications have been confined to 2D acoustic media.We extend the Laplace-domain waveform inversion algorithm to a 2D acoustic-elastic coupled medium, which is encountered in marine exploration environments. In 2D acoustic-elastic coupled media, the Laplace-domain pressures behave differently from those of 2D acoustic media, although the overall features are similar to each other. The main differences are that the pressure wavefields for acoustic-elastic coupled media show negative values even for simple geological structures unlike in acoustic media, when the Laplace damping constant is small and the water depth is shallow. The negative values may result from more complicated wave propagation in elastic media and at fluid-solid interfaces.Our Laplace-domain waveform inversion algorithm is also based on the finite-element method and logarithmic wavefields. To compute gradient direction, we apply the back-propagation technique. Under the assumption that density is fixed, P- and S-wave velocity models are inverted from the pressure data. We applied our inversion algorithm to the SEG/EAGE salt model and the numerical results showed that the Laplace-domain waveform inversion

  4. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved

  5. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: marta@brandeis.edu; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail: naculich@bowdoin.edu; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: schnitzer@brandeis.edu

    2005-05-02

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.

  6. Thermochemical Nonequilibrium 2D Modeling of Nitrogen Inductively Coupled Plasma Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Yusuke, Takahashi; Hisashi, Kihara; Ken-ichi, Abe; Kazuhiko, Yamada; Takashi, Abe; Satoshi, Miyatani

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of thermochemical nonequilibrium inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flows inside a 10-kW inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel (ICPWT) were carried out with nitrogen as the working gas. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with magnetic vector potential equations were solved. A four-temperature model including an improved electron-vibration relaxation time was used to model the internal energy exchange between electron and heavy particles. The third-order accuracy electron transport properties (3rd AETP) were applied to the simulations. A hybrid chemical kinetic model was adopted to model the chemical nonequilibrium process. The flow characteristics such as thermal nonequilibrium, inductive discharge, effects of Lorentz force were made clear through the present study. It was clarified that the thermal nonequilibrium model played an important role in properly predicting the temperature field. The prediction accuracy can be improved by applying the 3rd AETP to the simulation for this ICPWT. supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 23560954), sponsored by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

  7. Measurement of azimuthal dependence of resonant coupling in 2D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Držík, M.; Šoltýs, J.; Kajtár, G.; Chlpík, J.; Pisarčík, M.; Uherek, F.

    2017-11-01

    An optical setup, inspired from that used for angle resolved reflective spectra measurement is used to determine photonic bands dispersion of 2D photonic crystals for all-around observation. The observation relies on coupling between the incoming beam and the photonic modes in periodically patterned planar structure, generating resonant features in the optical spectra. The features as a function of specific azimuthal angle lead to the determination of in-plane wave vector at a given frequency. To probe a performance of the photonic structures, the optical response of the photonic crystal in radiative region above light line was determined, and the structure of leaky modes for both polarization planes TE, TM at several incident angles was mapped. Leaky modes structure was approved by numerical RCWA-based modelling. The measured azimuthal dependences were evaluated to obtain equi-frequency curves.

  8. Quantum criticality in the 2D Hubbard: from weak to strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, Dimitrios; Mikelsons, Karlis; Khatami, Ehsan; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Zhaoxin; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2010-03-01

    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional Hubbard model in the vicinity of the quantum critical point which separates the fermi liquid from the pseudogap region. We use the Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA) in conjunction with the weak-coupling continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) cluster solver. We measure the filling nc and the density of states at the critical point as a function of the Coulomb interaction U. We observe a change in behavior when the Coulomb interaction is of the order of the bandwidth. We also evaluate the temperature range in which the system is under the influence of the quantum critical point and compare it with the effective spin coupling Jeff. We discuss the consistency of these results with various mechanisms of quantum criticality. This research is supported by NSF DMR-0706379 and OISE-0952300.

  9. Strongly Coupled High-Quality Graphene/2D Superconducting Mo2C Vertical Heterostructures with Aligned Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Song, Shuang; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Wang, Libin; Fan, Dingxun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiuliang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2017-06-27

    Vertical heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) crystals have led to the observations of numerous exciting physical phenomena and presented the possibilities for technological applications, which strongly depend on the quality, interface, relative alignment, and interaction of the neighboring 2D crystals. The heterostructures or hybrids of graphene and superconductors offer a very interesting platform to study mesoscopic superconductivity and the interplay of the quantum Hall effect with superconductivity. However, so far the heterostructures of graphene and 2D superconductors are fabricated by stacking, and consequently suffer from random relative alignment, weak interfacial interaction, and unavoidable interface contaminants. Here we report the direct growth of high-quality graphene/2D superconductor (nonlayered ultrathin α-Mo2C crystal) vertical heterostructures with uniformly well-aligned lattice orientation and strong interface coupling by chemical vapor deposition. In the heterostructure, both graphene and 2D α-Mo2C crystal show no defect, and the graphene is strongly compressed. Different from the previously reported graphene/superconductor heterostructures or hybrids, the strong interface coupling leads to a phase diagram of superconducting transition with multiple voltage steps being observed in the transition regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate the realization of highly transparent Josephson junction devices based on these strongly coupled high-quality heterostructures, in which a clear magnetic-field-induced Fraunhofer pattern of the critical supercurrent is observed.

  10. Strongly-coupled 2D membrane resonators in superconducting electromechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast, David; Knobel, Robert

    Nanomechanical devices have allowed for the study of the motion of macroscopic objects near their quantum ground state for mechanical motion. Coupling these devices to resonant electrical circuits provides a method of measuring with standard laboratory electronics, and a means to interact and cool towards the ground state. We report on current work, in microwave LC resonators, toward the use of graphene and niobium diselenide (NbSe2) membranes as one electrode in a parallel plate capacitor with a mechanical degree of freedom. The membrane's light mass, non-linear response to an applied force and tunability potentially enable stronger electromechanical amplification and coupling. Previous work using graphene in similar systems shows that graphene's electrical resistance is a limiting factor when attempting to cool via electromechanical sideband interactions. In contrast, NbSe2 is a superconductor even in single layer form, and this property has the potential to provide a system with lower loss while driving with increasing photon number, as compared to the graphene-based systems. In this talk we show fabrication, modelling and progress towards quantum-limited measurements. We acknowledge support for this work from NSERC and CMC Microsystems.

  11. Collective, Coherent, and Ultrastrong Coupling of 2D Electrons with Terahertz Cavity Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinwei; Reno, John L; Pan, Wei; Watson, John D; Manfra, Michael J; Kono, Junichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative coupling of light with condensed matter in an optical cavity is expected to reveal a host of coherent many-body phenomena and states. In addition, strong coherent light-matter interaction in a solid-state environment is of great interest to emerging quantum-based technologies. However, creating a system that combines a long electronic coherence time, a large dipole moment, and a high cavity quality ($Q$) factor has been a challenging goal. Here, we report collective ultrastrong light-matter coupling in an ultrahigh-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a high-$Q$ terahertz photonic-crystal cavity in a quantizing magnetic field, demonstrating a cooperativity of $\\sim$360. The splitting of cyclotron resonance (CR) into the lower and upper polariton branches exhibited a $\\sqrt{n_\\mathrm{e}}$-dependence on the electron density ($n_\\mathrm{e}$), a hallmark of collective vacuum Rabi splitting. Furthermore, a small but definite blue shift was observed for the polariton frequencies due to the norma...

  12. Mode coupling mechanisms in liquids studied by 2D Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Duppen, K.; Elsaesser, T; Fujimoto, JG; Wiersma, DA; Zinth, W

    1998-01-01

    Femtosecond temporally two-dimensional Raman scattering, that was originally designed to characterize the time scale(s) of intermolecular dynamics in liquids, also provides information on mode coupling mechanisms. Polarizability mode coupling suppresses the formation of motional echoes, that

  13. 2D-DOA Estimation for Cylindrical Array with Mutual Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Feng; Lutao Liu; Biyang Wen

    2014-01-01

    Most conventional direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms are affected by the effect of mutual coupling, which make the performance of DOA estimation degrade. In this paper, a novel DOA estimation algorithm for conformal array in the presence of unknown mutual coupling is proposed. The special mutual coupling matrix (MCM) is applied to eliminate the effect of mutual coupling. With suitable array design, the decoupling between polarization parameter and angle information is accomplish...

  14. Coupled 1-D sewer and street networks and 2-D flooding model to rapidly evaluate surface inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hong-Ming; Hsu, Hao-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Flash floods have occurred frequently in the urban areas around the world and cause the infrastructure and people living to expose continuously in the high risk level of pluvial flooding. According to historical surveys, the major reasons of severe surface inundations in the urban areas can be attributed to heavy rainfall in the short time and/or drainage system failure. In order to obtain real-time flood forecasting with high accuracy and less uncertainty, an appropriate system for predicting floods is necessary. For the reason, this study coupled 1-D sewer and street networks and 2-D flooding model as an operational modelling system for rapidly evaluating surface inundation. The proposed system is constructed by three significant components: (1) all the rainfall-runoff of a sub-catchment collected via gullies is simulated by the RUNOFF module of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM); (2) and directly drained to the 1-D sewer and street networks via manholes as inflow discharges to conduct flow routing by using the EXTRAN module of SWMM; (3) after the 1-D simulations, the surcharges from manholes are considered as point sources in 2-D overland flow simulations that are executed by the WASH123D model. It can thus be used for urban flood modelling that reflects the rainfall-runoff processes, and the dynamic flow interactions between the storm sewer system and the ground surface in urban areas. In the present study, we adopted the Huwei Science and Technology Park, located in the south-western part of Taiwan, as the demonstration area because of its high industrial values. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. It is as isolated urban drainage area in which there is a complete sewer system that collects the runoff and drains to the detention pond. Based on the simulated results, the proposed modelling system was found that the simulated floods fit to the survey records because the physical rainfall-runoff phenomena in

  15. Simulation realization of 2-D wavelength/time system utilizing MDW code for OCDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura, M. S. A.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Endut, R.; Ali, N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a realization of Wavelength/Time (W/T) Two-Dimensional Modified Double Weight (2-D MDW) code for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) approach. The MDW code has the capability to suppress Phase-Induce Intensity Noise (PIIN) and minimizing the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) noises. At the permissible BER 10-9, the 2-D MDW (APD) had shown minimum effective received power (Psr) = -71 dBm that can be obtained at the receiver side as compared to 2-D MDW (PIN) only received -61 dBm. The results show that 2-D MDW (APD) has better performance in achieving same BER with longer optical fiber length and with less received power (Psr). Also, the BER from the result shows that MDW code has the capability to suppress PIIN ad MAI.

  16. A 2D climate energy balance model coupled with a 3D deep ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ildefonso Diaz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a three dimensional climate model which represents the coupling of the mean surface temperature with the ocean temperature. We prove the existence of a bounded weak solution by a fixed point argument.

  17. Mef2d acts upstream of muscle identity genes and couples lateral myogenesis to dermomyotome formation in Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Della Gaspera

    Full Text Available Xenopus myotome is formed by a first medial and lateral myogenesis directly arising from the presomitic mesoderm followed by a second myogenic wave emanating from the dermomyotome. Here, by a series of gain and loss of function experiments, we showed that Mef2d, a member of the Mef2 family of MADS-box transcription factors, appeared as an upstream regulator of lateral myogenesis, and as an inducer of dermomyotome formation at the beginning of neurulation. In the lateral presomitic cells, we showed that Mef2d transactivates Myod expression which is necessary for lateral myogenesis. In the most lateral cells of the presomitic mesoderm, we showed that Mef2d and Paraxis (Tcf15, a member of the Twist family of transcription factors, were co-localized and activate directly the expression of Meox2, which acts upstream of Pax3 expression during dermomyotome formation. Cell tracing experiments confirm that the most lateral Meox2 expressing cells of the presomitic mesoderm correspond to the dermomyotome progenitors since they give rise to the most dorsal cells of the somitic mesoderm. Thus, Xenopus Mef2d couples lateral myogenesis to dermomyotome formation before somite segmentation. These results together with our previous works reveal striking similarities between dermomyotome and tendon formation in Xenopus: both develop in association with myogenic cells and both involve a gene transactivation pathway where one member of the Mef2 family, Mef2d or Mef2c, cooperates with a bHLH protein of the Twist family, Paraxis or Scx (Scleraxis respectively. We propose that these shared characteristics in Xenopus laevis reflect the existence of a vertebrate ancestral mechanism which has coupled the development of the myogenic cells to the formation of associated tissues during somite compartmentalization.

  18. Adjustable and automated system to obtain 2-D photometric patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Martínez-Fabián, S. E.; Mendoza-Zúñiga, J. L.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Grimalsky, V. V.

    2013-09-01

    A complete adjustable and automated system has been developed on the base of three blocks: the first one is the mechanical and adjustable structure, which is composed by a mobile base and a rectangular arc, where the photodetector is located. The structure describes semi-spherical trajectories by means of two servomotors. Its lightweight and robustness constitutes two advantages which make it portable. The second stage corresponds to the automation of the structure movements. For controlling the motors and data acquisition, a microcontroller is employed that in turns helps keeping the cost of the overall system low. One of the servomotors is located on the lateral axis of the device; that displaces the sensor along a semi-circular trajectory of 160°, almost half meridians; the other one is located at the base of the illumination source, which enables it to realize an almost complete rotation around its axis. Finally, the last stage is formed by the graphical interface. The communication protocol between the data acquisition stage and the computer is USART. The graphical user interface (GUI) is developed using Visual C#. In the same window the data acquisition deployment and the data graph generator are given; the graphs can be shown in a polar or Cartesian formats showing more than one curve, if necessary, avoiding the use of additional software. The GUI keeps the low cost of the device, obtaining a comprehensive solution to generate the irradiance patterns of light sources.

  19. Noise suppression system of OCDMA with spectral/spatial 2D hybrid code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matem Rima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel 2D spectral/spatial hybrid code based on 1D ZCC and 1D MD where the both present a zero cross correlation property analyzed and the influence of the noise of optical as Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN, shot and thermal noise. This new code is shown effectively to mitigate the PIIN and suppresses MAI. Using 2D ZCC/MD code the performance of the system can be improved in term of as well as to support more simultaneous users compared of the 2D FCC/MDW and 2D DPDC codes.

  20. Noise suppression system of OCDMA with spectral/spatial 2D hybrid code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matem, Rima; Aljunid, S. A.; Junita, M. N.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Shihab Aqrab, Israa

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel 2D spectral/spatial hybrid code based on 1D ZCC and 1D MD where the both present a zero cross correlation property analyzed and the influence of the noise of optical as Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN), shot and thermal noise. This new code is shown effectively to mitigate the PIIN and suppresses MAI. Using 2D ZCC/MD code the performance of the system can be improved in term of as well as to support more simultaneous users compared of the 2D FCC/MDW and 2D DPDC codes.

  1. Capacitive Substrate Coupling of Row–Column-Addressed 2-D CMUT Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Bouzari, Hamed; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Row–column-addressed CMUT arrays suffer from low receive sensitivity of the bottom elements due to a capacitive coupling to the substrate. The capacitive coupling increases the parasitic capacitance. A simple approach to reduce the parasitic capacitance is presented, which is based on depleting...... the semiconductor substrate. To reduce the parasitic capacitance by 80% the bulk doping concentration should be at most 1012 cm-3. Experimental results show that the parasitic capacitance can be reduced by 87% by applying a substrate potential of 6V relative to the bottom electrodes. The depletion...... of the semiconductor substrate can be sustained for at least 10 minutes making it applicable for row–column-addressed CMUT arrays for ultrasonic imaging. Theoretically the reduced parasitic capacitance indicates that the receive sensitivity of the bottom elements can be increased by a factor of 2:1....

  2. HIFI-C: a robust and fast method for determining NMR couplings from adaptive 3D to 2D projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornilescu, Gabriel, E-mail: gabrielc@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison (United States)], E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu

    2007-08-15

    We describe a novel method for the robust, rapid, and reliable determination of J couplings in multi-dimensional NMR coupling data, including small couplings from larger proteins. The method, 'High-resolution Iterative Frequency Identification of Couplings' (HIFI-C) is an extension of the adaptive and intelligent data collection approach introduced earlier in HIFI-NMR. HIFI-C collects one or more optimally tilted two-dimensional (2D) planes of a 3D experiment, identifies peaks, and determines couplings with high resolution and precision. The HIFI-C approach, demonstrated here for the 3D quantitative J method, offers vital features that advance the goal of rapid and robust collection of NMR coupling data. (1) Tilted plane residual dipolar couplings (RDC) data are collected adaptively in order to offer an intelligent trade off between data collection time and accuracy. (2) Data from independent planes can provide a statistical measure of reliability for each measured coupling. (3) Fast data collection enables measurements in cases where sample stability is a limiting factor (for example in the presence of an orienting medium required for residual dipolar coupling measurements). (4) For samples that are stable, or in experiments involving relatively stronger couplings, robust data collection enables more reliable determinations of couplings in shorter time, particularly for larger biomolecules. As a proof of principle, we have applied the HIFI-C approach to the 3D quantitative J experiment to determine N-C' RDC values for three proteins ranging from 56 to 159 residues (including a homodimer with 111 residues in each subunit). A number of factors influence the robustness and speed of data collection. These factors include the size of the protein, the experimental set up, and the coupling being measured, among others. To exhibit a lower bound on robustness and the potential for time saving, the measurement of dipolar couplings for the N-C' vector

  3. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hongtao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Finally, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  4. A 2D Time Domain DRBEM Computer Model for MagnetoThermoelastic Coupled Wave Propagation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM is extended to study magneto-thermoelastic coupled wave propagation problems with relaxation times involving anisotropic functionally graded solids. The model formulation is tested through its application to the problem of a solid placed in a constant primary magnetic field acting in the direction of the z-axis and rotating about this axis with a constant angular velocity. In the case of two-dimensional deformation, an implicit-explicit time domain DRBEM was presented and implemented to obtain the solution for the displacement and temperature fields. A comparison of the results is presented graphically in the context of Lord and Shulman (LS and Green and Lindsay (GL theories. Numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented graphically.

  5. Azide-water intermolecular coupling measured by 2-color 2D IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perakis F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present 2-color two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of intermolecular coupling between azide ions and their solvation shell water molecules. The cross-peak between azide asymmetric stretch vibration and the OD-stretch vibration is a result of low- probability uphill population transfer. Narrow bleach/excited state absorption peak shows selectivity to solvation shell water molecules only and the characteristics of the cross-peak suggest that the solvation shell hydrogen bond potential has similar anharmonic properties as the hydrogen bond in ice Ih. Population and depopulation of the excited state of the OD-stretch vibration happen on 150 fs and 1.7 ps timescales, respectively, with early manifesting heating effects that limit the selectivity to population times up to 1 ps.

  6. Recent Applications of 2D Inorganic Nanosheets for Emerging Energy Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Mi; Patil, Sharad B; Jin, Xiaoyan; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2017-10-26

    Among many types of nanostructured inorganic materials, highly anisotropic 2D nanosheets provide unique advantages in designing and synthesizing efficient electrode and electrocatalyst materials for novel energy storage technologies. 2D inorganic nanosheets boast lots of unique characteristics such as high surface area, short ion diffusion path, tailorable compositions, and tunable electronic structures. These merits of 2D inorganic nanosheets render them promising candidate materials as electrodes for diverse secondary batteries and supercapacitors, and electrocatalysts. A wide spectrum of examples is presented for inorganic nanosheet-based electrodes and electrocatalysts. Future perspectives in research about 2D nanosheet-based functional materials are discussed to provide insight for the development of next-generation energy storage systems using 2D nanostructured materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  8. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert

    2016-08-31

    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology.

  9. Quantum and Classical Optics of Plasmonic Systems: 3D/2D Materials and Photonic Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Gangaraj, Seyyed Ali

    At the interface of two different media such as metal and vacuum, light can couple to the electrons of the metal to form a wave that is bound to the interface. This wave is called a surface plasmon-plariton (SPP), generally characterized by intense fields that decay quickly away from the interface. Due to their unique properties, SPPs have found a broad range of applications in various areas of science, including light harvesting, medical science, energy transfer and imaging. In addition to the widely studied classical plasmonics, quantum plasmonics is also attracting considerable interest in the electromagnetics and quantum optics communities. In this thesis several new areas of investigation into quantum plasmonics is presented, focusing on entanglement mediated by SPPs in several different environments: 3D waveguides, 2D surfaces and on photonic topological insulators. Entanglement is an experimentally verified property of nature where pairs of quantum systems are connected in some manner such that the quantum state of each system cannot be described independently. Generating, preserving, and controlling entanglement is necessary for many quantum computer implementations. It is highly desirable to control entanglement between two multi-level emitters such as quantum dots via a macroscopic, easily-adjusted external parameter. SPPs guided by the medium, as a coupling agent between quantum dots, are highly tunable and offer a promising way to achieve having control over a SPP mediated entanglement. We first consider two quantum dots placed above 3D finite length waveguides. We have restricted our consideration to two waveguides types, i.e. a metal nanowire and a groove waveguide. Our main results in this work are to show that realistic finite-length nanowire and groove waveguides, with their associated discontinuities, play a crucial role in the engineering of highly entangled states. It is demonstrated that proper positioning of the emitters with respect to the

  10. 2D/3D-Display Auto-adjustment Switch System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Wu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Chien-Yu

    2017-05-03

    Recently, 2D/3D switchable displays have become the mainstream in 3D display technologies, and people can now watch 3D movies with a naked 2D/3D switchable display at home. However, some studies have indicated that people might encounter visual fatigue after enjoying a 3D film in the theater. Although 2D/3D switchable technologies have been widely developed, 3D display technologies are still lacking in ergonomic and human-care factors such as reducing visual fatigue. This study proposes a novel 2D/3D display auto-adjustment switch system to provide biofeedback functions to reduce users' visual fatigue. In addition, the relationship between the blink rate and the visual fatigue state while watching 3D films was investigated and quantified. In this study, liquid crystal barrier technology was used to develop a 2D/ 3D switchable display, and a wearable EOG acquisition device was also designed to monitor electrooculography signals to estimate the blink rate. Here, the 2D/3D display auto-adjustment criterion of the proposed system was designed according to the change in the visual fatigue state as estimated from the blink rate. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed system could effectively reduce users' visual fatigue while watching 3D films.

  11. Influence of weak vibrational-electronic couplings on 2D electronic spectra and inter-site coherence in weakly coupled photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Daniele M.; Whaley-Mayda, Lukas; Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ishizaki, Akihito [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Coherence oscillations measured in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of pigment-protein complexes may have electronic, vibrational, or mixed-character vibronic origins, which depend on the degree of electronic-vibrational mixing. Oscillations from intrapigment vibrations can obscure the inter-site coherence lifetime of interest in elucidating the mechanisms of energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting. Huang-Rhys factors (S) for low-frequency vibrations in Chlorophyll and Bacteriochlorophyll are quite small (S ≤ 0.05), so it is often assumed that these vibrations influence neither 2D spectra nor inter-site coherence dynamics. In this work, we explore the influence of S within this range on the oscillatory signatures in simulated 2D spectra of a pigment heterodimer. To visualize the inter-site coherence dynamics underlying the 2D spectra, we introduce a formalism which we call the “site-probe response.” By comparing the calculated 2D spectra with the site-probe response, we show that an on-resonance vibration with Huang-Rhys factor as small as S = 0.005 and the most strongly coupled off-resonance vibrations (S = 0.05) give rise to long-lived, purely vibrational coherences at 77 K. We moreover calculate the correlation between optical pump interactions and subsequent entanglement between sites, as measured by the concurrence. At 77 K, greater long-lived inter-site coherence and entanglement appear with increasing S. This dependence all but vanishes at physiological temperature, as environmentally induced fluctuations destroy the vibronic mixing.

  12. MHD mode coupling in the neighbourhood of a 2D null point

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. A.; Hood, A. W.

    2006-11-01

    Context: .At this time there does not exist a robust set of rules connecting low and high β waves across the β ≈ 1 layer. The work here contributes specifically to what happens when a low β fast wave crosses the β ≈ 1 layer and transforms into high β fast and slow waves. Aims: .The nature of fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves is investigated in a finite β plasma in the neighbourhood of a two-dimensional null point. Methods: .The linearised equations are solved in both polar and cartesian forms with a two-step Lax-Wendroff numerical scheme. Analytical work (e.g. small β expansion and WKB approximation) also complement the work. Results: .It is found that when a finite gas pressure is included in magnetic equilibrium containing an X-type null point, a fast wave is attracted towards the null by a refraction effect and that a slow wave is generated as the wave crosses the β ≈ 1 layer. Current accumulation occurs close to the null and along nearby separatrices. The fast wave can now pass through the origin due to the non-zero sound speed, an effect not previously seen in related papers but clear seen for larger values of β. Some of the energy can now leave the region of the null point and there is again generation of a slow wave component (we find that the fraction of the incident wave converted to a slow wave is proportional to β). We conclude that there are two competing phenomena; the refraction effect (due to the variable Alfvén speed) and the contribution from the non-zero sound speed. Conclusions: .These experiments illustrate the importance of the magnetic topology and of the location of the β ≈ 1 layer in the system.

  13. Novel coupling scheme to control dynamics of coupled discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Ambika, G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new coupling scheme to control spatio-temporal patterns and chimeras on 1-d and 2-d lattices and random networks of discrete dynamical systems. The scheme involves coupling with an external lattice or network of damped systems. When the system network and external network are set in a feedback loop, the system network can be controlled to a homogeneous steady state or synchronized periodic state with suppression of the chaotic dynamics of the individual units. The control scheme has the advantage that its design does not require any prior information about the system dynamics or its parameters and works effectively for a range of parameters of the control network. We analyze the stability of the controlled steady state or amplitude death state of lattices using the theory of circulant matrices and Routh-Hurwitz criterion for discrete systems and this helps to isolate regions of effective control in the relevant parameter planes. The conditions thus obtained are found to agree well with those obtained from direct numerical simulations in the specific context of lattices with logistic map and Henon map as on-site system dynamics. We show how chimera states developed in an experimentally realizable 2-d lattice can be controlled using this scheme. We propose this mechanism can provide a phenomenological model for the control of spatio-temporal patterns in coupled neurons due to non-synaptic coupling with the extra cellular medium. We extend the control scheme to regulate dynamics on random networks and adapt the master stability function method to analyze the stability of the controlled state for various topologies and coupling strengths.

  14. Mapping temporal extent of Chiang Mai floods using coupled 1-D and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowit Boonrawd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupling of a 1-D flood routing model and quasi 2-D floodplain inundation model is applied for mapping spacetime flood extent. The routing model is formulated based on a non-linear storage-discharge relationship which is converted from an observed and synthetic rating curve. To draw the rating curve, required parameters for each reaches are estimated from hydraulic properties, floodplain geometry and vegetation and building cover of compound channels. The shape of the floodplain is defined by using fitting exercise based on the reverse approach between past and simulated inundation flood extent, to solve the current problem of inadequate topographic input data for floodplain. Mapping of daily flood can be generated relying on flat water levels. The quasi 2-D raster model is tested and applied to generate more realistic water surface and is used to estimate flood extent. The model is applied to the floodplains of Chiang Mai, north of Thailand and used to estimate a time series of hourly flood maps. Extending from daily to hourly flood extent, mapping development provides more details of flood inundation extent and depth.

  15. Second-order theory for coupling 2D numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    nonlinear wave generation in the physical wave tank based on target numerical solutions. The performance and efficiency of the new model is first evaluated theoretically based on second order Stokes waves. Due to the complexity of the problem, the proposed method has been truncated at 2D and the treatment......A full second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks is presented. The ad hoc unified wave generation approach developed by Zhang et al. [Zhang, H., Schäffer, H.A., Jakobsen, K.P., 2007. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models. Coast. Eng. 54...... of regular waves, and the re-reflection control on the wave paddle is also not included. In order to validate the solution methodology further, a series of nonlinear, periodic waves based on stream function theory are generated in a physical wave tank using a piston-type wavemaker. These experiments show...

  16. Electromagnetically induced 2D grating via refractive index enhancement in a far-off resonant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2017-07-01

    We propose a scheme for electromagnetically induced 2D grating in a mixture of two three-level Λ systems driven by two pairs of far-detuned coherent standing-wave fields. The key idea, which has been used to achieve the refractive index enhancement with vanishing absorption, is to induce two Raman resonances for the probe field, and their strength can be tuned via the two-photon detunings and the intensity of coupling field. By manipulating the absorption and gain properties of these two Raman resonances, absorption-phase grating, phase grating and gain-phase grating which effectively diffract a probe field into high-order directions can be formed in the atoms with the help of standing-wave pattern coherent fields. The diffracting power of the presented gratings strongly depends on the two-photon resonance condition and amplitude of coherent fields, hence the gratings can be used as all-optical multi-channel splitters or all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

  17. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela; Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek; Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela; Kuta, Jan; Prokeš, Lubomír; Kynický, Jindřich; Kanický, Viktor

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS.

  18. Towards Malaysian LADM Country Profile for 2D and 3D Cadastral Registration System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulkifli, N.A.; Abdul Rahman, A.; Jamil, H.; Teng, C.H.; Tan, L.C.; Looi, K.S.; Chan, K.L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) country profile for 2D and 3D cadastral registration system for Malaysia. The proposed Malaysian country profile is partly based on the existing spatial (including survey) and administrative registration systems,

  19. Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement.

  20. Magnetoplasmon spectrum for realistic off-plane structure of dissipative 2D system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    The rigorous analysis of the textbook result (Chiu and Quinn, 1974) gives unexpectedly the dramatic change of the magnetoplasmon spectrum taking into account both the arbitrary dissipation and asymmetric off-plane structure of 2D system. For given wave vector the dissipation enhancement leads to decrease(increase) of magnetoplasmon frequency at low(high) magnetic field. At certain range of disorder the purely relaxational mode appears in magnetoplasmon spectrum. In strong magnetic fields the magnetoplasmon frequency falls to cyclotron resonance line even in presence of finite dissipation. The observation of nonlinearity and, moreover, the mysterious zig-zag behavior 2D magnetoplasmon spectrum is consistent with our findings.

  1. Analysis of 2D CS Spectra for Systems with Non-Gaussian Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Santanu; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how accurate different methods of the spectral line shape analysis work in two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D CS) for systems with non-Gaussian dynamics. A direct link is established between the frequency dependent correlation functions and a number of line shape metrics.

  2. Developing 2D and 3D cadastral registration system based on LADM : Illustrated with Malaysian cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amalina Zulkifli, N.; Abdul Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates several aspects of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) associated to 2D and 3D cadastral situations within Malaysian cadastral registration system. Literature review shows that many countries propose their own profile based on the LADM such as The

  3. Novel Aerial 3D Mapping System Based on UAV Platforms and 2D Laser Scanners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roca, David; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Lagüela, Susana; Arias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper presents a novel Aerial 3D Mapping System based on a copter-type platform, where a 2D laser scanner is integrated with a GNSS sensor and an IMU for the generation of georeferenced 3D point clouds...

  4. Plasmons in Dimensionally Mismatched Coulomb Coupled Graphene Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badalyan, S. M.; Shylau, A. A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the plasmon dispersion relation for Coulomb coupled metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons and doped monolayer graphene. The crossing of the plasmon curves, which occurs for uncoupled 1D and 2D systems, is split by the interlayer Coulomb coupling into a lower and an upper plasmon...... by varying the system parameters and be used in plasmonic applications....

  5. Initiating human articular chondrocyte re-differentiation in a 3D system after 2D expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Abhijith K; Luyten, Frank P; Patterson, Jennifer

    2017-09-05

    Cartilage damage affects a large population via acute and chronic injury and disease. Since native cartilage does not self-renew, cartilage tissue engineering has gained traction as a potential treatment. However, a limiting factor is that the primary cell type in cartilage, the articular chondrocyte, tends to de-differentiate when grown on 2D surfaces for in vitro expansion. Thus, 3D systems are being developed and used to counter this loss of chondrogenic capabilities. We hypothesize that a 3D matrix that can be remodeled may be more supportive of the chondrogenic phenotype of encapsulated articular chondrocytes than a 2D surface and may allow for the re-differentiation of chondrocytes after 2D expansion. Hence, in this study, enzymatically degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels containing two different protease degradable peptide segments, with different degradation rates, were tested in combination with chondrogenic medium as a 3D in vitro culture system to better recapitulate the native environment of human articular chondrocytes (hACs). In addition, the effect of incorporation of the integrin binding ligand Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) in the hydrogels was explored. Hydrogels crosslinked with a slower degrading crosslinker and not functionalized with RGD maintained hAC viability and led to increased GAG production and chondrogenic gene expression over time, suggesting that this system can initiate hAC re-differentiation after 2D expansion.

  6. Long ranged interactions in computer simulations and for quasi-2D systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial, E-mail: Martial.Mazars@th.u-psud.f

    2011-03-15

    Taking correctly into account long ranged interactions in molecular simulations of molecular models based on classical atomistic representations are essential to obtain reliable results on model systems and in simulations of biological systems. A lot of numerical methods have been developed to this end; the most important of them are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the analytical relations between the methods, this allows comparisons on efficiency and accuracy between them and also to proceed to precise implementations of these techniques. While most of the methods have been developed for Coulomb interactions, we give also some analytical details to apply these methods to screened Coulomb (Yukawa interactions), inverse power law and dipolar interactions. Particular types of systems, the quasi-2D systems, are also considered in this paper. Quasi-2D systems represent a large class of physical systems where the spatial extension in one direction of the space is very small by comparison to the other two. These representations are very useful to describe the properties of interfaces, surfaces, fluids confined in slab geometry, etc. In computer simulations, these systems are studied with partial periodic boundary conditions: periodic boundary conditions are taken in directions where spatial extensions are large and some other boundary conditions are taken in directions with smaller extensions. In this review, we describe also the numerical methods developed to handle long ranged interactions in numerical simulations of quasi-2D systems. The properties of quasi-2D systems depend strongly on interactions between components; more specifically electrostatic and magnetic interactions and interactions with external fields are of particular interest in these systems.

  7. Full momentum- and energy-resolved spectral function of a 2D electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joonho; Yoo, Heun Mo; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Ashoori, Raymond C.

    2017-11-01

    The single-particle spectral function measures the density of electronic states in a material as a function of both momentum and energy, providing central insights into strongly correlated electron phenomena. Here we demonstrate a high-resolution method for measuring the full momentum- and energy-resolved electronic spectral function of a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system embedded in a semiconductor. The technique remains operational in the presence of large externally applied magnetic fields and functions even for electronic systems with zero electrical conductivity or with zero electron density. Using the technique on a prototypical 2D system, a GaAs quantum well, we uncover signatures of many-body effects involving electron-phonon interactions, plasmons, polarons, and a phonon analog of the vacuum Rabi splitting in atomic systems.

  8. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  9. Developing Mobile BIM/2D Barcode-Based Automated Facility Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility management (FM has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD. This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment.

  10. Developing mobile BIM/2D barcode-based automated facility management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yen-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Facility management (FM) has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D) graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D) object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD). This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM) system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment.

  11. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuta, Jan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kynický, Jindřich [Department of Pedology and Geology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS. - Highlights: • Elements in phosphate and oxalate urolith phases were quantified by LA-ICP-MS. • SRM NIST 1486 Bone Meal was proved suitable for quantification in uroliths. • Different ablation rates in particular phases were included at quantification. • Oxalate and apatite phases show opposite hardness order to natural minerals. • Uroliths were classified according to elemental association to phases.

  12. A 2D virtual reality system for visual goal-driven navigation in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Jouary; Mathieu Haudrechy; Raphaël Candelier; German Sumbre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Animals continuously rely on sensory feedback to adjust motor commands. In order to study the role of visual feedback in goal-driven navigation, we developed a 2D visual virtual reality system for zebrafish larvae. The visual feedback can be set to be similar to what the animal experiences in natural conditions. Alternatively, modification of the visual feedback can be used to study how the brain adapts to perturbations. For this purpose, we first generated a library o...

  13. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  14. Interaction of water molecules with hexagonal 2D systems. A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ángela; Rey, Rafael

    Over the years water sources have been contaminated with many chemical agents, becoming issues that affect health of the world population. The advances of the nanoscience and nanotechnology in the development new materials constitute an alternative for design molecular filters with great efficiencies and low cost for water treatment and purification. In the nanoscale, the process of filtration or separation of inorganic and organic pollutants from water requires to study interactions of these atoms or molecules with different nano-materials. Specifically, it is necessary to understand the role of these interactions in physical and chemical properties of the nano-materials. In this work, the main interest is to do a theoretical study of interaction between water molecules and 2D graphene-like systems, such as silicene (h-Si) or germanene (h-Ge). Using Density Functional Theory we calculate total energy curves as function of separation between of water molecules and 2D systems. Different spatial configurations of water molecules relative to 2D systems are considered. Structural relaxation effects and changes of electronic charge density also are reported. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  15. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Eulisse, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Muzaffar, S. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osborne, I. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, L. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: lucas.taylor@cern.ch; Tuura, L.A. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  16. 3D vs 2D laparoscopic systems: Development of a performance quantitative validation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedi, Andrea; Donarini, Erica; Lamera, Roberta; Sgroi, Giovanni; Turati, Luca; Ercole, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The new technology ensures 3D laparoscopic vision by adding depth to the traditional two dimensions. This realistic vision gives the surgeon the feeling of operating in real space. Hospital of Treviglio-Caravaggio isn't an university or scientific institution; in 2014 a new 3D laparoscopic technology was acquired therefore it led to evaluation of the of the appropriateness in term of patient outcome and safety. The project aims at achieving the development of a quantitative validation model that would ensure low cost and a reliable measure of the performance of 3D technology versus 2D mode. In addition, it aims at demonstrating how new technologies, such as open source hardware and software and 3D printing, could help research with no significant cost increase. For these reasons, in order to define criteria of appropriateness in the use of 3D technologies, it was decided to perform a study to technically validate the use of the best technology in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and safety in the use of a system between laparoscopic vision in 3D and the traditional 2D. 30 surgeons were enrolled in order to perform an exercise through the use of laparoscopic forceps inside a trainer. The exercise consisted of having surgeons with different level of seniority, grouped by type of specialization (eg. surgery, urology, gynecology), exercising videolaparoscopy with two technologies (2D and 3D) through the use of a anthropometric phantom. The target assigned to the surgeon was that to pass "needle and thread" without touching the metal part in the shortest time possible. The rings selected for the exercise had each a coefficient of difficulty determined by depth, diameter, angle from the positioning and from the point of view. The analysis of the data collected from the above exercise has mathematically confirmed that the 3D technique ensures a learning curve lower in novice and greater accuracy in the performance of the task with respect to 2D.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of J(HH) and two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants from a single multiply edited 2D cross-peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurí, Josep; Parella, Teodor

    2013-07-01

    Three different J-editing methods (IPAP, E.COSY and J-resolved) are implemented in a single NMR experiment to provide spin-state-edited 2D cross-peaks from which a simultaneous measurement of different homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants can be performed. A new J-selHSQMBC-IPAP experiment is proposed for the independent measurement of two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants along the F2 and F1 dimensions of the same 2D cross-peak. In addition, the E.COSY pattern provides additional information about the magnitude and relative sign between J(HH) and (n)J(CH) coupling constants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. 2-D Petroleum System Modelling of the Browse Basin, Offshore Northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byeong-Kook

    2017-04-01

    Petroleum system modelling was performed for the Browse Basin, which is a hydrocarbon-bearing basin in the offshore area of northwestern Australia. The Browse Basin was formed by two cycles of tectonically controlled extension, thermal subsidence, and inversion. The first rifting had occurred by the extension in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, and the second was in the Early to Middle Jurassic. Thick sediments were deposited during subsequent subsidence and inversion in the basin. The Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous succession is considered to have the high quality source potential. Major reservoirs are fluvio-deltaic and nearshore marine sandstone units in the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Late Cretaceous to Tertiary sequences are dominated by thick carbonate rocks. Maturity model and paleo-heat flow history were made in 1-D petroleum system modelling by comparing with vitrinite values and temperature measured from the drill wells. Based on the geologic setting and the 1-D model, 2-D Petroleum system modelling was conducted on an E-W cross section crossing three wells to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation in the basin. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous formations, including Aptian, Vlanginian, and Callovian rocks, were assigned as source rocks in the 2-D modelling. The 2-D model shows that hydrocarbons were generated during Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. A thick succession of overburden rocks provided the source rocks with heat and pressure to generate a significant amount of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons expelled from the source rocks were migrated dominantly downward to Late Jurassic sandy reservoir rocks. Upward migration is restricted by dense shale and carbonate successions. Large accumulations of gas have been found in the basin, rather than oil. It seems that the amount of gases was significantly increased by secondary cracking of the oil in reservoir formations in deep and hot conditions.

  19. Performance of Pilot Aided Channel Estimation Technique in 2D Spreading Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Blumenstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been observed that the combination of the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex and the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access can achieve notably lower BER (Bit Error Rate performance in comparison with OFDM itself. The paper reports on the actual topic of the efficient channel estimation in 2D spreading based systems e.q. VSF-OFCDM (Variable Spreading Factor - Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Acces. The different methods for acquisition of channel state information from pilot carriers are used. The simulations are made for different ETSI channel models.

  20. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part II: Experimental validation in two-dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    performance is achieved by using the second-order correction. When controlling with a second-order coupling signal, two key points are notable: (i) The higher harmonics underlying the numerical waves are accurately captured and transferred into the physical model. (ii) The second-order behavior leads...... to an unwanted spurious freely propagating second harmonic that is substantially reduced when compared to an identical wave paddle operating with a first-order coupling signal. Using nonlinear regular (monochromatic), bichromatic and irregular wave cases as well as varying coupled wave tank bathymetries, both......This paper provides an experimental validation of the second-order coupling theory outlined by Yang et al. (Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li., 2013. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties...

  1. Flow and Transport of Radionuclides in the Rhizosphere: Imaging and Measurements in a 2D System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, Ashley; Darnault, Christophe; Li, Biting; Clifford, Heather; Montgomery, Dawn; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; DeVol, Tim; Erdmann, Bryan; Edayilam, Nimisha; Tharayil, Nishanth; Dogan, Mine; Martinez, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to build upon past 2D tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media, understand how exudates effect unstable flow patterns, and understand radionuclide mobility and dispersion in the subsurface. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a CMOS DSLR Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from RGB into HVI and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Radionuclide locations were determined via handheld gamma scanner. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for works studying how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media. As there is an increase in exudate concentration, the mobility of the radionuclides due to changing flow pattern and available water content in porous media may be improved causing more dispersion in the porous media and intake into the plant. Changes in plant root exudation impact the distribution and density of radionuclides in the rhizosphere and vadose zone.

  2. Calculation of self-field coefficients for 2D magnetostatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Darren; Teyssedou, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Physics and engineering students are introduced to the notion of a demagnetizing field in classical electromagnetism courses. This concept involves a formalism based on an integral formulation for calculating the coefficients of the demagnetizing tensor, i.e., a pure geometric quantity. For self-fields, the observation point is located inside the integration region which in turn leads to discontinuous integrands. Therefore, in order to avoid mathematical inconsistencies, special care must be taken when evaluating self-field coefficients, referred to here as self-terms. Given the complexity of this approach, in particular in 3D, it is certainly interesting from a pedagogical stand point to employ 2D systems as a first step for describing these kinds of coefficients. Thus, in this paper, the generalization of self-terms of the demagnetizing tensor is proven for 2D magnetostatic systems. Nonetheless, the structure of this proof pertains to many other situations given the fact that discontinuous integrands commonly arise in physics (e.g. integral solutions of PDEs which use a Green’s function).

  3. 2D-MPI System using second harmonic with HTS-SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Sanada, Y.; Ariyoshi, S.; Tanaka, S.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an imaging technique, with high sensitivity and high speed imaging, utilizing non-linear magnetization response for the detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP). MPI measures the magnetization change in the MNP under the AC magnetic field. Since the signal of the magnetization change is much smaller than the signal generated by the AC magnetic field, the signal response at the fundamental frequency cannot be used. Accordingly, it is the third harmonic of the response that is generally measured. However this method has disadvantages that the power of the AC magnetic field is large and as a result the system increased in size. In this study, we investigated the 2D imaging using a second harmonic, which can be theoretically obtained with a greater signal than in the case of the third harmonic. Moreover, an HTS-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometer was employed in the study to enhance the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). A 2D-MPI system, which enables an imaging by scanning a DC magnetic field under a gradient magnetic field, was constructed. As a result, PSNR was increased by 1.5 times using SQUID with a Flux Transformer.

  4. p -wave superconductivity in weakly repulsive 2D Hubbard model with Zeeman splitting and weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdal, Henning G.; Sudbø, Asle

    2018-01-01

    We study the superconducting order in a two-dimensional square lattice Hubbard model with weak repulsive interactions, subject to a Zeeman field and weak Rashba spin-orbit interactions. Diagonalizing the noninteracting Hamiltonian leads to two separate bands, and by deriving an effective low-energy interaction we find the mean field gap equations for the superconducting order parameter on the bands. Solving the gap equations just below the critical temperature, we find that superconductivity is caused by Kohn-Luttinger-type interaction, while the pairing symmetry of the bands is indirectly affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The dominating attractive momentum channel of the Kohn-Luttinger term depends on the filling fraction n of the system, and it is therefore possible to change the momentum dependence of the order parameter by tuning n . Moreover, n also determines which band has the highest critical temperature. Rotating the magnetic field changes the momentum dependence from states that for small momenta reduce to a chiral px±i py type state for out-of-plane fields, to a nodal p -wave-type state for purely in-plane fields.

  5. Separation equations for 2D superintegrable systems on constant curvature spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Kalnins, Ernest G.; Miller, Willard, Jr.

    2017-09-01

    Second-order conformal quantum superintegrable systems in two dimensions are Laplace equations on a manifold with an added scalar potential and three independent 2nd order conformal symmetry operators. They encode all the information about 2D Helmholtz or time-independent Schrödinger superintegrable systems in an efficient manner: each of these systems admits a quadratic symmetry algebra (not usually a Lie algebra) and is multiseparable. We study the separation equations for the systems as a family rather than separate cases. We show that the separation equations comprise all of the various types of hypergeometric and Heun equations in full generality. In particular, they yield all of the 1D Schrödinger exactly solvable (ES) and quasi-exactly solvable (QES) systems related to the Heun operator. We focus on complex constant curvature spaces and show explicitly that there are eight pairs of Laplace separation types and these types account for all separable coordinates on the 20 flat space and 9 2-sphere Helmholtz superintegrable systems, including those for the constant potential case. The different systems are related by Stäckel transforms, by the symmetry algebras and by Böcher contractions of the conformal algebra \

  6. Critical Behavior of a Strongly-Interacting 2D Electron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) electron systems that obey Fermi liquid theory at high electron densities are expected to undergo one or more transitions to spatially and/or spin-ordered phases as the density is decreased, ultimately forming a Wigner crystal in the dilute, strongly-interacting limit. Interesting, unexpected behavior is observed with decreasing electron density as the electrons' interactions become increasingly important relative to their kinetic energy: the resistivity undergoes a transition from metallic to insulating temperature dependence; the resistance increases sharply and then saturates abruptly with increasing in-plane magnetic field; a number of experiments indicate that the electrons' effective mass exhibits a substantial increase approaching a finite ``critical'' density. There has been a great deal of debate concerning the underlying physics in these systems, and many have questioned whether the change of the resistivity from metallic to insulating signals a phase transition or a crossover. In this talk, I will report measurements that show that with decreasing density ns, the thermopower S of a low-disorder 2D electron system in silicon exhibits a sharp increase by more than an order of magnitude, tending to a divergence at a finite, disorder-independent density nt, consistent with the critical form (- T / S) ~(ns -nt) x with x = 1 . 0 +/- 0 . 1 (T is the temperature). Unlike the resistivity which may not clearly distinguish between a transition and crossover behavior, the thermopower provides clear evidence that a true phase transition occurs with decreasing density to a new low-density phase. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-84ER45153, BSF grant 2006375, RFBR, RAS, and the Russian Ministry of Science.

  7. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    spatially variable and realistic sea ice albedo . The coupled system has been used to a short hindcast for 2013 similar to the SEARCH results with...and thus affect stress calculations. COAMPS/NCOM/SWAN are still being used as a proxy here for NAVGEM/HYCOM/WW3, as the coupling infrastructure in

  8. In vitro systems to study nephropharmacology: 2D versus 3D models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romero, N.; Schophuizen, C.M.; Gimenez, I.; Masereeuw, R.

    2016-01-01

    The conventional 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture is an invaluable tool in, amongst others, cell biology and experimental pharmacology. However, cells cultured in 2D, on the top of stiff plastic plates lose their phenotypical characteristics and fail in recreating the physiological environment found

  9. In vitro systems to study nephropharmacology : 2D versus 3D models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Romero, Natalia; Schophuizen, Carolien M S; Giménez, Ignacio; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2016-01-01

    The conventional 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture is an invaluable tool in, amongst others, cell biology and experimental pharmacology. However, cells cultured in 2D, on the top of stiff plastic plates lose their phenotypical characteristics and fail in recreating the physiological environment found

  10. Engagement of neural circuits underlying 2D spatial navigation in a rodent virtual reality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronov, Dmitriy; Tank, David W

    2014-10-22

    Virtual reality (VR) enables precise control of an animal's environment and otherwise impossible experimental manipulations. Neural activity in rodents has been studied on virtual 1D tracks. However, 2D navigation imposes additional requirements, such as the processing of head direction and environment boundaries, and it is unknown whether the neural circuits underlying 2D representations can be sufficiently engaged in VR. We implemented a VR setup for rats, including software and large-scale electrophysiology, that supports 2D navigation by allowing rotation and walking in any direction. The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit, including place, head direction, and grid cells, showed 2D activity patterns similar to those in the real world. Furthermore, border cells were observed, and hippocampal remapping was driven by environment shape, suggesting functional processing of virtual boundaries. These results illustrate that 2D spatial representations can be engaged by visual and rotational vestibular stimuli alone and suggest a novel VR tool for studying rat navigation.

  11. Optimization of cell seeding in a 2D bio-scaffold system using computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nicholas; Chua, Matthew; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2017-05-01

    The cell expansion process is a crucial part of generating cells on a large-scale level in a bioreactor system. Hence, it is important to set operating conditions (e.g. initial cell seeding distribution, culture medium flow rate) to an optimal level. Often, the initial cell seeding distribution factor is neglected and/or overlooked in the design of a bioreactor using conventional seeding distribution methods. This paper proposes a novel seeding distribution method that aims to maximize cell growth and minimize production time/cost. The proposed method utilizes two computational models; the first model represents cell growth patterns whereas the second model determines optimal initial cell seeding positions for adherent cell expansions. Cell growth simulation from the first model demonstrates that the model can be a representation of various cell types with known probabilities. The second model involves a combination of combinatorial optimization, Monte Carlo and concepts of the first model, and is used to design a multi-layer 2D bio-scaffold system that increases cell production efficiency in bioreactor applications. Simulation results have shown that the recommended input configurations obtained from the proposed optimization method are the most optimal configurations. The results have also illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method. The potential of the proposed seeding distribution method as a useful tool to optimize the cell expansion process in modern bioreactor system applications is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eliminating friction with friction: 2D Janssen effect in a friction-driven system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-05-09

    The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle θ can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system.

  13. Comparison of Failure Modes in 2-D and 3-D Woven Carbon Phenolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Grant A.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Braun, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is developing Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) materials as a new class of heatshields for entry vehicles (Stackpoole). Currently, there are few options for ablative entry heatshield materials, none of which is ideally suited to the planetary probe missions currently of interest to NASA. While carbon phenolic was successfully used for the missions Pioneer Venus and Galileo (to Jupiter), the heritage constituents are no longer available. An alternate carbon phenolic would need to be qualified for probe missions, which is most efficient at heat fluxes greater than those currently of interest. Additional TPS materials such as Avcoat and PICA are not sufficiently robust for the heat fluxes required. As a result, there is a large TPS gap between the materials efficient at very high conditions (carbon phenolic) and those that are effective at low-moderate conditions (all others). Development of 3D Woven TPS is intended to fill this gap, targeting mid-density weaves that could with withstand mid-range heat fluxes between 1100 W/sq cm and 8000 W/sq cm (Venkatapathy (2012). Preliminary experimental studies have been performed to show the feasibility of WTPS as a future mid-range TPS material. One study performed in the mARC Jet Facility at NASA Ames Research Center characterized the performance of a 3D Woven TPS sample and compared it to 2D carbon phenolic samples at ply angles of 0deg, 23.5deg, and 90deg. Each sample contained similar compositions of phenolic and carbon fiber volume fractions for experimental consistency. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the TPS materials by evaluating resulting recession and failure modes. After exposing both samples to similar heat flux and pressure conditions, the 2D carbon phenolic laminate was shown to experience significant delamination between layers and further pocketing underneath separated layers. The 3D Woven TPS sample did not experience the delamination or pocketing

  14. Boundary control of nonlinear coupled heat systems using backstepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bendevis, Paul

    2016-10-20

    A state feedback boundary controller is designed for a 2D coupled PDE system modelling heat transfer in a membrane distillation system for water desalination. Fluid is separated into two compartments with nonlinear coupling at a membrane boundary. The controller sets the temperature on one boundary in order to track a temperature difference across the membrane boundary. The control objective is achieved by an extension of backstepping methods to these coupled equations. Stability of the target system via Lyapunov like methods, and the invertibility of the integral transformation are used to show the stability of the tracking error.

  15. An end-to-end coupled model ROMS-N 2 P 2 Z 2 D 2 -OSMOSE of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to better understand ecosystem functioning under simultaneous pressures (e.g. both climate change and fishing pressures), integrated modelling approaches are advocated. We developed an end-to-end model of the southern Benguela ecosystem by coupling the high trophic level model OSMOSE with a ...

  16. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  17. A radiographic imaging system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, A; Corrin, E; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Triantis, F A; Manthos, N; Evagelou, I; Van den Stelt, P; Tarrant, T; Speller, R D; Royle, G F

    2000-01-01

    A high resolution, direct-digital detector system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor has been designed, built and is undergoing evaluation for applications in dentistry and mammography. The sensor parameters and image requirements were selected using Monte Carlo simulations. Sensors selected for evaluation have a strip pitch of 50mum on the p-side and 80mum on the n-side. Front-end electronics and data acquisition are based on the APV6 chip and were adapted from systems used at CERN for high-energy physics experiments. The APV6 chip is not self-triggering so data acquisition is done at a fixed trigger rate. This paper describes the mammographic evaluation of the double sided microstrip sensor. Raw data correction procedures were implemented to remove the effects of dead strips and non-uniform response. Standard test objects (TORMAX) were used to determine limiting spatial resolution and detectability. MTFs were determined using the edge response. The results indicate that the spatial resolution of the...

  18. D2-D8 system with massive strings and the Lifshitz spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harvendra [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute,Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-04-04

    The Romans’ type IIA supergravity allows fundamental strings to have explicit mass term at the tree level. We show that there exists a (F1,D2,D8) brane configuration which gives rise to Lif{sub 4}{sup (2)}×R{sup 1}×S{sup 5} vacua supported by the massive strings. The presence of D8-branes naturally excites massive fundamental strings. A compactification on circle relates these Lifshitz massive type-IIA background with the axion-flux Lif{sub 4}{sup (2)}×S{sup 1}×S{sup 5} vacua in ordinary type-IIB theory. The massive T-duality in eight dimensions further relates them to yet another (Lif)-tilde {sub 4}{sup (2)}×S{sup 1}×S{sup 5} vacua constituted by (F1,D0,D6) system in ordinary type IIA theory. The latter vacua after compactification to four dimensions generate two ‘distinct’ electric charges and a constant magnetic field, all living over 2-dimensional plane. This somewhat reminds us of a similar set up in quantum Hall systems.

  19. Strongly-correlated 2D Electron Systems in Si-MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi

    Si-MOSFETs are basic building blocks of present-day integrated circuits. Above a threshold gate voltage, a layer of two-dimensional electrons is induced near the silicon-silicon dioxide interface of a Si-MOSFET. According to theory for noninteracting and weakly interacting electrons, no metallic state can exist in two dimensions in zero magnetic field in the limit of zero temperature. However, in strongly interacting electron systems the observation of a resistivity that changes from metallic to insulating temperature dependence has fueled a debate over whether this signals a quantum phase transition to a metallic phase in two dimensions. In this thesis I will present the results of two detailed experimental studies performed on high mobility Si-MOSFET samples. In the first study, we find the thermopower of this low-disorder, strongly interacting 2D electron system in silicon diverges at a finite disorder-independent density, providing evidence that this IS a transition to a new phase at low densities. For the second study, we conducted measurements on I-V characteristics as well as the AC voltage generated by the sample in the insulating phase. Nonlinear I-V characteristics observed in the insulating phase have been attributed to the presence of an additional conduction channel due to a sliding electron solid (Wigner crystal). We seek to provide evidence for the presence of a zero-field Wigner solid by detecting the noise generated by the sliding crystallites.

  20. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    approche, dite de tomographie variationnelle, propose de reconstruire l'etat en restreignant l'espace de recherche a une classe variationnelle plutot qu'a l'immense espace des etats possibles. Un etat variationnel etant decrit par un petit nombre de parametres, un petit nombre d'experiences peut suffire a identifier les parametres variationnels de l'etat experimental. Nous montrons que c'est le cas pour deux classes variationnelles tres utilisees, les etats a produits matriciels (MPS) et l'ansatz pour intrication multi-echelle (MERA). Memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D. Une memoire quantique auto-correctrice est un systeme physique preservant de l'information quantique durant une duree de temps macroscopique. Il serait done l'equivalent quantique d'un disque dur ou d'une memoire flash equipant les ordinateurs actuels. Disposer d'un tel dispositif serait d'un grand interet pour l'informatique quantique. Une memoire quantique auto-correctrice est initialisee en preparant un etat fondamental, c'est-a-dire un etat stationnaire de plus basse energie. Afin de stocker de l'information quantique, il faut plusieurs etats fondamentaux distincts, chacun correspondant a une valeur differente de la memoire. Plus precisement, l'espace fondamental doit etre degenere. Dans cette these, on s'interesse a des systemes de particules disposees sur un reseau bidimensionnel (2D), telles les pieces sur un echiquier, qui sont plus faciles a realiser que les systemes 3D. Nous identifions deux criteres pour l'auto-correction: - La memoire quantique doit etre stable face aux perturbations provenant de l'environnement, par exemple l'application d'un champ magnetique externe. Ceci nous amene a considerer les systemes topologiques 2D dont les degres de liberte sont intrinsequement robustes aux perturbations locales de l'environnement. - La memoire quantique doit etre robuste face a un environnement thermique. Il faut s'assurer que les excitations thermiques n'amenent pas deux etats fondamentaux

  1. An efficient low order model for two-dimensional digital systems: Application to the 2D digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcène Mitiche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper concerns with analysis and synthesis of the two-dimensional (2D digital systems based on model order reduction, and application to the 2D-digital filters. The synthesis of the 2D-systems is performed with two methods, the Prony’s method (Prony modified and Iterative method, in the spatial domain, and with the method of Semi-Definite iterative Programming (SDP, in the frequency domain. After synthesis, we make an order reduction of the synthesized model by the quasi-Gramians method. From several results and their interpretations, the 2D filter synthesized by the model reduction proposed method, presents advantages compared to the conventional direct synthesized filters.

  2. A Study on Development of Displacement Measurement System for Structure using a Laser and 2-D Arrayed Photo Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Moon Phil; Lee, Jin Yi; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Dae Jung; Choe, Won Ha; Kang, Ki Hun; Kim, Jong Soo [Lacomm Co., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon [Yosu National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-15

    A Safety Monitoring System using a laser and 2-D arrayed photo sensors is developed. To monitor of the deformation and small rotation of structure the developed optical system using 2-D photo sensor array was used to detect the variation of optical orbit of laser which was induced by deformation of the structure. Also, an operating program to manage the system and an algorithm for the data acquisition and the database are introduced. In this study, we demonstrated the capabilities of this system by laboratory experiments before applying the system to the field

  3. Effects of Temperature on First-Excited-State Energy of the Strong Coupling Magnetopolaron in 2D RbCl Parabolic Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Cui-Lan; Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2015-02-01

    We study the effects of external fields that are present in nanostructures and can trap particles and manipulate their quantum states. To obtain the effects of temperature on the strong coupling magnetopolaron's first-excited-state energy (FESE) and transition frequency (TF), we use the Lee-Low-Pines unitary transformation (LLPUT) and linear combination operation (LCO) methods. Numerical results, performed in the 2D RbCl parabolic quantum dot (QD), show that the magnetopolaron's FESE and TF (MFESETF) increase with increasing the effective confinement strength and cyclotron frequency (CF) of the magnetic field and temperature.

  4. The development and testing of a 2D laboratory seismic modelling system for heterogeneous structure investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yike; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Karaman, Hakki

    2015-05-01

    Lateral velocity variations and low velocity near-surface layers can produce strong scattered and guided waves which interfere with reflections and lead to severe imaging problems in seismic exploration. In order to investigate these specific problems by laboratory seismic modelling, a simple 2D ultrasonic model facility has been recently assembled within the Wave Propagation Lab at ETH Zurich. The simulated geological structures are constructed from 2 mm thick metal and plastic sheets, cut and bonded together. The experiments entail the use of a piezoelectric source driven by a pulse amplifier at ultrasonic frequencies to generate Lamb waves in the plate, which are detected by piezoelectric receivers and recorded digitally on a National Instruments recording system, under LabVIEW software control. The 2D models employed were constructed in-house in full recognition of the similitude relations. The first heterogeneous model features a flat uniform low velocity near-surface layer and deeper dipping and flat interfaces separating different materials. The second model is comparable but also incorporates two rectangular shaped inserts, one of low velocity, the other of high velocity. The third model is identical to the second other than it has an irregular low velocity surface layer of variable thickness. Reflection as well as transmission experiments (crosshole & vertical seismic profiling) were performed on each model. The two dominant Lamb waves recorded are the fundamental symmetric mode (non-dispersive) and the fundamental antisymmetric (flexural) dispersive mode, the latter normally being absent when the source transducer is located on a model edge but dominant when it is on the flat planar surface of the plate. Experimental group and phase velocity dispersion curves were determined and plotted for both modes in a uniform aluminium plate. For the reflection seismic data, various processing techniques were applied, as far as pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The

  5. Two-loop coupling constant renormalization in lattice SU(N)xSU(N) 2D chiral models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, N.; Ravanini, F.

    1986-08-01

    For the most general link action of lattice SU(N)xSU(N) two dimensional chiral models, the two loop coupling constant renormalization is discussed in the context of the background field method. A non-linear reparametrization of the fields, necessary to keep the invariance of the theory, introduces unpleasant extra-terms. However some of the non-universal contributions are unaffected by these extra-terms and can be easily calculated. This allows to compute the difference between the first non-universal coefficients of the Callan-Symanzik beta functions for two actions having the same scale ..lambda...

  6. A 2D virtual reality system for visual goal-driven navigation in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Candelier, Raphaël; Sumbre, German

    2016-09-23

    Animals continuously rely on sensory feedback to adjust motor commands. In order to study the role of visual feedback in goal-driven navigation, we developed a 2D visual virtual reality system for zebrafish larvae. The visual feedback can be set to be similar to what the animal experiences in natural conditions. Alternatively, modification of the visual feedback can be used to study how the brain adapts to perturbations. For this purpose, we first generated a library of free-swimming behaviors from which we learned the relationship between the trajectory of the larva and the shape of its tail. Then, we used this technique to infer the intended displacements of head-fixed larvae, and updated the visual environment accordingly. Under these conditions, larvae were capable of aligning and swimming in the direction of a whole-field moving stimulus and produced the fine changes in orientation and position required to capture virtual prey. We demonstrate the sensitivity of larvae to visual feedback by updating the visual world in real-time or only at the end of the discrete swimming episodes. This visual feedback perturbation caused impaired performance of prey-capture behavior, suggesting that larvae rely on continuous visual feedback during swimming.

  7. Experimental investigation on the high chip rate of 2D incoherent optical CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guorui; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao; Wu, Weijiang

    2015-08-01

    An innovative approach to realise high chip rate in OCDMA transmission system is proposed and experimentally investigation, the high chip rate is achieved through a 2-D wavelength-hopping time-spreading en/decoder based on the supercontinuum light source. The source used in the experiment is generated by high nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF), Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) which output power is 26 dBm, and distributed feed-back laser diode which works in the gain switch state. The span and the flatness of the light source are 20 nm and 3 dB, respectively, after equalization of wavelength selective switch (WSS). The wavelength-hopping time-spreading coder can be changed 20 nm in the wavelength and 400 ps in the time, is consist of WSS and delay lines. Therefore, the experimental results show that the chip rate can achieve 500 Gchip/s, in the case of 2.5 Gbit/s, while keeping a bit error rate below forward error correction limit after 40 km transmission.

  8. Dispersion spectrum of acoustoelectric waves in 1D piezoelectric crystal coupled with 2D infinite network of capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, A. A.; Shuvalov, A. L.; Poncelet, O.

    2018-01-01

    A one-dimensional piezoelectric crystal coupled through periodically embedded electrodes with a two-dimensional semi-infinite periodic network of capacitors is considered. The unit cell of the network contains two capacitors with capacitances C1 and C2 which are in parallel and in series, respectively, with the electrodes. The dispersion spectrum of the longitudinal acoustoelectric wave in the piezoelectric crystal coupled with the electric wave of potentials and charges in the network of capacitors is investigated. It is shown that when C1 and C2 are of the same sign, the dispersion spectrum consists of a discrete set of curves, for which the electric wave exponentially decays into the depth of the network of capacitors. In contrast, if C1 and C2 are of the opposite sign and |C1/C2|<1 , then the spectrum simultaneously includes the discrete set of dispersion curves, corresponding to the localized waves, and the continuous band, which admits a finite but not localized (not decaying into the depth) wave field at any frequency and wavenumber within the band. Finally, when C1 and C2 are of the opposite sign and |C1/C2|≥1 , the whole dispersion spectrum is a continuous band. The width of the continuous band and the equation describing the dispersion curves are found explicitly; the equation for the wave field is also obtained. Another interesting spectral feature is the unusual non-monotonic shape of the dispersion curves for a certain range of C1(<0), C2. This shape is due to the hybridization of the individual spectra of the crystal and of the network of capacitors.

  9. Critical Slowing of Density Fluctuations Approaching the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals: 2D IR Measurements and Mode Coupling Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowsky, Kathleen P; Bailey, Heather E; Hoffman, David J; Andersen, Hans C; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-07-21

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) data are presented for a vibrational probe in three nematogens: 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl, 4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl, and 4-(trans-4-amylcyclohexyl)-benzonitrile. The spectral diffusion time constants in all three liquids in the isotropic phase are proportional to [T*/(T - T*)](1/2), where T* is 0.5-1 K below the isotropic-nematic phase transition temperature (TNI). Rescaling to a reduced temperature shows that the decays of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) for all three nematogens fall on the same curve, suggesting a universal dynamic behavior of nematogens above TNI. Spectral diffusion is complete before significant orientational relaxation in the liquid, as measured by optically heterodyne detected-optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, and before any significant orientational randomization of the probe measured by polarization selective IR pump-probe experiments. To interpret the OHD-OKE and FFCF data, we constructed a mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model for the relationships among three correlation functions: ϕ1, a correlator for large wave vector density fluctuations; ϕ2, the orientational correlation function whose time derivative is the observable in the OHD-OKE experiment; and ϕ3, the FFCF for the 2D IR experiment. The equations for ϕ1 and ϕ2 match those in the previous MCT schematic model for nematogens, and ϕ3 is coupled to the first two correlators in a straightforward manner. Resulting models fit the data very well. Across liquid crystals, the temperature dependences of the coupling constants show consistent, nonmonotonic behavior. A remarkable change in coupling occurs at ∼5 K above TNI, precisely where the rate of spectral diffusion in 5CB was observed to deviate from that of a similar nonmesogenic liquid.

  10. Multiple-access interference in 2-D wavelength/time optical CDMA system with optical hard-limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovan, Jozef; Uherek, František

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we present the proposed modification of 2-D wavelength/time (WIT) decoder1 by placing the second optical hard-limiter (0-HL) after decoder"s last optical coupler. The MA1 improvement of the 2-D W/T Optical Code Division Multiple Access (0-CDMA) system for the cases of 2D WIT decoder with one and with two 0-HLs is analyzed. Average value of signal-to-interference difference (SID) is used as the MA1 merit. The model of such 2D W/T 0-CDMA system for numerical calculation of the SID is proposed and presented in this paper. In the analyzed system, 2-D WIT Generalized Multiwavelength Prime Codewords (GMWPC), which are generated by algorithm reported in2 are used for achieving multiple-access. We assume the implemented 0-HL proposed in 3. The properties of such 0-HL were approximated [4] and its two ideality parameters, which characterize the measure of its ideality, were defined. The input and output time optical pulses sequence of W/T 0-CDMA decoder is numerical simulated. Dependencies of SID versus the weight of codeword and the number of active users in the system are presented. The influence of the properties used 0-HLs is evaluated.

  11. Investigation of fabrication and resonant optical coupling in various 2D micro-resonator structures in a UV210 polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchon, D.; Huby, N.; Lhermite, H.; Duval, D.; Bêche, B.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the design and the overall realization of micro-resonators based on the development of adequate processes on a UV210 polymer. These micro-optical structures are developed by deep ultraviolet lithography allowing fabrication of nano-structured devices by means of low cost and reproducible processes. Two families of resonant micro-structures shaped on disk and stadium with various sizes are investigated. Structural and optical imaging characterizations have been carried out to ensure their ability to act as resonant integrated micro-structures. At first, scanning electron microscopy and Nomarsky microscopy studies confirm the UV-light process resolution down to 450 nm developed on a UV210 polymer. Then, optical characterizations have been performed as regards intensity and spectral properties of such micro-resonators. Field intensity measurements in visible and infrared ranges have been realized and validate light propagation by evanescent coupling between waveguides and micro-resonators. Finally, spectral analyses on TE modes demonstrate the presence of optical resonances with 1.45 nm and 2.19 nm free spectral range values for respectively disk and stadium micro-structures. The UV210 polymer appears appropriate for the realization of micro-structures requiring a few hundred nanometers gap-scale while maintaining adequate spectral properties for versatile applications in telecommunication and metrology.

  12. Automated 2D peptide separation on a 1D nano-LC-MS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Paul; Nielsen, Peter A; Trelle, Morten Beck

    2009-01-01

    Given the complexity of the mammalian proteome, high-resolution separation technologies are required to achieve comprehensive proteome coverage and to enhance the detection of low-abundance proteins. Among several technologies, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) enables...... the on-line separation of highly complex peptide mixtures directly coupled with mass spectrometry-based identification. Here, we present a variation of the traditional MudPIT protocol, combining highly sensitive chromatography using a nanoflow liquid chromatography system (nano-LC) with a two......-dimensional precolumn in a vented column setup. When compared to the traditional MudPIT approach, this nanoflow variation demonstrated better first-phase separation leading to more proteins being characterized while using rather simple instrumentation and a protocol that requires less time and very little technical...

  13. 10Gbps 2D MGC OCDMA Code over FSO Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professor Urmila Bhanja, Associate, Dr.; Khuntia, Arpita; Alamasety Swati, (Student

    2017-08-01

    Currently, wide bandwidth signal dissemination along with low latency is a leading requisite in various applications. Free space optical wireless communication has introduced as a realistic technology for bridging the gap in present high data transmission fiber connectivity and as a provisional backbone for rapidly deployable wireless communication infrastructure. The manuscript highlights on the implementation of 10Gbps SAC-OCDMA FSO communications using modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) that possesses better auto correlation, minimum cross correlation and high cardinality. A comparison based on pseudo orthogonal (PSO) matrix code and modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) is developed in the proposed SAC OCDMA-FSO communication module taking different parameters into account. The simulative outcome signifies that the communication radius is bounded by the multiple access interference (MAI). In this work, a comparison is made in terms of bit error rate (BER), and quality factor (Q) based on modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) and PSO matrix code. It is observed that the 2D MGC yields better results compared to the PSO matrix code. The simulation results are validated using optisystem version 14.

  14. Automated clean-up, separation and detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter extracts using a 2D-LC/2D-GC system: a method translation from two FIDs to two MS detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hwanmi; Ahmed, Trifa M; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2017-07-24

    An online two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography/2D gas chromatography system with two mass-selective detectors has been developed on the basis of a previous system with two flame ionization detectors. The method translation involved the change of carrier gas from hydrogen to helium, column dimension and detectors. The 2D system with two mass-selective detectors was validated with use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards and two standard reference materials from air and diesel exhaust. Furthermore, the system was applied to a real sample, wood smoke particulates. The PAH values determined correlated well with the previous data and those from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The system enhanced the benefits of the previous system, which were limited by the low detectability and lack of mass selectivity. This study shows an automated 2D system that is valid for PAH analysis of complex environmental samples directly from crude extracts. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration showing on-line clean-up, separation and detection using 2D-LC/2D-GC/MS.

  15. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, C; Stoyanov, S D; Arnaudov, L N; Cohen Stuart, M A

    2013-03-07

    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion "colloid" is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids dispersed in a liquid), emulsions (liquids dispersed in liquid), and foams (gas dispersed in a liquid). Because the dispersed particles are small, there is a lot of interface per unit mass. Not surprisingly, therefore, the properties of the interface have often a decisive effect on the behaviour of colloids. Water-air interfaces have a special relevance in this field: many water-insoluble molecules can be spread on water and, given the right spreading conditions and enough available surface area, their spreading proceeds until a monolayer (a one-molecule thick layer) eventually remains. Several 2D phases have been identified for such monolayers, like "gas", "liquid expanded", "liquid condensed", and "solid". The central question of this review is whether these 2D phases can also exist as colloidal systems, and what stabilizes the dispersed state in such systems. We shall present several systems capable of yielding 2D phase separation, from those based on either natural or fluorinated amphiphiles, to polymer-based ones. We shall seek for analogies in 3D and we shall try to clarify if the lines between these 2D objects play a similar role as the interfaces between 3D colloidal systems. In particular, we shall consider the special role of molecules that tend to accumulate at the phase boundaries, that is, at the contact lines, which will therefore be denoted "line-actants" (molecules that adsorb at a 1D interface, separating two 2D colloidal entities), by analogy to the term "surfactant" (which indicates a molecule that adsorbs at a 2D interface separating two 3D colloidal entities).

  16. A multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system for real-time 2D and 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjie; Jia, Jiabin

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a configurable, fast multi-frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography (mfEIT) system for real-time 2D and 3D imaging, particularly for biomedical imaging. The system integrates 32 electrode interfaces and the current frequency ranges from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. The system incorporates the following novel features. First, a fully adjustable multi-frequency current source with current monitoring function is designed. Second, a flexible switching scheme is developed for arbitrary sensing configuration and a semi-parallel data acquisition architecture is implemented for high-frame-rate data acquisition. Furthermore, multi-frequency digital quadrature demodulation is accomplished in a high-capacity Field Programmable Gate Array. At last, a 3D imaging software, visual tomography, is developed for real-time 2D and 3D image reconstruction, data analysis, and visualization. The mfEIT system is systematically tested and evaluated from the aspects of signal to noise ratio (SNR), frame rate, and 2D and 3D multi-frequency phantom imaging. The highest SNR is 82.82 dB on a 16-electrode sensor. The frame rate is up to 546 fps at serial mode and 1014 fps at semi-parallel mode. The evaluation results indicate that the presented mfEIT system is a powerful tool for real-time 2D and 3D imaging.

  17. A type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet for magnetic system in AEMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of permanent magnet (PM is very important in the process of electromagnetic system calculation of aerospace electromagnetic relay (AEMR. In traditional analytical calculation, PM is often equivalent to a lumped parameter model of one magnetic resistance and one magnetic potential, but great error is often caused for the inner differences of PM; based on the conception of flux tube, a type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet model (2D MECF is established; the element is defined, the relationship between elements is deduced, and solution procedure as well as verification condition of this model is given; by a case study of the electromagnetic system of a certain type of AEMR, the electromagnetic system calculation model is established based on 2D MECF and the attractive force at different rotation angles is calculated; the proposed method is compared with the traditional lumped parameter model and finite element method (FEM; for some types of electromagnetic systems with symmetrical structure, 2D MECF proves to be of acceptable accuracy and high calculation speed which fit the requirement of robust design for AEMR.

  18. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  19. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agurto Carla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes. For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Results Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions

  20. Theoretical and Numerical Evaluation of the MTC Noise Estimate in 2-D 2-group Heterogeneous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, Christophe [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Pysics

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a heterogeneous distribution of the temperature noise on the MTC estimation by noise analysis is investigated. This investigation relies on the 2-group diffusion theory, and all the calculations are performed in a 2-D realistic heterogeneous core. It is shown, similarly to the 1-D case, that the main reason of the MTC underestimation by noise analysis compared to its design-predicted value lies with the fact that the temperature noise might not be homogeneous in the core, and therefore using the local temperature noise in the MTC noise estimation gives erroneous results. A new MTC estimator, which was previously proposed for 1-D 1-group homogeneous cases and which is able to take this heterogeneity into account, was extended to 2-D 2- group heterogeneous cases. It was proven that this new estimator is always able to give a correct MTC estimation with an accuracy of 4%. This small discrepancy comes from the fact that the reactor does not behave in a point-kinetic way, contrary to the assumptions used in the noise estimators. This discrepancy is however quite small. One quantitative result of the present work is a measure of the underestimation of the traditional method as a function of the correlation length of the temperature fluctuations. It is found that the underestimation is larger in 2-D for the same correlation length as in the 1-D case. An underestimation with a factor 5 in the present model is obtained with a radial correlation length of 150 cm. Comparisons with measurements will be possible to make in measurements to be performed in Ringhals.

  1. Vibronic coupling in icosahedral systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, R

    2001-01-01

    consideration. In this thesis, an explanation based on the competition between the two tunneling paths on the lowest APES is proposed. It is assumed that tunneling occurs along paths of steepest descent. The reversal in sign of the tunneling splitting, calculated using the WKB method, in the icosahedral H x h Jahn-Teller system is explained in terms of different tunneling paths along which the system moves as the strength of the vibronic coupling K sub h sub sub 1 changes. It is found that this sign reversal occurs when K sub h sub sub 1 /(h/2 pi)w approx 4.1. This result is very near to the original result of K sub h sub sub 1 /(h/2 pi)w approx 3.8 obtained using a totally different method. This reversal can be explained as follows; for weak vibronic coupling, the H symmetry state is dominated by tunneling along the steepest descent path of C sub 1 symmetry which connects two D sub 3 sub d wells via one point on the D sub 3 symmetry saddle trough; for strong coupling, the A symmetry state is dominated by tun...

  2. An ESPRIT-Based Approach for 2-D Localization of Incoherently Distributed Sources in Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anzhong; Lv, Tiejun; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Shaoshi

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an approach of estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) localization of incoherently distributed (ID) sources in large-scale/massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The traditional ESPRIT-based methods are valid only for one-dimensional (1-D) localization of the ID sources. By contrast, in the proposed approach the signal subspace is constructed for estimating the nominal azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrivals and the angular spreads. The proposed estimator enjoys closed-form expressions and hence it bypasses the searching over the entire feasible field. Therefore, it imposes significantly lower computational complexity than the conventional 2-D estimation approaches. Our analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed. The approximate Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound of the proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is also derived. Numerical results demonstrate that albeit the proposed estimation method is comparable with the traditional 2-D estimators in terms of performance, it benefits from a remarkably lower computational complexity.

  3. Unraveling the Mechanistic Complexity of the Glomerulocystic Phenotype in Dicer Conditional KO Mice by 2D Gel Electrophoresis Coupled Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiumara, Claudia Vincenza; Scumaci, Domenica; Iervolino, Anna; Perri, Angela Mena; Concolino, Antonio; Tammè, Laura; Petrillo, Federica; Capasso, Giovambattista; Cuda, Giovanni

    2017-11-21

    Dicer, an RNase III type endonuclease, is a key enzyme involved in miRNA biogenesis. It has been shown that this enzyme is essential for several aspects of postnatal kidney functions and homeostasis. In this study, we have examined conditional knockout (cKO) mice for Dicer in Pax8 (Paired-box gene 8) expressing cells to investigate the kidney protein profile. This specific model develops a glomerulocystic phenotype coupled with urinary concentration impairment, proteinuria, and severe renal failure. Proteomic analysis was performed on kidney tissue extracts from cKO and control (Ctr) mice by 2D Gel Electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. The analysis highlighted 120 protein spots differentially expressed in Dicer cKO tissue compared with control; some of these proteins were validated by Western blotting. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis led to the identification of some interesting networks; among them, the one having ERK as a central hub may explain, through the modulation of the expression of a number of identified protein targets, the metabolic and structural alterations occurring during kidney cyst development in Dicer cKO mouse model. Our results contribute to gain new insights into molecular mechanisms through which Dicer endonuclease controls kidney development and physiological functions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Multiphase flow towards coupled solid-liquid interactions in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels: a fluorescent microscopy and micro-PIV measurement at pore scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth; Kenneth Christensen, Notre Dame Team

    2017-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is relevant to a range of applications in the energy and environmental sectors. Recently, the interest has been renewed by geological storage of CO2 within saline aquifers. Central to this goal is predicting the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local pressure buildup may cause micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Evidence shows that the large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, necessitating the understanding of pore-scale stress, strain, and flow processes and their representation in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions. This work was supported as part of the GSCO2, an EFRC funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, and partially supported by WPI-I2CNER.

  5. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  6. Development of a 2D silicon strip detector system for mammographic imaging using particle physics technology

    CERN Document Server

    Royle, G J; Speller, R D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Raymond, M; Corrin, E; Stelt, P F; Manthos, N; Triantis, F A

    2002-01-01

    2D silicon strip sensors using particle physics readout technology have been evaluated as mammographic detectors. Two different versions of the APV series of front-end electronics were used that provided different noise levels. The sensors were evaluated using a typical mammography X-ray spectrum. The spatial resolution was evaluated using line pair test patterns and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using the Edge Response Function. Low contrast performance was measured using the TOR(MAX) test object. Limiting spatial resolution of 52 mu m was obtained and an MTF value of 0.1 at 16 lp/mm. The low contrast performance was estimated from 250, 500 mu m and 6 mm diameter objects and was found to be 11.5%, 7% and better than 3.8%, respectively.

  7. Development of an open source laboratory information management system for 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Tosifusa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the post-genome era, most research scientists working in the field of proteomics are confronted with difficulties in management of large volumes of data, which they are required to keep in formats suitable for subsequent data mining. Therefore, a well-developed open source laboratory information management system (LIMS should be available for their proteomics research studies. Results We developed an open source LIMS appropriately customized for 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics workflow. The main features of its design are compactness, flexibility and connectivity to public databases. It supports the handling of data imported from mass spectrometry software and 2-D gel image analysis software. The LIMS is equipped with the same input interface for 2-D gel information as a clickable map on public 2DPAGE databases. The LIMS allows researchers to follow their own experimental procedures by reviewing the illustrations of 2-D gel maps and well layouts on the digestion plates and MS sample plates. Conclusion Our new open source LIMS is now available as a basic model for proteome informatics, and is accessible for further improvement. We hope that many research scientists working in the field of proteomics will evaluate our LIMS and suggest ways in which it can be improved.

  8. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  9. Investigating NF-κB signaling in lung fibroblasts in 2D and 3D culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, Su Su; Harrington, Helen; Knox, Alan; Rose, Felicity; Aylott, Jonathan; Haycock, John W; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory respiratory diseases are amongst major global health challenges. Lung fibroblasts have been shown to play a key role in lung inflammatory responses. However, their exact role in initiation and maintenance of lung diseases has remained elusive partly due to the limited availability of physiologically relevant in vitro models. Therefore, developing new tools that enable investigating the molecular pathways (e.g. nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation) that underpin inflammatory responses in fibroblasts could be a valuable resource for scientists working in this area of research. In order to investigate NF-κB activation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli in real-time, we first developed two detection systems based on nuclear localization of NF-κB by immunostaining and luciferase reporter assay system. Furthermore using electrospun porous scaffolds, with similar geometry to human lung extracellular matrix, we developed 3D cultures of lung fibroblasts allowing comparing NF-κB activation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli (i.e. TNF-α) in 2D and 3D. Our data clearly show that the magnitude of NF-κB activation in 2D cultures is substantially higher than 3D cultures. However, unlike 2D cultures, cells in the 3D model remained responsive to TNF-α at higher concentrations. The more subdued and wider dynamic range of NF-κB responses in 3D culture system was associated with a different expression pattern for TNF receptor I in 3D versus 2D cultures collectively reflecting a more in vivo like TNF receptor I expression and NF-κB activation pattern in the 3D system. Our data suggest that lung fibroblasts are actively involved in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation by activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. The 3D culture detection system provides a sensitive and biologically relevant tool for investigating different pro-inflammatory events involving lung fibroblasts.

  10. Flood risk assessment through 1D/2D couple HEC-RAS hydrodynamic modeling- A case study of Surat City, Lower Tapi Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhruvesh; Ramirez, Jorge; Srivastava, Prashant; Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2017-04-01

    Surat, known as the diamond city of Gujart is situated 100 km downstream of Ukai dam and near the mouth of river Tapi and affected by the flood at every alternate year. The city experienced catastrophic floods in 1933, 1959, 1968, 1970, 1994, 1998 and 2006. It is estimated that a single flood event during August 6-12, 2006 in Surat and Hazira twin-city, caused heavy damages, resulted in the death of 300 people and property damage worth € 289 million. The peak discharge of 25768 m3 s-1 release from Ukai dam was responsible for the disastrous flood in Surat city. To identifylow lying areas prone to inundation and reduce the uncertainty in flood mitigation measures, HEC-RAS based 1D/2D Couple hydrodynamic modeling is carried out for Surat city. Release from the Ukai dam and tidal level of the sea are considered for upstream and downstream boundary condition. 299 surveyed cross-sections have been considered for 1D modeling, whereas a topographic map at 0.5 m contour interval was used to produce a 5 m grid and SRTM (30 & 90 m) grid has been considered for Suart and Lower Tapi Basin (LTB). Flow is simulated under unsteady conditions, calibrated for the year 1998 and validated for the year 2006. The simulated result shows that the 9th August 18.00 hr was the worst day for Surat city and maximum 75-77 % area was under inundation. Most of the flooded area experienced 0.25 m/s water velocity with the duration of 90 hr. Due to low velocity and high duration of the flood, a low lying area within the west zone and south-west zone of the city was badly affected by the flood, whereas the south zone and south-east zone was least. Simulated results show good correlation when compared with an observed flood level map. The simulated results will be helpful to improve the flood resilience strategy at Surat city and reduce the uncertainty for flood inundation mapping for future dam releases. The present case study shows the applicability of 1D/2D coupled hydrodynamic modeling for

  11. A convergent 2D finite-difference scheme for the Dirac-Poisson system and the simulation of graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Brinkman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a convergent finite-difference scheme of second order in both space and time for the 2D electromagnetic Dirac equation. We apply this method in the self-consistent Dirac-Poisson system to the simulation of graphene. The model is justified for low energies, where the particles have wave vectors sufficiently close to the Dirac points. In particular, we demonstrate that our method can be used to calculate solutions of the Dirac-Poisson system where potentials act as beam splitters or Veselago lenses. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  12. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  13. Quasi-2D Unsteady Flow Solver Module for Rocket Engine and Propulsion System Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campell, Bryan T; Davis, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    .... The solver is targeted to the commercial dynamic simulation software package Simulink(Registered) for integration into a larger suite of modules developed for simulating rocket engines and propulsion systems...

  14. Ceph-X: development and evaluation of 2D cephalometric system

    OpenAIRE

    Mosleh, Mogeeb Ahmed Ahmed; Baba, Mohd Sapiyan; Malek, Sorayya; Almaktari, Rasheed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cephalometric analysis and measurements of skull parameters using X-Ray images plays an important role in predicating and monitoring orthodontic treatment. Manual analysis and measurements of cephalometric is considered tedious, time consuming, and subjected to human errors. Several cephalometric systems have been developed to automate the cephalometric procedure; however, no clear insights have been reported about reliability, performance, and usability of those systems. This stud...

  15. Characteristics of active and passive 2-D holographic scanner imaging systems for the middle infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ih, C S; Kopeika, N S; Ledet, E

    1980-06-15

    Holographic scanners are suggested for imaging in the 8-13-Mm spectral region. Advantages in refrigeration and reliability are pointed out. The narrow linewidth of received irradiance may limit passive systems to applications such as thermography, where multispectral imaging should be a useful diagnostic tool. Active systems, which do not suffer from this range limitation, offer inherent advantages with regard to resolution improvement via background discrimination and also with respect to countermeasures.

  16. Low energy positron beam system for the investigation of 2D and porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, M. D.; Chirayath, V. A.; Mcdonald, A. D.; Gladen, R. W.; Fairchild, A. J.; Koymen, A. R.; Weiss, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    An advanced variable energy positron beam (~2 eV to 20 keV) has been designed, tested and utilized for coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). A high efficiency solidified rare gas (Neon) moderator was used for the generation of a slow positron beam. The gamma rays produced as a result of the annihilation of positrons with the sample electrons are measured using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) detector. Modifications to the system, currently underway, permits simultaneous measurements utilizing Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and CDB. The tendency of positrons to become trapped in an image potential well at the surface will allow the new system to be used in measurements of the chemical structure of surfaces, internal or external and interfaces. The system will utilize a time of flight (TOF) technique for electron energy measurements. A 3m flight path from the sample to a micro-channel plate (MCP) in the new system will give it superior energy resolution at higher electron energies as compared to previous TOF systems utilizing shorter flight paths.

  17. TERRAIN: FETAL GROWTH TELEHEALTH SYSTEM BASED ON 2D FETAL HEAD IMAGE USING RANDOMIZED HOUGH TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robeth Rahmatullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is one of many fetal abnormalities, which has high contribution on maternal mortality rate and perinatal mortality rate in Indonesia. Apparently, IUGR impact can be reduced if only the symptoms are detected earlier and the correct treatment is applied. However, fetal growth detection and monitoring process in Indonesia is obstructed because the number of physicians is very limited and ultrasonography (USG devices are expensive. Moreover, both the physicians and USG devices are only available in big cities. To answer those problems, this research proposed an intelligent system that can provide fetal growth telemonitoring in rural areas. This system consists of three components: portable USG device, mobile application which is developed using Android operating system, and server application which is developed using Django. The main feature of this system is automatic fetal head parameter detection and its ability to operate in the limited internet access environment. In this system, automatic fetal head parameter detection uses RHT method to approximate fetal head’s ellipse shape. Experiment result shows that RHT detection ability with ∆ellipse average of 79.564 and running time average of 0.373 second.

  18. Identification of geothermal system using 2D audio magnetotelluric method in Telomoyo volcanic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romadlon, Arriqo'Fauqi; Niasari, Sintia Windhi

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal area of Candi Umbul Telomoyo is one of geothermal fields in Indonesia. This geothermal field is located in the Grabag district, Magelang, Central Java. This geothermal field was formed in a volcanic quarter. The main aim in this study is to identify geothermal system at Telomoyo volcanic area through synthetic model analysis. There are surface manifestations such as warm springs and altered rocks. Results of geochemistry study showed reservoir's temperature was 230°C. The Warm spring in Candi Umbul was the outflow zone of the Telomoyo geothermal system. The Telomoyo geothermal system was indicated chloride-bicarbonate type of warm spring. In addition, the results of geological mapping indicate that the dominant fault structure has southwest-northeast orientation. The fault was caused by the volcanic activity of mount Telomoyo. In this research conducted data analysis from synthetics model. It aims to estimate the response of magnetotelluric methods in various models of geothermal systems. In this study, we assumed three models of geothermal system in Candi Umbul-Telomoyo area. From the data analysis it was known that the model 1 and model 2 can be distinguished if the measurements were conducted in a frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 1000 Hz. In response of tipper (Hz) had a small value on all models at all measurement points, so the tipper cannot distinguish between model 1, model 2 and model 3. From this analysis was known that TM mode is more sensitive than TE mode at the resistivity and phase responses.

  19. A 2D systems approach to iterative learning control for discrete linear processes with zero Markov parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladowski, Lukasz; Galkowski, Krzysztof; Cai, Zhonglun; Rogers, Eric; Freeman, Chris T.; Lewin, Paul L.

    2011-07-01

    In this article a new approach to iterative learning control for the practically relevant case of deterministic discrete linear plants with uniform rank greater than unity is developed. The analysis is undertaken in a 2D systems setting that, by using a strong form of stability for linear repetitive processes, allows simultaneous consideration of both trial-to-trial error convergence and along the trial performance, resulting in design algorithms that can be computed using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the control laws are experimentally verified on a gantry robot that replicates a pick and place operation commonly found in a number of applications to which iterative learning control is applicable.

  20. Emulation-Based Transient Thermal Modeling of 2D/3D Systems-on-Chip with Active Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Atienza, David

    2009-01-01

    New tendencies envisage 2D and 3D Multi-Processor Systems-On-Chip (MPSoCs) as a promising solution for the consumer electronics market. MPSoCs are complex to design, as they must execute multiple applications (games, video), while meeting additional design constraints (energy consumption, time-to-market, etc.). Moreover, the rise of temperature in the die for MPSoCs, especially for forthcoming 3D chips, can seriously affect their final performance and reliability. In this context, transient t...

  1. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  2. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion “colloid” is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids

  3. Ceph-X: development and evaluation of 2D cephalometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Mogeeb Ahmed Ahmed; Baba, Mohd Sapiyan; Malek, Sorayya; Almaktari, Rasheed A

    2016-12-22

    Cephalometric analysis and measurements of skull parameters using X-Ray images plays an important role in predicating and monitoring orthodontic treatment. Manual analysis and measurements of cephalometric is considered tedious, time consuming, and subjected to human errors. Several cephalometric systems have been developed to automate the cephalometric procedure; however, no clear insights have been reported about reliability, performance, and usability of those systems. This study utilizes some techniques to evaluate reliability, performance, and usability metric using SUS methods of the developed cephalometric system which has not been reported in previous studies. In this study a novel system named Ceph-X is developed to computerize the manual tasks of orthodontics during cephalometric measurements. Ceph-X is developed by using image processing techniques with three main models: enhancements X-ray image model, locating landmark model, and computation model. Ceph-X was then evaluated by using X-ray images of 30 subjects (male and female) obtained from University of Malaya hospital. Three orthodontics specialists were involved in the evaluation of accuracy to avoid intra examiner error, and performance for Ceph-X, and 20 orthodontics specialists were involved in the evaluation of the usability, and user satisfaction for Ceph-X by using the SUS approach. Statistical analysis for the comparison between the manual and automatic cephalometric approaches showed that Ceph-X achieved a great accuracy approximately 96.6%, with an acceptable errors variation approximately less than 0.5 mm, and 1°. Results showed that Ceph-X increased the specialist performance, and minimized the processing time to obtain cephalometric measurements of human skull. Furthermore, SUS analysis approach showed that Ceph-X has an excellent usability user's feedback. The Ceph-X has proved its reliability, performance, and usability to be used by orthodontists for the analysis, diagnosis, and

  4. A multilingual programming model for coupled systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Chicago; The Australian National Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems share a common software requirement-infrastructure to implement data exchanges between their constituent parts-often called the coupling problem. On distributed-memory parallel platforms, the coupling problem is complicated by the need to describe, transfer, and transform distributed data, known as the parallel coupling problem. Parallel coupling is emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science as scientists attempt to build multiscale and multiphysics systems on parallel platforms. An additional coupling problem in these systems is language interoperability between their constituent codes. We have created a multilingual parallel coupling programming model based on a successful open-source parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). This programming model's capabilities reach beyond MCT's native Fortran implementation to include bindings for the C++ and Python programming languages. We describe the method used to generate the interlanguage bindings. This approach enables an object-based programming model for implementing parallel couplings in non-Fortran coupled systems and in systems with language heterogeneity. We describe the C++ and Python versions of the MCT programming model and provide short examples. We report preliminary performance results for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We describe a major Python application that uses the MCT Python bindings, a Python implementation of the control and coupling infrastructure for the community climate system model. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to productivity computing in multidisciplinary computational science.

  5. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenas, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chong, See Yenn [Engineering Institute-Korea; Lee, J.R. [Engineering Institute-Korea; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to

  6. Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-11-23

    In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design, which optimizes the energy efficiency of a potential future 5G spectrum-sharing environment, in two sharing scenarios. In the first scenario, underlying sharing is considered. We propose and minimize a modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user’s transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non-convex targeted problem, we utilize the generalized convexity theory and verify the problem’s strictly pseudoconvex structure. We also derive analytical expressions of the optimal resources. In the second scenario, we minimize a generalized MEPG function while considering a probabilistic activity of cellular users and its impact on the MEPG performance of the spectrum sharing users. Finally, we derive the associated optimal resource allocation of this problem. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared with other systems.

  7. A dynamical systems approach to Bohmian trajectories in a 2D harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borondo, F [Departamento de Quimica, and Instituto Mixto de Ciencias Matematicas CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco-28049 Madrid (Spain); Luque, A; Villanueva, J [Departament de Matematica Aplicada I, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Wisniacki, D A [Departamento de Fisica ' J. J. Giambiagi' , FCEN, UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: f.borondo@uam.es, E-mail: alejandro.luque@upc.edu, E-mail: jordi.villanueva@upc.edu, E-mail: wisniacki@df.uba.ar

    2009-12-11

    Vortices are known to play a key role in the dynamics of the quantum trajectories defined within the framework of the de Broglie-Bohm formalism of quantum mechanics. It has been rigourously proved that the motion of a vortex in the associated velocity field can induce chaos in these trajectories, and numerical studies have explored the rich variety of behaviors that due to their influence can be observed. In this paper, we go one step further and show how the theory of dynamical systems can be used to construct a general and systematic classification of such dynamical behaviors. This should contribute to establish some firm grounds on which the studies on the intrinsic stochasticity of Bohm's quantum trajectories can be based. An application to the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator is presented as an illustration.

  8. Spin-imbalance in a 2D Fermi-Hubbard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter T.; Mitra, Debayan; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S.; Khatami, Ehsan; Paiva, Thereza; Trivedi, Nandini; Huse, David A.; Bakr, Waseem S.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay of strong interactions and magnetic fields gives rise to unusual forms of superconductivity and magnetism in quantum many-body systems. Here, we present an experimental study of the two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model—a paradigm for strongly correlated fermions on a lattice—in the presence of a Zeeman field and varying doping. Using site-resolved measurements, we revealed anisotropic antiferromagnetic correlations, a precursor to long-range canted order. We observed nonmonotonic behavior of the local polarization with doping for strong interactions, which we attribute to the evolution from an antiferromagnetic insulator to a metallic phase. Our results pave the way to experimentally mapping the low-temperature phase diagram of the Fermi-Hubbard model as a function of both doping and spin polarization, for which many open questions remain.

  9. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Han Nguyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  10. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking. PMID:25808773

  11. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  12. PROTEOMER: A workflow-optimized laboratory information management system for 2-D electrophoresis-centered proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebrich, Grit; Herrmann, Marion; Hartl, Daniela; Diedrich, Madeleine; Kreitler, Thomas; Wierling, Christoph; Klose, Joachim; Giavalisco, Patrick; Zabel, Claus; Mao, Lei

    2009-04-01

    In recent years proteomics became increasingly important to functional genomics. Although a large amount of data is generated by high throughput large-scale techniques, a connection of these mostly heterogeneous data from different analytical platforms and of different experiments is limited. Data mining procedures and algorithms are often insufficient to extract meaningful results from large datasets and therefore limit the exploitation of the generated biological information. In our proteomic core facility, which almost exclusively focuses on 2-DE/MS-based proteomics, we developed a proteomic database custom tailored to our needs aiming at connecting MS protein identification information to 2-DE derived protein expression profiles. The tools developed should not only enable an automatic evaluation of single experiments, but also link multiple 2-DE experiments with MS-data on different levels and thereby helping to create a comprehensive network of our proteomics data. Therefore the key feature of our "PROTEOMER" database is its high cross-referencing capacity, enabling integration of a wide range of experimental data. To illustrate the workflow and utility of the system, two practical examples are provided to demonstrate that proper data cross-referencing can transform information into biological knowledge.

  13. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T; Gupta, Sandesh K; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks.

  14. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Efficient Large-Scale 2D Culture System for Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Differentiated Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Shugo; Fujita, Jun; Fujita, Chihana; Yamaguchi, Miho; Kanaami, Sayaka; Ohno, Rei; Sakamoto, Kazuho; Kodama, Masami; Kurokawa, Junko; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Seki, Tomohisa; Kishino, Yoshikazu; Okada, Marina; Nakajima, Kazuaki; Tanosaki, Sho; Someya, Shota; Hirano, Akinori; Kawaguchi, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2017-10-04

    Cardiac regenerative therapies utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are hampered by ineffective large-scale culture. hiPSCs were cultured in multilayer culture plates (CPs) with active gas ventilation (AGV), resulting in stable proliferation and pluripotency. Seeding of 1 × 10(6) hiPSCs per layer yielded 7.2 × 10(8) hiPSCs in 4-layer CPs and 1.7 × 10(9) hiPSCs in 10-layer CPs with pluripotency. hiPSCs were sequentially differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a two-dimensional (2D) differentiation protocol. The efficiency of cardiac differentiation using 10-layer CPs with AGV was 66%-87%. Approximately 6.2-7.0 × 10(8) cells (4-layer) and 1.5-2.8 × 10(9) cells (10-layer) were obtained with AGV. After metabolic purification with glucose- and glutamine-depleted and lactate-supplemented media, a massive amount of purified CMs was prepared. Here, we present a scalable 2D culture system using multilayer CPs with AGV for hiPSC-derived CMs, which will facilitate clinical applications for severe heart failure in the near future. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein expression profiles of human lymph and plasma mapped by 2D-DIGE and 1D SDS–PAGE coupled with nanoLC–ESI–MS/MS bottom-up proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Cristina C.; Aphkhazava, David; Nieves, Edward; Callaway, Myrasol; Olszewski, Waldemar; Rotzschke, Olaf; Santambrogio, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to define the protein content of matched samples of afferent prenodal lymph and plasma derived from healthy volunteers. The analysis was performed using two analytical methodologies coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DEF nanoLC Orbitrap–ESI–MS/MS), and two-dimensional fluorescence difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE nanoLC–ESI–MS/MS). The 253 significantly identified proteins (pplasma. The 1DEF coupled with nanoLC–MS–MS revealed that the common proteome between the two biological fluids (144 out of 253 proteins) was dominated by complement activation and blood coagulation components, transporters and protease inhibitors. The enriched proteome of human lymph (72 proteins) consisted of products derived from the extracellular matrix, apoptosis and cellular catabolism. In contrast, the enriched proteome of human plasma (37 proteins) consisted of soluble molecules of the coagulation system and cell–cell signaling factors. The functional networks associated with both common and source-distinctive proteomes highlight the principal biological activity of these immunologically relevant body fluids. PMID:23202415

  17. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...

  18. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Reynolds Marine Meteorology Division, Code 7532 Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, CA 93943 phone: (831) 656-4728 fax: (831) 656-4769 email...and James Chen (SAIC). Oceanography and meteorology leads for coupled physical parameterizations for NAVGEM/HYCOM are James Richman (NRLSSC) and...wave forcing into HYCOM met with computational challenges. To mitigate the expense, Stokes drift is processed as a vertical profile that’s integrated

  19. Emergent hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, E; Boccaletti, Stefano; Dana, S K

    2015-02-01

    We evidence an interesting kind of hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems where complete synchronization is restricted to only a subset of variables of two systems while other subset of variables may be in a phase synchronized state or desynchronized. Such hybrid synchronization is a generic emergent feature of coupled systems when a controller based coupling, designed by the Lyapunov function stability, is first engineered to induce complete synchronization in the identical case, and then a large parameter mismatch is introduced. We distinguish between two different hybrid synchronization regimes that emerge with parameter perturbation. The first, called hard hybrid synchronization, occurs when the coupled systems display global phase synchronization, while the second, called soft hybrid synchronization, corresponds to a situation where, instead, the global synchronization feature no longer exists. We verify the existence of both classes of hybrid synchronization in numerical examples of the Rössler system, a Lorenz-like system, and also in electronic experiment.

  20. Modelling the Process of Induction Heating in Volume of a Bar Strip Using Flux 2D Software, coupled with Minitab Experimental Design Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODREAN Marius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this optimization is the identification of optimal parameters for processing the workpiece (the OLC45 steel bar, using inductive heating in volume. Flux 9.3.2 software, in 2D plan, has been employed in order to perform numerical simulations, while Minitab software has been used to determine optimal parameters.

  1. Identical synchronization of coupled Rossler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanchuk, S.; Maistrenko, Y.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1999-01-01

    Analyzing the transverse stability of low periodic orbits embedded in the synchronized chaotic state for a system of two coupled Rössler oscillators, we obtain the conditions for synchronization and determine the coupling parameters for which riddled basins of attraction may arise. It is shown how...

  2. Study of 11 September 2004 hailstorm event using radar identification of 2-D systems and 3-D cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ceperuelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important hail event recorded in the region of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain in 2004 was the 11 September episode. Large hailstones (some of them with a diameter of over 30 mm caused important damages in agriculture and properties. The hail event affected an area of 3848 ha and was caused by several multicellular systems. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the associated convective structures using the meteorological radar as well as the MM5 mesoscale model, thermodynamic data and a hailpad network. To achieve this end, the new hailstorm analysis tool RHAP (Rainfall events and Hailstorms Analysis Program has been applied. It identifies tracks and characterises precipitation systems and convective cells, taking into account 2-D and 3-D structures. The event has also been studied with the TITAN software (Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting in an attempt to compare both methods. Results show that the episode had a strong convective activity with CAPE values over 4000 J/kg and with hail-forming cells characterised by VIL (Vertical Integrated Liguid exceeding 40 kg/m2, VILD (VIL density over 4 g/m3, HP (Hail Probability of 100% and SHP (Severe Hail Probability of over 75%. The hail cells evolved into multicellular systems that lasted between 70 and 90 min. Finally, the comparison of RHAP and TITAN has shown significant correlations between methods.

  3. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  4. Capabilities of seismic and georadar 2D/3D imaging of shallow subsurface of transport route using the Seismobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Zenon; Isakow, Zbigniew; Czarny, Rafał; Pilecka, Elżbieta; Harba, Paulina; Barnaś, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the capabilities of the Seismobile system for shallow subsurface imaging of transport routes, such as roads, railways, and airport runways, in different geological conditions were presented. The Seismobile system combines the advantages of seismic profiling using landstreamer and georadar (GPR) profiling. It consists of up to four seismic measuring lines and carriage with a suspended GPR antenna. Shallow subsurface recognition may be achieved to a maximum width of 10.5 m for a distance of 3.5 m between the measurement lines. GPR measurement is performed in the axis of the construction. Seismobile allows the measurement time, labour and costs to be reduced due to easy technique of its installation, remote data transmission from geophones to accompanying measuring modules, automated location of the system based on GPS and a highly automated method of seismic wave excitation. In this paper, the results of field tests carried out in different geological conditions were presented. The methodologies of acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic and GPR measurements were broadly described. Seismograms and its spectrum registered by Seismobile system were compared to the ones registered by Geode seismograph of Geometrix. Seismic data processing and interpretation software allows for the obtaining of 2D/3D models of P- and S-wave velocities. Combined seismic and GPR results achieved sufficient imaging of shallow subsurface to a depth of over a dozen metres. The obtained geophysical information correlated with geological information from the boreholes with good quality. The results of performed tests proved the efficiency of the Seismobile system in seismic and GPR imaging of a shallow subsurface of transport routes under compound conditions.

  5. Improved 3D displacement measurements method and calibration of a combined fringe projection and 2D-DIC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmann, Philip; Felipe-Sese, Luis; Diaz-Garrido, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    An improved measurement method and an automatic calibration procedure are proposed for a combined 2D Digital Image Correlation and Fringe Projection system that allows measuring in- and out-of-plane displacement maps with only one image at each deformation stage of a specimen. The proposed method increases the accuracy and range of the out-of-plane displacements by taking into account the divergences of both the projected fringes (uncollimated) and the camera (with non-zero FOV). The calibration is performed automatically by acquiring a sequence of images of a reference plane by displacing perpendicular to it the camera and fringe projector with a motorized translation stage. The acquired images are then used to obtain a fringe function for each pixel and the necessary parameters required for the correction of the in-plane displacements. Furthermore, a closed form expression is obtained that relates the out-of-plane displacements with the shifted phase at each pixel for a given experimental set-up. This expression is in good agreement with the fringe function obtained by fitting a simple 2nd order polynomial to the experimental obtained calibration data. Finally, the polynomial approach is proposed as a fringe function because it avoids the errors in the determination of the required parameters of the theoretical expression as well as some small misalignment or aberration effects.

  6. Increase of spin dephasing times in a 2D electron system with degree of initial spin polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D.; Korn, T.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2008-03-01

    We report on time-resolved Faraday/Kerr rotation measurements on a high-mobility 2D electron system. A variable initial spin polarization is created in the sample by a circularly polarized pump pulse, and the spin polarization is tracked by measuring the Faraday/Kerr rotation of a time-delayed probe pulse. By varying the pump intensity, the initial spin polarization is changed from the low-polarization limit to a polarization degree of several percent. The observed spin dephasing time increases from less than 20 ps to more than 200 ps as the initial spin polarization is increased. To exclude sample heating effects, additional measurements with constant pump intensity and variable degree of circular polarization are performed. The results confirm the theoretical prediction by Weng and Wu [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 075312] that the spin dephasing strongly depends on the initial spin polarization degree. The microscopic origin for this is the Hartree-Fock term in the Coulomb interaction, which acts as an effective out-of plane magnetic field.

  7. Plasmonics of 2D Nanomaterials: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Ziwei; Chi, Cheng; Shan, Hangyong; Zheng, Liheng

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonics has developed for decades in the field of condensed matter physics and optics. Based on the classical Maxwell theory, collective excitations exhibit profound light‐matter interaction properties beyond classical physics in lots of material systems. With the development of nanofabrication and characterization technology, ultra‐thin two‐dimensional (2D) nanomaterials attract tremendous interest and show exceptional plasmonic properties. Here, we elaborate the advanced optical properties of 2D materials especially graphene and monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), review the plasmonic properties of graphene, and discuss the coupling effect in hybrid 2D nanomaterials. Then, the plasmonic tuning methods of 2D nanomaterials are presented from theoretical models to experimental investigations. Furthermore, we reveal the potential applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photodetections, based on the development of 2D nanomaterials, we make a prospect for the future theoretical physics and practical applications. PMID:28852608

  8. On the nature of the half-integer quantum features on the transport and Hall resistances of 2D electron systems in a quantizing magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashitskii, E. A.

    2001-09-01

    It is shown that in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in a quantizing magnetic field, in addition to electron-hole (excitonic) pairing through the Coulomb interaction it is also possible to have Cooper pairing of the 2D electrons due to their interaction with 2D phonons and 2D plasmons localized at the interface of the crystals in semiconductor heterostructures. By summing the divergent (as T→0) ladder diagrams in the zero-sound and Cooper channels, the critical temperatures of the transition to the excitonic and Cooper phases are found. It is shown that the excitonic phase can exist only in comparatively narrow regions near half-integer values of the filling factor ν=(2n-1)/2 (n=1,2,3,…), a finding which is in qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed anisotropic features in the transport resistance of 2D systems in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. By taking into account a superposition of states of bound electron pairs and unpaired 2D electrons in the Cooper phase, one can describe practically all of the experimentally observed quantum features in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime, including at values of ν that are not described by the composite fermion model. At the same time, the interelectron attraction can promote triplet Cooper pairing of composite fermions, which is accompanied by the appearance of an "exotic" quantum feature at ν=5/2. Arguments supporting the possibility of experimental observation of the Cooper phase are presented.

  9. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    and experimental validation. Coast. Eng. 71,37-511. We also correct several errors which unfortunately appeared in that manuscript. In the present part I, the full second-order coupling theory for irregular wave is described in detail. The new second-order coupling signal is presented including both superharmonics...... interpolation and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme, with a numerical velocity time series which is decomposed by the Newton-Raphson iterative method. Analytical evaluations on the suppression of spurious free waves and the relative errors of the resultant bound waves have been conducted by considering a 2nd......-order, bi-chromatic wave over a range of dimensionless water depth and oscillation frequency combinations, indicating that the resultant wave quality is significantly improved using the second-order coupling theory. A separate verification combining numerical and experimental model of the theory...

  10. Ground states of linearly coupled Schrodinger systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the standing waves of a linearly coupled Schrodinger system which arises from nonlinear optics and condensed matter physics. The coefficients of the system are spatially dependent and have a mixed behavior: they are periodic in some directions and tend to positive constants in other directions. Under suitable assumptions, we prove that the system has a positive ground state. In addition, when the L-infinity-norm of the coupling coefficient tends to zero, the asymptotic behavior of the ground states is also obtained.

  11. Coupling of marine riser and tensioner system

    OpenAIRE

    Olssøn, Tor Trainer

    2011-01-01

    A coupled model of a marine riser and a tensioner system is built. The riser is modeled using the multi-body dynamics program MSC Adams, and the tensioner system using the powerful controls and systems simulation tool, MSC Easy5. The hydrodynamic forces on the marine riser are calculated according to linear wave theory, and implemented in the model using a custom made subroutine. The riser is modeled using flexible beam elements according to Timoshenko beam theory. The tensioner system is...

  12. Robust design of feedback feed-forward iterative learning control based on 2D system theory for linear uncertain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifu; Hu, Yueming; Li, Di

    2016-08-01

    For a class of linear discrete-time uncertain systems, a feedback feed-forward iterative learning control (ILC) scheme is proposed, which is comprised of an iterative learning controller and two current iteration feedback controllers. The iterative learning controller is used to improve the performance along the iteration direction and the feedback controllers are used to improve the performance along the time direction. First of all, the uncertain feedback feed-forward ILC system is presented by an uncertain two-dimensional Roesser model system. Then, two robust control schemes are proposed. One can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is bounded-input bounded-output stable along time direction, and the other can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is asymptotically stable along time direction. Both schemes can guarantee the system is robust monotonically convergent along the iteration direction. Third, the robust convergent sufficient conditions are given, which contains a linear matrix inequality (LMI). Moreover, the LMI can be used to determine the gain matrix of the feedback feed-forward iterative learning controller. Finally, the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  13. The Validity of a New Low-Dose Stereoradiography System to Perform 2D and 3D Knee Prosthetic Alignment Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrigje F Meijer

    Full Text Available The EOS stereoradiography system has shown to provide reliable varus/valgus (VV measurements of the lower limb in 2D (VV2D and 3D (VV3D after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Validity of these measurements has not been investigated yet, therefore the purpose of this study was to determine validity of EOS VV2D and VV3D.EOS images were made of a lower limb phantom containing a knee prosthesis, while varying VV angle from 15° varus to 15° valgus and flexion angle from 0° to 20°, and changing rotation from 20° internal to 20° external rotation. Differences between the actual VV position of the lower limb phantom and its position as measured on EOS 2D and 3D images were investigated.Rotation, flexion or VV angle alone had no major impact on VV2D or VV3D. Combination of VV angle and rotation with full extension did not show major differences in VV2D measurements either. Combination of flexion and rotation with a neutral VV angle showed variation of up to 7.4° for VV2D; maximum variation for VV3D was only 1.5°. A combination of the three variables showed an even greater distortion of VV2D, while VV3D stayed relatively constant. Maximum measurement difference between preset VV angle and VV2D was 9.8°, while the difference with VV3D was only 1.9°. The largest differences between the preset VV angle and VV2D were found when installing the leg in extreme angles, for example 15° valgus, 20° flexion and 20° internal rotation.After TKA, EOS VV3D were more valid than VV2D, indicating that 3D measurements compensate for malpositioning during acquisition. Caution is warranted when measuring VV angle on a conventional radiograph of a knee with a flexion contracture, varus or valgus angle and/or rotation of the knee joint during acquisition.

  14. High-throughput critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) measurement of two-dimensional (2D) structures using scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullam, Jennifer; Boye, Carol; Standaert, Theodorus; Gaudiello, John; Tomlinson, Derek; Xiao, Hong; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we tested a novel methodology of measuring critical dimension (CD) uniformity, or CDU, with electron beam (e-beam) hotspot inspection and measurement systems developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). The systems were used to take images of two-dimensional (2D) array patterns and measure CDU values in a custom designated fashion. Because this methodology combined imaging of scanning micro scope (SEM) and CD value averaging over a large array pattern of optical CD, or OCD, it can measure CDU of 2D arrays with high accuracy, high repeatability and high throughput.

  15. Phase Multistability in Coupled Oscillator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability arises in connection with the synchronization of coupled oscillator systems when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components or with significant variations of the phase velocity...... along the orbit of the individual oscillator. Focusing on the mechanisms underlying the appearance of phase multistability, the paper examines a variety of phase-locked patterns. In particular we demonstrate the nested structure of synchronization regions for oscillations with multicrest wave forms...... and investigate how the number of spikes per train and the proximity of a neighboring equilibrium point can influence the formation of coexisting regimes in coupled bursters....

  16. A New Blind 2D-RAKE Receiver Based on CMA Criteria for Spread Spectrum Systems Suitable for Software Defined Radio Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kei; Kamiya, Yukihiro; Fujii, Takeo; Suzuki, Yasuo

    Spread Spectrum (SS) has been widely used for various wireless systems such as cellular systems, wireless local area network (LAN) and so on. Using multiple antennas at the receiver, two-dimensional (2D) RAKE is realized over the time- and the space-domain. However, it should be noted that the 2D-RAKE receiver must detect the bit timing prior to the RAKE combining. In case of deep fading, it is often difficult to detect it due to low signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR). To solve this problem, we propose a new blind 2D-RAKE receiver based on the constant modulus algorithm (CMA). Since it does not need a priori bit timing detection, it is possible to compensate frequency selective fading even in very low SNR environments. The proposed method is particularly suitable for the software defined radio (SDR) architecture. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through computer simulations.

  17. Design of Advanced Photocatalysis System by Adatom Decoration in 2D Nanosheets of Group-IV and III-V Binary Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Dai, Ying; Huang, Bai-Biao

    2016-03-17

    Searching for novel photocatalysts is one of the most important topic in photocatalytic fields. In the present work, we propose a feasible approach to improve the photocatalytic activities of 2D bilayers through surface decoration, i.e. hydrogenation, halogenation, and hydroxylation. Our investigations demonstrate that after surface modification, the optical adsorption expands into the visible region, while a built-in electric field is induced due to the interlayer coupling, which can promote the charge separation for photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Our results show that the indirect-direct band gap transition of SiC, SnC, BN and GaN can be realised through adatom decoration. Furthermore, the surface-modified 2D bilayers have suitable VBM and CBM alignments with the oxidation and reduction potentials for water splitting, suggesting powerful potentials in energy and environmental applications.

  18. Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-07-31

    In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L  ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM  < J L and possess chiral magnon edge modes.

  19. Not All β-Sheets Are the Same: Amyloid Infrared Spectra, Transition Dipole Strengths, and Couplings Investigated by 2D IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomont, Justin P; Ostrander, Joshua S; Ho, Jia-Jung; Petti, Megan K; Zanni, Martin T

    2017-09-28

    We report the transition dipole strengths and frequencies of the amyloid β-sheet amide I mode for the aggregated proteins amyloid-β1-40, calcitonin, α-synuclein, and glucagon. According to standard vibrational coupling models for proteins, the frequencies of canonical β-sheets are set by their size and structural and environmental disorder, which determines the delocalization length of the vibrational excitons. The larger the delocalization the lower the frequency of the main infrared-allowed transition, A⊥. The models also predict an accompanying increase in transition dipole strength. For the proteins measured here, we find no correlation between transition dipole strengths and amyloid β-sheet transition frequency. To understand this observation, we have extracted from the protein data bank crystal structures of amyloid peptides from which we calculate the amide I vibrational couplings, and we use these in a model β-sheet Hamiltonian to simulate amyloid vibrational spectra. We find that the variations in amyloid β-sheet structures (e.g., dihedral angles, interstrand distances, and orientations) create significant differences in the average values for interstrand and nearest neighbor couplings, and that those variations encompass the variation in measured A⊥ frequencies. We also find that off-diagonal disorder about the average values explains the range of transition dipole strengths observed experimentally. Thus, we conclude that the lack of correlation between transition dipole-strength and frequency is caused by variations in amyloid β-sheet structure. Taken together, these results indicate that the amide I frequency is very sensitive to amyloid β-sheet structure, the β-sheets of these 4 proteins are not identical, and the assumption that frequency of amyloids scales with β-sheet size cannot be adopted without an accompanying measurement of transition dipole strengths.

  20. Lag Synchronization of Coupled Multidelay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Qun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos synchronization is an active topic, and its possible applications have been studied extensively. In this paper we present an improved method for lag synchronization of chaotic systems with coupled multidelay. The Lyapunov theory is used to consider the sufficient condition for synchronization. The specific examples will demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Interlayer couplings, Moiré patterns, and 2D electronic superlattices in MoS 2 /WSe 2 hetero-bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2017-01-07

    By using direct growth, we create a rotationally aligned MoS2/WSe2 hetero-bilayer as a designer van der Waals heterostructure. With rotational alignment, the lattice mismatch leads to a periodic variation of atomic registry between individual van der Waals layers, exhibiting a Moiré pattern with a well-defined periodicity. By combining scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and first-principles calculations, we investigate interlayer coupling as a function of atomic registry. We quantitatively determine the influence of interlayer coupling on the electronic structure of the hetero-bilayer at different critical points. We show that the direct gap semiconductor concept is retained in the bilayer although the valence and conduction band edges are located at different layers. We further show that the local bandgap is periodically modulated in the X-Y direction with an amplitude of ~0.15 eV, leading to the formation of a two-dimensional electronic superlattice.

  2. Hydrophobic cluster analysis of G protein-coupled receptors: a powerful tool to derive structural and functional information from 2D-representation of protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentes, K U; Mathieu, E; Bischoff, R; Rasmussen, U B; Pavirani, A

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for comparative analyses of protein sequences are 1D-alignments of amino acid sequences based on the maximization of amino acid identity (homology) and the prediction of secondary structure elements. This method has a major drawback once the amino acid identity drops below 20-25%, since maximization of a homology score does not take into account any structural information. A new technique called Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA) has been developed by Lemesle-Varloot et al. (Biochimie 72, 555-574), 1990). This consists of comparing several sequences simultaneously and combining homology detection with secondary structure analysis. HCA is primarily based on the detection and comparison of structural segments constituting the hydrophobic core of globular protein domains, with or without transmembrane domains. We have applied HCA to the analysis of different families of G-protein coupled receptors, such as catecholamine receptors as well as peptide hormone receptors. Utilizing HCA the thrombin receptor, a new and as yet unique member of the family of G-protein coupled receptors, can be clearly classified as being closely related to the family of neuropeptide receptors rather than to the catecholamine receptors for which the shape of the hydrophobic clusters and the length of their third cytoplasmic loop are very different. Furthermore, the potential of HCA to predict relationships between new putative and already characterized members of this family of receptors will be presented.

  3. The quantum 2D-harmonic oscillator in 1:1 resonance with time-dependent perturbation : averaging applied to slowly varying quantum systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huveneers, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we will study the 2D-harmonic oscillator in 1:1 resonance. We add a general third- and fourth order perturbation which is slowly time-dependent, and are interested in the resulting interaction between the unperturbed orbits (states). By treating this system quantummechanically we get a

  4. Development of a 2D laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry mapping procedure for mercury in maize (Zea mays L.) root cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debeljak, Marta [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna Pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Elteren, Johannes T. van, E-mail: elteren@ki.si [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna Pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LA-ICP-MS mapping to study the distribution of Hg in plant root cross-sections. •Sorption of LA-generated Hg vapour leads to serious memory effects. •Spot analysis with a delay time of 10 s in between spots alleviates memory effects. •Ablation straight through the sample simplifies calibration. •Hg{sup 2+} does not cross the endodermal root barrier of maize plants. -- Abstract: A LA-ICP-MS method based on a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser and a quadrupole ICP-MS has been developed for mapping of mercury in root cross-sections of maize (Zea mays L.) to investigate the mechanism of mercury uptake from soil and its potential translocation to the edible parts. Conventional rastering was found to be unusable due to sorption of mercury onto the internal parts of the LA device, giving rising to memory effects resulting in serious loss of resolution and inaccurate quantification. Spot analysis on a virtual grid on the surface of the root sections using washout times of 10 s in between spots greatly alleviated problems related to these memory effects. By ablating straight through the root sections on a poly(methyl methacrylate) support the calibration process was simplified as internal standardization and matrix-matching could be circumvented. Mercury-spiked freeze-drying embedding medium, sectioned similarly to the root sections, was used for the preparation of the standards. Standards and root sections were subjected to spot analysis using the following operational parameters: beam diameter, 15 μm; laser fluence, 2.5 J cm{sup −2}; repetition rate, 20 Hz; dwell time, 1 s; acquisition time, 0.1 s. The mercury peaks for standards and roots sections could be consistently integrated for quantification and construction of the 2D mercury maps for the root sections. This approach was successfully used to investigate the mercury distribution in root sections of maize grown in soil spiked to a level of 50 mg kg{sup −1} DW HgCl{sub 2}. It was

  5. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  6. 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Andreas; Günther, Michael; Maten, E; Müller, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems held March 2013 in the Castle of Eringerfeld, Geseke in the neighborhood of Paderborn, Germany. It examines the wide range of current research topics in descriptor systems, including mathematical modeling, index analysis, wellposedness of problems, stiffness and different time-scales, cosimulation and splitting methods and convergence analysis. In addition, the book also presents applications from the automotive and circuit industries that show that descriptor systems provide challenging problems from the point of view of both theory and practice.   The book contains nine papers and is organized into three parts: control, simulation, and model order reduction. It will serve as an ideal resource for applied mathematicians and engineers, in particular those from mechanics and electromagnetics, who work with coupled differential equations.

  7. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Hyung [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Dalim Tissen Co., LTD., 383-93, Yonnam-Dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang Hee [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Dalim Tissen Co., LTD., 383-93, Yonnam-Dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Science, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seong Hee; Lee, Song [Asan Institute for Life Science, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Si-Nae [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Dalim Tissen Co., LTD., 383-93, Yonnam-Dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Kyong, E-mail: shimiink@gmail.com [Asan Institute for Life Science, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Cheol, E-mail: drksc@amc.seoul.kr [Asan Institute for Life Science, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine & Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells. - Highlights: • We changed the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen improved survival in both 2D and 3D culture. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. • High levels of glucokinase mRNA may be associated with increased insulin release.

  8. Modeling water flow and nitrate dynamics in a plastic mulch vegetable cultivation system using HYDRUS-2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Romić, Davor; Romić, Marija; Matijević, Lana; Mallmann, Fábio J. K.; Robinson, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Growing vegetables commercially requires intensive management and involves high irrigation demands and input of agrochemicals. Plastic mulch application in combination with drip irrigation is a common agricultural management technique practiced due to variety of benefits to the crop, mostly vegetable biomass production. However, the use of these techniques can result in various impacts on water and nutrient distribution in underlying soil and consequently affect nutrient leaching towards groundwater resources. The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of plastic mulch cover in combination with drip irrigation on water and nitrate dynamics in soil using HYDRUS-2D model. The field site was located in Croatian costal karst area on a Gleysol (WRB). The experiment was designed according to the split-plot design in three repetitions and was divided into plots with plastic mulch cover (MULCH) and control plots with bare soil (CONT). Each of these plots received applications of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer: 70, 140, and 210 kg per ha. All plots were equipped with drip irrigation and cropped with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bianca F1). Lysimeters were installed at 90 cm depth in all plots and were used for monitoring the water and nitrate outflow. HYDRUS-2D was used for modeling the water and nitrogen outflow in the MULCH and CONT plots, implementing the proper boundary conditions. HYDRUS-2D simulated results showed good fitting to the field site observed data in both cumulative water and nitrate outflow, with high level of agreement. Water flow simulations produced model efficiency of 0.84 for CONT and 0.56 for MULCH plots, while nitrate simulations showed model efficiency ranging from 0.67 to 0.83 and from 0.70 to 0.93, respectively. Additional simulations were performed with the absence of the lysimeter, revealing faster transport of nitrates below drip line in the CONT plots, mostly because of the increased surface area subjected to precipitation

  9. Evaluation of a 2D fluoroscopy-based navigation system for insertion of the dynamic hip screw (DHS). An experimental study; Evaluation eines 2-D-Fluoroskopie-basierten Navigationssystems zur Implantation der dynamischen Hueftschraube (DHS). Eine experimentelle Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.C.; Weber, O.; Burger, C.; Wirtz, D.C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery; Belei, P.; Fuente, M. de la; Strake, M.; Radermacher, K. [Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Aachen (Germany). Chair of Medical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic hip screw (DHS) insertion for the fixation of lateral femoral neck fractures is an accepted surgical treatment method. A computer-assisted planning and navigation system based on 2D fluoroscopy has been developed for guidewire insertion in order to perform screw placement. The image acquisition process was supported by a radiation-saving procedure called 'zero-dose C-arm navigation'. The aim of this study was to evaluate this new system. Materials and Methods: In the context of a sawbone study, we inserted dynamic hip screws. The procedure was performed under navigation control and in the conventional technique in 12 sawbones. Both procedures were performed in an open and closed technique. Results: The computer-assisted technique significantly reduced the number of intraoperative fluoroscopic images (open technique: -8.1 {+-} 0.5; p < 0.001 - closed technique: -12.3 {+-} 3.7; p < 0.001) and the number of guidewire passes (open technique: -1.3 {+-} 1.2; p < 0.05 - closed technique: -1.5 {+-} 1.2; p < 0,05). There was no difference with respect to precision in both groups. The operation time was significantly longer in the navigation-assisted groups (open technique: + 14.6 {+-} 5.4 min; p < 0.001 - closed technique: + 13 {+-} 3 min; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of computer-assisted planning and surgical guidance supported by 'zero-dose C-arm navigation' may be useful for the fixation of lateral femoral neck fractures by the DHS as it reduces the amount of fluoroscopic images and requires fewer drill tracks. Further studies with the goal of reducing the operation time are necessary. (orig.)

  10. Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Haotian; Shi, Jun; Shen, Kai; Hu, Pei

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects and used paroxetine as a tool drug to compare the performance of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. Pharmacokinetic data were evaluated in 24 subjects who received a single oral dose of 25 mg controlled-release paroxetine. Plasma paroxetine concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. CYP2D6 genotypes were tested by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Subjects were classified by two systems of phenotype prediction. In the traditional phenotype system, subjects were classified as extensive metabolizers or intermediate metabolizers; in the activity score system, subjects were divided into four activity groups. Analysis of variance testing was applied to estimate the effects of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. With the traditional phenotype system, significant differences were observed in the following pharmacokinetic parameters of paroxetine: t 1/2, C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Vz/F, and CL/F (all P paroxetine was about 3.5-fold higher in the intermediate metabolizer group than in the extensive metabolizer group. With the activity score system, significant differences were observed in the t 1/2, C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Vz/F, and CL/F among the four different activity score groups (all P paroxetine decreased by around one half as the activity score increased by 0.5. The pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine after a single administration was affected by CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Both the traditional phenotype and the activity score systems performed well and distinguished subjects with different drug exposures. The activity score system provided a more detailed classification for the subjects.

  11. Fluorine detected 2D NMR experiments for the practical determination of size and sign of homonuclear F-F and heteronuclear C-F multiple bond J-coupling constants in multiple fluorinated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; Ampt, Kirsten A. M.; Dvortsak, Peter; Jaeger, Martin; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-06-01

    The use of fluorine in molecules obtained from chemical synthesis has become increasingly important within the pharmaceutical and agricultural industry. NMR characterization of these compounds is of great value with respect to their structure elucidation, their screening in metabolomics investigations and binding studies. The favorable NMR properties of the fluorine nucleus make NMR with fluorine detection of great value in this respect. A suite of NMR 2D F-F- and F-C-correlation experiments with fluorine detection was applied to the assignment of resonances, nJCF- and nJFF-couplings as well as the determination of their size and sign. The utilization of this experiment suite was exemplarily demonstrated for a highly fluorinated vinyl alkyl ether. Especially F-C HSQC and J-scaled F-C HMBC experiments allowed determining the size of the J-couplings of this compound. The relative sign of its homo- and heteronuclear couplings was achieved by different combinations of 2D NMR experiments, including non-selective and F2-selective F-C XLOC, F2-selective F-C HMQC, and F-F COSY. The F2-one/two-site selective F-C XLOC versions were found highly useful, as they led to simplifications of the common E.COSY patterns and resulted in a higher confidence level of the assignment by using selective excitation. The combination of F2-one/two-site selective F-C XLOC experiments with a F2-one-site selective F-C HMQC experiment provided the signs of all nJCF- and nJFF-couplings in the vinyl moiety of the test compound. Other combinations of experiments were found useful as well for special purposes when focusing for example on homonuclear couplings a combination of F-F COSY-10 with a F2-one-site selective F-C HMQC could be used. The E.COSY patterns in the spectra demonstrated were analyzed by use of the spin-selective displacement vectors, and in case of the XLOC also by use of the DQ- and ZQ-displacement vectors. The variety of experiments presented shall contribute to facilitate the

  12. Detailed Characterization of 2D and 3D Scatter-to-Primary Ratios of Various Breast Geometries Using a Dedicated CT Mammotomography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jainil; Pachon, Jan H.; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    With a dedicated breast CT system using a quasi-monochromatic x-ray source and flat-panel digital detector, the 2D and 3D scatter to primary ratios (SPR) of various geometric phantoms having different densities were characterized in detail. Projections were acquired using geometric and anthropomorphic breast phantoms. Each phantom was filled with 700ml of 5 different water-methanol concentrations to simulate effective boundary densities of breast compositions from 100% glandular (1.0g/cm3) to 100% fat (0.79g/cm3). Projections were acquired with and without a beam stop array. For each projection, 2D scatter was determined by cubic spline interpolating the values behind the shadow of each beam stop through the object. Scatter-corrected projections were obtained by subtracting the scatter, and the 2D SPRs were obtained as a ratio of the scatter to scatter-corrected projections. Additionally the (un)corrected data were individually iteratively reconstructed. The (un)corrected 3D volumes were subsequently subtracted, and the 3D SPRs obtained from the ratio of the scatter volume-to-scatter-corrected (or primary) volume. Results show that the 2D SPR values peak in the center of the volumes, and were overall highest for the simulated 100% glandular composition. Consequently, scatter corrected reconstructions have visibly reduced cupping regardless of the phantom geometry, as well as more accurate linear attenuation coefficients. The corresponding 3D SPRs have increased central density, which reduces radially. Not surprisingly, for both 2D and 3D SPRs there was a dependency on both phantom geometry and object density on the measured SPR values, with geometry dominating for 3D SPRs. Overall, these results indicate the need for scatter correction given different geometries and breast densities that will be encountered with 3D cone beam breast CT. PMID:22267985

  13. The infrared spectrum of (12)C2D2: the stretching-bending band system up to 5500 cm(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Mattia; Canè, Elisabetta; Tamassia, Filippo; Di Lonardo, Gianfranco; Fusina, Luciano

    2013-04-07

    The infrared spectrum of the perdeuterated acetylene, (12)C2D2, has been recorded from 900 cm(-1) to 5500 cm(-1) by Fourier transform spectroscopy at a resolution ranging between 0.004 and 0.009 cm(-1). Ninety-two bands involving the ν1, ν2, and ν3 stretching modes, also associated with the ν4 and ν5 bending vibrations and 9 bands involving pure bending transitions have been observed and analysed. In total, 8345 transitions for the stretching-bending, and 862 for the pure bending modes have been assigned in the investigated spectral region. All the transitions relative to each stretching mode, i.e. the fundamental, its first overtone, and associated hot and combination bands involving bending states up to v4 + v5 = 2, were fitted simultaneously. The Hamiltonian adopted for the analysis is that appropriate to a linear molecule and includes vibration and rotation l-type interactions. The Darling-Dennison interaction between v4 = 2 and v5 = 2 levels associated with the various stretching states was also considered. The standard deviation for each global fit is smaller than 0.0006 cm(-1), of the same order of magnitude of the measurement precision.

  14. The infrared spectrum of 12C2D2: The stretching-bending band system up to 5500 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Mattia; Canè, Elisabetta; Tamassia, Filippo; Di Lonardo, Gianfranco; Fusina, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The infrared spectrum of the perdeuterated acetylene, 12C2D2, has been recorded from 900 cm-1 to 5500 cm-1 by Fourier transform spectroscopy at a resolution ranging between 0.004 and 0.009 cm-1. Ninety-two bands involving the ν1, ν2, and ν3 stretching modes, also associated with the ν4 and ν5 bending vibrations and 9 bands involving pure bending transitions have been observed and analysed. In total, 8345 transitions for the stretching-bending, and 862 for the pure bending modes have been assigned in the investigated spectral region. All the transitions relative to each stretching mode, i.e. the fundamental, its first overtone, and associated hot and combination bands involving bending states up to v4 + v5 = 2, were fitted simultaneously. The Hamiltonian adopted for the analysis is that appropriate to a linear molecule and includes vibration and rotation l-type interactions. The Darling-Dennison interaction between v4 = 2 and v5 = 2 levels associated with the various stretching states was also considered. The standard deviation for each global fit is smaller than 0.0006 cm-1, of the same order of magnitude of the measurement precision.

  15. Coherent regimes of globally coupled dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Monte, Silvia; D'ovidio, Francesco; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents a method by which the mean field dynamics of a population of dynamical systems with parameter diversity and global coupling can be described in terms of a few macroscopic degrees of freedom. The method applies to populations of any size and functional form in the region...... of coherence. It requires linear variation or a narrow distribution for the dispersed parameter. Although an approximation, the method allows us to quantitatively study the transitions among the collective regimes as bifurcations of the effective macroscopic degrees of freedom. To illustrate, the phenomenon...

  16. Antitumor activity of amidino-substituted benzimidazole and benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinoline derivatives tested in 2D and 3D cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajša, Karmen; Vujasinović, Ines; Jelić, Dubravko; Trzun, Marija; Zlatar, Ivo; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Hranjec, Marijana

    2016-12-01

    Due to a poor clinical predictive power of 2D cell cultures, standard tool for in vitro assays in drug discovery process, there is increasing interest in developing 3D in vitro cell cultures, biologically relevant assay feasible for the development of robust preclinical anti-cancer drug screening platforms. Herein, we tested amidino-substituted benzimidazoles and benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines as a small platform for comparison of antitumor activity in 2D and 3D cell culture systems and correlation with structure-activity relationship. 3D cell culture method was applied on a human cancer breast (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, T-47D) and pancreatic cancer cells (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1). Results obtained in 2D and 3D models were highly comparable, but in some cases we have observed significant disagreement indicating that some prominent compounds can be discarded in early phase of researching because of compounds with false positive result. To confirm which of cell culture systems is more accurate, in vivo profiling is needed.

  17. Unveiling neural coupling within the sensorimotor system : directionality and nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Dewald, J.P.A.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Neural coupling between the central nervous system and the periphery is essential for the neural control of movement. Corticomuscular coherence is a popular linear technique to assess synchronised oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor system. This oscillatory coupling originates from ascending

  18. Coherence Transfer in Dipolar-Coupled Homonuclear Spin Systems in Solids Rotating at the Magic Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, O.; Vega, S.; Hoelger, C.; Limbach, H. H.

    Two routes for the exploitation of the t-SEDRA pulse scheme, which induces coherence transfer in dipolar-coupled homonuclear spin systems in rotating samples, are demonstrated and discussed. This sequence is utilized to deduce intramolecular connectivities by creating an initial coherence of one spin only, applying the t-SEDRA sequence, and monitoring the signal enhancement of the coupled spin. Probing the signal amplitude variations of the two spins and comparing them to simulations can also yield molecular distances. Using 2D spectroscopy, t-SEDRA can also be utilized to establish spin correlations. In this case, the t-SEDRA sequence is applied during the mixing time of a 2D dipolar-correlation experiment. These two approaches are demonstrated by performing 15N CPMAS NMR experiments on a 15N-doubly labeled sample of 3(5)-methyl-5(3)-phenylpyrazole.

  19. Characterization and usage of the EASY-spray technology as part of an online 2D SCX-RP ultra-high pressure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Fabio; Cristobal, Alba; Binai, Nadine A; Bache, Nicolai; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2014-12-21

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems combined with state-of-the-art mass spectrometers have pushed the limit of deep proteome sequencing to new heights making it possible to identify thousands of proteins in a single LC-MS experiment within a few hours. The recently released EASY-spray technology allows one to implement nano-UHPLC with straightforwardness. In this work we initially characterized the EASY-spray containing a 50 cm column containing system allowed 3000 proteins to be identified in 90 minutes. We then asked the question whether a fast and sensitive online 2D SCX-RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow could compete with 1D long gradient analyses, using total analysis time versus proteome coverage and sample usage as benchmark parameters. The 2D LC-MS strategy consisted of the EASY-spray system that had been augmented by the addition of an SCX column. The conversion was made facile since no additional valves were required and by the use of components containing viper fittings. We benchmarked the system using a human cell lysate digest (system a 1D RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow plateaued at only 20,000 peptides and 4400 unique proteins and required approx. 8 hours of analysis time. Furthermore, the 2D workflow could continue to increase the proteome coverage with longer analysis times, in fact with a 21 hour analysis we identified 56,600 unique peptides and >7500 proteins. We report, here, that with this fast online SCX-RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow, the proteome coverage can be substantially extended without significantly compromising the analysis time and sample usage.

  20. Registration of 2D C-Arm and 3D CT Images for a C-Arm Image-Assisted Navigation System for Spinal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ju Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-Arm image-assisted surgical navigation system has been broadly applied to spinal surgery. However, accurate path planning on the C-Arm AP-view image is difficult. This research studies 2D-3D image registration methods to obtain the optimum transformation matrix between C-Arm and CT image frames. Through the transformation matrix, the surgical path planned on preoperative CT images can be transformed and displayed on the C-Arm images for surgical guidance. The positions of surgical instruments will also be displayed on both CT and C-Arm in the real time. Five similarity measure methods of 2D-3D image registration including Normalized Cross-Correlation, Gradient Correlation, Pattern Intensity, Gradient Difference Correlation, and Mutual Information combined with three optimization methods including Powell’s method, Downhill simplex algorithm, and genetic algorithm are applied to evaluate their performance in converge range, efficiency, and accuracy. Experimental results show that the combination of Normalized Cross-Correlation measure method with Downhill simplex algorithm obtains maximum correlation and similarity in C-Arm and Digital Reconstructed Radiograph (DRR images. Spine saw bones are used in the experiment to evaluate 2D-3D image registration accuracy. The average error in displacement is 0.22 mm. The success rate is approximately 90% and average registration time takes 16 seconds.

  1. Registration of 2D C-Arm and 3D CT Images for a C-Arm Image-Assisted Navigation System for Spinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ju; Lin, Geng-Li; Tse, Alex; Chu, Hong-Yu; Tseng, Ching-Shiow

    2015-01-01

    C-Arm image-assisted surgical navigation system has been broadly applied to spinal surgery. However, accurate path planning on the C-Arm AP-view image is difficult. This research studies 2D-3D image registration methods to obtain the optimum transformation matrix between C-Arm and CT image frames. Through the transformation matrix, the surgical path planned on preoperative CT images can be transformed and displayed on the C-Arm images for surgical guidance. The positions of surgical instruments will also be displayed on both CT and C-Arm in the real time. Five similarity measure methods of 2D-3D image registration including Normalized Cross-Correlation, Gradient Correlation, Pattern Intensity, Gradient Difference Correlation, and Mutual Information combined with three optimization methods including Powell's method, Downhill simplex algorithm, and genetic algorithm are applied to evaluate their performance in converge range, efficiency, and accuracy. Experimental results show that the combination of Normalized Cross-Correlation measure method with Downhill simplex algorithm obtains maximum correlation and similarity in C-Arm and Digital Reconstructed Radiograph (DRR) images. Spine saw bones are used in the experiment to evaluate 2D-3D image registration accuracy. The average error in displacement is 0.22 mm. The success rate is approximately 90% and average registration time takes 16 seconds.

  2. The UKC2 regional coupled prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Juan; Lewis, Huw; Graham, Jennifer; Saulter, Andrew; Arnold, Alex; Fallmann, Joachim; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto; Blyth, Eleanor; Bricheno, Lucy

    2017-04-01

    It is hypothesized that more accurate prediction and warning of natural hazards, such as of the impacts of severe weather through the environment, requires a more integrated approach to forecasting. This approach also delivers research benefits through providing tools with which to explore the known interactions and feedbacks between different physical and biogeochemical components of the environment across sky, sea and land. This hypothesis is being tested in a UK regional context at km-scale through the UK Environmental Prediction Project. This presentation will provide an introduction to the UKC2 UK Environmental Prediction research system. This incorporates models of the atmosphere (Met Office Unified Model), land surface (JULES), shelf-sea ocean (NEMO) and ocean waves (WAVEWATCH III). These components are coupled (via OASIS3-MCT libraries) at unprecedentedly high resolution across the UK and the wider north-west European regional domain. A research framework has been established to explore the representation of feedback processes in coupled and uncoupled modes, providing a unique new research tool for UK environmental science. The presentation will highlight work undertaken to review and improve the computational cost of running these systems for efficient research application. Research will be presented highlighting case study evaluation on the sensitivity of the ocean and surface waves to the representation of feedbacks to the atmosphere, and on the sensitivity of weather systems and boundary layer cloud development to the exchange of heat and momentum at the ocean surface modified through sea surface temperature and wave-induced roughness. The presentation will discuss plans for future development through UKC3 and beyond.

  3. Assessment of geometry in 2D immune systems using high accuracy laser-based bioprinting techniques (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzurica, Sara; Márquez, Andrés.; Molpeceres, Carlos; Notario, Laura; Gómez-Fontela, Miguel; Lauzurica, Pilar

    2017-02-01

    The immune system is a very complex system that comprises a network of genetic and signaling pathways subtending a network of interacting cells. The location of the cells in a network, along with the gene products they interact with, rules the behavior of the immune system. Therefore, there is a great interest in understanding properly the role of a cell in such networks to increase our knowledge of the immune system response. In order to acquire a better understanding of these processes, cell printing with high spatial resolution emerges as one of the promising approaches to organize cells in two and three-dimensional patterns to enable the study the geometry influence in these interactions. In particular, laser assisted bio-printing techniques using sub-nanosecond laser sources have better characteristics for application in this field, mainly due to its higher spatial resolution, cell viability percentage and process automation. This work presents laser assisted bio-printing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in two-dimensional geometries, placing cellular components on a matrix previously generated on demand, permitting to test the molecular interactions between APCs and lymphocytes; as well as the generation of two-dimensional structures designed ad hoc in order to study the mechanisms of mobilization of immune system cells. The use of laser assisted bio-printing, along with APCs and lymphocytes emulate the structure of different niches of the immune system so that we can analyse functional requirement of these interaction.

  4. Contractions of 2D 2nd Order Quantum Superintegrable Systems and the Askey Scheme for Hypergeometric Orthogonal Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest G. Kalnins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We show explicitly that all 2nd order superintegrable systems in 2 dimensions are limiting cases of a single system: the generic 3-parameter potential on the 2-sphere, S9 in our listing. We extend the Wigner-Inönü method of Lie algebra contractions to contractions of quadratic algebras and show that all of the quadratic symmetry algebras of these systems are contractions of that of S9. Amazingly, all of the relevant contractions of these superintegrable systems on flat space and the sphere are uniquely induced by the well known Lie algebra contractions of e(2 and so(3. By contracting function space realizations of irreducible representations of the S9 algebra (which give the structure equations for Racah/Wilson polynomials to the other superintegrable systems, and using Wigner's idea of ''saving'' a representation, we obtain the full Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. This relationship directly ties the polynomials and their structure equations to physical phenomena. It is more general because it applies to all special functions that arise from these systems via separation of variables, not just those of hypergeometric type, and it extends to higher dimensions.

  5. Synthesis of the New Ring System Bispyrido[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo [1,2-a:1',2'-d]pyrazine and Its Deaza Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Parrino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Derivatives of the new ring systems bispyrido[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a:1',2'-d] pyrazine-6,13-dione and its deaza analogue pyrido[4'',3'':4',5']pyrrolo-[1',2':4,5]pyrazino [1,2-a]indole-6,13-dione were conveniently synthesized through a four-step sequence. Symmetrical derivatives of the former ring system were obtained through self condensation. On the other hand, condensation of 6-azaindole carboxylic acid with indole 2-carboxylic acid afforded the deaza analogue ring system. Derivatives of the title ring system were tested by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA and four of them exhibited modest activity against MCF7 (a breast cancer cell line and/or UO-31 (a renal cancer cell line.

  6. The 2D conducting system formed by nanocrystallites CrSi2 in the (111) plane of silicon: New object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnik, Yu. F.; Andrievskii, V. V.; Berkutov, I. B.; Mirzoiev, I. G.; Galkin, N. G.; Goroshko, D. L.

    2014-11-01

    A conductivity quasi-two-dimensional system formed by nanocrystallites CrSi2 located in the crystallographic (111) plane of silicon has been considered. At low temperatures the system exhibits several unique properties: (i) the activation energy in the temperature dependence of resistance is appreciably lower than in the case of impurity condition; (ii) the carrier mobility is very high but it decreases rapidly with the growing temperature; (iii) the magnetoresistance is linear and decreases rapidly as the temperature rises. To explain these features, a model has been proposed which assigns special importance to the charges at the nanocrystallites which appear due to the escape of the electrons to the conduction band (or holes to the valence band) of silicon.

  7. 2D materials. Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems for energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Yu, Guihua; Stoller, Meryl; Tozzini, Valentina; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ruoff, Rodney S; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2015-01-02

    Graphene and related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging energy needs, in particular for the ever growing market of portable and wearable energy conversion and storage devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, make it promising as a catalyst in fuel and dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically functionalized graphene can also improve storage and diffusion of ionic species and electric charge in batteries and supercapacitors. Two-dimensional crystals provide optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties complementing those of graphene, enabling the realization of ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices or systems for hydrogen production. Here, we review the use of graphene and related materials for energy conversion and storage, outlining the roadmap for future applications. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Cell-based DNA demethylation detection system for screening of epigenetic drugs in 2D, 3D, and xenograft models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agrawal, K.; Das, V.; Otmar, Miroslav; Krečmerová, Marcela; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.

    91A, č. 2 (2017), s. 133-143 ISSN 1552-4922 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-31984A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA methylation * DNA methylation inhibitors * demethylation detection system * epigenetic drugs * high content screening Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.222, year: 2016

  9. Geometrical Characterisation of a 2D Laser System and Calibration of a Cross-Grid Encoder by Means of a Self-Calibration Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Marta; Díaz-Pérez, Lucía C; Valenzuela, Margarita; Albajez, José A; Yagüe-Fabra, José A

    2017-08-31

    This article presents a self-calibration procedure and the experimental results for the geometrical characterisation of a 2D laser system operating along a large working range (50 mm × 50 mm) with submicrometre uncertainty. Its purpose is to correct the geometric errors of the 2D laser system setup generated when positioning the two laser heads and the plane mirrors used as reflectors. The non-calibrated artefact used in this procedure is a commercial grid encoder that is also a measuring instrument. Therefore, the self-calibration procedure also allows the determination of the geometrical errors of the grid encoder, including its squareness error. The precision of the proposed algorithm is tested using virtual data. Actual measurements are subsequently registered, and the algorithm is applied. Once the laser system is characterised, the error of the grid encoder is calculated along the working range, resulting in an expanded submicrometre calibration uncertainty (k = 2) for the X and Y axes. The results of the grid encoder calibration are comparable to the errors provided by the calibration certificate for its main central axes. It is, therefore, possible to confirm the suitability of the self-calibration methodology proposed in this article.

  10. Investigations on mobility of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in a column experiment and a laboratory 2D-aquifer test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jan; Meißner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret; Oswald, Sascha E

    2014-09-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has recently gained great interest in the scientific community as in situ reagent for installation of permeable reactive barriers in aquifer systems, since nZVI is highly reactive with chlorinated compounds and may render them to harmless substances. However, nZVI has a high tendency to agglomerate and sediment; therefore it shows very limited transport ranges. One new approach to overcome the limited transport of nZVI in porous media is using a suited carrier colloid. In this study we tested mobility of a carbon colloid supported nZVI particle "Carbo-Iron Colloids" (CIC) with a mean size of 0.63 μm in a column experiment of 40 cm length and an experiment in a two-dimensional (2D) aquifer test system with dimensions of 110 × 40 × 5 cm. Results show a breakthrough maximum of 82 % of the input concentration in the column experiment and 58 % in the 2D-aquifer test system. Detected residuals in porous media suggest a strong particle deposition in the first centimeters and few depositions in the porous media in the further travel path. Overall, this suggests a high mobility in porous media which might be a significant enhancement compared to bare or polyanionic stabilized nZVI.

  11. Imaging and Measurements of Flow Phenomena and Impact of Soil Associated Constituents Through Unsaturated Porous Media in a 2D System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, A. R.; Li, B.; Clifford, H.; Edayilam, N.; Montgomery, D.; Dogan, M.; Tharayil, N.; Martinez, N. E.; Moysey, S. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    This research aims to build upon past two-dimension (2D) tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) and how exudates effect unstable flow patterns. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital single lens reflex (CMOS DSLR) Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from red-green-blue (RGB) into hue-saturation-intensity (HVI) and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Contact angle and surface tension of the chemical plant exudate solutions was measured using a Kruss EasyDrop FM40Mk2 (Kruss GmbH Germany). The exudates (oxalate, citrate, tannic acid, and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter) had an increased wettability effect compared to control rain water (0.01M NaCl). This resulted in variable finger formation and speed of finger propagation; dependent on exudate type and concentration. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for future works in this study to analyze how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media.

  12. Determination and verification of a 2D pencil-beam kernel for a radiosurgery system with cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Verdesoto, Milton Xavier; Álvarez-Romero, José Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    The quality and correctness of dosimetric data of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) depends significantly on the election of the detector employed in the measurements. This work provides an independent method of verification of these data through the determination of a polyenergetic 2-dimensional pencil-beam kernel for a BrainLAB SRS system with cones, employing the deconvolution/convolution of a reference experimental off-axis ratio (OAR) profile (cone diameter c0 = 35 mm). The kernel in real space k(c(0))(r,z(0)) is convolved with the ideal fluence Φ for the cones 7.5 to 35 mm in diameter to obtain the OAR profiles, and the total scatter factors, St, which are compared with experimental values of the same quantities. The experimental OARs and St factors are measured in water with a PTW 60003 diamond detector. Additionally, the reference OAR is corrected for beam divergence and spectral fluence fluctuations defining a function of boundary correction factors (BF). The BF and Φ functions are transformed to the conjugate space with the zeroth-order Hankel transform, appropriated to the radial symmetry of the cones. Therefore, the kernel in real space k(c(0))(r,z(0)) is the inverse Hankel transform of the ratio of the Hankel transforms of BF and Φ. Finally, an uncertainty analysis according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is carried out for 3 different values of k(c(0))(r,z(0)). Calculated and measured OARs agree within the dose/distance-to-agreement criteria of 2%/0.12 mm; while, St factors agree within 2%. This procedure supplies an independent method to validate the dosimetric data necessary to feed treatment planning systems for SRS with cones. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination and verification of a 2D pencil-beam kernel for a radiosurgery system with cones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Verdesoto, Milton Xavier, E-mail: mxvv2003@hotmail.com [Centro Oncológico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza, Chihuahua, México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Edo. De México, México (Mexico); Álvarez-Romero, José Trinidad [SSDL, Instituto Nacional de Invesigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, México (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The quality and correctness of dosimetric data of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) depends significantly on the election of the detector employed in the measurements. This work provides an independent method of verification of these data through the determination of a polyenergetic 2-dimensional pencil-beam kernel for a BrainLAB SRS system with cones, employing the deconvolution/convolution of a reference experimental off-axis ratio (OAR) profile (cone diameter c{sub 0} = 35 mm). The kernel in real space k{sub c{sub 0}}(r,z{sub 0}) is convolved with the ideal fluence Φ for the cones 7.5 to 35 mm in diameter to obtain the OAR profiles, and the total scatter factors, S{sub t}, which are compared with experimental values of the same quantities. The experimental OARs and S{sub t} factors are measured in water with a PTW 60003 diamond detector. Additionally, the reference OAR is corrected for beam divergence and spectral fluence fluctuations defining a function of boundary correction factors (BF). The BF and Φ functions are transformed to the conjugate space with the zeroth-order Hankel transform, appropriated to the radial symmetry of the cones. Therefore, the kernel in real space k{sub c{sub 0}}(r,z{sub 0}) is the inverse Hankel transform of the ratio of the Hankel transforms of BF and Φ. Finally, an uncertainty analysis according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is carried out for 3 different values of k{sub c{sub 0}}(r,z{sub 0}). Calculated and measured OARs agree within the dose/distance-to-agreement criteria of 2%/0.12 mm; while, S{sub t} factors agree within 2%. This procedure supplies an independent method to validate the dosimetric data necessary to feed treatment planning systems for SRS with cones.

  14. Previsão da perda de solo na Fazenda Canchim - SP (EMBRAPA utilizando geoprocessamento e o USLE 2D Loss of soil determination in Fazenda Canchim - SP (EMBRAPA using geographic information systems and USLE 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando das Graças Braga da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos hidrossedimentológicos têm enorme potencial no Brasil para ser a melhor ferramenta de estimativa de perda de solo, devido principalmente a sua complexidade na descrição dos processos e sua robustez que os fundamenta. Entretanto, devido à necessidade de uma quantidade muito grande de informações requerida, aliada a dificuldades de adaptações desses modelos internacionais e necessidade de tempo e estrutura para criação de modelos nacionais, a Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS e suas variações ainda são uma referência no Brasil para determinação de perda de solo. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se um atual modelo de cálculo do fator LS, o Software USLE 2D, em conjunto com o IDRISI. A aplicação foi feita na Fazenda Canchim da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste; consistindo o primeiro trabalho desta natureza realizado nessa área com tais ferramentas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram-se coerentes com os tipos de solo, as declividades e a cobertura vegetal da área de estudo.The hydrosedimentological models have an enormous potential in Brazil to be the best tool for the estimative of soil lost principally due to their complexity on description of the processes and the robustness that validate them. However, due to a need of a very big volume of required information in connection with the difficulties to adapt the international models and the need of time and structure to create national models, the Universal Soil Lost Equation (USLE and its variations still are a reference in Brazil to soil lost determination. In this article, a new model to calculate the SL factor, the USLE 2D Software combined with the IDRISI were used. The inedited application was done in Southeast Cattle Breeding Embrapa's Canchim Farm, consisting on the first work of this nature done in this area with such tools. The results obtained were coherent to types of soil, slopes and vegetal cover in the area of study.

  15. Menaquinone-4 enhances osteogenic potential of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells cultured in 2D and 3D dynamic culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandatori, Domitilla; Penolazzi, Letizia; Pipino, Caterina; Di Tomo, Pamela; Di Silvestre, Sara; Di Pietro, Natalia; Trevisani, Sara; Angelozzi, Marco; Ucci, Mariangela; Piva, Roberta; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2017-05-16

    Menaquinones, also known as Vitamin K2 family, regulate calcium homeostasis in a 'bone-vascular cross-talk' and recently received particular attention for their positive effect on bone formation. Given that the correlation between menaquinones and bone metabolism to date is still unclear, the objective of our study was to investigate the possible role of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), an isoform of the menaquinones family, in the modulation of osteogenesis. For this reason, we used a model of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs) cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D; RCCS™bioreactor) in vitro culture systems. Furthermore, to mimic the 'bone remodelling unit' in vitro, hAFMSCs were co-cultured in the 3D system with human monocyte cells (hMCs) as osteoclast precursors. The results showed that in a conventional 2D culture system, hAFMSCs were responsive to the MK-4, which significantly improved the osteogenic process through γ-glutamyl carboxylase-dependent pathway. The same results were obtained in the 3D dynamic system where MK-4 treatment supported the osteoblast-like formation promoting the extracellular bone matrix deposition and the expression of the osteogenic-related proteins (alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, collagen type-1 and osteocalcin). Notably, when the hAFMSCs were co-cultured in a 3D dynamic system with the hMCs, the presence of MK-4 supported the cellular aggregate formation as well as the osteogenic function of hAFMSCs, but negatively affected the osteoclastogenic process. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MK-4 supported the aggregate formation of hAFMSCs and increased the osteogenic functions. Specifically, our data could help to optimize bone regenerative medicine combining cell-based approaches with MK-4 treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Double Dirac point semimetal in 2D material: Ta2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Jing, Yu; Heine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Here, we report by first-principles calculations one new stable 2D Dirac material, Ta2Se3 monolayer. For this system, stable layered bulk phase exists, and exfoliation should be possible. Ta2Se3 monolayer is demonstrated to support two Dirac points close to the Fermi level, achieving the exotic 2D double Dirac semimetal. And like 2D single Dirac and 2D node-line semimetals, spin-orbit coupling could introduce an insulating state in this new class of 2D Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the Dirac feature in this system is layer-dependent and a metal-to-insulator transition is identified in Ta2Se3 when reducing the layer-thickness from bilayer to monolayer. These findings are of fundamental interests and of great importance for nanoscale device applications.

  17. Transcritical riddling in a system of coupled maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovych, O.; Maistrenko, Yu.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    The transition from fully synchronized behavior to two-cluster dynamics is investigated for a system of N globally coupled chaotic oscillators by means of a model of two coupled logistic maps. An uneven distribution of oscillators between the two clusters causes an asymmetry to arise in the coupl...

  18. New generation of two-dimensional spintronic systems realized by coupling of Rashba and Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, Sergey V.; Tsirkin, Stepan S.; Nechaev, Ilya A.; Echenique, Pedro M.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.

    2015-01-01

    Intriguing phenomena and novel physics predicted for two-dimensional (2D) systems formed by electrons in Dirac or Rashba states motivate an active search for new materials or combinations of the already revealed ones. Being very promising ingredients in themselves, interplaying Dirac and Rashba systems can provide a base for next generation of spintronics devices, to a considerable extent, by mixing their striking properties or by improving technically significant characteristics of each other. Here, we demonstrate that in BiTeI@PbSb2Te4 composed of a BiTeI trilayer on top of the topological insulator (TI) PbSb2Te4 weakly- and strongly-coupled Dirac-Rashba hybrid systems are realized. The coupling strength depends on both interface hexagonal stacking and trilayer-stacking order. The weakly-coupled system can serve as a prototype to examine, e.g., plasmonic excitations, frictional drag, spin-polarized transport, and charge-spin separation effect in multilayer helical metals. In the strongly-coupled regime, within ~100 meV energy interval of the bulk TI projected bandgap a helical state substituting for the TI surface state appears. This new state is characterized by a larger momentum, similar velocity, and strong localization within BiTeI. We anticipate that our findings pave the way for designing a new type of spintronics devices based on Rashba-Dirac coupled systems. PMID:26239268

  19. Preliminary Study of 2-D Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Modeling to Analyze Subsurface Resistivity Distribution and its Application to the Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji Hapsoro, Cahyo; Purqon, Acep; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2017-07-01

    2-D Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) has been successfully conducted to illustrate the value of Electric field distribution under the Earth surface. Electric field compared by magnetic field is used to analyze resistivity and resistivity is one of physical properties which very important to determine the reservoir potential area of geothermal systems as one of renewable energy. In this modeling we used Time Domain Electromagnetic method because it can solve EM field interaction problem with complex geometry and to analyze transient problems. TDEM methods used to model the value of electric and magnetic fields as a function of the time combined with the function of distance and depth. The result of this modeling is Electric field intensity value which is capable to describe the structure of the Earth’s subsurface. The result of this modeling can be applied to describe the Earths subsurface resistivity values to determine the reservoir potential of geothermal systems.

  20. Chaotic Synchronization of Fractional-Order Spatiotemporal Coupled Lorenz System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-01

    By utilizing the fractional calculus techniques and spatiotemporal chaos theory, this paper brings Lorenz system to fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled differential equation for the first time, and proposes the fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled Lorenz system. Based on that, we study the problem of chaotic synchronization of fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled Lorenz systems, design the linear controller and nonlinear controller by utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory and prove the correctness in theory. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the validity of controllers in high-dimension fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled Lorenz system.

  1. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  2. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmon coupling and hybridization in complex nanostructures constitutes a fertile playground for controlling light at the nanoscale. Here, we present a semi-analytical model to describe the emergence of hybrid plasmon modes guided along 2D nanoslits. In particular, we find two new coupled...... plasmonic resonances arising from symmetric and antisymmetric hybridizations of the edge plasmons of the constituent half-sheets. These give rise to an antibonding and a bonding mode, lying above and below the energy of the bare edge plasmon. Our treatment is notably generic, being able to account for slits...... of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  3. sup 2 D NMR study of the dynamics of bound water molecules in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-D sub 2 O system at a low water content

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, A; Takizawa, T

    2003-01-01

    We found two doublet signals A and B in sup 2 D-NMR of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-D sub 2 O system at a low water content below the temperature of the onset of the main phase transition, i.e. in the beta'-crystalline (L subbeta sub ') phase. The splitting of each doublet becomes minimum at the onset of the transition. The signal A decreases in intensity with a slight increase of its splitting as the temperature increases further, accompanying the marked growth of the signal B in its intensity and splitting. These features of two doublets in the L subbeta sub ' phase and at higher temperatures have never been noticed. The signals A and B were ascribed to the tightly bound water and the loosely bound water, respectively. These assignments were confirmed by the theoretical calculations of the splitting of the doublet A for all possible number of the tightly bound water molecules. (author)

  4. Multilingual interfaces for parallel coupling in multiphysics and multiscale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Jacob, R. L.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Australian National Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems are emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science, largely because of increased computing power provided by the distributed-memory parallel programming model on commodity clusters. These systems often present a parallel coupling problem in their intercomponent data exchanges. Another potential problem in these coupled systems is language interoperability between their various constituent codes. In anticipation of combined parallel coupling/language interoperability challenges, we have created a set of interlanguage bindings for a successful parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit. We describe the method used for automatically generating the bindings using the Babel language interoperability tool, and illustrate with short examples how MCT can be used from the C++ and Python languages. We report preliminary performance reports for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to the rapid prototyping of large parallel coupled systems.

  5. Quantum Measurements of Coupled Two-Level Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fedichkin, L.; Shapiro, M.; Dykman, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to measuring nonresonant coupled systems, which gives a parametrically smaller error than the conventional fast projective measurements. The approach takes into account that, due to the coupling, excitations are not entirely localized on individual systems. It combines high spectral selectivity of the detector with temporal resolution and uses the ideas of the quantum diffusion theory. The results bear on quantum computing with perpetually coupled qubits.

  6. Dynamic Coupling Between Respiratory and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio

    The analysis of non-linear dynamics of the coupling among interacting quantities can be very useful for understanding the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular control mechanisms. In this chapter RP is used to detect and quantify the degree of non-linear coupling between respiration and spontaneous rhythms of both heart rate and blood pressure variability signals. RQA turned out to be suitable for a quantitative evaluation of the observed coupling patterns among rhythms, both in simulated and real data, providing different degrees of coupling. The results from the simulated data showed that the increased degree of coupling between the signals was marked by the increase of PR and PD, and by the decrease of ER. When the RQA was applied to experimental data, PD and ER turned out to be the most significant variables, compared to PR. A remarkable finding is the detection of transient 1:2 PL episodes between respiration and cardiovascular variability signals. This phenomenon can be associated to a sub-harmonic synchronization between the two main rhythms of HR and BP variability series.

  7. Chaotic behaviour of nonlinear coupled reaction–diffusion system in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent years, nonlinear coupled reaction–diffusion (CRD) system has been widely investigated by coupled map lattice method. Previously, nonlinear behaviour was observed dynamically when one or two of the three variables in the discrete system change. In this paper, we consider the chaotic behaviour when three ...

  8. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  9. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  10. 1D and 2D diffusion pore imaging on a preclinical MR system using adaptive rephasing: Feasibility and pulse sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertleff, Marco; Domsch, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B; Kuder, Tristan A; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion pore imaging (DPI) has recently been proposed as a means to acquire images of the average pore shape in an image voxel or region of interest. The highly asymmetric gradient scheme of its sequence makes it substantially demanding in terms of the hardware of the NMR system. The aim of this work is to show the feasibility of DPI on a preclinical 9.4T animal scanner. Using water-filled capillaries with an inner radius of 10μm, four different variants of the DPI sequence were compared in 1D and 2D measurements. The pulse sequences applied cover the basic implementation using one long and one temporally narrow gradient pulse, a CPMG-like variant with multiple refocusing RF pulses as well as two variants splitting up the long gradient and distributing it on either side of the refocusing pulse. Substantial differences between the methods were found in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, blurring, deviations from the expected results and sensitivity to gradient imperfections. Each of the tested sequences was found to produce characteristic gradient mismatches dependent on the absolute value, direction and sign of the applied q-value. Read gradients were applied to compensate these mismatches translating them into time shifts, which enabled 1D DPI yielding capillary radius estimations within the tolerances specified by the manufacturer. For a successful DPI application in 2D, a novel gradient amplitude adaption scheme was implemented to correct for the occurring time shifts. Using this adaption, higher conformity to the expected pore shape, reduced blurring and enhanced contrast were achieved. Images of the phantom's pore shape could be acquired with a nominal resolution of 2.2μm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 1D and 2D diffusion pore imaging on a preclinical MR system using adaptive rephasing: Feasibility and pulse sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertleff, Marco; Domsch, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B.; Kuder, Tristan A.; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion pore imaging (DPI) has recently been proposed as a means to acquire images of the average pore shape in an image voxel or region of interest. The highly asymmetric gradient scheme of its sequence makes it substantially demanding in terms of the hardware of the NMR system. The aim of this work is to show the feasibility of DPI on a preclinical 9.4 T animal scanner. Using water-filled capillaries with an inner radius of 10 μm, four different variants of the DPI sequence were compared in 1D and 2D measurements. The pulse sequences applied cover the basic implementation using one long and one temporally narrow gradient pulse, a CPMG-like variant with multiple refocusing RF pulses as well as two variants splitting up the long gradient and distributing it on either side of the refocusing pulse. Substantial differences between the methods were found in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, blurring, deviations from the expected results and sensitivity to gradient imperfections. Each of the tested sequences was found to produce characteristic gradient mismatches dependent on the absolute value, direction and sign of the applied q-value. Read gradients were applied to compensate these mismatches translating them into time shifts, which enabled 1D DPI yielding capillary radius estimations within the tolerances specified by the manufacturer. For a successful DPI application in 2D, a novel gradient amplitude adaption scheme was implemented to correct for the occurring time shifts. Using this adaption, higher conformity to the expected pore shape, reduced blurring and enhanced contrast were achieved. Images of the phantom's pore shape could be acquired with a nominal resolution of 2.2 μm.

  12. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; fluctuation phenomena; relativistic diffusion model; net-proton rapidly ... cients on the available relativistic energy, results at 40 A•GeV/c are obtained. Extrapolat- ing to higher ... proached for times t ^τs larger than the time τs that is characteristic for strong coupling. – when all secondary ...

  13. Double-well chimeras in 2D lattice of chaotic bistable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Bukh, A. V.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Anishchenko, V. S.; Zakharova, A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate spatio-temporal dynamics of a 2D ensemble of nonlocally coupled chaotic cubic maps in a bistability regime. In particular, we perform a detailed study on the transition ;coherence - incoherence; for varying coupling strength for a fixed interaction radius. For the 2D ensemble we show the appearance of amplitude and phase chimera states previously reported for 1D ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic systems. Moreover, we uncover a novel type of chimera state, double-well chimera, which occurs due to the interplay of the bistability of the local dynamics and the 2D ensemble structure. Additionally, we find double-well chimera behavior for steady states which we call double-well chimera death. A distinguishing feature of chimera patterns observed in the lattice is that they mainly combine clusters of different chimera types: phase, amplitude and double-well chimeras.

  14. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

  15. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  17. Novel system for coupling to surface-plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A E; Olson, G A; Sarid, D

    1985-01-01

    A novel system for coupling to surface-plasmon polaritons has been designed, fabricated, and assembled. Microcomputer controlled electronics provide for accurate and repeatable angular positioning of the waveguide coupler with respect to the incident beam and for precise angular registration of detector output signals. The optical components, combined with a retroreflecting spherical-surface coupling prism, give apertured control of the beam profile at the coupling interface.

  18. SU-D-BRC-03: Development and Validation of an Online 2D Dose Verification System for Daily Patient Plan Delivery Accuracy Check

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Xing, Y [Fudan univercity shanghai proton and heavy ion center, Shanghai (China); Wu, X [Fudan university shanghai proton and heavy ion center, Shanghai, shagnhai (China); Li, Y [Department of Medical physics at Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: All plan verification systems for particle therapy are designed to do plan verification before treatment. However, the actual dose distributions during patient treatment are not known. This study develops an online 2D dose verification tool to check the daily dose delivery accuracy. Methods: A Siemens particle treatment system with a modulated scanning spot beam is used in our center. In order to do online dose verification, we made a program to reconstruct the delivered 2D dose distributions based on the daily treatment log files and depth dose distributions. In the log files we can get the focus size, position and particle number for each spot. A gamma analysis is used to compare the reconstructed dose distributions with the dose distributions from the TPS to assess the daily dose delivery accuracy. To verify the dose reconstruction algorithm, we compared the reconstructed dose distributions to dose distributions measured using PTW 729XDR ion chamber matrix for 13 real patient plans. Then we analyzed 100 treatment beams (58 carbon and 42 proton) for prostate, lung, ACC, NPC and chordoma patients. Results: For algorithm verification, the gamma passing rate was 97.95% for the 3%/3mm and 92.36% for the 2%/2mm criteria. For patient treatment analysis,the results were 97.7%±1.1% and 91.7%±2.5% for carbon and 89.9%±4.8% and 79.7%±7.7% for proton using 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm criteria, respectively. The reason for the lower passing rate for the proton beam is that the focus size deviations were larger than for the carbon beam. The average focus size deviations were −14.27% and −6.73% for proton and −5.26% and −0.93% for carbon in the x and y direction respectively. Conclusion: The verification software meets our requirements to check for daily dose delivery discrepancies. Such tools can enhance the current treatment plan and delivery verification processes and improve safety of clinical treatments.

  19. Enhanced automated platform for 2D characterization of RFID communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuza, Dan Tudor; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of the quality of communication between an RFID reader and a transponder at all expected positions of the latter on the reader antenna is of primal importance for the evaluation of performance of an RFID system. Continuing the line of instruments developed for this purpose by the authors, the present work proposes an enhanced version of a previously introduced automated platform for 2D evaluation. By featuring higher performance in terms of mechanical speed, the new version allows to obtain 2D maps of communication with a higher resolution that would have been prohibitive in terms of test duration with the previous version. The list of measurement procedures that can be executed with the platform is now enlarged with additional ones, such as the determination of the variation of the magnetic coupling between transponder and antenna across the antenna surface and the utilization of transponder simulators for evaluation of the quality of communication.

  20. Translationally-invariant coupled-cluster method for finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, R.; Moliner, I. [Valencia Univ., Burjassot (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica Molecular i Nuclear; Navarro, J.; Portesi, M. [IFIC (Centre Mixt CSIC -Universitat de Valencia), Avda. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46.100 Burjassot (Spain)

    1998-01-12

    The translational invariant formulation of the coupled-cluster method is presented here at the complete SUB(2) level for a system of nucleons treated as bosons. The correlation amplitudes are solutions of a non-linear coupled system of equations. These equations have been solved for light and medium systems, considering the central but still semi-realistic nucleon-nucleon S3 interaction. (orig.). 16 refs.

  1. Evaluation of human cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell differentiation to megakaryocyte on aminated PES nanofiber scaffold compare to 2-D culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaghi, Fatemeh; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Movasaghpour, Ali Akbari; Amirizadeh, Naser; Nikougoftar, Mahin; Bagheri, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Recently, umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been recognized as a suitable potential source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) for transplantation. Lengthy thrombocytopenia after UCB transplantation is a major problem because of insufficient megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors, which results in delayed platelet recovery. Frequent allogenic platelet transfusion leads to resistance to platelet units and higher risk of transmission of pathogenic agent. Ex vivo expansion of HSPCs and their differentiation to Mk progenitors on aminated PES nanofiber could lead to faster platelet recovery after UCB transplantation. CD34 cells were positively enriched using the MidiMACS system. CD34(+) cells were seeded onto conventional culture and aminated PES scaffold. The proliferation of CD34(+) cells, and also their differentiation into Mk progenitors, were evaluated. We used the flow cytometric method for analyzing CD41 and CD61 markers and real-time PCR for the expression level of transcription factors, as NF-E2 and GATA-1. This study indicated increased CD34(+) cell population in aminated PES compared to the conventional system. After differentiation, the amount of CD41/CD61-expressing cells and the quantity of NF-E2 expression level increased in the aminated PES versus the 2-D system. The quantity of GATA-1 expression level was reduced on CD41/CD61(+) cells compared to CD34(+) cells, with no difference between the aminated PES and the conventional system. Aminated PES nanofiber could have more effect on the proliferation of CD34(+) cells and Mk differentiation than the conventional culture. Injection of the expanded cells and differentiated Mk progenitors, along with the transplantation of UCB stem cells might accelerate recovery of platelets and decrease the period of thrombocytopenia after transplantation.

  2. Synchronization in coupled nonidentical incommensurate fractional-order systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Yan-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Synchronization of fractional-order nonlinear systems has received considerable attention for many research activities in recent years. In this Letter, we consider the synchronization between two nonidentical fractional-order systems. Based on the open-plus-closed-loop control method, a general coupling applied to the response system is proposed for synchronizing two nonidentical incommensurate fractional-order systems. We also derive a local stability criterion for such synchronization behavior by utilizing the stability theory of linear incommensurate fractional-order differential equations. Feasibility of the proposed coupling scheme is illustrated through numerical simulations of a limit cycle system, a chaotic system and a hyperchaotic system.

  3. Synchronization in coupled nonidentical incommensurate fractional-order systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Junwei, E-mail: wangjunweilj@yahoo.com.c [School of Informatics, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang Yanbin [School of Computer Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2009-12-28

    Synchronization of fractional-order nonlinear systems has received considerable attention for many research activities in recent years. In this Letter, we consider the synchronization between two nonidentical fractional-order systems. Based on the open-plus-closed-loop control method, a general coupling applied to the response system is proposed for synchronizing two nonidentical incommensurate fractional-order systems. We also derive a local stability criterion for such synchronization behavior by utilizing the stability theory of linear incommensurate fractional-order differential equations. Feasibility of the proposed coupling scheme is illustrated through numerical simulations of a limit cycle system, a chaotic system and a hyperchaotic system.

  4. Partial Synchronization in a System of Coupled Logistic Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taborov, A. V.; Maistrenko, Y. L.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    Clustering (or partial synchronization) in a system of globally coupled chaotic oscillators is studied by means of a model of three coupled logistic maps. For this model we determine the regions in parameter space where total and partial synchronization take place, examine the bifurcations through...

  5. Partial synchronization in a system of coupled logistic maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taborov, A.V.; Maistrenko, Y.L; Mosekilde, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of clustering (or partial synchronization) in a system of globqally coupled chaotic oscillators is studied by means of a model of three coupled logistic maps. We determine the regions in parameter space where total and partial synchronization take place, examine the bifurcations...

  6. Inverse synchronization of coupled fractional-order systems through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general explicit coupling via an open-plus-closed-loop control for inverse synchronization of two arbitrary unidirectionally or bidirectionally coupled fractional-order systems is proposed. The inverse synchronization is proved analytically based on the stability theorem of the fractional differential equations. A key feature of ...

  7. Integrable coupling system of fractional soliton equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-10-05

    In this Letter, we consider the derivatives and integrals of fractional order and present a class of the integrable coupling system of the fractional order soliton equations. The fractional order coupled Boussinesq and KdV equations are the special cases of this class. Furthermore, the fractional AKNS soliton equation hierarchy is obtained.

  8. Bifurcations in two coupled Rössler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Mosekilde, Erik; Reick, C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed bifurcation analysis of two symmetrically coupled Rössler systems. The symmetry in the coupling does not allow any one direction to become preferred, and the coupled system is therefore an example of a dissipative system that cannot be considered as effectively one......-dimensional. The results are presented in terms of one- and two-parmeter bifurcation diagrams. A particularly interesting finding is the replacement of some of the period-doubling bifurcations by torus bifurcations. By virtue of this replacement, instead of a Feigenbaum transition to chaos a transition via torus...

  9. GMD Coupling to Power Systems and Disturbance Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Presentation includes slides on Geomagnetic Disturbance: Ground Fields; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Coupling to Bulk Electric System; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Transformers; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); FERC order 830; Goals; SuperMag (1 min data) Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); Spherical Harmonics; Spherical Harmonics Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); DST vs HN0,0; Fluctuations vs. DST; Fluctuations; Conclusions and Next Steps; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); EMP E3 Coupling to Texas 2000 Bus Model; E3 Coupling Comparison (total GIC) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (total MVAR) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; and Conclusion.

  10. Investigation of 2D photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator for CWDM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com; Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Government Engineering College Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, the design & performance of two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter is investigated using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator. In this paper, Photonic Crystal (PhC) based on square lattice periodic arrays of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in air structure have been investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and photonic band gap is being calculated using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The PhC designs have been optimized for telecommunication wavelength λ= 1571 nm by varying the rods lattice constant. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20, with lattice constant 0.540 nm it illustrates that the arrangement of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in the structure which gives the overall size of the device around 11.4 µm × 10.8 µm. The designed filter gives good dropping efficiency using 3.298, refractive index. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  11. Fluence dependent changes of erosion yields and surface morphology of the iron-tungsten model system: SDTrimSP-2D simulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. von Toussaint

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different sample structures of an iron-tungsten model system (as a surrogate for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels like EUROFER on the development of surface morphologies, tungsten surface enrichment and sputter yields under low-energy monoenergetic perpendicular 200 eV deuterium bombardment has been studied with SDTrimSP-2d simulations. Previous modeling studies considering diffusive effects also could reasonably reproduce and explain the experimental results for a large set of experimental parameters like temperature, flux and sample concentration. However, for settings with negligible Fe-W-interdiffusion the fluence needed for steady-state conditions differed between the experiments and the simulations. Thus, the main focus of the present study is directed towards the elucidation of this fluence mismatch. Comparison of one and two-dimensional simulation results reveal a strong dependency of the tungsten enrichment on the sample homogeneity and a significantly delayed reduction of the erosion yield due to a pronounced formation of surface structures from initially flat sample surfaces.

  12. Pressure effects on the 2D electron system in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Vladislav; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zabaleta, Jone [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kopp, Thilo [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Experimental Physics VI, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of pressure effects on the electronic properties of the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) interface. Lattice relaxation plays a crucial role for the formation of the 2D electron system (2DES), in agreement with previous reports. We observe that the carrier density of the 2DES at zero pressure is much lower than the ''polar catastrophe'' estimate of 0.5 e{sup -} per two-dimensional unit cell, which agrees with most experimental works. Under hydrostatic pressure, structural distortions in LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) are largely suppressed, whereas they increase in SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), and the carrier density of the 2DES is enhanced by almost 45% using a moderate pressure of 4.1 GPa. The origin of this behavior as well as the explanation for the low carrier density at the interface at ambient pressure are discussed in terms of the lattice polarization and electronic Berry phase in the LAO oxide. Reduction of the calculated static dielectric constants of LAO and STO under pressure might account for the recent experimental findings regarding the carrier mobility.

  13. A System for True and False Memory Prediction Based on 2D and 3D Educational Contents and EEG Brain Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bamatraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the impact of 2D and 3D educational contents on learning and memory recall using electroencephalography (EEG brain signals. For this purpose, we adopted a classification approach that predicts true and false memories in case of both short term memory (STM and long term memory (LTM and helps to decide whether there is a difference between the impact of 2D and 3D educational contents. In this approach, EEG brain signals are converted into topomaps and then discriminative features are extracted from them and finally support vector machine (SVM which is employed to predict brain states. For data collection, half of sixty-eight healthy individuals watched the learning material in 2D format whereas the rest watched the same material in 3D format. After learning task, memory recall tasks were performed after 30 minutes (STM and two months (LTM, and EEG signals were recorded. In case of STM, 97.5% prediction accuracy was achieved for 3D and 96.6% for 2D and, in case of LTM, it was 100% for both 2D and 3D. The statistical analysis of the results suggested that for learning and memory recall both 2D and 3D materials do not have much difference in case of STM and LTM.

  14. Synchronization of Coupled Nonidentical Fractional-Order Hyperchaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouchao Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of coupled nonidentical fractional-order hyperchaotic systems is addressed by the active sliding mode method. By designing an active sliding mode controller and choosing proper control parameters, the master and slave systems are synchronized. Furthermore, synchronizing fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz system and fractional-order hyperchaotic Chen system is performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  15. Partitioned coupling of advection-diffusion-reaction systems and Brinkman flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarda, Pietro; Paggi, Marco; Ruiz Baier, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    We present a partitioned algorithm aimed at extending the capabilities of existing solvers for the simulation of coupled advection-diffusion-reaction systems and incompressible, viscous flow. The space discretisation of the governing equations is based on mixed finite element methods defined on unstructured meshes, whereas the time integration hinges on an operator splitting strategy that exploits the differences in scales between the reaction, advection, and diffusion processes, considering the global system as a number of sequentially linked sets of partial differential, and algebraic equations. The flow solver presents the advantage that all unknowns in the system (here vorticity, velocity, and pressure) can be fully decoupled and thus turn the overall scheme very attractive from the computational perspective. The robustness of the proposed method is illustrated with a series of numerical tests in 2D and 3D, relevant in the modelling of bacterial bioconvection and Boussinesq systems.

  16. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2014-01-01

    A profoundly important challenge in several disciplines today is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. We characterize these phenomena using a simple model grounded in the theory of fast--slow ordinary differential equations and in catastrophe theory. In the model, a system consists of multiple subsystems (e.g., countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem), each described by a scalar quantity (such as economic output or population) that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantities (e.g., trade couples economic output, diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves their bifurcations. The model elucidates two ways in which sudden changes can propaga...

  17. Asymmetric noise-induced large fluctuations in coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Szwaykowska, Klimka; Carr, Thomas W.

    2017-10-01

    Networks of interacting, communicating subsystems are common in many fields, from ecology, biology, and epidemiology to engineering and robotics. In the presence of noise and uncertainty, interactions between the individual components can lead to unexpected complex system-wide behaviors. In this paper, we consider a generic model of two weakly coupled dynamical systems, and we show how noise in one part of the system is transmitted through the coupling interface. Working synergistically with the coupling, the noise on one system drives a large fluctuation in the other, even when there is no noise in the second system. Moreover, the large fluctuation happens while the first system exhibits only small random oscillations. Uncertainty effects are quantified by showing how characteristic time scales of noise-induced switching scale as a function of the coupling between the two coupled parts of the experiment. In addition, our results show that the probability of switching in the noise-free system scales inversely as the square of reduced noise intensity amplitude, rendering the virtual probability of switching an extremely rare event. Our results showing the interplay between transmitted noise and coupling are also confirmed through simulations, which agree quite well with analytic theory.

  18. [Evaluation of a 2D fluoroscopy-based navigation system for insertion of the dynamic hip screw (DHS): an experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M C; Belei, P; de la Fuente, M; Strake, M; Weber, O; Burger, C; Radermacher, K; Wirtz, D C

    2011-06-01

    Dynamic hip screw (DHS) insertion for the fixation of lateral femoral neck fractures is an accepted surgical treatment method. A computer-assisted planning and navigation system based on 2D fluoroscopy has been developed for guidewire insertion in order to perform screw placement. The image acquisition process was supported by a radiation-saving procedure called "zero-dose C-arm navigation". The aim of this study was to evaluate this new system. In the context of a sawbone study, we inserted dynamic hip screws. The procedure was performed under navigation control and in the conventional technique in 12 sawbones. Both procedures were performed in an open and closed technique. The computer-assisted technique significantly reduced the number of intraoperative fluoroscopic images (open technique: -8.1 ± 0.5; p < 0.001 - closed technique: -12.3 ± 3.7; p < 0.001) and the number of guidewire passes (open technique: -1.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.05 - closed technique: -1.5 ± 1.2; p < 0,05). There was no difference with respect to precision in both groups. The operation time was significantly longer in the navigation-assisted groups (open technique: + 14.6 ± 5.4 min; p < 0.001 - closed technique: + 13 ± 3 min; p < 0.001). The addition of computer-assisted planning and surgical guidance supported by "zero-dose C-arm navigation" may be useful for the fixation of lateral femoral neck fractures by the DHS as it reduces the amount of fluoroscopic images and requires fewer drill tracks. Further studies with the goal of reducing the operation time are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Autoradiographic localization of delta opioid receptors within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system using radioiodinated (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin ( sup 125 I-DPDPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilts, R.P.; Kalivas, P.W. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The enkephalin analog (2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine)enkephalin was radioiodinated (125I-DPDPE) and shown to retain a pharmacological selectivity characteristic of the delta opioid receptor in in vitro binding studies. The distributions of 125I-DPDPE binding, using in vitro autoradiographic techniques, were similar to those previously reported for the delta opioid receptor. The nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex contain dense gradients of 125I-DPDPE binding in regions known to receive dopaminergic afferents emanating from the mesencephalic tegmentum. Selective chemical lesions of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra were employed to deduce the location of the 125I-DPDPE binding within particular regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Unilateral lesions of dopamine perikarya (A9 and A10) within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra produced by mesencephalic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in significant (20-30%) increases in 125I-DPDPE binding contralateral to the lesion within the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Lesions of the perikarya (dopaminergic and nondopaminergic) of the ventral tegmental area, induced by quinolinic acid injections, caused increases of less magnitude within these same nuclei. No significant alterations in 125I-DPDPE binding were observed within the mesencephalon as a result of either treatment. The specificity of the lesions was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. These results suggest that the enkephalins and opioid agonists acting through delta opioid receptors do not directly modulate dopaminergic afferents but do regulate postsynaptic targets of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.

  20. Phase diagram of electronic systems with quadratic Fermi nodes in 2 <d <4 : 2 +ɛ expansion, 4 -ɛ expansion, and functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Lukas; Herbut, Igor F.

    2017-02-01

    Several materials in the regime of strong spin-orbit interaction such as HgTe, the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7 , and the half-Heusler compound LaPtBi, as well as various systems related to these three prototype materials, are believed to host a quadratic band touching point at the Fermi level. Recently, it has been proposed that such a three-dimensional gapless state is unstable to a Mott-insulating ground state at low temperatures when the number of band touching points N at the Fermi level is smaller than a certain critical number Nc. We further substantiate and quantify this scenario by various approaches. Using ɛ expansion near two spatial dimensions, we show that Nc=64 /(25 ɛ2) +O (1 /ɛ ) and demonstrate that the instability for N system were under (dynamically generated) uniaxial strain. We also propose a truncation of the functional renormalization group equations in the dynamical bosonization scheme which we show to agree to one-loop order with the results from ɛ expansion both near two as well as near four dimensions, and which smoothly interpolates between these two perturbatively accessible limits for general 2 <d <4 . Directly in d =3 we therewith find Nc=1.86 , and thus again above the physical N =1 . All these results are consistent with the prediction that the interacting ground state of pure, unstrained HgTe, and possibly also Pr2Ir2O7 , is a strong topological insulator with a dynamically generated gap—a topological Mott insulator.

  1. Breathing solitary-pulse pairs in a linearly coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, Brenda; Bahabad, Alon

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that pairs of solitary pulses (SPs) in a linearly-coupled system with opposite group-velocity dispersions form robust breathing bound states. The system can be realized by temporal-modulation coupling of SPs with different carrier frequencies propagating in the same medium, or by coupling of SPs in a dual-core waveguide. Broad SP pairs are produced in a virtually exact form by means of the variational approximation. Strong nonlinearity tends to destroy the periodic evolution of the SP pairs.

  2. Methods for Stability and Noise Analysis of Coupled Oscillating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    transconductor will cancel the coupling induced noise contribution in the single-side band phase-noise spectrum. This phenomena was not discussed in any of the previous publications considering this circuit. The model gives a general insight into the qualitative properties of unilateral ring-coupled oscillators......In this thesis a study of analytical and numerical models of coupled oscillating systems, perturbed by delta-correlated noise sources, is undertaken. These models are important for the attainment of a qualitative understanding of the complex dynamics seen in various physical, biological, electronic...... systems and for the derivation of fast and computationally efficient CAD routines. The text concentrates on developing models for coupled electronic oscillators. These circuit blocks find use in RF/microwave and optical communication systems as coherent multi-phase signal generators, power combiners...

  3. The impact of structural deformation in a 2D basin and petroleum system model of the East Coast Basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, B.; Graham, S. A.; Meisling, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    The East Coast Basin of New Zealand is a petroliferous forearc basin that has eluded commercial development largely because of challenges related to its complex structural and tectonic history. Basin formation is associated with three tectonic phases: 1) a Cretaceous convergent margin phase, 2) a Late Cretaceous to Paleogene rifting to passive margin phase, and 3) a Neogene to present convergent margin phase. Beginning in Neogene time, the basin underwent multiple stages of structural deformation including low angle thrust faulting, listric normal faulting, and inversion. This complex basin history provides an ideal situation to test the influence of tectonics on petroleum system development. This study focuses on offshore Hawke Bay where a regional 2D seismic line has been interpreted, palinspastically reconstructed, and incorporated into a basin and petroleum system model. In the model, several paleo-heat flow scenarios are developed to represent the tectonic evolution of the basin. Higher heat flow is modeled during the rifting to passive margin phase, and a reduction in heat flow is modeled during the Neogene phase to account for cold slab subduction. Heat flow scenarios are calibrated to temperature, apatite-fission track data, and vitrinite-intertinite reflectance and fluorescence data from the Hawke Bay-1 and Opoutama-1 wells. The palinspastic reconstructions are integrated into the basin and petroleum system model to assess the impact of different styles of deformation. Faults play a key role in the burial history/rate of burial, fluid migration, and pressure compartmentalization. The relative timing of paleo-heat flow and structural events are tested in the model to understand how they enhance and/or negate effects on petroleum generation. For example, models with early Miocene low angle thrusts (i.e. structural thickening) contemporaneous with remnant high heat flow from the passive margin phase create a scenario for mid-Miocene petroleum generation

  4. Nonlinear mode coupling and internal resonances in MoS{sub 2} nanoelectromechanical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, C.; Yasasvi Gangavarapu, P. R.; Naik, A. K. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-10-26

    Atomically thin two dimensional (2D) layered materials have emerged as a new class of material for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) due to their extraordinary mechanical properties and ultralow mass density. Among them, graphene has been the material of choice for nanomechanical resonator. However, recent interest in 2D chalcogenide compounds has also spurred research in using materials such as MoS{sub 2} for the NEMS applications. As the dimensions of devices fabricated using these materials shrink down to atomically thin membrane, strain and nonlinear effects have become important. A clear understanding of the nonlinear effects and the ability to manipulate them is essential for next generation sensors. Here, we report on all electrical actuation and detection of few-layer MoS{sub 2} resonator. The ability to electrically detect multiple modes and actuate the modes deep into the nonlinear regime enables us to probe the nonlinear coupling between various vibrational modes. The modal coupling in our device is strong enough to detect three distinct internal resonances.

  5. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rita, E-mail: rita.nevesdefaria@york.ac.uk [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); McKenna, Claire [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys [Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Sculpher, Mark [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS{sup ®} 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS{sup ®} to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS{sup ®} is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS{sup ®} is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS{sup ®} is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS{sup ®}. The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS{sup ®} can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness.

  6. 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.

  7. A simple 2-D inundation model for incorporating flood damage in urban drainage planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pathirana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An urban inundation model was developed and coupled with 1-D drainage network model (EPA-SWMM5. The objective was to achieve a 1-D/2-D coupled model that is simple and fast enough to be consistently used in planning stages of urban drainage projects. The 2-D inundation model is based on a non-standard simplification of the shallow water equation, lays between diffusion-wave and full dynamic models. Simplifications were made in the process representation and numerical solving mechanisms and a depth scaled Manning coefficient was introduced to achieve stability in the cell wetting-drying process. The 2-D model is coupled with SWMM for simulation of both network flow and surcharge induced inundation. The coupling is archived by mass transfer from the network system to the 2-D system. A damage calculation block is integrated within the model code for assessing flood damage costs in optimal planning of urban drainage networks. The model is stable in dealing with complex flow conditions, and cell wetting/drying processes, as demonstrated by a number of idealised experiments. The model application is demonstrated by applying to a case study in Brazil.

  8. A simple 2-D inundation model for incorporating flood damage in urban drainage planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, A.; Tsegaye, S.; Gersonius, B.; Vairavamoorthy, K.

    2011-08-01

    An urban inundation model was developed and coupled with 1-D drainage network model (EPA-SWMM5). The objective was to achieve a 1-D/2-D coupled model that is simple and fast enough to be consistently used in planning stages of urban drainage projects. The 2-D inundation model is based on a non-standard simplification of the shallow water equation, lays between diffusion-wave and full dynamic models. Simplifications were made in the process representation and numerical solving mechanisms and a depth scaled Manning coefficient was introduced to achieve stability in the cell wetting-drying process. The 2-D model is coupled with SWMM for simulation of both network flow and surcharge induced inundation. The coupling is archived by mass transfer from the network system to the 2-D system. A damage calculation block is integrated within the model code for assessing flood damage costs in optimal planning of urban drainage networks. The model is stable in dealing with complex flow conditions, and cell wetting/drying processes, as demonstrated by a number of idealised experiments. The model application is demonstrated by applying to a case study in Brazil.

  9. Tinamit: Making coupled system dynamics models accessible to stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, Julien; Inam Baig, Azhar; Rojas Díaz, Marcela; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Adamowski, Jan; Tuy, Héctor; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Model coupling is increasingly used as a method of combining the best of two models when representing socio-environmental systems, though barriers to successful model adoption by stakeholders are particularly present with the use of coupled models, due to their high complexity and typically low implementation flexibility. Coupled system dynamics - physically-based modelling is a promising method to improve stakeholder participation in environmental modelling while retaining a high level of complexity for physical process representation, as the system dynamics components are readily understandable and can be built by stakeholders themselves. However, this method is not without limitations in practice, including 1) inflexible and complicated coupling methods, 2) difficult model maintenance after the end of the project, and 3) a wide variety of end-user cultures and languages. We have developed the open-source Python-language software tool Tinamit to overcome some of these limitations to the adoption of stakeholder-based coupled system dynamics - physically-based modelling. The software is unique in 1) its inclusion of both a graphical user interface (GUI) and a library of available commands (API) that allow users with little or no coding abilities to rapidly, effectively, and flexibly couple models, 2) its multilingual support for the GUI, allowing users to couple models in their preferred language (and to add new languages as necessary for their community work), and 3) its modular structure allowing for very easy model coupling and modification without the direct use of code, and to which programming-savvy users can easily add support for new types of physically-based models. We discuss how the use of Tinamit for model coupling can greatly increase the accessibility of coupled models to stakeholders, using an example of a stakeholder-built system dynamics model of soil salinity issues in Pakistan coupled with the physically-based soil salinity and water flow model

  10. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer [Fort Collins, CO; Willson, Bryan [Fort Collins, CO; Defoort, Morgan [Fort Collins, CO; Joshi, Sachin [Fort Collins, CO; Reynolds, Adam [Fort Collins, CO

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  11. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  12. Ultrafast 2D Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Spectrally Entangled Photon Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Michael

    2015-03-01

    We propose entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS) to probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method, inspired by results in, uses a technique from quantum optics--a separated two-photon (Franson) interferometer, which generates time-delayed packets of time-frequency-entangled photon pairs. This interferometer is incorporated into the framework of a fluorescence-detected 2D optical spectroscopic experiment. The continuous stream of entangled photons are phase-modulated in the interferometer, and used to excite a two-photon-absorbing sample, whose excited-state population is selectively detected by simultaneously monitoring the sample fluorescence and the transmitted exciting fields. In comparison to standard `classical' 2DFS techniques using coherent laser pulses and standard pulse-scanning sequences, advantages of this scheme include the suppression of uncorrelated background signals, the suppression of diagonal 2D spectral features, the enhancement and narrowing of off -diagonal spectral cross-peaks that contain information about electronic coupling, and the possibility for enhancement of simultaneous time-and-frequency resolution, including spectral selectivity within an inhomogeneously broadened distribution. These effects arise from the properties of parametric down-conversion light source, which effectively creates a different interaction-scanning protocol than in standard laser-pulse scanning. We numerically simulate the EPP-2DFS observable for the case of an electronically coupled molecular dimer. The EPP-2DFS spectrum is greatly simplified in comparison to its standard classical 2D counterpart. Our results indicate that EPP-2DFS can provide previously unattainable resolution to extract model Hamiltonian parameters from electronically coupled molecular dimers.

  13. MRI and 2D-CSI MR spectroscopy of the brain in the evaluation of patients with acute onset of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundgren, P.C.; Jennings, J.; Gebarski, S.; Pang, Y.; Maly, P. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Attwood, J.T.; McCune, W.J. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of and Rheumatology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nan, B. [University of Michigan Health Systems, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-08-01

    MRI and 2D-CSI spectroscopy were performed in eight patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with acute onset of neuropsychiatric lupus (NP-SLE), and in seven normal controls to evaluate for differences in metabolic peaks and metabolic ratios between the two groups. Also, the interval change of the metabolic peaks and their ratios during treatment in the NP-SLE patient group was evaluated. Metabolic peaks for N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and lactate/lipids (LL) and their ratios (NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr, LL/Cr) were determined at initial presentation and 3 and 6 months later. In the eight lupus patients compared to the seven normal controls, NAA/Cho ratios were lower at presentation (1.05 vs 1.25; p = 0.004) and decreased even further at the three month follow-up (0.92 vs 1.05; p = 0.008). In contrast, both Cho/Cr (1.42 vs 1.26; p = 0.026) and LL/Cr ratios (0.26 vs 0.19; p = 0.002) were higher in the lupus patients at presentation compared to the controls and did not significantly change at three and six months follow-up. The NAA/Cr ratios were lower in the lupus patients compared to the controls at presentation but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the mean NAA/Cr significantly decreased from the initial examination to the three month follow-up (1.42 vs 1.32; p = 0.049) but did not significantly change from the three to the six month follow-up examinations. The NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios varied significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively) between the 17 different locations measured in the brain in all eight patients and seven controls. Both the NAA/Cr ratios and the Cho/Cr ratios were also significantly lower in the gray matter than in the white matter (p < 0.0001) in both patients and controls, whereas the LL/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different. In conclusion, 2D-CSI MR spectroscopy may be useful in the early detection of metabolic CNS changes in NP

  14. A 2D-QSPR approach to predict blood-brain barrier penetration of drugs acting on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Malta de Sá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to perform their pharmacological actions. Passive BBB diffusion can be partially expressed by the blood/brain partition coefficient (logBB. As the experimental evaluation of logBB is time and cost consuming, theoretical methods such as quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR can be useful to predict logBB values. In this study, a 2D-QSPR approach was applied to a set of 28 drugs acting on the CNS, using the logBB property as biological data. The best QSPR model [n = 21, r = 0.94 (r² = 0.88, s = 0.28, and Q² = 0.82] presented three molecular descriptors: calculated n-octanol/water partition coefficient (ClogP, polar surface area (PSA, and polarizability (α. Six out of the seven compounds from the test set were well predicted, which corresponds to good external predictability (85.7%. These findings can be helpful to guide future approaches regarding those molecular descriptors which must be considered for estimating the logBB property, and also for predicting the BBB crossing ability for molecules structurally related to the investigated set.Fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso central (SNC devem atravessar a barreira hematoencefálica (BHE para exercerem suas ações farmacológicas. A difusão passiva através da BHE pode ser parcialmente expressa pelo coeficiente de partição entre os compartimentos encefálico e sanguíneo (logBB, brain/blood partition coefficient. Considerando-se que a avaliação experimental de logBB é dispendiosa e demorada, métodos teóricos como estudos das relações entre estrutura química e propriedade (QSPR, Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships podem ser utilizados na previsão dos valores de logBB. Neste estudo, uma abordagem de QSPR-2D foi aplicada a um conjunto de 28 moléculas com ação central, usando logBB como propriedade biológica. O melhor modelo de QSPR [n = 21, r = 0,94 (r

  15. Clinical introduction of a linac head-mounted 2D detector array based quality assurance system in head and neck IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, Erik W.; Wauben, David J. L.; van der Hulst, Peter C.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van t Veld, Aart

    Background and purpose: IMRT QA is commonly performed in a phantom geometry but the clinical interpretation of the results in a 2D phantom plane is difficult. The main objective of our work is to move from film measurement based QA to 3D dose reconstruction in a patient CT scan. In principle, this

  16. Relative quantitation of proteins fractionated by the ProteomeLab PF 2D system using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnikova, Helena; Rehulka, Pavel; Chmelik, Josef; Martinkova, Jirina; Zilvarova, Michaela; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

    2007-11-01

    We describe an optimised protocol for application of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and tandem mass spectrometry to obtain relative quantitative data from peptides derived from tryptic digestions of proteins fractionated by using the 2D liquid-phase ProteomeLab PF 2D technique. This methodology is suitable for the quantitation of proteins from a pool of co-eluting proteins which are often difficult to identify for the purpose of candidate protein selection for biologically relevant qualitative/quantitative changes under experimental conditions or in disease states. iTRAQ quantitation also facilitates the possibility of result to result comparison using other methodologies such as UV protein quantitation via the ProteomeLab PF 2D technique. The optimised protocol outlined here allows relative quantitation by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry with high sensitivity and without the need to perform 2D HPLC separation of labelled peptides. The overall outcome is the simplification in the data complexity and the ease of use of the labelling protocol.

  17. From 2D fluidic array screening to 3D bacterial capturing structures in a point of care system for sepsis diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Kaplinsky, Joseph John

    2017-01-01

    A combined 2D microfluidic-microarray high throughput approach is reported to identify universal bacterial capturing ligands that can be tethered on the surface of 3D sponges fabricated by different methods for concentrating of bacterial targets in diagnosis devices. The developed platform allows...

  18. EMC of Electrical Systems - Electromagnetic Coupling ( Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOVACOVA, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the general analysis of one part of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem - the electromagnetic coupling applied in the field of power electrical systems. The verification simulation analyses and practical measurements of the electromagnetic coupling, which are confirming the correctness of results obtained from theoretical analyses (part I., are presented in part II. So they can be used for predictive stating of EMC quality of individual new electrotechnical products.

  19. Photonics of 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Wang, Junzhuan; Hasan, Tawfique; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of graphene and graphene-like two dimensional (2D) materials has attracted a strong interest from the photonics community in recent decade. Apart from zero-gap graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and phosphorene/black phosphorus are being intensively investigated because of their fascinating photonic and optoelectronic properties. Compared to traditional bulk photonic materials such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Silicon (Si), 2D materials exhibit many unique properties important for device applications in nanophotonics. Firstly, quantum confinement in the direction perpendicular to 2D plane leads to novel electronic and optical features that are distinctively different from their bulk counterparts. Secondly, their surfaces are naturally passivated without any dangling bonds making them readily compatible for integration with photonic structures such as waveguides and cavities. It is also possible to construct vertical hetero-structures by using different 2D materials, without considering lattice mismatch issues that are common in bulk semiconductors. This is because the 2D layers with different lattice constants in heterostructures are only weakly bounded by van der Waals force. Thirdly, despite being atomically thin, many 2D materials interact very strongly with light.

  20. Indirect linear locally distributed damping of coupled systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick BEYRATH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove indirect internal stabilization results for different coupled systems with linear locally distributed damping (coupled wave equations, wave equations with different speeds of propagation. In our case, a linear local damping term appears only in the first equation whereas no damping term is applied to the second one (this is indirect stabilization, see [11]. Using thepiecewise multiplier method we prove that the full system is stabilized and that the total energy of the solution of this system decays polynomially.

  1. Intermittent lag synchronization in a driven system of coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paseo de Las Monta˜nas, Lagos del Moreno 47460, Jalisco, Mexico. E-mail: apisarch@cio.mx. Abstract. We study intermittent lag synchronization in a system of two identical mu- tually coupled Duffing oscillators with parametric modulation in one of them. This phe- nomenon in a periodically forced system can be seen as ...

  2. Analytical Evaluation of the Nonlinear Vibration of Coupled Oscillator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, M.; Shahidi, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    We consider periodic solutions for nonlinear free vibration of conservative, coupled mass-spring systems with linear and nonlinear stiffnesses. Two practical cases of these systems are explained and introduced. An analytical technique called energy balance method (EBM) was applied to calculate...... accuracy which is valid for a wide range of vibration amplitudes as indicated in the presented examples....

  3. Modal analysis of multistage gear systems coupled with gearbox vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical procedure to simulate vibrations in gear transmission systems is presented. This procedure couples the dynamics of the rotor-bearing gear system with the vibration in the gear box structure. The model synthesis method is used in solving the overall dynamics of the system, and a variable time-stepping integration scheme is used in evaluating the global transient vibration of the system. Locally each gear stage is modeled as a multimass rotor-bearing system using a discrete model. The modal characteristics are calculated using the matrix-transfer technique. The gearbox structure is represented by a finite element models, and modal parameters are solved by using NASTRAN. The rotor-gear stages are coupled through nonlinear compliance in the gear mesh while the gearbox structure is coupled through the bearing supports of the rotor system. Transient and steady state vibrations of the coupled system are examined in both time and frequency domains. A typical three-geared system is used as an example for demonstration of the developed procedure.

  4. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  5. Concepts and models of coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, I will especially focus on the question of the position of human agency, social networks and complex co-evolutionary interactions in socio-hydrological models. The long term perspective of complex systems' modeling typically focuses on regional or global spatial scales and century/millennium time scales. It is still a challenge to relate correlations in outcomes defined at those longer and larger scales to the causalities at the shorter and smaller scales. How do we move today to the next 1000 years in the same way that our ancestors did move from their today to our present, in the small steps that produce reality? Please note, I am not arguing long term work is not interesting or the like. I just pose the question how to deal with the problem that we employ relations with hindsight that matter to us, but not necessarily to the agents that produced the relations we think we have observed. I would like to push the socio-hydrological community a little into rethinking how to deal with complexity, with the aim to bring together the timescales of humans and complexity. I will provide one or two examples of how larger-scale and longer-term observations on water flows and environmental loads can be broken down into smaller-scale and shorter-term production processes of these same loads.

  6. Design And Construction Of Wireless Charging System Using Inductive Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Lam Mung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless charging system described by using the method of inductive coupling. In this project oscillation circuit converts DC energy to AC energytransmitter coil to transmit magnetic field by passing frequency and then induce the receiver coil. The properties of Induction coupling are wavemagnetic field-wideband rangevery shortcm efficiencyhight and operation frequencyLF-bandseveral handred kHz.The project shows as a small charging for 5V battery of phone in this method. The system bases on coupling magnetic field then designed and constructed as two parts. There are transmitter part and receiver part. The transmitter coil transmitter part transmits coupling magnetic field to receiver coil receiver part by passing frequency at about 1.67MHz. The Amperes law Biot-Savart law and Faraday law are used to calculate the inductive coupling between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The calculation of this law shows how many power transfer in receiver part when how many distance between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The system is safe for users and neighbouring electronic devices. To get more accurate wireless charging system it needs to change the design of the following keywords.

  7. The UKC2 regional coupled environmental prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Huw W.; Castillo Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Graham, Jennifer; Saulter, Andrew; Bornemann, Jorge; Arnold, Alex; Fallmann, Joachim; Harris, Chris; Pearson, David; Ramsdale, Steven; Martínez-de la Torre, Alberto; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor; Bell, Victoria A.; Davies, Helen; Marthews, Toby R.; O'Neill, Clare; Rumbold, Heather; O'Dea, Enda; Brereton, Ashley; Guihou, Karen; Hines, Adrian; Butenschon, Momme; Dadson, Simon J.; Palmer, Tamzin; Holt, Jason; Reynard, Nick; Best, Martin; Edwards, John; Siddorn, John

    2018-01-01

    It is hypothesized that more accurate prediction and warning of natural hazards, such as of the impacts of severe weather mediated through various components of the environment, require a more integrated Earth System approach to forecasting. This hypothesis can be explored using regional coupled prediction systems, in which the known interactions and feedbacks between different physical and biogeochemical components of the environment across sky, sea and land can be simulated. Such systems are becoming increasingly common research tools. This paper describes the development of the UKC2 regional coupled research system, which has been delivered under the UK Environmental Prediction Prototype project. This provides the first implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean-wave modelling system focussed on the United Kingdom and surrounding seas at km-scale resolution. The UKC2 coupled system incorporates models of the atmosphere (Met Office Unified Model), land surface with river routing (JULES), shelf-sea ocean (NEMO) and ocean waves (WAVEWATCH III). These components are coupled, via OASIS3-MCT libraries, at unprecedentedly high resolution across the UK within a north-western European regional domain. A research framework has been established to explore the representation of feedback processes in coupled and uncoupled modes, providing a new research tool for UK environmental science. This paper documents the technical design and implementation of UKC2, along with the associated evaluation framework. An analysis of new results comparing the output of the coupled UKC2 system with relevant forced control simulations for six contrasting case studies of 5-day duration is presented. Results demonstrate that performance can be achieved with the UKC2 system that is at least comparable to its component control simulations. For some cases, improvements in air temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed, significant wave height and mean wave period highlight the potential

  8. The UKC2 regional coupled environmental prediction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that more accurate prediction and warning of natural hazards, such as of the impacts of severe weather mediated through various components of the environment, require a more integrated Earth System approach to forecasting. This hypothesis can be explored using regional coupled prediction systems, in which the known interactions and feedbacks between different physical and biogeochemical components of the environment across sky, sea and land can be simulated. Such systems are becoming increasingly common research tools. This paper describes the development of the UKC2 regional coupled research system, which has been delivered under the UK Environmental Prediction Prototype project. This provides the first implementation of an atmosphere–land–ocean–wave modelling system focussed on the United Kingdom and surrounding seas at km-scale resolution. The UKC2 coupled system incorporates models of the atmosphere (Met Office Unified Model, land surface with river routing (JULES, shelf-sea ocean (NEMO and ocean waves (WAVEWATCH III. These components are coupled, via OASIS3-MCT libraries, at unprecedentedly high resolution across the UK within a north-western European regional domain. A research framework has been established to explore the representation of feedback processes in coupled and uncoupled modes, providing a new research tool for UK environmental science. This paper documents the technical design and implementation of UKC2, along with the associated evaluation framework. An analysis of new results comparing the output of the coupled UKC2 system with relevant forced control simulations for six contrasting case studies of 5-day duration is presented. Results demonstrate that performance can be achieved with the UKC2 system that is at least comparable to its component control simulations. For some cases, improvements in air temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed, significant wave height and mean wave period

  9. Performance of a Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT System equipped with 2D vs. 3D Handheld Probes for Potential Clinical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Neuschmelting

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A handheld approach to optoacoustic imaging is essential for the clinical translation. The first 2- and 3-dimensional handheld multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT probes featuring real-time unmixing have recently been developed. Imaging performance of both probes was determined in vitro and in a brain melanoma metastasis mouse model in vivo. T1-weighted MR images were acquired for anatomical reference. The limit of detection of melanoma cells in vitro was significantly lower using the 2D than the 3D probe. The signal decrease was more profound in relation to depth with the 3D versus the 2D probe. Both approaches were capable of imaging the melanoma tumors qualitatively at all time points. Quantitatively, the 2D approach enabled closer anatomical resemblance of the tumor compared to the 3D probe, particularly at depths beyond 3 mm. The 3D probe was shown to be superior for rapid 3D imaging and, thus, holds promise for more superficial target structures.

  10. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular waveguide...

  11. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    1 D. E. Manolakis. Efficient solution and performance analysis of 3-d position estimation by trilateration. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, volume 32(4), pages 1239–1248, October 1996. 2 D. E. Manolakis. Aircraft vertical profile prediction based on surveillance data only. IEE Proceedings on Radar, ...

  12. Lens-coupled x-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Helen Xiang

    Digital radiography systems are important diagnostic tools for modern medicine. The images are produced when x-ray sensitive materials are coupled directly onto the sensing element of the detector panels. As a result, the size of the detector panels is the same size as the x-ray image. An alternative to the modern DR system is to image the x-ray phosphor screen with a lens onto a digital camera. Potential advantages of this approach include rapid readout, flexible magnification and field of view depending on applications. We have evaluated lens-coupled DR systems for the task of signal detection by analyzing the covariance matrix of the images for three cases, using a perfect detector and lens, when images are affected by blurring due to the lens and screen, and for a signal embedded in a complex random background. We compared the performance of lens-coupled DR systems using three types of digital cameras. These include a scientific CCD, a scientific CMOS, and a prosumer DSLR camera. We found that both the prosumer DSLR and the scientific CMOS have lower noise than the scientific CCD camera by looking at their noise power spectrum. We have built two portable low-cost DR systems, which were used in the field in Nepal and Utah. We have also constructed a lens-coupled CT system, which included a calibration routine and an iterative reconstruction algorithm written in CUDA.

  13. Enhancements to the SHARP Build System and NEK5000 Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Bennett, Andrew R [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The SHARP project for the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program provides a multiphysics framework for coupled simulations of advanced nuclear reactor designs. It provides an overall coupling environment that utilizes custom interfaces to couple existing physics codes through a common spatial decomposition and unique solution transfer component. As of this writing, SHARP couples neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and structural mechanics using PROTEUS, Nek5000, and Diablo respectively. This report details two primary SHARP improvements regarding the Nek5000 and Diablo individual physics codes: (1) an improved Nek5000 coupling interface that lets SHARP achieve a vast increase in overall solution accuracy by manipulating the structure of the internal Nek5000 spatial mesh, and (2) the capability to seamlessly couple structural mechanics calculations into the framework through improvements to the SHARP build system. The Nek5000 coupling interface now uses a barycentric Lagrange interpolation method that takes the vertex-based power and density computed from the PROTEUS neutronics solver and maps it to the user-specified, general-order Nek5000 spectral element mesh. Before this work, SHARP handled this vertex-based solution transfer in an averaging-based manner. SHARP users can now achieve higher levels of accuracy by specifying any arbitrary Nek5000 spectral mesh order. This improvement takes the average percentage error between the PROTEUS power solution and the Nek5000 interpolated result down drastically from over 23 % to just above 2 %, and maintains the correct power profile. We have integrated Diablo into the SHARP build system to facilitate the future coupling of structural mechanics calculations into SHARP. Previously, simulations involving Diablo were done in an iterative manner, requiring a large amount manual work, and left only as a task for advanced users. This report will detail a new Diablo build system

  14. Existence of a coupled system of fractional differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W. [Multimedia unit, Department of Computer System and Technology Faculty of Computer Science & IT, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Siri, Zailan [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    We manage the existence and uniqueness of a fractional coupled system containing Schrödinger equations. Such a system appears in quantum mechanics. We confirm that the fractional system under consideration admits a global solution in appropriate functional spaces. The solution is shown to be unique. The method is based on analytic technique of the fixed point theory. The fractional differential operator is considered from the virtue of the Riemann-Liouville differential operator.

  15. Workshop on 2-D transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    A workshop on 1-D and 2-D transport in tokamaks was held at Ithaca, New York on August 2-4, 1978. The purpose of the Workshop was to assess the status of physical models used in transport calculations and to evaluate the maturity of 2-D transport codes in predicting operating parameters of such confinement devices as Alcator, PLT, Doublet III, and TFTR. The Workshop consisted of in-depth discussions of the following topics: status of 1-D codes, problems where 2-D treatment is necessary or useful, status of the treatment of fundamental processes, successful models, boundary and wall effects, 3-D and velocity space effects, and numerical algorithms used in transport codes.

  16. Riemannian metrics on 2D manifolds related to the Euler-Poinsot rigid body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Bernard; Cots, Olivier; Pomet, Jean-Baptiste; Shcherbakova, Nataliya

    2014-07-01

    The Euler-Poinsot rigid body motion is a standard mechanical system and it is a model for left-invariant Riemannian metrics on SO(3). In this article using the Serret-Andoyer variables we parameterize the solutions and compute the Jacobi fields in relation with the conjugate locus evaluation. Moreover, the metric can be restricted to a 2D-surface, and the conjugate points of this metric are evaluated using recent works on surfaces of revolution. Another related 2D-metric on S^2 associated to the dynamics of spin particles with Ising coupling is analysed using both geometric techniques and numerical simulations.

  17. Integrating hydrology within a fully coupled environmental prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Martin; Lewis, Huw; Ashton, Heather; Blyth, Eleanor; Martinez, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Historically the hydrological community and the community developing the land surface component of atmospheric models have both been tasked with representing the terrestrial hydrological cycle, but have focused on different ends, namely streamflow and evaporation respectively. To date the lack of computational resources and representative observations have limited the integration of the skills within these two communities. However, this is no longer the case. In addition, the drive toward fully integrated high resolution environmental prediction systems, coupling atmosphere, land and ocean on regional domains, requires an accurate representation for all aspects of terrestrial hydrology. Hence a new focus is emerging to integrate improved hydrological processes within the land surface components of atmospheric models. The UK Environmental Prediction (UKEP) project is a research experiment aimed at understanding the potential benefits for detailed environmental forecasting from a fully coupled atmosphere/land/ocean system at km-scale resolution for the UK. The prototype model utilises the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) as its land surface component, coupled to the RFM river flow model. Although JULES has been previously used for climate studies that close the global water cycle, the JULES/RFM system has not been comprehensively evaluated for its ability to simulate river discharge. In this study we attempt some initial evaluation of the JULES/RFM system for all aspects of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, including evaporation, soil moisture and streamflow. In addition, comparisons are made between the results from the fully coupled environmental prediction system and stand alone JULES/RFM simulations forced by atmospheric driving data from the UK weather forecasting model. This provides an opportunity to assess the impact of fully coupled versus a one way coupled response for terrestrial hydrology. Finally we consider the potential for coupling JULES

  18. Applications and Improvement of a Coupled, Global and Cloud-Resolving Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Chern, J.; Atlas, R.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Grabowski (2001) and Khairoutdinov and Randall (2001) have proposed the use of 2D CFWs as a "super parameterization" [or multi-scale modeling framework (MMF)] to represent cloud processes within atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). In the MMF, a fine-resolution 2D CRM takes the place of the single-column parameterization used in conventional GCMs. A prototype Goddard MMF based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) is now being developed. The prototype includes the fvGCM run at 2.50 x 20 horizontal resolution with 32 vertical layers from the surface to 1 mb and the 2D (x-z) GCE using 64 horizontal and 32 vertical grid points with 4 km horizontal resolution and a cyclic lateral boundary. The time step for the 2D GCE would be 15 seconds, and the fvGCM-GCE coupling frequency would be 30 minutes (i.e. the fvGCM physical time step). We have successfully developed an fvGCM-GCE coupler for this prototype. Because the vertical coordinate of the fvGCM (a terrain-following floating Lagrangian coordinate) is different from that of the GCE (a z coordinate), vertical interpolations between the two coordinates are needed in the coupler. In interpolating fields from the GCE to fvGCM, we use an existing fvGCM finite- volume piecewise parabolic mapping (PPM) algorithm, which conserves the mass, momentum, and total energy. A new finite-volume PPM algorithm, which conserves the mass, momentum and moist static energy in the z coordinate, is being developed for interpolating fields from the fvGCM to the GCE. In the meeting, we will discuss the major differences between the two MMFs (i.e., the CSU MMF and the Goddard MMF). We will also present performance and critical issues related to the MMFs. In addition, we will present multi-dimensional cloud datasets (i.e., a cloud data library) generated by the Goddard MMF that will be provided to the global modeling community to help improve the

  19. Titan 2D: Understanding Titan’s Seasonal Atmospheric Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael; Zhang, X.; Li, C.; Hu, R.; Shia, R.; Newman, C.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Yung, Y.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we present results from a novel two-dimensional (2D) model that simulates the physics and chemistry of Titan’s atmosphere. Despite being an icy moon of Saturn, Titan is the only Solar System object aside from Earth that is sheathed by a thick nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. This vulnerable gaseous envelope—an embodiment of a delicate coupling between photochemistry, radiation, and dynamics—is Nature’s laboratory for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Titan’s large obliquity generates pronounced seasonal cycles in its atmosphere, and the Cassini spacecraft has been observing these variations since 2004. In particular, Cassini measurements show that the latitudinal distribution of Titan’s rich mélange of hydrocarbon species follows seasonal patterns. The mixing ratios of hydrocarbons increase with latitude towards the winter pole, suggesting a pole-to-pole circulation that reverses after equinox. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan’s atmosphere, we show that photochemistry alone cannot produce the observed meridional hydrocarbon distribution. This necessitates the employment of a 2D chemistry-transport model that includes meridional circulation as well as diffusive processes and photochemistry. Of additional concern, no previous 2D model of Titan extends beyond 500 km altitude—a critical limitation since the peak of methane photolysis is at 800 km. Our 2D model is the first to include Titan’s stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The meridional circulation in our 2D model is derived from the outputs of two general circulation models (GCMs): the TitanWRF GCM (Newman et al. 2011) covering the troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere, and a thermosphere general circulation model (TGCM) covering the remainder of the atmosphere through the thermosphere (Müller-Wodarg et al. 2003; 2008). This presentation will focus on the utilization of these advances applied to the 2D Caltech/JPL KINETICS model to

  20. A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Wave Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R. A.; Smith, T.; Rogers, W. E.; Jensen, T. G.; Chu, P.; Campbell, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    A growing interest in the impacts that large and small scale ocean and atmospheric events (El Niño, hurricanes, etc.) have on weather forecasting has led to the coupling of atmospheric, ocean circulation and ocean wave models. The Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS™ ) consists of the Navy's atmospheric model coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the wave models SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and WAVEWATCH III (WW3™). In a fully coupled mode, COAMPS, NCOM, and SWAN (or WW3) may be integrated concurrently so that currents and water levels, wave-induced stress, bottom drag, Stokes drift current, precipitation, and surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum are exchanged across the air-wave-sea interface. This coupling is facilitated through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF version of COAMPS is being transitioned to operational production centers at the Naval Oceanographic Office and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center. Highlights from validation studies for the Florida Straits, Hurricane Ivan and the Adriatic Sea will be presented. COAMPS® is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.

  1. Histochemical examination of adipose derived stem cells combined with β-TCP for bone defects restoration under systemic administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Lv, Shengyu; Cui, Jian; Han, Xiuchun; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Zhenming; Lu, Xiong; Guo, Jie; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of osteogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the restoration of bone defects under intraperitoneal administration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1α,25(OH)2D3). ADSCs were isolated from the fat tissue of 8 week old Wister rats and co-cultured with β-TCP for 21 days under osteogenic induction. Then the ADSC-β-TCP complexes were implanted into bone defects in the femora of rats. 1α,25(OH)2D3 (VD) or normal saline (NS) was administrated intraperitoneally every other day after the surgery. Femora were harvested at day 7, day 14 and day 28 post-surgery. There were 4 groups for all specimens: β-TCP-NS group; β-TCP-ADSC-NS group; β-TCP-VD group and β-TCP-ADSC-VD group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was up-regulated obviously in ADSC groups compared with non-ADSC groups at day 7, day 14 and day 28, although high expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was only seen at day 7. Furthermore, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and the expression of cathepsin K (CK) were significantly decreased in VD groups compared with non-VD groups at day 7 and day 14. As a most significant finding, the β-TCP-ADSC-VD group showed the highest BV/TV ratio compared with the other three groups at day 28. Taken together, ADSC-loaded β-TCP under the administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 made a promising therapy for bone defects restoration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss of coherence in a system of globally coupled maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovych, O.; Maistrenko, Yu.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-01-01

    distinct processes, and that the type of behavior that arises after the loss of total synchronization depends sensitively on the dynamics of the individual map. For our system of globally coupled logistic maps, symmetric two-cluster formation is found to proceed through a periodic state associated...

  3. Analysis of the Coupling Coefficient in Inductive Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless energy transfer systems, the energy is transferred from a power source to an electrical load without the need of physical connections. In this scope, inductive links have been widely studied as a way of implementing these systems. Although high efficiency can be achieved when the system is operating in a static state, it can drastically decrease if changes in the relative position and in the coupling coefficient between the coils occur. In this paper, we analyze the coupling coefficient as a function of the distance between two planar and coaxial coils in wireless energy transfer systems. A simple equation is derived from Neumann’s equation for mutual inductance, which is then used to calculate the coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is computed using CST Microwave Studio and compared to calculation and experimental results for two coils with an excitation signal of up to 10 MHz. The results showed that the equation presents good accuracy for geometric parameters that do not lead the solution of the elliptic integral of the first kind to infinity.

  4. Multiscality in the Dynamics of Coupled Chaotic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Ziganshin, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the scaling features of complex motions in systems of two coupled chaotic oscillators by means of the wavelet-transform modulus maxima method and the detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the transition from asynchronous to synchronous dynamics typically reduces the degree o...

  5. Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient distillation. NEHA SAXENA1, NILESH MALI2,* and SATCHIDANAND SATPUTE3. 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering,. Pune 411046, India. 2 Chemical Engineering and Process ...

  6. quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    QUIXOTIC COUPLING BETWEEN IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND MAIZE-COWPEA. INTERCROPPING FOR WEED SUPPRESSION AND WATER PRESERVATION. H.S. SAUDY and K.F. EL-BAGOURY1. Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, P. O. Box 68-Hadayek Shoubra. 11241, Cairo, Egypt.

  7. 2D-Oide effect

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, O.R.; Bambade, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Oide effect considers the synchrotron radiation in the final focusing quadrupole and it sets a lower limit on the vertical beam size at the Interaction Point, particularly relevant for high energy linear colliders. The theory of the Oide effect was derived considering only the radiation in the focusing plane of the magnet. This article addresses the theoretical calculation of the radiation effect on the beam size consider- ing both focusing and defocusing planes of the quadrupole, refered to as 2D-Oide. The CLIC 3 TeV final quadrupole (QD0) and beam parameters are used to compare the theoretical results from the Oide effect and the 2D-Oide effect with particle tracking in PLACET. The 2D-oide demonstrates to be important as it increases by 17% the contribution to the beam size. Further insight into the aberrations induced by the synchrotron radiation opens the possibility to partially correct the 2D-Oide effect with octupole magn

  8. The momentum relaxation rate between coupled cylindrical quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.

    1995-09-01

    To study the momentum relaxation rate, ( {1}/{τ D}), between barrier coupled 2D and 1D systems as well as its transition behavior from 2D-2D coupled systems to 2D-1D or 1D-1D coupled systems, we investigate a system which is composed of a couple of barrier separated cylindrical quantum wells with a common rotated center. As the first step, we calculated the momentum relaxation rate between 2D and 1D cylindrical quantum wells. We find that {1}/{(τ D)} is a monotonically increasing function of T in the temperature range of 0-30 K and {1}/{(τ DT4) } exhibits a maximum at T=T max. The value of ( {τ D-1}/{(T max) 4}) is proportional to d -3 times a nearly periodic function of d where d is the separation distance between two wells.

  9. Evaluation of accuracy about 2D vs 3D real-time position management system based on couch rotation when non-coplanar respiratory gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung Tae; Kim, Jung Soo [Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Hyun Sun [College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Dong Kyoon [College of Health Sciences, EulJi University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Because of non-coplanar therapy with couch rotation in respiratory gated radiation therapy, the recognition of marker movement due to the change in the distance between the infrared camera and the marker due to the rotation of the couch is called RPM (Real-time The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of motion reflections (baseline changes) of 2D gating configuration (two dot marker block) and 3D gating configuration (six dot marker block). The motion was measured by varying the couch angle in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions by 10° in the 2D gating configuration. In the 3D gating configuration, the couch angle was changed by 10° in the clockwise direction and compared with the baseline at the reference 0°. The reference amplitude was 1.173 to 1.165, the couch angle at 20° was 1.132, and the couch angle at 1.0° was 1.083. At 350° counterclockwise, the reference amplitude was 1.168 to 1.157, the couch angle at 340° was 1.124, and the couch angle at 330° was 1.079. In this study, the phantom is used to quantitatively evaluate the value of the amplitude according to couch change.

  10. Punctuating Instability of a 2D Dusty Plasma Colloidal Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogia, Guram; Burton, Justin

    When placed in a weakly-ionized RF plasma, colloidal microparticles can be trapped in the narrow Debye sheath region above a capacitively-coupled electrode. Known as a ''dusty plasma'', the particles become negatively charged, leading to the formation of large, 2D crystalline monolayers. At low pressures the particles can experience vertical oscillations due to plasma density fluctuations in the sheath. As a result of these fluctuations, we have found that at low pressures and low bias voltage, the colloidal crystal experiences temporally reoccurring instabilities. Such ''punctuating'' instabilities are caused by the redistribution of kinetic energy from vertical vibrations to horizontal motion, essentially melting the crystal into a gas-like state. After the incipient instability, without changing any external parameters, the system loses kinetic energy to damping with the surrounding gas, then eventually recrystallizes and remains stable until next punctuating instability. The period of the instability ranges from seconds to minutes depending on the system parameters, and can vary significantly within a given system. Using simple simulations of 2D crystals driven by a vertical Langevian forcing, we are able to capture the salient features of the punctuating instability.

  11. An Approximate Analytical Method of the Nonlinear Vibroacoustic Coupling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate analytical method of the nonlinear vibroacoustic coupling system is proposed for the first time. Taking the Duffing oscillator-plate-medium system as an example, the nonlinear vibroacoustic coupling equations are developed using variational principle. The two major difficulties which lie in solving the coupling equations are the uncertain motion of the oscillator and the surface acoustic pressure on the plate, a system for which the fluid-structure coupling cannot be neglected. Based on the incremental harmonic balance (IHB method, the motion of the oscillator is expressed in the form of the Fourier series, and then the modal expression method and the incoherent assumption are employed to discretize the displacement and the surface pressure of the plate. Then the approximate analytical solution is given by the IHB method. The characteristics of acoustic radiation and surface quadratic velocity of the plate, the nonlinear characteristics of oscillator, and the influence of the excitation frequency and the nonlinear stiffness on the results are investigated by the numerical simulation. The results show that the excitation at the frequency close to the natural frequency of the oscillator can produce a significant response of the third-harmonic generation which determines the vibroacoustic characteristics of the plate.

  12. Synchronizing time delay systems using variable delay in coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411 021 (India); Amritkar, R.E., E-mail: amritkar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Delay and anticipation in coupling function varies with system dynamics. > Delay or anticipation of the synchronized state is independent of system delay. > Stability analysis developed is quite general. > We demonstrate enhanced security in communication. > Generalized synchronization possible over a wide range of parameter mismatch. - Abstract: We present a mechanism for synchronizing time delay systems using one way coupling with a variable delay in coupling that is reset at finite intervals. We present the analysis of the error dynamics that helps to isolate regions of stability of the synchronized state in the parameter space of interest for single and multiple delays. We supplement this by numerical simulations in a standard time delay system like Mackey Glass system. This method has the advantage that it can be adjusted to be delay or anticipatory in synchronization with a time which is independent of the system delay. We demonstrate the use of this method in communication using the bi channel scheme. We show that since the synchronizing channel carries information from transmitter only at intervals of reset time, it is not susceptible to an easy reconstruction.

  13. Electromagnetic Coupling of Ocean Flow with the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is electromagnetically coupled with the Earth System. This results in momentum transfer, as well as a participation by the ocean in the _ observable electric and magnetic fields. The coupling is typically quite weak and quantitative analyses indicate that many of these connections may be discounted when considering the transfer of momentum. But because of systematic effects there are also cases where an immediate discount is not justified and electromagnetic transfer of ocean momentum should remain within the realm of consideration. For practical considerations, even if the coupling is weak these effects are phenomenologically important because the electric and magnetic fields associated with this coupling offer an observational means for inferring the ocean flow. While in situ measurements of the electric field have long been used to measure ocean transport, new opportunities for remote sensing ocean flow through ground and space magnetic observatories are now being considered. In this article a brief update of the status of these observational methods is given. Extending beyond these established elements of the _ electromagnetic involvement, an attempt is made to provide a quantitative discussion of lesser considered elements of the _ electromagnetic coupling with the mantle and fluid core.

  14. Effect of coupled semiconductor system treating aqueous 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lin, Han-Yu

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a method for treating aqueous 4-nitrophenol by mixing with TiO2-SnO2 coupled particles. The reactivity of single photocatalysis (TiO2 and SnO2 all as 1.2 g/L) is compared with that of mixing TiO2-SnO2 (0.6 g/L + 0.6 g/L) coupled particles. Aqueous 4-nitrophenol was treated by single photocatalysis or coupled semiconducting particles in a double-layer glass batch reactor using a 15W UV fluorescent tube at 25 degrees C and 300 rpm for mixing. The results demonstrated that pH and the concentration of TiO2 were the factors that most influenced the degradation characteristics, and that the system of TiO2-SnO2 coupled particles improved the efficiency of removal of refractory organic pollutants by 15%, by the inter-particle electron transfer (IPET) effect. The results showed that the degradation of aqueous 4-nitrophenol was 75% when coupled particles were used--better than the 60% obtained using single photocatalysis--with a reaction time of 120min.

  15. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummitt, Charles D; Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2015-11-06

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast-slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to 'hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Comparison of a GPS needle-tracking system, multiplanar imaging and 2D imaging for real-time ultrasound-guided epidural anaesthesia: A randomized, comparative, observer-blinded study on phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacé, Cécilia; Choquet, Olivier; Abbal, Bertrand; Bringuier, Sophie; Capdevila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The real-time ultrasound-guided paramedian sagittal oblique approach for neuraxial blockade is technically demanding. Innovative technologies have been developed to improve nerve identification and the accuracy of needle placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate three types of ultrasound scans during ultrasound-guided epidural lumbar punctures in a spine phantom. Eleven sets of 20 ultrasound-guided epidural punctures were performed with 2D, GPS, and multiplanar ultrasound machines (660 punctures) on a spine phantom using an in-plane approach. For all punctures, execution time, number of attempts, bone contacts, and needle redirections were noted by an independent physician. Operator comfort and visibility of the needle (tip and shaft) were measured using a numerical scale. The use of GPS significantly decreased the number of punctures, needle repositionings, and bone contacts. Comfort of the physician was also significantly improved with the GPS system compared with the 2D and multiplanar systems. With the multiplanar system, the procedure was not facilitated and execution time was longer compared with 2D imaging after Bonferroni correction but interaction between the type of ultrasound system and mean execution time was not significant in a linear mixed model. There were no significant differences regarding needle tip and shaft visibility between the systems. Multiplanar and GPS needle-tracking systems do not reduce execution time compared with 2D imaging using a real-time ultrasound-guided paramedian sagittal oblique approach in spine phantoms. The GPS needle-tracking system can improve performance in terms of operator comfort, the number of attempts, needle redirections and bone contacts. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  18. Finite-size scaling in the system of coupled oscillators with heterogeneity in coupling strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsuk

    2017-07-01

    We consider a mean-field model of coupled phase oscillators with random heterogeneity in the coupling strength. The system that we investigate here is a minimal model that contains randomness in diverse values of the coupling strength, and it is found to return to the original Kuramoto model [Y. Kuramoto, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 79, 223 (1984)10.1143/PTPS.79.223] when the coupling heterogeneity disappears. According to one recent paper [H. Hong, H. Chaté, L.-H. Tang, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022122 (2015)10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022122], when the natural frequency of the oscillator in the system is "deterministically" chosen, with no randomness in it, the system is found to exhibit the finite-size scaling exponent ν[over ¯]=5/4. Also, the critical exponent for the dynamic fluctuation of the order parameter is found to be given by γ=1/4, which is different from the critical exponents for the Kuramoto model with the natural frequencies randomly chosen. Originally, the unusual finite-size scaling behavior of the Kuramoto model was reported by Hong et al. [H. Hong, H. Chaté, H. Park, and L.-H. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184101 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.184101], where the scaling behavior is found to be characterized by the unusual exponent ν[over ¯]=5/2. On the other hand, if the randomness in the natural frequency is removed, it is found that the finite-size scaling behavior is characterized by a different exponent, ν[over ¯]=5/4 [H. Hong, H. Chaté, L.-H. Tang, and H. Park, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022122 (2015)10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022122]. Those findings brought about our curiosity and led us to explore the effects of the randomness on the finite-size scaling behavior. In this paper, we pay particular attention to investigating the finite-size scaling and dynamic fluctuation when the randomness in the coupling strength is considered.

  19. Modelling Nephron Autoregulation and Synchronization in Coupled Nephron Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    between oscillating period-doubling systems is the topic of the larger part of the study. Since synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon in all sciences, it is treated from a general viewpoint by analyzing one of the most simple dynamical systems, the R¨ossler system, both in an externally forced...... feedback process can explain the experimentally observed irregular oscillations in the nephron pressures and flows. The hypothesis is put to test by calculating Lyapunov exponents of a high level mechanism-based model of a nephron and a similar model of two vascular coupled nephrons. Synchronization...... version and in the form of two mutually coupled oscillators. The bifurcational mechanism to resonant dynamics and chaotic phase synchronization is described in detail. The transition from synchronized to non-synchronized dynamics is known to take place at a dense set of saddlenode bifurcations that run...

  20. Water Wave Solutions of the Coupled System Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Generalized Coupled KdV Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable. PMID:25374940

  1. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  2. Coupled fermion-kink system in Jackiw-Rebbi model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, A.; Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Fisica, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, we study Jackiw-Rebbi model, in which a massless fermion is coupled to the kink of λφ{sup 4} theory through a Yukawa interaction. In the original Jackiw-Rebbi model, the soliton is prescribed. However, we are interested in the back-reaction of the fermion on the soliton besides the effect of the soliton on the fermion. Also, as a particular example, we consider a minimal supersymmetric kink model in (1 + 1) dimensions. In this case, the bosonic self-coupling, λ, and the Yukawa coupling between fermion and soliton, g, have a specific relation, g = √(λ/2). As the set of coupled equations of motion of the system is not analytically solvable, we use a numerical method to solve it self-consistently. We obtain the bound energy spectrum, bound states of the system and the corresponding shape of the soliton using a relaxation method, except for the zero mode fermionic state and threshold energies which are analytically solvable. With the aid of these results, we are able to show how the soliton is affected in general and supersymmetric cases. The results we obtain are consistent with the ones in the literature, considering the soliton as background. (orig.)

  3. Diesel engine torsional vibration control coupling with speed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yibin; Li, Wanyou; Yu, Shuwen; Han, Xiao; Yuan, Yunbo; Wang, Zhipeng; Ma, Xiuzhen

    2017-09-01

    The coupling problems between shafting torsional vibration and speed control system of diesel engine are very common. Neglecting the coupling problems sometimes lead to serious oscillation and vibration during the operation of engines. For example, during the propulsion shafting operation of a diesel engine, the oscillation of engine speed and the severe vibration of gear box occur which cause the engine is unable to operate. To find the cause of the malfunctions, a simulation model coupling the speed control system with the torsional vibration of deformable shafting is proposed and investigated. In the coupling model, the shafting is simplified to be a deformable one which consists of several inertias and shaft sections and with characteristics of torsional vibration. The results of instantaneous rotation speed from this proposed model agree with the test results very well and are successful in reflecting the real oscillation state of the engine operation. Furthermore, using the proposed model, the speed control parameters can be tuned up to predict the diesel engine a stable and safe running. The results from the tests on the diesel engine with a set of tuned control parameters are consistent with the simulation results very well.

  4. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  5. Geometric Phases generated by the non-trivial spatial topology of static vector fields coupled to a neutral spin-endowed particle. Application to ^171Yb atoms trapped in a 2D optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed the geometric phases emerging from the non-trivial topology of a space-dependent magnetic field, interacting with the spin magnetic moment of a neutral particle. Our basic tool is the local unitary transformation which recasts the magnetic spin interaction under a diagonal form. Rewriting the kinetic term in the "rotated" frame requires the introduction of non-Abelian covariant derivatives, involving the gradients of the Euler angles which define the orientation of the local field. Within the rotated frame, we have built a perturbation scheme,assuming that the longitudinal non-Abelian field component dominates the transverse ones, to be evaluated to second-order. The geometry embedded in the longitudinal gauge vector field and its curl, the geometric magnetic field, is described by the associated Aharonov-Bohm phase. As an illustration, we study the physics of cold ^{171}Yb atoms dressed by two sets of circularly polarized beams, forming square or triangular 2D optical lattices. The geomet...

  6. Investigation of capacitively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for nondestructive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Wilcox, Paul D; Croxford, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Capacitive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory, feasibility, and optimization of such a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface relies on an electric field formed between four metal plates-two plates are physically connected to the electrodes of a transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit connected to the transmit/receive channel of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as an electric network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a transducer attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. A transmission line model is developed which is a function of the physical parameters of the capacitively coupled system, such as the permittivity of the material between the plates, the size of the metal plates, and their relative positions. This model provides immediate prediction of electric input impedance, pulse-echo response, and the effect of plate misalignment. The model has been validated experimentally and has enabled optimization of the various parameters. It is shown that placing a tuning inductor and series resistor on the transmitting side of the circuit can significantly improve the system performance in terms of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio. Practically, bulk-wave CCTSs have been built and demonstrated for underwater and through-composite testing. It has been found that electrical conduction in the media between the plates limits their applications.

  7. Optical Tomography System: Charge-coupled Device Linear Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idroas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed an optical tomography system based on charge-coupled device (CCD linear image sensors. The developed system consists of a lighting system, a measurement section and a data acquisition system. Four CCD linear image sensors are configured around a flow pipe with an octagonal-shaped measurement section, for a four projections system. The four CCD linear image sensors consisting of 2048 pixels with a pixel size of 14 micron by 14 micron are used to produce a high-resolution system. A simple optical model is mapped into the system’s sensitivity matrix to relate the optical attenuation due to variations of optical density within the measurement section. A reconstructed tomographic image is produced based on the model using MATLAB software. The designed instrumentation system is calibrated and tested through different particle size measurements from different projections.

  8. Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat

  9. A Coupled GCM-Cloud Resolving Modeling System to Study Precipitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiundar; Atlas, Robert; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur; Lin, Xin

    2006-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA Satellite and field campaign cloud related data sets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. Also we have implemented a Land Information System (LIS that includes the CLM and NOAH land surface models into the MMF. The Goddard MMF is based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) This modeling system has been applied and tested its performance for two different climate scenarios, El Nino (1998) and La Nina (1999). The coupled new modeling system produced more realistic propagation and intensity of tropical rainfall systems and intraseasonal oscillations, and diurnal variation of precipitation that are very difficult to forecast using even the state-of-the-art GCMs. In this talk I will present: (1) a brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes (both Microphysical and land processes) and (2) The Goddard MMF and the Major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF) and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs).

  10. A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.

    2015-01-01

    to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than......This study aims at improving the simulation of wind and waves during storms in connection with wind turbine design and operations in coastal areas. For this particular purpose, we investigated the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System which couples the Weather...... for the coastal condition. With the current model setup, using high spatial resolution gives better results for strong winds both for the open ocean and coastal sites. The signicant wave height (Hm0) is very sensitive to the model resolution and bathymetry data for the coastal zone. In addition, using Janssen...

  11. Free vibration analysis of coupled fluid-structure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1982-01-01

    An efficient numerical technique for the eigenvalue solution in the free vibration analysis of compressible fluid-structure coupled systems is presented. The fluid is assumed to be compressible in nature and the incompressible problem is only a special case of the present generalized algorithm. A natural frequency analysis of the structure in the absence of any fluid is achieved by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that computes only the required eigenvalues and vectors. A special inverse iteration scheme is then developed for the coupled system that uses the computed eigenvalues as starting iteration values for convergence. Numerical results obtained by solving a number of standard test cases indicate the pattern of root convergence corresponding to various simplifying assumptions.

  12. Excitonic and Polaronic Properties of 2D Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun

    2017-01-20

    We theoretically characterize the unusual white-light emission properties of two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic inorganic perovskites with an APbX(4) structure (where A is a bidentate organic cation and X = Cl, Br). In addition to band structure calculations including corrections due to spin orbit couplings and electron hole interactions, a computationally intensive molecular cluster approach is exploited to describe the excitonic and polaronic properties of these 2D perovskites at the atomistic level. Upon adding or removing an electron from the neutral systems, we find that strongly localized small polarons form in the 2D clusters. The polaron charge density is distributed over just lattice sites, which is consistent with the calculated large polaron binding energies, on the order of similar to 0.4-1.2 eV.

  13. Mediterranea Forecasting System: a focus on wave-current coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Drudi, Massimiliano; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Tonani, Marina

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is a numerical ocean prediction system that produces analyses, reanalyses and short term forecasts for the entire Mediterranean Sea and its Atlantic Ocean adjacent areas. MFS became operational in the late 90's and has been developed and continuously improved in the framework of a series of EU and National funded programs and is now part of the Copernicus Marine Service. The MFS is composed by the hydrodynamic model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) 2-way coupled with the third generation wave model WW3 (WaveWatchIII) implemented in the Mediterranean Sea with 1/16 horizontal resolution and forced by ECMWF atmospheric fields. The model solutions are corrected by the data assimilation system (3D variational scheme adapted to the oceanic assimilation problem) with a daily assimilation cycle, using a background error correlation matrix varying seasonally and in different sub-regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The focus of this work is to present the latest modelling system upgrades and the related achieved improvements. In order to evaluate the performance of the coupled system a set of experiments has been built by coupling the wave and circulation models that hourly exchange the following fields: the sea surface currents and air-sea temperature difference are transferred from NEMO model to WW3 model modifying respectively the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter; while the neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 model is passed to NEMO that computes the turbulent component. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results have been compared with in-situ and remote sensing data. This work suggests that a coupled model might be capable of a better description of wave-current interactions, in particular feedback from the ocean to the waves might assess an improvement on the prediction capability of wave characteristics, while suggests to proceed toward a fully

  14. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  15. Variational collocation for systems of coupled anharmonic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    By means of a collocation approach based on little sinc functions (LSF), we obtain accurate eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the stationary Schroedinger equation for systems of coupled oscillators. Adjustable parameters introduced by means of scaling and rotation of the coordinates improve the rate of convergence of the approach. A careful comparison with the results published earlier by other authors shows the advantages of the present approach.

  16. Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse.

  17. Chaotic behaviour of nonlinear coupled reaction–diffusion system in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    f(φ(x),ψ(x)) and g(φ(x),ψ(x)) mean all kinds of noises in reality. As the behaviour of coupled .... ψm,n(s) represents the parasite density in generations s and s + 1, μ is the increasing rate of the host population and β ..... two increasing effects on the chaotic behaviour of system (3) in three-dimensional space, respectively. 5.

  18. A coupled "AB" system: Rogue waves and modulation instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C F; Grimshaw, R H J; Chow, K W; Chan, H N

    2015-10-01

    Rogue waves are unexpectedly large and localized displacements from an equilibrium position or an otherwise calm background. For the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model widely used in fluid mechanics and optics, these waves can occur only when dispersion and nonlinearity are of the same sign, a regime of modulation instability. For coupled NLS equations, rogue waves will arise even if dispersion and nonlinearity are of opposite signs in each component as new regimes of modulation instability will appear in the coupled system. The same phenomenon will be demonstrated here for a coupled "AB" system, a wave-current interaction model describing baroclinic instability processes in geophysical flows. Indeed, the onset of modulation instability correlates precisely with the existence criterion for rogue waves for this system. Transitions from "elevation" rogue waves to "depression" rogue waves are elucidated analytically. The dispersion relation as a polynomial of the fourth order may possess double pairs of complex roots, leading to multiple configurations of rogue waves for a given set of input parameters. For special parameter regimes, the dispersion relation reduces to a cubic polynomial, allowing the existence criterion for rogue waves to be computed explicitly. Numerical tests correlating modulation instability and evolution of rogue waves were conducted.

  19. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Early-Onset Severe Preeclampsia, using 8-Plex iTRAQ Labeling Coupled with 2D Nano LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Previous studies have revealed that the increased shedding of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBM may lead to preeclampsia (PE. We aimed to identify the proteins carried by STBM and their potential pathological roles in early-onset severe PE. Methods: In this study, we performed a differential proteomic analysis of STBM from early-onset severe PE patients, using iTRAQ isobaric tags and 2D nano LC-MS/MS. STBM were generated by the in vitro explant culture method, and then verified by electron microscopy and western blot analysis. Results: A total of 18 533 unique peptides and 3 317 proteins were identified, 3 292 proteins were quantified. We identified 194 differentially expressed proteins in STBM from early-onset severe PE patients, 122 proteins were up-regulated and 72 proteins were down-regulated. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed that mitochondrion, transmembrane transport and transmembrane transporter activity were the most abundant categories in gene ontology (GO annotation. Glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle, fatty acid elongation, steroid hormone biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation were the five significantly represented pathways. Four differentially expressed proteins (siglec-6, calnexin, CD63 and S100-A8 related to inflammation, coagulation or immunoregulation were independently verified using western blot. Conclusions: The identification of key proteins carried by STBM may serve not only as a basis for better understanding and further exploring the etiology and pathogenesis of PE, but also as potential biomarkers and in providing targets for future therapy in PE, especially in early-onset severe PE(sPE.

  20. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ogura

    Full Text Available The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  1. Development and evaluation of new coupling system for lower limb prostheses with acoustic alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ahmadian, Jalil; Rahmati, Bizhan; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system.

  2. 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskites for Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yani; Sun, Yong; Peng, Jiajun; Tang, Junhui; Zheng, Kaibo; Liang, Ziqi

    2018-01-01

    Conventional 3D organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently undergone unprecedented rapid development. Yet, their inherent instabilities over moisture, light, and heat remain a crucial challenge prior to the realization of commercialization. By contrast, the emerging 2D Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskites have recently attracted increasing attention owing to their great environmental stability. However, the research of 2D perovskites is just in their infancy. In comparison to 3D analogues, they are natural quantum wells with a much larger exciton binding energy. Moreover, their inner structural, dielectric, optical, and excitonic properties remain to be largely explored, limiting further applications. This review begins with an introduction to 2D perovskites, along with a detailed comparison to 3D counterparts. Then, a discussion of the organic spacer cation engineering of 2D perovskites is presented. Next, quasi-2D perovskites that fall between 3D and 2D perovskites are reviewed and compared. The unique excitonic properties, electron-phonon coupling, and polarons of 2D perovskites are then be revealed. A range of their (opto)electronic applications is highlighted in each section. Finally, a summary is given, and the strategies toward structural design, growth control, and photophysics studies of 2D perovskites for high-performance electronic devices are rationalized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  4. Spin pumping in electrodynamically coupled magnon-photon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui

    The electronics industry is quickly approaching the limitation of Moore's Law due to Joule heating in high density-integrated devices. To achieve new higher-speed devices and reduce energy consumption, researchers are turning to spintronics where the intrinsic spin, rather than the charge of electrons, is used to carry information in devices. Advances in spintronics have led to the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin transfer torque etc. Another subject, cavity electrodynamics, promises a completely new quantum algorithm by studying the properties of a single electron interacting with photons inside of a cavity. By merging both spintronics and cavity electrodynamics, a new cutting edge field called Cavity Spintronics is forming, which draws on the advantages of both subjects to develop new spintronics devices utilizing light-matter interaction. In this work, we use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling in a microwave cavity at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling. Co-authored with M. Harder, C.-M. Hu from University of Manitoba, Y. P. Chen, J. Q. Xiao from University of Delaware, and X. Fan from Univeristy of Denver.

  5. Loss of lag synchronization in coupled chaotic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Balanov, A G; Vadivasova, T E

    1999-01-01

    Lag synchronization denotes a particular form of synchronization in which the amplitudes of two interacting, nonidentical chaotic oscillators are correlated but there is a characteristic time delay between them. We study transitions to and between different forms of synchronization...... for the attractors defined as "in-phase" and "out-of-phase" and investigate the processes by which lag synchronization is lost in two coupled Rössler systems. With a small frequency mismatch between the two systems, these processes are related to the occurrence of a peculiar form of basin structure as more and more...... periodic orbits embedded into the synchronized chaotic state become unstable in a transverse direction....

  6. Derivation of Boussinesq's shoaling law using a coupled BBM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kalisch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on finding rules for waveheight change in a solitary wave as it runs up a slowly increasing bottom. A coupled BBM system is used to describe the solitary waves. Expressions for energy density and energy flux associated with the BBM system are derived, and the principle of energy conservation is used to develop an equation relating the waveheight and undisturbed depth to the initial undisturbed depth and the incident waveheight. In the limit of zero waveheight, Boussinesq's shoaling law is recovered.

  7. COSMOS: A System-Level Modelling and Simulation Framework for Coprocessor-Coupled Reconfigurable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    and resource management, and iii) present a SystemC based framework to model and simulate coprocessor-coupled reconfigurable systems. We illustrate how COSMOS may be used to capture the dynamic behavior of such systems and emphasize the need for capturing the system aspects of such systems in order to deal...

  8. Crystal engineered acid–base complexes with 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding systems using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU SU ZHAO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HOBA was selected as the building block for self-assembly with five bases, i.e., diethylamine, tert-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, imidazole and piperazine, and generation of the corresponding acid–base complexes 1–5. Crystal structure analyses suggest that proton-transfer from the carboxyl hydrogen to the nitrogen atom of the bases can be observed in 1–4, while only in 5 does a solvent water molecule co-exist with p--HOBA and piperazine. With the presence of O–H···O hydrogen bonds in 1–4, the deprotonated p-hydroxybenzoate anions (p-HOBAA– are simply connected each other in a head-to-tail motif to form one-dimensional (1D arrays, which are further extended to distinct two-dimensional (2D (for 1 and 4 and three-dimensional (3D (for 2 and 3 networks via N–H···O interactions. While in 5, neutral acid and base are combined pair-wise by O–H···N and N–H···O bonds to form a 1D tape and then the 1D tapes are sequentially combined by water molecules to create a 3D network. Some interlayer or intralayer C–H···O, C–H···p and p×××p interactions help to stabilize the supramolecular buildings. Melting point determination analyses indicate that the five acid–base complexes are not the ordinary superposition of the reactants and they are more stable than the original reactants.

  9. Surface plasmon polaritons mode conversion via a coupled plasmonic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Hao

    2016-05-01

    A coupled plasmonic system for effective mode conversion between single interface surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in a metal-dielectric waveguide and gap SPP in a metal-dielectric-metal waveguide is proposed. With the modal analysis, it is shown that the interference of the two plasmonic modes in a metal-dielectric-metal-dielectric coupled structure plays the key role in the mode conversion. With typical parameters, the conversion efficiency is as high as 61% (equivalent to 87% of the output total energy flow) at 1μm wavelength, and 1 dB bandwidth is as broad as 300 nm. The proposed structure can be used to implement an SPP mode convertor, router and beam splitter, which enables the interconnection between two important waveguides in plasmonics. The method presented here is fully-analytical, and is tested against fully-vectorial numerical results.

  10. A Hierarchy of Discrete Integrable Coupling System with Self-Consistent Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrable coupling system of a lattice soliton equation hierarchy is deduced. The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable coupling is constructed by using the discrete quadratic-form identity. The Liouville integrability of the integrable coupling is demonstrated. Finally, the discrete integrable coupling system with self-consistent sources is deduced.

  11. Crossing the c=1 barrier in 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K.; Loll, R.

    2000-02-01

    In an extension of earlier work we investigate the behavior of two-dimensional (2D) Lorentzian quantum gravity under coupling to a conformal field theory with c>1. This is done by analyzing numerically a system of eight Ising models (corresponding to c=4) coupled to dynamically triangulated Lorentzian geometries. It is known that a single Ising model couples weakly to Lorentzian quantum gravity, in the sense that the Hausdorff dimension of the ensemble of two-geometries is two (as in pure Lorentzian quantum gravity) and the matter behavior is governed by the Onsager exponents. By increasing the amount of matter to eight Ising models, we find that the geometry of the combined system has undergone a phase transition. The new phase is characterized by an anomalous scaling of spatial length relative to proper time at large distances, and as a consequence the Hausdorff dimension is now three. In spite of this qualitative change in the geometric sector, and a very strong interaction between matter and geometry, the critical exponents of the Ising model retain their Onsager values. This provides evidence for the conjecture that the KPZ values of the critical exponents in 2D Euclidean quantum gravity are entirely due to the presence of baby universes. Lastly, we summarize the lessons learned so far from 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity.

  12. FTTA System Demo Using Optical Fiber-Coupled Active Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Neumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of optical and wireless systems such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF networks is the key to coping with the increasing bandwidth demands due to the increasing popularity of video and other high data rate applications. A high level of integration of optical technologies enables simple base stations with a fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA approach. In this paper, we present a complete full-duplex RoF–FTTA system consisting of integrated active fiber-coupled optical receiving and transmitting antennas that are directly connected to a standard single mode fiber optical link. Data rates up to 1 Gbit/s could be shown without advanced modulation formats on a 1.5 GHz carrier frequency. The antennas as well as the whole system are explained and the results of the system experiments are discussed.

  13. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  14. Computational 2D Materials Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic structure of 51 semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides and -oxides in the 2H and 1T hexagonal phases. The quasiparticle (QP) band structures with spin-orbit coupling are calculated in the G(0)W(0) approximation...

  15. Deep strong coupling in a circuit QED system (2) - experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Tomoko; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Ashhab, Sahel; Semba, Kouichi

    Among a variety of cavity/circuit-QED systems, the superconducting flux qubit is a promising candidate for increasing the coupling strength further because of its huge magnetic moment. Using a flux qubit, g /ωr = 0 . 12 (g: coupling strength, ωr: bare resonator frequency) has been reported. However, g /ωr is still lower than 1. Here, instead of the widely used coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators, we use a lumped-element resonator consisting of an inductor (L) and a capacitor (C). While CPW resonators are distributed-element circuits and are therefore restricted by impedance matching constraints, one can freely choose the ratio, L / C , of a lumped-element resonator. This allows us to design a much smaller inductance and to make the zero-point current fluctuation much larger. Using a flux qubit and a lumped-element resonator, we have achieved g /ωr comparable to or larger than 1, which is the deep strong coupling regime, where a variety of interesting physics is expected. In this presentation, the sample design and spectroscopy data will be shown. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25220601.

  16. Modular Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Multichannel System for Inline NDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcke, M.; Lust, P.; Naert, H.; Blomme, E.; Delrue, S.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    In many production processes it is important to detect in a very early stage basic errors in the fabricatedmaterial. If the errors are not visible from the exterior, ultrasonic inspection is a convenient technique,at least if the nature of the error influences the characteristics of sound passing through the material.Examples are local density variations in non-wovens, delaminations in composites, bad bondings inlaminates, inclusions, cracks or other artefacts in plastic or metal plates, etc. There are two major,difficult requirements imposed by industry to the used detection technique: the sensors shouldn't makephysical contact with the material and the speed of testing must be sufficiently high to enable testingin-line. The former requirement can be met by employing an air-coupled ultrasonic approach, the latterby using a multichannel system.We propose a modular air-coupled ultrasonic multichannel system. Each multichannel module contains12 air-coupled transducers and exists in a transmitter and a receiver version. The desired scan width isobtained by connecting several modules to each other. During the scanning all transducers are spatially fixed while the material is moving forward. This way, speeds up to 1m/s are possible, irrespective ofthe width of the material. To that purpose a FPGA based platform with parallel processing of largenumbers of data streams is implemented in the modules. This allows the implementation of all kind ofprocedures, going from point measurements to more sophisticated techniques. In spite of all measurements being performed in ambient air, the ultrasonic frequency is rather high(1 MHz), but lower frequencies are possible as well. The most obvious set-up of the modules is a through-transmission configuration. However the system can also be used in a pitch-catch configuration which isvery suitable for one-sided testing of thick materials. An examples established in the laboratory is shownto illustrate the performance.

  17. Excitons in atomically thin 2D semiconductors and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on emerging layered two-dimensional (2D semiconductors, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, reveals unique optical properties generating significant interest. Experimentally, these materials were observed to host extremely strong light-matter interactions as a result of the enhanced excitonic effect in two dimensions. Thus, understanding and manipulating the excitons are crucial to unlocking the potential of 2D materials for future photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this review, we unravel the physical origin of the strong excitonic effect and unique optical selection rules in 2D semiconductors. In addition, control of these excitons by optical, electrical, as well as mechanical means is examined. Finally, the resultant devices such as excitonic light emitting diodes, lasers, optical modulators, and coupling in an optical cavity are overviewed, demonstrating how excitons can shape future 2D optoelectronics.

  18. A Charge Coupled Device Imaging System For Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R. Wanda; Packer, Samuel; Rosen, James; Bizais, Yves

    1984-06-01

    A digital camera system has been constructed for obtaining reflectance images of the fundus of the eye with monochromatic light. Images at wavelengths in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum are recorded by a charge-coupled device array and transferred to a computer. A variety of image processing operations are performed to restore the pictures, correct for distortions in the image formation process, and extract new and diagnostically useful information. The steps involved in calibrating the system to permit quantitative measurement of fundus reflectance are discussed. Three clinically important applications of such a quantitative system are addressed: the characterization of changes in the optic nerve arising from glaucoma, the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma through spectral signatures, and the early detection and improved management of diabetic retinopathy by measurement of retinal tissue oxygen saturation.

  19. Development of the Coupled Northwest Atlantic Prediction System (CNAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, J. B.; He, R.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensioanl marine environmental nowcast/forecast system has been constructed and is running quasi-operationally for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. This fully coupled modeling accounts for the interactions among Ocean, Atmosphere, Wave, Sediment Transport and the low-trophic marine ecosystem. It is driven by realistic meteorological boundary forcing, tides, river, and deep-ocean boundary conditions provided by a data assimilative global ocean model. Model output from this nowcast/forecast system, including marine weather, ocean wave, ocean circulation and marine ecosystem variable are generated daily and available for public access. The construction of this prediction system, model validations and case studies on air-sea interactions during major tropical and extratropical storms will be discussed in this presentation.

  20. Qubit Coupled Mechanical Resonator in an Electromechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu

    This thesis describes the development of a hybrid quantum electromechanical system. In this system the mechanical resonator is capacitively coupled to a superconducting transmon which is embedded in a superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. The difficulty of achieving high quality of superconducting qubit in a high-quality voltage-biased cavity is overcome by integrating a superconducting reflective T-filter to the cavity. Further spectroscopic and pulsed measurements of the hybrid system demonstrate interactions between the ultra-high frequency mechanical resonator and transmon qubit. The noise of mechanical resonator close to ground state is measured by looking at the spectroscopy of the transmon. At last, fabrication and tests of membrane resonators are discussed.

  1. Global and local thermometry schemes in coupled quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; Mehboudi, Mohammad; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    We study the ultimate bounds on the estimation of temperature for an interacting quantum system. We consider two coupled bosonic modes that are assumed to be thermal and using quantum estimation theory establish the role the Hamiltonian parameters play in thermometry. We show that in the case of a conserved particle number the interaction between the modes leads to a decrease in the overall sensitivity to temperature, while interestingly, if particle exchange is allowed with the thermal bath the converse is true. We explain this dichotomy by examining the energy spectra. Finally, we devise experimentally implementable thermometry schemes that rely only on locally accessible information from the total system, showing that almost Heisenberg limited precision can still be achieved, and we address the (im)possibility for multiparameter estimation in the system.

  2. [Oxidative efficiency of the system of electrolysis coupled ozonation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xun-Hua; Tong, Shao-Ping; Ma, Chun-An

    2010-09-01

    The oxidation system of electrolysis coupled ozonation (electrolysis-ozonation) was used to degrade 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), and its mechanism was discussed on the basis of kinetic analysis. The experimental results indicated the electrolysis-ozonation system had a significant synergistic effect during degradation of 4-CP. For example, the electrolysis-ozonation had the 4-CP removal rate of 92.7% and the COD removal rate of 64.9% in 900 s, respectively; while electrolysis alone plus ozonation alone only had the 4-CP removal rate of 69.7% and the COD removal rate of 30.1% under the same conditions. The results of H2O2 concentration analysis and photocurrent test showed that the synergistic mechanism of electrolysis-ozonation included two factors: (1) production of *03- at the cathode; (2) H2O2 generation resulting from reduction of dissolved oxygen. The above two factors led to generation of *OH in system effectively.

  3. Accuracy and Precision of a Custom Camera-Based System for 2-D and 3-D Motion Tracking during Speech and Nonspeech Motor Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable…

  4. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Nav...... Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.......This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D...

  5. The Application Programming Interface for the PVMEXEC Program and Associated Code Coupling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter L. Weaver III

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the Application Programming Interface for the PVMEXEC program and the code coupling systems that it implements. The information in the report is intended for programmers wanting to add a new code into the coupling system.

  6. Dynamics of coupled electron-nuclei-systems in laser fields; Dynamik gekoppelter Elektronen-Kern-Systeme in Laserfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falge, Mirjam

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed at the theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in molecules and the influence of coupled electron and nuclear dynamics on ultra-short pulse ionization processes. In the first part of this thesis, the isotope effect and influence of vibrational excitation on high harmonic generation were investigated for the isotope pairs H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}. It was shown that on the one hand high harmonic intensities strongly depend on the vibrational quantum number of the initial state of the water molecule and on the other hand the spectra of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O exhibit a clear isotope effect for certain vibrationally excited states. Also it was shown that high harmonics of vibrationally excited states show an even more pronounced isotope effect than the ground state. The second and third part of this work treats the influence of coupled electron and nuclear dynamics on photoelectron spectra. In order to facilitate a numerically exact description of this dynamics, a simple one-dimensional model system (Shin-Metiu model) was used. It consists of only a single electronic and nuclear degree-of-freedom and allows for a switching between adiabatic and strongly non-adiabatic dynamics by its parameterization. This model served for the analysis of the dynamics of three different cases ranging from weak over intermediate to strong electron-nuclear coupling. To investigate the influence of non-adiabatic effects on photoelectron spectra, time-resolved photoelectron spectra were calculated applying two methods: a numerically exact treatment and an adiabatic approach neglecting the electron-nuclear coupling. Subsequently, the dependence of the efficiency of a non-adiabatic transition on the nuclear mass was analysed. To this end, the population dynamics and photoelectron spectra were calculated numerically exactly for a strong electron and nuclear coupling. Thereafter the asymmetry in forward and backward direction of time

  7. Linear and Non-linear Rabi Oscillations of a Two-Level System Resonantly Coupled to an Anderson-Localized Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Bachelard, Nicolas; Sebbah, Patrick; Vanneste, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We use time-domain numerical simulations of a two-dimensional (2D) scattering system to study the interaction of a collection of emitters resonantly coupled to an Anderson-localized mode. For a small electric field intensity, we observe the strong coupling between the emitters and the mode, which is characterized by linear Rabi oscillations. Remarkably, a larger intensity induces non-linear interaction between the emitters and the mode, referred to as the dynamical Stark effect, resulting in non-linear Rabi oscillations. The transition between both regimes is observed and an analytical model is proposed which accurately describes our numerical observations.

  8. The concept of time in 2D gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy

    1998-01-01

    We show that the "time" ts defined via spin clusters in the Ising model coupled to 2d gravity leads to a fractal dimension dh(s) = 6 of space-time at the critical point, as advocated by Ishibashi and Kawai. In the unmagnetized phase, however, this definition of Hausdorff dimension breaks down...

  9. Quality of Service Based NOMA Group D2D Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Anwar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA provides superior spectral efficiency and is considered as a promising multiple access scheme for fifth generation (5G wireless systems. The spectrum efficiency can be further enhanced by enabling device-to-device (D2D communications. In this work, we propose quality of service (QoS based NOMA (Q-NOMA group D2D communications in which the D2D receivers (DRs are ordered according to their QoS requirements. We discuss two possible implementations of proposed Q-NOMA group D2D communications based on the two power allocation coefficient policies. In order to capture the key aspects of D2D communications, which are device clustering and spatial separation, we model the locations of D2D transmitters (DTs by Gauss–Poisson process (GPP. The DRs are then considered to be clustered around DTs. Multiple DTs can exist in proximity of each other. In order to characterize the performance, we derive the Laplace transform of the interference at the probe D2D receiver and obtain a closed-form expression of its outage probability using stochastic geometry tools. The performance of proposed Q-NOMA group D2D communications is then evaluated and benchmarked against conventional paired D2D communications.

  10. Intense Terahertz Sources for 2D Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov

    /cm. In agreement with the MD II simulations, a bleaching of the 1.4 THz is observed for the highest field strengths in a 1D spectroscopy configuration. Phonon coupling in sucrose is investigated with a 2D spectroscopy experiment based on a DSTMS and a DAST source, for which a new chopper scheme is presented...... in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. With this THz induced nonlinear responses and mode couplings in CsI and sucrose are investigated for increasing field strengths, and it is found that these occur for sucrose when the field strength is in the MV/cm range. THz sources based on LiNbO3, DAST, DSTMS and 2...... radiation emitted from a 2-color air plasma has a conical beam profile. With the beam profiles measured through a focal plane, this has been reconstructed in 3D showing that the beam collapses to a single spot in focus. Besides the off-axis THz radiation, a weak on-axis forward propagating mode has been...

  11. Exact e-e (exchange) correlations of 2-D quantum dots in magnetic field: Size extensive N = 3 , 4 , … , ‧ n ‧ -electron systems via multi-pole expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Sharma, Shivalika; Singh, Sunny; Kaur, Harsimran; Hazra, Ram Kuntal

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of coulomb interaction emerges with the complexity of either convergence of integrals or separation of variables of Schrödinger equations. For an N-electron system, interaction terms grow by N(N-1)/2 factors. Therefore, 2-e system stands as fundamental basic unit for generalized N-e systems. For the first time, we have evaluated e-e correlations in very simple and absolutely terminating finite summed hypergeometric series for 2-D double carrier parabolic quantum dot in both zero and arbitrary non-zero magnetic field (symmetric gauge) and have appraised these integrals in variational methods. The competitive role among confinement strength, magnetic field, mass of the carrier and dielectric constant of the medium on energy level diagram, level-spacing statistics, heat capacities (Cv at 1 K) and magnetization (T ∼ (0-1)K) is studied on systems spanning over wide range of materials (GaAs,Ge,CdS,SiO2 and He, etc). We have also constructed an exact theory for generalized correlated N-e 2-D quantum dots via multi-pole expansion but for the sake of compactness of the article we refrain from data.

  12. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system; Analisis de la dependencia direcccional de la matriz bidimensional de detectores 2D array seven29. Implicaciones en el sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  13. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Jan R. [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Mirollo, Renato [Department of Mathematics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For N≠3 oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  14. Magnetic coupling mechanisms in particle/thin film composite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Badini Confalonieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 20 nm and size distribution of 7% were chemically synthesized and spin-coated on top of a Si-substrate. As a result, the particles self-assembled into a monolayer with hexagonal close-packed order. Subsequently, the nanoparticle array was coated with a Co layer of 20 nm thickness. The magnetic properties of this composite nanoparticle/thin film system were investigated by magnetometry and related to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. Herein three systems were compared: i.e. a reference sample with only the particle monolayer, a composite system where the particle array was ion-milled prior to the deposition of a thin Co film on top, and a similar composite system but without ion-milling. The nanoparticle array showed a collective super-spin behavior due to dipolar interparticle coupling. In the composite system, we observed a decoupling into two nanoparticle subsystems. In the ion-milled system, the nanoparticle layer served as a magnetic flux guide as observed by magnetic force microscopy. Moreover, an exchange bias effect was found, which is likely to be due to oxygen exchange between the iron oxide and the Co layer, and thus forming of an antiferromagnetic CoO layer at the γ-Fe2O3/Co interface.

  15. MgCo2-D2 and MgCoNi-D2 systems synthesized at high pressures and interaction mechanism during the HDDR processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chubin Wan

    2017-02-01

    MgCo2 is a new example of the hydrogen storage alloy, in which a successful HDDR processing results in the reversible formation of the initial intermetallic at much lower temperatures than in the equilibrium phase diagram of the Mg-Co system.

  16. Characterization and usage of the EASY-spray technology as part of an online 2D SCX-RP ultra-high pressure system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Fabio; Cristobal, Alba; Binai, Nadine A; Bache, Nicolai; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems combined with state-of-the-art mass spectrometers have pushed the limit of deep proteome sequencing to new heights making it possible to identify thousands of proteins in a single LC-MS experiment within a few hours. The recently released

  17. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  18. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  19. Continuous limits for an integrable coupling system of Toda equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-09-21

    In this Letter, we present an integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits by using of Lie algebra sl(4). By introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, the integrable coupling system of Toda lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable couplings of discrete soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy as a new kind of continuous limit.

  20. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  1. First experience with the new Coupling Loss Induced Quench system

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Dudarev, A V; Kirby, G; Sperin, K A; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    New-generation high-field superconducting magnets pose a challenge relating to the protection of the coil winding pack in the case of a quench. The high stored energy per unit volume calls for a very efficient quench detection and fast quench propagation in order to avoid damage due to overheating. A new protection system called Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ) was recently, developed and tested at CERN. This method provokes a fast change in the magnet transport current by means of a capacitive discharge. The resulting change in the local magnetic field induces inter-filament and inter-strand coupling losses which heat up the superconductor and eventually initiate a quench in a large fraction of the coil winding pack. The method is extensively tested on a Nb-Ti single-wire test solenoid magnet in the CERN Cryogenic Laboratory in order to assess its performance, optimize its operating parameters, and study new electrical configurations. Each parameter is thoroughly analyzed and its impact on the quench effi...

  2. Directional radiation pattern in structural-acoustic coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee-Seon; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of designing a radiator using structural-acoustic interaction by predicting the pressure distribution and radiation pattern of a structural-acoustic coupling system that is composed by a wall and two spaces. If a wall separates spaces, then the wall's role in transporting the acoustic characteristics of the spaces is important. The spaces can be categorized as bounded finite space and unbounded infinite space. The wall considered in this study composes two plates and an opening, and the wall separates one space that is highly reverberant and the other that is unbounded without any reflection. This rather hypothetical circumstance is selected to study the general coupling problem between the finite and infinite acoustic domains. We developed an equation that predicts the energy distribution and energy flow in the two spaces separated by a wall, and its computational examples are presented. Three typical radiation patterns that include steered, focused, and omnidirected are presented. A designed radiation pattern is also presented by using the optimal design algorithm.

  3. On the average uncertainty for systems with nonlinear coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kenric P.; Umarov, Sabir R.; Kon, Mark A.

    2017-02-01

    The increased uncertainty and complexity of nonlinear systems have motivated investigators to consider generalized approaches to defining an entropy function. New insights are achieved by defining the average uncertainty in the probability domain as a transformation of entropy functions. The Shannon entropy when transformed to the probability domain is the weighted geometric mean of the probabilities. For the exponential and Gaussian distributions, we show that the weighted geometric mean of the distribution is equal to the density of the distribution at the location plus the scale (i.e. at the width of the distribution). The average uncertainty is generalized via the weighted generalized mean, in which the moment is a function of the nonlinear source. Both the Rényi and Tsallis entropies transform to this definition of the generalized average uncertainty in the probability domain. For the generalized Pareto and Student's t-distributions, which are the maximum entropy distributions for these generalized entropies, the appropriate weighted generalized mean also equals the density of the distribution at the location plus scale. A coupled entropy function is proposed, which is equal to the normalized Tsallis entropy divided by one plus the coupling.

  4. Documenting the Effectiveness of Cosorption of Airborne Contaminants by a Field-Installed Active Desiccant System: Final Report - Phase 2D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2003-01-23

    The final report for Phase 1 of this research effort (ORNL/SUB/94-SV004/1) concluded that a significant market opportunity would exist for active desiccant systems if it could be demonstrated that they can remove a significant proportion of common airborne contaminants while simultaneously performing the primary function of dehumidifying a stream of outdoor air or recirculated building air. If the engineering community begins to follow the intent of ASHRAE Standard 62, now part of all major building codes, the outdoor air in many major cities may need to be pre-cleaned before it is introduced into occupied spaces. Common air contaminant cosorption capability would provide a solution to three important aspects of the ASHRAE 62-89 standard that have yet to be effectively addressed by heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment manufacturers: (1) The ASHRAE standard defines acceptable outdoor air quality. If the outdoor air contains unacceptable levels of certain common outdoor air contaminants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, ozone), then the standard requires that these contaminants be removed from the outdoor air stream to reach compliance with the acceptable outdoor air quality guidelines. (2) Some engineers prefer to apply a filtration or prescriptive approach rather than a ventilation approach to solving indoor air quality problems. The ASHRAE standard recognizes this approach provided that the filtration technology exists to remove the gaseous contaminants encountered. The performance of current gaseous filtration technologies is not well documented, and they can be costly to maintain because the life of the filter is limited and the cost is high. Moreover, it is not easy to determine when the filters need changing. In such applications, an additional advantage provided by the active desiccant system would be that the same piece of equipment could control space humidity and provide filtration, even during unoccupied periods, if the active desiccant system

  5. Giant oscillations of the current in a dirty 2D electron system flowing perpendicular to a lateral barrier under magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadigrobov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The charge transport in a dirty 2-dimensional electron system biased in the presence of a lateral potential barrier under magnetic field is theoretically studied. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides the quantum interference of the edge states localized on its both sides that results in giant oscillations of the charge current flowing perpendicular to the lateral junction. Our theoretical analysis is in a good agreement with the experimental observations presented in Kang et al. [Lett. Nat. 403, 59 (2000)]. In particular, positions of the conductance maxima coincide with the Landau levels while the conductance itself is essentially suppressed even at the energies at which the resonant tunnelling occurs and hence these puzzling observations can be resolved without taking into account the electron-electron interaction.

  6. A New Low Complexity Angle of Arrival Algorithm for 1D and 2D Direction Estimation in MIMO Smart Antenna Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. G. Al-Sadoon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new low complexity angle of arrival (AOA method for signal direction estimation in multi-element smart wireless communication systems. The new method estimates the AOAs of the received signals directly from the received signals with significantly reduced complexity since it does not need to construct the correlation matrix, invert the matrix or apply eigen-decomposition, which are computationally expensive. A mathematical model of the proposed method is illustrated and then verified using extensive computer simulations. Both linear and circular sensors arrays are studied using various numerical examples. The method is systematically compared with other common and recently introduced AOA methods over a wide range of scenarios. The simulated results show that the new method has several advantages in terms of reduced complexity and improved accuracy under the assumptions of correlated signals and limited numbers of snapshots.

  7. A 2D domain decomposition, a customized immersed boundary method and a zest of numerical dissipation: a successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizet, Sylvain; Lamballais, Eric; Vassilicos, J. Christos

    2015-11-01

    Incompact3d is a high-order flow solver dedicated to Direct and Large Eddy Simulations (DNS/LES) using High Performance Computing (HPC) systems which isdevoted to turbulent flows at the interface between academic research and upstream industrial R&D. It is originating from the University of Poitiers (France) and was developed there as well as, more recently, in the Turbulence, Mixing and Flow Control Group at Imperial College London (UK). This high-order flow solver can reconcile accuracy, efficiency, versatility and scalability using a simple Cartesian mesh and up to one million computational cores. The three key ingredients of this successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systemswill be given in this talkfollowed by various applications such as fractal-generated turbulence, gravity currents in an open basin, impinging jets on a heated plate and a micro-jet device to control a turbulent jet.

  8. MERRA DAS 2D Constants V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0NXASM or const_2d_asm_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...

  9. Coupling and Shielding Properties of the Baffle in ICP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Brcka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is dealing with experimental and computational evaluation of the deposition baffle that is transparent to radio frequency (RF magnetic fields generated by an external antenna in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP source but opaque to the deposition of the metal onto a dielectric wall in ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD system. Various engineering aspects related to the deposition baffle are discussed. Among the many requirements focus is on specific structure of the slots and analysis to minimize deposition on the baffle (we used a string model for simulating the profile evolution and deposition through the DB on dielectric components of the ICP source. Transparency of the baffle to RF magnetic fields is computed using a three-dimensional (3D electromagnetic field solver. A simple two-dimensional sheath model is used to understand plasma interactions with the DB slot structure. Performance and possible failure of device are briefly discussed.

  10. A system with coupled processors and simultaneous arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    In this work, motivated by emerging applications in wireless concurrent access networks and manufacturing, we analyze for the first time a system of two coupled queues accepting three flows of jobs, say a central and two background. A job from the central flow is split in two sub-jobs, which are placed simultaneously at each queue, while each background job joins a dedicated queue. We also assume that the departure rate at each queue, depends on the presence/absence of jobs in the other queue. We investigate stability conditions and prove that the generating function of the joint queue length distribution is obtained as a solution of a Dirichlet boundary value problem. A simple numerical example is also presented.

  11. A new imaging 2D and 3D for musculo-skeletal physiology and pathology with low radiation dose and standing position: the EOS system; Une nouvelle imagerie osteo-articulaire basse dose en position debout: le systeme EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubousset, J. [Academie Nationale de Medecine, et Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique, 75 - Paris (France); Charpak, G.; Dorion, I. [Biospace, Instruments, 75 - Paris (France); Skalli, W.; Lavaste, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France); Deguise, J. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie Orthopedique, Montreal (Canada); Kalifa, G.; Ferey, S. [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-06-01

    Very precise combined work between multidisciplinary partners (radiation engineers in physics, engineers in bio-mechanics, medical radiologists and orthopedic pediatric surgeons) lead to the concept and development of a new low dose radiation device named EOS. This device allows 3 main advantages: (1) thanks to the invention of Georges Charpak (Nobel Price 1992) who designed gaseous detectors for X-rays, the reduction of dose necessary to obtain a good image of skeletal system was 8 to 10 times less for 2D imaging, compared to the dose necessary to obtain a 3D reconstruction from CT scan cuts the reduction factor was 800 to 1000. (2) The accuracy of 3D reconstruction obtained is as good as a 3D reconstruction from CT scan cuts. (3) The patient in addition get its imaging in standing functional position thank to the X-rays obtained from head to feet simultaneously AP and lateral. This is a big advantage compared to CT scan used only in lying position. From this simultaneous AP and lateral X-rays of the whole body thanks to the 3D bone external envelop technique, the engineers in bio-mechanics allowed to obtain 3D reconstruction of every level of osteo-articular system in standing position with an acceptable period of time (15 to 30 minutes). This (in spite of the evolution of standing MRI) allows more precise bone reconstruction in orthopedics especially at the level of spine, lower limbs, etc. In addition the fact to study the entire skeleton in standing functional position instead of small segmented studies given by CT scan in lying position produce a real improvement as well for physiology as for pathology of bone and joints disorders and especially for spinal pathology. (author)

  12. Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jarzynski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E. Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton’s equations in the full phase space.

  13. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  14. 2D Organic Materials for Optoelectronic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangxu; Cheng, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Ren, Xiaochen; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-01

    The remarkable merits of 2D materials with atomically thin structures and optoelectronic attributes have inspired great interest in integrating 2D materials into electronics and optoelectronics. Moreover, as an emerging field in the 2D-materials family, assembly of organic nanostructures into 2D forms offers the advantages of molecular diversity, intrinsic flexibility, ease of processing, light weight, and so on, providing an exciting prospect for optoelectronic applications. Herein, the applications of organic 2D materials for optoelectronic devices are a main focus. Material examples include 2D, organic, crystalline, small molecules, polymers, self-assembly monolayers, and covalent organic frameworks. The protocols for 2D-organic-crystal-fabrication and -patterning techniques are briefly discussed, then applications in optoelectronic devices are introduced in detail. Overall, an introduction to what is known and suggestions for the potential of many exciting developments are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Pinning dynamic systems of networks with Markovian switching couplings and controller-node set

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yujuan; Lu, Wenlian; Li, Zhe; Chen, Tianping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study pinning control problem of coupled dynamical systems with stochastically switching couplings and stochastically selected controller-node set. Here, the coupling matrices and the controller-node sets change with time, induced by a continuous-time Markovian chain. By constructing Lyapunov functions, we establish tractable sufficient conditions for exponentially stability of the coupled system. Two scenarios are considered here. First, we prove that if each subsystem in t...

  16. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Defense Program ICE - Independent Cost Estimate IOC - Initial Operational Capability Inc - Increment JROC - Joint Requirements Oversight Council $K...Cost Estimate Reference POE dated February 02, 2015 Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 50% The ICE to support the E...Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation Contractor Location: 2000 West NASA Boulevard Melbourne , FL 32904 Contract Number: N00019-10-C-0044/5 Contract Type

  17. A Study On the Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy and Integrated Systemic Couple Therapy on reducing Intimacy Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هاجر فلاح زاده

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT and integrated systemic couple therapy (IST on resolving intimacy anxiety. For this purpose, 30 couples were randomly selected and based on their pretests were assigned into two experimental and one control groups. Research instruments were Fear of Intimacy Scale (FIS (Descutner & Thelen, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS (Spanier, 1976. A Nine-session of EFT was conducted for one experiment group and eight sessions of IST for the other. The control group did not receive any treatment. These three groups completed post test at the end of the experiment, and follow-up test 3 months later. Results indicated that EFT and IST significantly decreased intimacy anxiety in couples, and the treatment effect was consistent after 3 months follow-up.

  18. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  19. Simulating forest landscape disturbances as coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael; Sohl, Terry L.; Liu, Zhihua; Lamsal, Aashis

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances resulting from human land use affect forest landscapes over a range of spatial and temporal scales, with diverse influences on vegetation patterns and dynamics. These processes fall within the scope of the coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) concept, which has emerged as an important framework for understanding the reciprocal interactions and feedbacks that connect human activities and ecosystem responses. Spatial simulation modeling of forest landscape change is an important technique for exploring the dynamics of CHANS over large areas and long time periods. Landscape models for simulating interactions between human activities and forest landscape dynamics can be grouped into two main categories. Forest landscape models (FLMs) focus on landscapes where forests are the dominant land cover and simulate succession and natural disturbances along with forest management activities. In contrast, land change models (LCMs) simulate mosaics of different land cover and land use classes that include forests in addition to other land uses such as developed areas and agricultural lands. There are also several examples of coupled models that combine elements of FLMs and LCMs. These integrated models are particularly useful for simulating human–natural interactions in landscapes where human settlement and agriculture are expanding into forested areas. Despite important differences in spatial scale and disciplinary scope, FLMs and LCMs have many commonalities in conceptual design and technical implementation that can facilitate continued integration. The ultimate goal will be to implement forest landscape disturbance modeling in a CHANS framework that recognizes the contextual effects of regional land use and other human activities on the forest ecosystem while capturing the reciprocal influences of forests and their disturbances on the broader land use mosaic.

  20. Coupling conditions for globally stable and robust synchrony of chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Mishra, Arindam; Padmanaban, E; Bhowmick, Sourav K; Roy, Prodyot K; Dam, Bivas; Dana, Syamal K

    2017-06-01

    We propose a set of general coupling conditions to select a coupling profile (a set of coupling matrices) from the linear flow matrix of dynamical systems for realizing global stability of complete synchronization (CS) in identical systems and robustness to parameter perturbation. The coupling matrices define the coupling links between any two oscillators in a network that consists of a conventional diffusive coupling link (self-coupling link) as well as a cross-coupling link. The addition of a selective cross-coupling link in particular plays constructive roles that ensure the global stability of synchrony and furthermore enables robustness of synchrony against small to nonsmall parameter perturbation. We elaborate the general conditions for the selection of coupling profiles for two coupled systems, three- and four-node network motifs analytically as well as numerically using benchmark models, the Lorenz system, the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, the Shimizu-Morioka laser model, the Rössler system, and a Sprott system. The role of the cross-coupling link is, particularly, exemplified with an example of a larger network, where it saves the network from a breakdown of synchrony against large parameter perturbation in any node. The perturbed node in the network transits from CS to generalized synchronization (GS) when all the other nodes remain in CS. The GS is manifested by an amplified response of the perturbed node in a coherent state.

  1. The allostery landscape: quantifying thermodynamic couplings in biomolecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cuendet, Michel A; LeVine, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Allostery plays a fundament role in most biological processes. However, little theory is available to describe it outside of two-state models. Here we use a statistical mechanical approach to show that the allosteric coupling between two collective variables is not a single number, but instead a two-dimensional thermodynamic coupling function that is directly related to the mutual information from information theory and the copula density function from probability theory. On this basis, we demonstrate how to quantify the contribution of specific energy terms to this thermodynamic coupling function, enabling a decomposition that reveals the mechanism of allostery. We illustrate the thermodynamic coupling function and its use by showing how allosteric coupling in the alanine dipeptide molecule contributes to the overall shape of the {\\Phi}/{\\Psi} free energy surface, and by identifying the interactions that are necessary for this coupling.

  2. Optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Yujue; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    2D materials including graphene and TMDs have proven interesting physical properties and promising optoelectronic applications. We reviewed the growth, characterization and optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and their heterostructures, and demonstrated their unique and high quality of performances. For example, we observed the large mobility, fast response and high photo-responsivity in MoS2, WS2 and WSe2 phototransistors, as well as the novel performances in vdW heterostructures such as the strong interlayer coupling, am-bipolar and rectifying behaviour, and the obvious photovoltaic effect. It is being possible that 2D family materials could play an increasingly important role in the future nano- and opto-electronics, more even than traditional semiconductors such as silicon.

  3. Realities of using visually coupled systems for training applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawsky, Roy S.

    1992-10-01

    Visually coupled system developments have led to the concept of a Virtual Cockpit known as the Super Cockpit. Advances in Super Cockpit enabling technologies has resulted in an exciting spin-off called Virtual Environments or Virtual Reality. Press release claim almost limitless possibilities for this technology. Unfortunately the level of technology required to achieve actual Virtual Reality (VR) has still to be realized. Inspection of current VR systems readily reveals several fundamental problems. However, by fully understanding the limitations in VR technology and the complex human factors interface it is possible to apply VR to many applications, especially in training. In order to create virtual reality the technology limitations must be understood and overcome. Whatever solution is eventually derived, it must fully address the complex human factors issue. This paper will review the realities of virtual environments in terms of the limitations in technology and the apparent lack of human factors understanding. The establishment and development of the British Aerospace Virtual Cockpit Facility at Brough, one of the UK's largest Virtual Environmental laboratories has provided an insight into the key issues of virtual reality. These facilities are engaged in the evaluation of fundamental engineering and human factors issues. In order to illustrate the major problems and how they can be overcome, the results of some of these studies are given.

  4. A coupled modelling system for the Irish Sea and Liverpool Bay with application to coastal flood forecasting and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.; Bricheno, L. R.; Brown, J. E.; Bolaños, R.

    2012-04-01

    The POLCOMS-WAM coupled wave and hydrodynamic model has been implemented at 1.8km resolution for the Irish Sea and 180m in a nested model of Liverpool Bay. It can be forced with output from the UK Met Office Unified Model. This allows the use of Smith and Banke (1975) and Charnock (1955) formulations for the wind-stress. The former gives an underestimate of the wind-stress, requiring enhanced winds for accurate surge hindcasts. While the latter gives good results for the Irish Sea and Liverpool Bay, with different values of the Charnock coefficient, it also allows the inclusion of a coupled wave stress into the wind-stress (Brown and Wolf, 2009). New results have been obtained by using wind and pressures from the WRF atmospheric model, allowing further development of air-sea coupling. The coupled model also includes bottom friction and the Doppler shift of the waves by the depth-averaged current), as well as advanced coupling procedures: use of the 3D current in the wave physics and calculation of radiation stress and Stokes' drift (Brown et al., 2011). During storm conditions it is found that the radiation stress is the most important term in this shallow water application. However, WAM runs in near real time, making this model only practical for research purposes. The model system has been used to hindcast tides, surges and waves in Liverpool Bay. Data are readily available from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory to quantify the importance of each coupled term with the aim of producing the most accurate model setup for coastal forecasting. A storm event, 18th January 2007, has been hindcast to investigate extreme tide-surge-wave condition both offshore and inshore. During storm events, wave setup in shallow regions can contribute significantly to the total water elevation. The application of a 2D method to calculate radiation stress in a 3D hydrodynamic model is thoroughly examined by comparison with observations and a 3D model (Mellor, 2003). The results show

  5. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System, TRMM Latent Heating and Cloud Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to imiprove the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D GCE model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF will be developed by the end of 2004 and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. The purpose of this proposal is to augment the current Goddard MMF and other cloud modeling activities. I this talk, I will present: (1) A summary of the second Cloud Modeling Workshop took place at NASA Goddard, (2) A summary of the third TRMM Latent Heating Workshop took place at Nara Japan, (3) A brief discussion on the Goddard research plan of using Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model, and (4) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  6. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System, 3D Cloud-Resolving Model and Cloud Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud- resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF in being developed and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes, ( 2 ) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), (3) A cloud library generated by Goddard MMF, and 3D GCE model, and (4) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  7. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System: TRMM Latent Heating and Cloud Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D GCE model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF will be developed by the end of 2004 and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. The purpose of this proposal is to augment the current Goddard MMF and other cloud modeling activities. In this talk, I will present: (1) A summary of the second Cloud Modeling Workshop took place at NASA Goddard, (2) A summary of the third TRMM Latent Heating Workshop took place at Nara Japan, (3) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  8. Critical thickness of transition from 2D to 3D growth and peculiarities of quantum dots formation in GexSi1-x/Sn/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Kokhanenko, Andrey P.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays using of tin as one of the deposited materials in GeSi/Sn/Si, GeSn/Si and GeSiSn/Si material systems is one of the most topical problems. These materials are very promising for various applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics due to possibility of band gap management and synthesis of direct band semiconductors within these systems. However, there is a lack of theoretical investigations devoted to the peculiarities of germanium on silicon growth in the presence of tin. In this paper a new theoretical approach for modeling growth processes of binary and ternary semiconductor compounds during the molecular beam epitaxy in these systems is presented. The established kinetic model based on the general nucleation theory takes into account the change in physical and mechanical parameters, diffusion coefficient and surface energies in the presence of tin. With the help of the developed model the experimentally observed significant decrease in the 2D-3D transition temperatures for GeSiSn/Si system compared to GeSi/Si system is theoretically explained for the first time in the literature. Besides that, the derived expressions allow one to explain the experimentally observed temperature dependencies of the critical thickness, as well as to predict the average size and surface density of quantum dots for different contents and temperatures in growth experiment, that confirms applicability of the model proposed. Moreover, the established model can be easily applied to other material systems in which the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode occurs.

  9. Inverse synchronization of coupled fractional-order systems through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general explicit coupling via an open-plus-closed-loop control for inverse synchronization of two arbitrary unidirectionally or bidirectionally coupled fractional-order sys- tems is proposed. The inverse synchronization is proved analytically based on the stability theorem of the fractional differential equations. A key feature of ...

  10. GPCRDB: an information system for G protein-coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isberg, V.; Vroling, B.; Kant, R.; Li, K.; Vriend, G.; Gloriam, D.

    2014-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the GPCRDB (G protein-coupled receptors database; http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/) has been a 'one-stop shop' for G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-related data. The GPCRDB contains experimental data on sequences, ligand-binding constants, mutations and oligomers, as well as many

  11. Roles of 1,25(OH2D3 and Vitamin D Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Regulating the Activation of CD4+ T Cells and the PKCδ/ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jie He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Density gradient centrifugation was performed to separate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. CD4+ T cells were separated using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS. CD4+T cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected and assigned into 9 groups: the normal control group, the normal negative control (NC group, the VDR siRNA group, the RA control group, the RA NC group, the VDR over-expressed RA group, the SLE control group, the SLE NC group, and the VDR over-expressed SLE group. The mRNA and protein expressions of VDR, PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Bisulfite genomic sequencing was conducted to monitor the methylation status of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L. Results: Compared with healthy controls, serum 1,25(OH2D3 level and VDR mRNA expression in peripheral blood were decreased in SLE patients and RA patients. With the increase of concentrations of 1,25(OH2D3 treatment, the VDR mRNA expression and DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were declined, while the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were elevated in SLE, RA and normal CD4+T cells. Compared with the SLE contro, RA control, SLE NC and RA NC groups, the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L decreased but DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L increased in the VDR over-expressed SLE group and VDR over-expressed RA group. However, compared with the normal

  12. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  13. Two-Level System Coupled to Phonons : A Discrete Path-Integral Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Bart De; Raedt, Hans De

    1983-01-01

    A discrete path-integral representation for the partition function of a two-level tunneling system coupled to acoustic phonons is derived. This representation allows calculation of properties in the whole coupling range. As a function of the coupling there is an abrupt (ground-state) transition from

  14. The effect of finite response–time in coupled dynamical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper investigates synchronization in unidirectionally coupled dynamical systems wherein the influence of drive on response is cumulative: coupling signals are integrated over a time interval τ. A major consequence of integrative coupling is that the onset of the generalized and phase synchronization occurs ...

  15. Diffusion couple studies of the Ni-Bi-Sn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of Ni-Bi-Sn system were performed in order to inquire the phase diagram and to assess some diffusion kinetic parameters. For this purpose diffusion couples consisting of solid nickel (preliminary electroplated with tin and liquid Bi-Sn phase were annealed at 370 °C. Three compositions (0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mole fractions Sn of the Bi-Sn melts were chosen. Annealing times from 24 to 216 h were applied. The phase and chemical compositions of the contact zone were determined by means of electron scanning microscope. It was confirmed that the diffusion layers consist mainly of Ni3Sn4 but other intermetallic phases grow as well. For the first time metastable Ni-Sn phases as NiSn and NiSn8 (NiSn9 were observed in metallurgical alloys (i.e. not in electroplated samples. The existence of a ternary compound previously reported in the literature was confirmed. More than one ternary Ni-Bi-Sn compounds might possibly be admitted. A growth coefficient of (2.29 ± 0.02 x 10-15 m2 s-1 was obtained. It was found that the apparent activation energy for diffusion layers growth (18 ± 8 kJ mol-1 is inferior to that one assessed at growth from solid state Bi-Sn mixtures (88 ± 12 kJ mol-1.

  16. Fault Feature Analysis of a Cracked Gear Coupled Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the misalignment of gear root circle and base circle and accurate transition curve, an improved mesh stiffness model for healthy gear is proposed, and it is validated by comparison with the finite element method. On the basis of the improved method, a mesh stiffness model for a cracked gear pair is built. Then a finite element model of a cracked gear coupled rotor system in a one-stage reduction gear box is established. The effects of crack depth, width, initial position, and crack propagation direction on gear mesh stiffness, fault features in time domain and frequency domain, and statistical indicators are investigated. Moreover, fault features are also validated by experiment. The results show that the improved mesh stiffness model is more accurate than the traditional mesh stiffness model. When the tooth root crack appears, distinct impulses are found in time domain vibration responses, and sidebands appear in frequency domain. Amplitudes of all the statistical indicators ascend gradually with the growth of crack depth and width, decrease with the increasing crack initial position angle, and firstly increase and then decrease with the growth of propagation direction angle.

  17. Coupled Perturbed Hartree-Fock Calculation of the Static Polarizability for Periodic Systems: Implementation in the CRYSTAL Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, M.; Rérat, Michel; Orlando, R.; Dovesi, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Coupled Perturbed Hartree-Fock (CPHF) scheme has been implemented in CRYSTAL06, periodic ab initio computer code that uses a gaussian type basis set, in order to obtain the polarizability of crystalline systems (3D), slabs (2D), polymers (1D) and, as a limiting case, molecules (0D). The formulation is presented, together with applications referring to diamond, silicon and SiC. It turns out that, for a given hamiltonian and basis set, high numerical accuracy can be achieved at relatively low cost compared to the Finite Field perturbation method (FF), that uses a saw-tooth electric potential. Correctness of the CPHF results was tested with reference to FF calculations with CRYSTAL.

  18. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  19. An Open Source Framework for Coupled Hydro-Hydrogeo-Chemical Systems in Catchment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, J.; Sachse, A.; Gayler, S.; Grathwohl, P.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Klein, C.; Kolditz, O.; Maier, U.; Priesack, E.; Rink, K.; Selle, B.; Shao, H.; Singh, A. K.; Streck, T.; Sun, Y.; Wang, W.; Walther, M.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents an open-source framework designed to assist water scientists in the study of catchment hydraulic functions with associated chemical processes, e.g. contaminant degradation, plant nutrient turnover. The model successfully calculates the feedbacks between surface water, subsurface water and air in standard benchmarks. In specific model applications to heterogeneous catchments, subsurface water is driven by density variations and runs through double porous media. Software codes of water science are tightly coupled by iteration, namely the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for urban runoff, Expert-N for simulating water fluxes and nutrient turnover in agricultural and forested soils, and OpenGeoSys (OGS) for groundwater. The coupled model calculates flow of hydrostatic shallow water over the land surface with finite volume and difference methods. The flow equations for water in the porous subsurface are discretized in space with finite elements. Chemical components are transferred through 1D, 2D or 3D watershed representations with advection-dispersion solvers or, as an alternative, random walk particle tracking. A transport solver can be in sequence with a chemical solver, e.g. PHREEQ-C, BRNS, additionally. Besides coupled partial differential equations, the concept of hydrological response units is employed in simulations at regional scale with scarce data availability. In this case, a conceptual hydrological model, specifically the Jena Adaptable Modeling System (JAMS), passes groundwater recharge through a software interface into OGS, which solves the partial differential equations of groundwater flow. Most components of the modeling framework are open source and can be modified for individual purposes. Applications range from temperate climate regions in Germany (Ammer catchment and Hessian Ried) to arid regions in the Middle East (Oman and Dead See). Some of the presented examples originate from intensively monitored research sites of the

  20. CYP2D6 Polymorphisms in Patients with Porphyrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena V.; Parera, Victoria E.; Batlle, Alcira; Buzaleh, Ana María

    2006-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzymes, a superfamily of heme proteins which are the terminal oxidases of the mixed function oxidases system, metabolize more than 70% of all clinically approved drugs. The highly polymorphic CYP2D6 isoform metabolizes more than 25% of most common drugs, and the phenotypes of the 70-plus allelic variants range from compromised to excessive enzymatic activity. Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis, due to a specific decrease in the activity of one of the enzymes of the heme pathway. Clinical signs and symptoms of porphyrias are frequently associated with exposure to precipitating agents, including clinically approved drugs. CYP enzymes, including CYP2D6, participate in the metabolism of some porphyrinogenic drugs, leading to the deregulation of heme biosynthesis. Considering that some of the drugs not recommended for use in porphyric patients are metabolized by CYP2D6, the presence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in porphyric patients would influence the triggering of the disease when these individuals receive a precipitating agent that is metabolized by CYP2D6. To investigate CYP2D6 polymorphisms in porphyric patients, healthy Argentinean volunteers, porphyric patients, and a group of individuals with high levels of iron were studied. Results indicated that the CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 alleles, in particular, would be linked to the onset of disease. Predictive genotyping for CYP2D6 in porphyric patients holds promise as a method to improve the clinical efficacy of drug therapy and to personalize drug administration for these patients. PMID:17225875

  1. Translationally invariant coupled cluster theory for simple finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.F.; Flynn, M.F. (Department of Mathematics, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)); Bosca, M.C.; Buendriaaa, E.; Guardiola, R. (Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain))

    1990-10-01

    The widely used coupled cluster method (CCM) in quantum many-body theory has recently provided very accurate descriptions of a large number of extended systems. Although its earlier applications to closed-shell and neighboring finite nuclei were also very successful, they have been shrouded in algebraic and technical complexity. Furthermore, they are difficult to compare with more traditional calculations of generalized shell-model theory since, at least at the important level of two-body correlations, they have been largely implemented in relative-coordinate space rather than the more usual oscillator configuration space. The CCM is reviewed here in the precise context of applications to simple finite systems. Special attention is paid to formulate it in such a way that comparison may be made with generalized shell-model or configuration-interaction (CI) theories. Particular regard is paid to an exact incorporation of translational invariance, so that any spuriosity associated with the center-of-mass motion is always avoided. An important side benefit is that the number of many-body configurations in the usual oscillator basis is dramatically reduced. We are thereby able to present both CI and CCM calculations on {sup 4}He up to the essentially unprecedented level of 60{h bar}{omega} in oscillator excitation energy, for two popular and quasirealistic choices of the nucleon-nucleon interaction for which exact Monte Carlo results are available for this nucleus. Although even our simplest approximations attain about 95% of the total binding energy, the convergence in the oscillator configuration space is shown to be both very slow and of a complicated nonuniform nature. Strong implications are drawn for standard implementations of generalized shell-model techniques for heavier nuclei.

  2. Space-dependent perfusion coefficient estimation in a 2D bioheat transfer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazán, Fermín S. V.; Bedin, Luciano; Borges, Leonardo S.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a method for estimating the space-dependent perfusion coefficient parameter in a 2D bioheat transfer model is presented. In the method, the bioheat transfer model is transformed into a time-dependent semidiscrete system of ordinary differential equations involving perfusion coefficient values as parameters, and the estimation problem is solved through a nonlinear least squares technique. In particular, the bioheat problem is solved by the method of lines based on a highly accurate pseudospectral approach, and perfusion coefficient values are estimated by the regularized Gauss-Newton method coupled with a proper regularization parameter. The performance of the method on several test problems is illustrated numerically.

  3. Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Denman, Kenneth L.; Brasseur , Guy; Chidthaisong, Amnat; Ciais, Philippe; Cox, Peter M.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Hauglustaine, Didier; Heinze, Christoph; Holland, Elisabeth; Jacob , Daniel; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ramachandran, Srikanthan; Leite da Silva Dias, Pedro; Wofsy, Steven C.; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2007-10-01

    The Earth's climate is determined by a number of complex connected physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the atmosphere, land and ocean. The radiative properties of the atmosphere, a major controlling factor of the Earth's climate, are strongly affected by the biophysical state of the Earth's surface and by the atmospheric abundance of a variety of trace constituents. These constituents include long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), as well as other radiatively active constituents such as ozone and different types of aerosol particles. The composition of the atmosphere is determined by processes such as natural and anthropogenic emissions of gases and aerosols, transport at a variety of scales, chemical and microphysical transformations, wet scavenging and surface uptake by the land and terrestrial ecosystems, and by the ocean and its ecosystems. These processes and, more generally the rates of biogeochemical cycling, are affected by climate change, and involve interactions between and within the different components of the Earth system. These interactions are generally nonlinear and may produce negative or positive feedbacks to the climate system. An important aspect of climate research is to identify potential feedbacks and assess if such feedbacks could produce large and undesired responses to perturbations resulting from human activities. Studies of past climate evolution on different time scales can elucidate mechanisms that could trigger nonlinear responses to external forcing. The purpose of this chapter is to identify the major biogeochemical feedbacks of significance to the climate system, and to assess current knowledge of their magnitudes and trends. Specifically, this chapter will examine the relationships between the physical climate system and the land surface, the carbon cycle, chemically reactive atmospheric gases and aerosol

  4. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg's and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. METHODS: Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. RESULTS: One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. CONCLUSIONS: We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as

  5. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg’s and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. Methods Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. Results One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. Conclusions We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as seen

  6. Phase Synchronization in Coupled Sprott Chaotic Systems Presented by Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Erjaee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase synchronization occurs whenever a linearized system describing the evolution of the difference between coupled chaotic systems has at least one eigenvalue with zero real part. We illustrate numerical phase synchronization results and stability analysis for some coupled Sprott chaotic systems presented by fractional differential equations.

  7. Atom localization in 2D for five-level atomic schemes in X-configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2015-09-01

    A five-level X-type atomic scheme is proposed to elucidate the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization in sub-wavelength domain by using different coupling situations of the atom with standing wave fields. The scheme is a mixture of two upper V- and lower Λ -type usual three level systems which both are connected at a common intermediate level. The combination of the upper and lower systems can lead to different atom localization patterns as lattice-, chain-, crater-, wave-, and spike-like structures. We discuss how these structures may depend on different coupling conditions of the atom with the standing wave fields. Finally, an experimental implementation for such an atomic model is presented using the 87Rb atoms.

  8. Study on coupled shock absorber system using four electromagnetic dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Y.; Hayashi, R.; Okano, H.; Suda, Y.; Nakano, K.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the electromagnetic damper, which is composed of an electric motor, a ball screw, and a nut, was proposed. The electromagnetic damper has high responsiveness, controllability, and energy saving performance. It has been reported that it improved ride comfort and drivability. In addition, the authors have proposed a coupling method of two electromagnetic dampers. The method enables the characteristics of bouncing and rolling or pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. In this study, the authors increase the number of coupling of electromagnetic dampers from two to four, and propose a method to couple four electromagnetic dampers. The proposed method enables the characteristics of bouncing, rolling and pitching motion of a vehicle to be tuned independently. Basic experiments using proposed circuit and motors and numerical simulations of an automobile equipped with the proposed coupling electromagnetic damper are carried out. The results indicate the proposed method is effective.

  9. Micropolar curved rods. 2-D, high order, Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New models for micropolar plane curved rods have been developed. 2-D theory is developed from general 2-D equations of linear micropolar elasticity using a special curvilinear system of coordinates related to the middle line of the rod and special hypothesis based on assumptions that take into account the fact that the rod is thin.High order theory is based on the expansion of the equations of the theory of elasticity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. First stress and strain tensors,vectors of displacements and rotation and body force shave been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate.Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hooke’s law have been transformed to the corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then in the same way as in the theory of elasticity, system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients have been obtained. The Timoshenko’s and Euler-Bernoulli theories are based on the classical hypothesis and 2-D equations of linear micropolar elasticity in a special curvilinear system. The obtained equations can be used to calculate stress-strain and to model thin walled structures in macro, micro and nano scale when taking in to account micropolar couple stress and rotation effects.

  10. Design of multi-energy Helds coupling testing system of vertical axis wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion efficiency of wind energy is the focus of researches and concerns as one of the renewable energy. The present methods of enhancing the conversion efficiency are mostly improving the wind rotor structure, optimizing the generator parameters and energy storage controller and so on. Because the conversion process involves in energy conversion of multi-energy fields such as wind energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy, the coupling effect between them will influence the overall conversion efficiency. In this paper, using system integration analysis technology, a testing system based on multi-energy field coupling (MEFC) of vertical axis wind power system is proposed. When the maximum efficiency of wind rotor is satisfied, it can match to the generator function parameters according to the output performance of wind rotor. The voltage controller can transform the unstable electric power to the battery on the basis of optimizing the parameters such as charging times, charging voltage. Through the communication connection and regulation of the upper computer system (UCS), it can make the coupling parameters configure to an optimal state, and it improves the overall conversion efficiency. This method can test the whole wind turbine (WT) performance systematically and evaluate the design parameters effectively. It not only provides a testing method for system structure design and parameter optimization of wind rotor, generator and voltage controller, but also provides a new testing method for the whole performance optimization of vertical axis wind energy conversion system (WECS).

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bosca, Ryan [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); O’Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  12. Target tracking using a 2D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kriel, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This chapter briefly outlines a few mathematical techniques to track targets in 3D using a 2D radar. 2D radars are relatively cheap and efficient sensors that often form the first line of defence in airspace control. In military applications...

  13. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S Jimena; Odella, Emmanuel; Moore, Gary F; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2018-01-08

    Artificial photosynthetic constructs can in principle operate more efficiently than natural photosynthesis because they can be rationally designed to optimize solar energy conversion for meeting human demands rather than the multiple needs of an organism competing for growth and reproduction in a complex ecosystem. The artificial photosynthetic constructs described in this Account consist primarily of covalently linked synthetic chromophores, electron donors and acceptors, and proton donors and acceptors that carry out the light absorption, electron transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes characteristic of photosynthetic cells. PCET is the movement of an electron from one site to another accompanied by proton transfer. PCET and the transport of protons over tens of angstroms are important in all living cells because they are a fundamental link between redox processes and the establishment of transmembrane gradients of proton electrochemical potential, known as proton-motive force (PMF), which is the unifying concept in bioenergetics. We have chosen a benzimidazole phenol (BIP) system as a platform for the study of PCET because with appropriate substitutions it is possible to design assemblies in which one or multiple proton transfers can accompany oxidation of the phenol. In BIP, oxidation of the phenol increases its acidity by more than ten pKa units; thus, electrochemical oxidation of the phenol is associated with a proton transfer to the imidazole. This is an example of a PCET process involving transfer of one electron and one proton, known as electron-proton transfer (EPT). When the benzimidazole moiety of BIP is substituted at the 4-position with good proton acceptor groups such as aliphatic amines, experimental and theoretical results indicate that two proton transfers occur upon one-electron oxidation of the phenol. This phenomenon is described as a one-electron-two-proton transfer (E2PT) process and results in translocation of

  14. A discrete Fourier-encoded, diagonal-free experiment to simplify homonuclear 2D NMR correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zebin; Guan, Quanshuai; Chen, Zhong; Frydman, Lucio; Lin, Yulan

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long served as an irreplaceable, versatile tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials sciences, owing to its ability to study molecular structure and dynamics in detail. In particular, the connectivity of chemical sites within molecules, and thereby molecular structure, becomes visible by multi-dimensional NMR. Homonuclear correlation experiments are a powerful tool for identifying coupled spins. Generally, diagonal peaks in these correlation spectra display the strongest intensities and do not offer any new information beyond the standard one-dimensional spectrum, whereas weaker, symmetrically placed cross peaks contain most of the coupling information. The cross peaks near the diagonal are often affected by the tails of strong diagonal peaks or even obscured entirely by the diagonal. In this paper, we demonstrate a homonuclear encoding approach based on imparting a discrete phase modulation of the targeted cross peaks and combine it with a site-selective sculpting scheme, capable of simplifying the patterns arising in these 2D correlation spectra. The theoretical principles of the new methods are laid out, and experimental observations are rationalized on the basis of theoretical analyses. The ensuing techniques provide a new way to retrieve 2D coupling information within homonuclear spin systems, with enhanced sensitivity, speed, and clarity.

  15. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  16. 2D Numerical Simulation of Improving Wellbore Stability in Shale Using Nanoparticles Based Drilling Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiwei Song; Ye Yuan; Sui Gu; Xianyu Yang; Ye Yue; Jihua Cai; Guosheng Jiang

    2017-01-01

    ...) on Atoka shale samples, this paper reports the numerical simulation findings of wellbore stability in the presence of NP based drilling fluid, using the 2D fluid-solid coupling model in FLAC3D™ software...

  17. Synchronization of N-coupled incommensurate fractional-order chaotic systems with ring connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshad, Saleh Sayyad; Asheghan, Mohammad Mostafa; Beheshti, Mohammadtaghi Hamidi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, based on the stability theorem of linear fractional systems, a necessary condition is given to synchronize N-coupled incommensurate fractional-order chaotic systems with ring connection. Chaos synchronization is studied by utilizing the coupling method that includes unidirectional and bidirectional coupling. The main contribution of this work is to design the coupling parameters in which it is shown that our proposed controller does stabilize error dynamics around all of equilibriums of master system. Finally, the claims are justified through a set of simulations and results coincide with the theoretical analysis.

  18. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  19. RNA folding pathways and kinetics using 2D energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Evan; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    RNA folding pathways play an important role in various biological processes, such as (i) the hok/sok (host-killing/suppression of killing) system in E. coli to check for sufficient plasmid copy number, (ii) the conformational switch in spliced leader (SL) RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, which controls trans splicing of a portion of the '5 exon, and (iii) riboswitches--portions of the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA that regulate genes by allostery. Since RNA folding pathways are determined by the energy landscape, we describe a novel algorithm, FFTbor2D, which computes the 2D projection of the energy landscape for a given RNA sequence. Given two metastable secondary structures A, B for a given RNA sequence, FFTbor2D computes the Boltzmann probability p(x, y) = Z(x,y)/Z that a secondary structure has base pair distance x from A and distance y from B. Using polynomial interpolationwith the fast Fourier transform,we compute p(x, y) in O(n(5)) time and O(n(2)) space, which is an improvement over an earlier method, which runs in O(n(7)) time and O(n(4)) space. FFTbor2D has potential applications in synthetic biology, where one might wish to design bistable switches having target metastable structures A, B with favorable pathway kinetics. By inverting the transition probability matrix determined from FFTbor2D output, we show that L. collosoma spliced leader RNA has larger mean first passage time from A to B on the 2D energy landscape, than 97.145% of 20,000 sequences, each having metastable structures A, B. Source code and binaries are freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor2D. The program FFTbor2D is implemented in C++, with optional OpenMP parallelization primitives.

  20. FILM ANIMASI 2D (DIMENSI PENYULUHAN KB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hidayatul Ahmad Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia Animation is an attempt to make a live presentation of static or moving, the animation may consist of images and music to blend together and become alive. In this case Multimedia Animation designed by using multimedia-based information technology. From year to year Multimedia Animation Film Animation shaped more advanced, both in coloring, and in concep movement. With the community Animation Film spoiled by progress dazzling animation creation. Later in the era of globalization in Indonesia's population penetration rate can be calculated very rapidly. So the authors designed an Animated Film to Family Planning Counseling to promote family planning in the community.Data collection methods used to make this application is the method of interview and literature study. For the development of the system in this paper by using development techniques Luther systems development models - Sutopo which consists of six stages: concept, design, collecting materials, assembly, testing and distribution. The results of this study are 2D Animation Film as a medium of socialization to Family Planning Department with extension. Avi and will be distributed via CD media and aired on Social Media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. This animation movie aims to be one choice as the media reduces the increase in the number of residents is too drastic. Keywords: movies, animation, family planning, Luther-Sutopo

  1. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, Kimberly L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set of multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  2. Zero field entanglement in dipolar coupling spin system at negative temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    A dipolar coupled spin system can achieve internal thermodynamic equilibrium states at negative absolute temperature. We study analytically and numerically the temperature dependence of the concurrence in a dipolar coupled spin-1/2 system in both non-zero and zero fields and show that, at negative temperatures, entangled states can exist even in zero magnetic field.

  3. On Coupled Systems of Time-Fractional Differential Problems by Using a New Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alsaedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of solutions for a coupled system of time-fractional differential equations including continuous functions and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative is examined. After that we investigated a coupled system of time-fractional differential inclusions including compact- and convex-valued L1-Caratheodory multifunctions and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative.

  4. On Coupled Systems of Time-Fractional Differential Problems by Using a New Fractional Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaedi, Ahmed; Baleanu, Dumitru; Etemad, Sina; Rezapour, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    The existence of solutions for a coupled system of time-fractional differential equations including continuous functions and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative is examined. After that we investigated a coupled system of time-fractional differential inclusions including compact- and convex-valued L1-Caratheodory multifunctions and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative.

  5. Existence Results for a Coupled System of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate boundary value problems for a coupled system of nonlinear fractional differential equations involving Caputo derivative in Banach spaces. A generalized singular type coupled Gronwall inequality system is given to obtain an important a priori bound. Existence results are obtained by using fixed point theorems and an example is given to illustrate the results.

  6. Soliton solutions of coupled systems by improved (G'/G)-expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Shakeel, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The paper witnesses the extension of improved (G'/G)-expansion method to generate traveling wave solutions of coupled systems. The proposed algorithm is extremely effective and is tested on two very important systems (namely coupled Higgs and Maccari equations) in mathematical physics. Numerical results reflect complete compatibility of suggested scheme.

  7. Exact solution for a time-dependent multi-mode coupled quadratic Bose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiuwei; Mu Haifeng [College of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Liu Shuyan [College of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Guo Chun, E-mail: hai-fengmu@163.co [Office of Teaching Affairs, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2010-11-12

    By utilizing generalized linear quantum transformation theory, the evolution operator, normal and anti-normal Wigner characteristic functions, P- and Q-representations of a multi-mode coupled quadratic Boson system are presented. The squeezing properties of a time-dependent double-mode coupled quadratic Bose system are investigated as a specific example.

  8. Progress in 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arka; Fryett, Taylor; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zheng, Jiajiu; Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Syler, Kyle; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    2D semiconductors have recently emerged as promising optoelectronic materials, with high quantum efficiency of photoemission, absorption and nonlinear optical properties. With significant progress in understanding the material science of these atomically thin materials, and building devices with stand-alone monolayer materials, it is an opportune time to integrate these materials with existing optoelectronic platform to realize the full potential of the 2D materials. Here, we highlight our recent progress in 2D semiconductor integrated with nanophotonic resonators. Specifically, we report the operation of an optically pumped laser, cavity enhanced electroluminescence and cavity enhanced second harmonic generation.

  9. New factors influencing G protein coupled receptors' system functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New factors such as the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) surrounding's chemical environment, cell membrane constituents, the existent gap junction, endogenous receptor affinity status and animal species have been shown to influence the GPCR physiology and variations of those factors can modify the functions of the ...

  10. Multilayered tori in a system of two coupled logistic maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik

    2009-01-01

    of two coupled logistic maps through period-doubling or pitchfork bifurcations of the saddle cycle on an ordinary resonance torus. We hereafter present two different scenarios by which a multilayered torus can be destructed. One scenario involves a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations of both...

  11. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  12. SOLVABILITY OF COUPLED SYSTEMS OF FRACTIONAL ORDER INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H.G. Hashem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present existence theorems for coupled systems of quadratic integral equations of fractional order. As applications we deduce existence theorems for twocoupled systems of Cauchy problems. Also, an example illustrating the existence theorem is given.

  13. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  14. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  15. Coherence of strongly interacting 2D quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Luick, Niclas; Hueck, Klaus; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-04-01

    The dimensionality of a quantum system has a profound impact on its coherence and superfluid properties. In 2D systems true long-range coherence is precluded by thermal fluctuations, nevertheless they can still become superfluid as predicted by Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless. In this superfluid regime the first order coherence decays algebraically, free of any characteristic length scale. Here, we show coherence measurements in a strongly interacting 2D gas of diatomic 6Li molecules. A self-interference technique allows us to locally extract the algebraic decay exponent, which is directly linked to the superfluid density. Furthermore, we present our realization of a homogeneous ultracold 2D Fermi gas. It should enable the direct measurement of non-local quantities such as the momentum distribution, without the complication of averaging over the different densities present in a harmonic trap.

  16. Relation between delayed feedback and delay-coupled systems and its application to chaotic lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Miguel C., E-mail: miguel@ifisc.uib-csic.es; Flunkert, Valentin; Fischer, Ingo [Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Campus Universitat Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    We present a systematic approach to identify the similarities and differences between a chaotic system with delayed feedback and two mutually delay-coupled systems. We consider the general case in which the coupled systems are either unsynchronized or in a generally synchronized state, in contrast to the mostly studied case of identical synchronization. We construct a new time-series for each of the two coupling schemes, respectively, and present analytic evidence and numerical confirmation that these two constructed time-series are statistically equivalent. From the construction, it then follows that the distribution of time-series segments that are small compared to the overall delay in the system is independent of the value of the delay and of the coupling scheme. By focusing on numerical simulations of delay-coupled chaotic lasers, we present a practical example of our findings.

  17. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    , for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical......Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a...

  18. Long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) full gene sequencing of cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wanqiong; Yang, Yao; Sebra, Robert; Mendiratta, Geetu; Gaedigk, Andrea; Desnick, Robert J.; Scott, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The CYP2D6 enzyme metabolizes ~25% of common medications, yet homologous pseudogenes and copy-number variants (CNVs) make interrogating the polymorphic CYP2D6 gene with short-read sequencing challenging. Therefore, we developed a novel long-read, full gene CYP2D6 single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing method using the Pacific Biosciences platform. Long-range PCR and CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing of 10 previously genotyped controls identified expected star (*) alleles, but also enabled suballele resolution, diplotype refinement, and discovery of novel alleles. Coupled with an optimized variant calling pipeline, CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing was highly reproducible as triplicate intra- and inter-run non-reference genotype results were completely concordant. Importantly, targeted SMRT sequencing of upstream and downstream CYP2D6 gene copies characterized the duplicated allele in 15 control samples with CYP2D6 CNVs. The utility of CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing was further underscored by identifying the diplotypes of 14 samples with discordant or unclear CYP2D6 configurations from previous targeted genotyping, which again included suballele resolution, duplicated allele characterization, and discovery of a novel allele and tandem arrangement (CYP2D6*36+*41). Taken together, long-read CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing is an innovative, reproducible, and validated method for full-gene characterization, duplication allele-specific analysis and novel allele discovery, which will likely improve CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype prediction for both research and clinical testing applications. PMID:26602992

  19. On Shape Optimization for an Evolution Coupled System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leugering, G., E-mail: leugering@am.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Department of Mathematics (Germany); Novotny, A. A., E-mail: novotny@lncc.br; Perla Menzala, G., E-mail: perla@lncc.br [Coordenacao de Matematica Aplicada e Computacional, Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica LNCC/MCT (Brazil); Sokolowski, J., E-mail: Jan.Sokolowski@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Institut Elie Cartan, UMR 7502 (Nancy Universite, CNRS, INRIA), Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I (France)

    2011-12-15

    A shape optimization problem in three spatial dimensions for an elasto-dynamic piezoelectric body coupled to an acoustic chamber is introduced. Well-posedness of the problem is established and first order necessary optimality conditions are derived in the framework of the boundary variation technique. In particular, the existence of the shape gradient for an integral shape functional is obtained, as well as its regularity, sufficient for applications e.g. in modern loudspeaker technologies. The shape gradients are given by functions supported on the moving boundaries. The paper extends results obtained by the authors in (Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 33(17):2118-2131, 2010) where a similar problem was treated without acoustic coupling.

  20. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  1. A coupled wave-hydrodynamic model of a highly frictional atoll reef system: mechanisms for flow, connectivity, and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Monismith, S. G.; Fringer, O. B.; Koweek, D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic analysis of an atoll system from modeling simulations using a coupled wave and three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COAWST) applied to Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific. This is the first time the vortex force formalism has been applied in a highly frictional reef environment. The model results agree well with field observations considering the model complexity in terms of bathymetry, bottom roughness, and forcing (waves, wind, metrological, tides, regional boundary conditions), and open boundary conditions. At the atoll scale, strong regional flows create flow separation and a well-defined wake, similar to 2D flow past a cylinder. Circulation within the atoll is typically forced by waves and tides, with strong waves from the north driving flow from north to south across the atoll, and from east to west through the lagoon system. Bottom stress is significant for depths less than about 60 m, and in addition to the model bathymetry, is important for correct representation of flow in the model. Connectivity within the atoll system shows that the general trends follow the mean flow paths. However, some connectivity exists between all regions of the atoll system due to nonlinear processes such as eddies and tidal phasing. While high mean flow and travel time less than 20 hours appears to differentiate very productive coral regions, low temperature and moderate wave stress appear to be the most ideal conditions for high coral cover on Palmyra.

  2. Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy.

  3. Ultrafast Polariton-Phonon Dynamics of Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Nanocavity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Müller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the dynamics of a strongly coupled quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity system and explore the effects of this interaction on different schemes for nonclassical light generation. By performing time-resolved measurements, we map out the detuning-dependent polariton lifetime and extract the spectrum of the polariton-to-phonon coupling with unprecedented precision. Photon-blockade experiments for different pulse-length and detuning conditions (supported by quantum optical simulations reveal that achieving high-fidelity photon blockade requires an intricate understanding of the phonons’ influence on the system dynamics. Finally, we achieve direct coherent control of the polariton states of a strongly coupled system and demonstrate that their efficient coupling to phonons can be exploited for novel concepts in high-fidelity single-photon generation.

  4. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ren; Hu, Donghai

    2015-01-01

    Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and c...

  5. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muirhead, C. M., E-mail: c.m.muirhead@bham.ac.uk; Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-28

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  6. Formation and Destruction of Multilayered Tori in Coupled Map Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zh. T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2008-01-01

    -node bifurcation in which the middle layer of a three-layered torus disappears in an abrupt transition to chaos while the outer-layer manifolds and their associated saddle and unstable-focus cycles continue to exist and to control the transient dynamics. In a second scenario, the unstable focus cycles...... and thereafter also the inner layer. The paper also illustrates how the formation and destruction of multilayered tori can occur in the cluster dynamics of an ensemble of globally coupled maps. This leads to three additional scenarios for the destruction of multilayered tori. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  7. A Many-Atom Cavity QED System with Homogeneous Atom-Cavity Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jongmin; Teper, Igor; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.

  8. Service-Oriented Approach to Coupling Earth System Models and Modeling Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, J. L.; Saint, K. D.; Ercan, M. B.; Briley, L. J.; Murphy, S.; You, H.; DeLuca, C.; Rood, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling water systems often requires coupling models across traditional Earth science disciplinary boundaries. While there has been significant effort within various Earth science disciplines (e.g., atmospheric science, hydrology, and Earth surface dynamics) to create models and, more recently, modeling frameworks, there has been less work on methods for coupling across disciplinary-specific models and modeling frameworks. We present work investigating one possible method for coupling across disciplinary-specific Earth system models and modeling frameworks: service-oriented architectures. In a service-oriented architecture, models act as distinct units or components within a system and are designed to pass well defined messages to consumers of the service. While the approach offers the potential to couple heterogeneous computational models by allowing a high degree of autonomy across models of the Earth system, there are significant scientific and technical challenges to be addressed when coupling models designed for different communities and built for different modeling frameworks. We have addressed some of these challenges through a case study where we coupled a hydrologic model compliant with the OpenMI standard with an atmospheric model compliant with the EMSF standard. In this case study, the two models were coupled through data exchanges of boundary conditions enabled by exposing the atmospheric model as a web service. A discussion of the technical and scientific challenges, some that we have addressed and others that remain open, will be presented including differences in computer architectures, data semantics, and spatial scales between the coupled models.

  9. Circumplex Model of Marital Systems: An Empirical Study of Clinic and Nonclinic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenkle, Douglas H.; Olson, David H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction processes of 25 couples receiving marriage counseling were compared with a control group of 25 couples not receiving counseling. The study was a partial test of a circumplex model of marital and family systems. The major variable was adaptability. Creativity and support were also examined. (Author)

  10. Anti-NKG2D mAb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    production, and target cell killing. Research into the NKG2D mechanism of action has primarily been focused on cancer and viral infections where cytotoxicity evasion is a concern. In human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) this system is less characterized, but the ligands have been shown to be highly...

  11. Interacting electrons in a 2D quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Akman, N.; Tomak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The exact numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of a 2D circular quantum dot is performed for 2, 3, and 4 electrons.The results are compared with those of the perturbation theory.Our numerical results agree reasonably well for small values of the dimensionles coupling constant \\lambda=a\\over a_B where a is the dot radius and a_B is the effective Bohr radius.Exact diagonalization results are compared with the classical predictions, and they are found to be almost coincident for large \\l...

  12. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  13. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  14. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  15. Coupled Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System by QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    shoot to Sun from the center of Galaxy. The dynamic balance of forces on the solar surface plasma at once is broken and the plasma will upwards eject as the solar wind with redundant negative charge, at the same time, the solar surface remain a cavity as a sunspot whorl with the positive electric potential relative to around. The whorl caused by that the reaction of plasma eject front and upwards with the different velocity at different latitude of solar rotation, leads to the cavity around in the downwards and backwards helix movement. The solar rotation more slow, when the cavity is filled by around plasma in the reverse turn direction, the Jupiter at front had been produced a new cavity, so that we had observe the sunspot pair with different whorl directions and different magnetic polarity. Jupiter possess half mass of all planets in solar system, its action to stop net nuν _{0} flux is primary, so that Jupiter’s period of 11.8 sidereal years accord basically with the period of sunspot eruptions. The solar wind is essentially the plasma with additional electrons flux ejected from the solar surface: its additional electrons come from the ionosphere again eject into the ionosphere and leads to the direct connect between the solar wind and the ionosphere; its magnetism from its redundant negative charge and leads to the connect between the solar wind and the magnetosphere; it possess the high temperature of the solar surface and ejecting kinetic energy leads to the thermo-exchange connect between the solar wind and the thermosphere. Through the solar wind ejecting into and cross over the outside atmosphere carry out the electromagnetic, particles material and thermal exchanges, the Coupled Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System to be came into being. This conclusion is inferred only by QFT.

  16. Existence of solutions for a coupled system with ∅-Laplacian operators and nonlinear coupled boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goli Konan Charles Etienne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of solutions of the system submitted to nonlinear coupled boundary conditions on [0, T] where ∅1, ∅2: (-a, a → ℝ, with 0 < a < +∞, are two increasing homeomorphisms such that ∅1(0 = ∅2(0 = 0, and fi : [0, T] × ℝ4 → ℝ, i ∈{1, 2} are two L1-Carathéodory functions. Using some new conditions and Schauder fixed point Theorem, we obtain solvability result.

  17. Bidirectional Coupling Scheme of Chaotic Systems and its Application in Secure Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aceng Sambas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to show some interesting phenomena of three dimensional autonomous ordinary differential equations, the chaotic behavior as a function of a variable control parameter, has been studied. The initial study in this paper is to analyze the phase portraits, the Lyapunov exponents, the Poincaré maps and the bifurcation diagrams. Moreover, some appropriate comparisons are made to contrast some of the existing results. Finally, the effectiveness of the bidirectional coupling scheme between two identical Jerk circuits in a secure communication system is presented in details. Finally, the simulation results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method is correct and feasible

  18. Energy efficient pump couplings in HVAC systems; Energirigtige pumpekoblinger i HVAC systemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Peter; Andersen, Hans

    2004-12-01

    This report presents results form the pre-project: Energy efficient pump couplings in HVAC systems. The pre-project has shown that there is no barrier as regards construction preventing the use of variable flow in the surfaces. The theoretical saving potential can be can be realized of the order of approximately 50 %. For the heating surfaces alone the power saving potential by 100 % implementation of the principle in Denmark will be of the order of 100 GWh. Add to this a cooling saving potential and several diverted potentials. (BA)

  19. Topological skeleton of the 2-D slightly non-ideal MHD system close to X-type magnetic null points – an analysis of the general solution for the generic case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of eruptive space plasma processes, e.g. in eruptive flares as observed in the solar atmosphere, is usually assumed to be caused by magnetic reconnection, often connected with singular points of the magnetic field. We are interested in the general relation between the eigenvalues of the Jacobians of the plasma velocity and the magnetic field and their relation to the shape of a spatially varying, localized non-idealness or resistivity, i.e. we are searching for the general solution. We perform a local analysis of almost all regular, generic, structurally stable non-ideal or resistive MHD solutions. Therefore we use Taylor expansions of the magnetic field, the velocity field and all other physical quantities, including the non-idealness, and with the method of comparison of coefficients, the non-linear resistive MHD system is solved analytically, locally in a close vicinity of the null point. We get a parameterised general solution that provides us with the topological and geometrical skeleton of the resistive MHD fields. These local solutions provide us with the "roots" of field and streamlines around the null points of basically all possible 2-D reconnection solutions. We prove mathematically that necessarily, the flow close to the magnetic X-point must also be of X-point type to guarantee positive dissipation of energy and annihilation of magnetic flux. We also prove that, if the non-idealness has only a one-dimensional, sheet-like structure, only one separatrix line can be crossed by the plasma flow, similar to known reconnective annihilation solutions.

  20. Three-phase inductive-coupled structures for contactless PHEV charging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-You; Shen, Hung-Yu; Li, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, a new-type three-phase inductive-coupled structure is proposed for the contactless plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging system regarding with SAE J-1773. Four possible three-phase core structures are presented and subsequently investigated by the finite element analysis. To study the correlation between the core geometric parameter and the coupling coefficient, the magnetic equivalent circuit model of each structure is also established. In accordance with the simulation results, the low reluctance and the sharing of flux path in the core material are achieved by the proposed inductive-coupled structure with an arc-shape and three-phase symmetrical core material. It results in a compensation of the magnetic flux between each phase and a continuous flow of the output power in the inductive-coupled structure. Higher coupling coefficient between inductive-coupled structures is achieved. A comparison of coupling coefficient, mutual inductance, and self-inductance between theoretical and measured results is also performed to verify the proposed model. A 1 kW laboratory scale prototype of the contactless PHEV charging system with the proposed arc-shape three-phase inductive-coupled structure is implemented and tested. An overall system efficiency of 88% is measured when two series lithium iron phosphate battery packs of 25.6 V/8.4 Ah are charged.

  1. Wideband 2D array design optimization with fabrication constraints for 3D US imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Emmanuel; Ramalli, Alessandro; Herve, Liebgott; Cachard, Christian; Robini, Marc; Tortoli, Piero

    2016-10-03

    Ultrasound two-dimensional (2D) arrays are raising increasing interest for their electronic steering capability to investigate three-dimensional (3D) regions without requiring any probe movement. These arrays are typically populated by thousands of elements that, ideally, should be individually driven by the companion scanner. Since this is not convenient, the so-called microbeamforming methods, yielding a pre-beamforming stage performed in the probe handle by suitable custom integrated circuits, have been so far implemented in a few commercial high-end scanners. A possible approach to implement relatively cheap and efficient 3D ultrasound imaging systems is using 2D sparse arrays in which a limited number of elements can be coupled to an equal number of independent transmit/receive channels. In order to obtain ultrasound beams with adequate characteristics all over the investigated volume, the layout of such arrays must be carefully designed. This paper provides guidelines to design, by using simulated annealing optimization, 2D sparse arrays capable of fitting specific applications or fabrication/implementation constraints. In particular, an original energy function based on multi-depth 3D analysis of the beam pattern is also exploited. A tutorial example is given, addressed to find the �������� elements which should be activated in a 2D fully populated array to yield efficient acoustic radiating performance over the entire volume. The proposed method is applied to a 32x32 array centered at 3 MHz to select the 128, 192 and 256 elements that provide the best acoustic performance. It is shown that the 256-element optimized array yields sidelobe levels even lower (by 5.7 dB) than that of the reference 716-element circular and (by 10.3 dB) than that of the reference 1024-element array.

  2. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.

  3. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  4. Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Panayotaros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.

  5. Spin dynamical phase and anti-resonance in a strongly coupled magnon-photon system

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Michael; Hyde, Paul; Bai, Lihui; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally studied a strongly coupled magnon-photon system via microwave transmission measurements. An anti-resonance, i.e. the suppression of the microwave transmission, is observed, indicating a relative phase change between the magnon response and the driving microwave field. We show that this anti-resonance feature can be used to interpret the phase evolution of the coupled magnon-microwave system and apply this technique to reveal the phase evolution of magnon dark modes. Our work...

  6. Asymptotic Solutions of Time-Space Fractional Coupled Systems by Residual Power Series Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the asymptotic solutions to time-space fractional coupled systems, where the fractional derivative and integral are described in the sense of Caputo derivative and Riemann-Liouville integral. We introduce the Residual Power Series (for short RPS method to construct the desired asymptotic solutions. Furthermore, we apply this method to some time-space fractional coupled systems. The simplicity and efficiency of RPS method are shown by the application.

  7. Micromagnetic Simulations of Anisotropies in Coupled and Uncoupled Ferromagnetic Nanowire Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Blachowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a variation of spatial relative orientations onto the coupling dynamics and subsequent magnetic anisotropies was modeled in ferromagnetic nanowires. The wires were analyzed in the most elementary configurations, thus, arranged in pairs perpendicular to each other, leading to one-dimensional (linear and zero-dimensional (point-like coupling. Different distances within each elementary pair of wires and between the pairs give rise to varying interactions between parallel and perpendicular wires, respectively. Simulated coercivities show an exchange of easy and hard axes for systems with different couplings. Additionally, two of the systems exhibit a unique switching behavior which can be utilized for developing new functionalities.

  8. The constructive role of diversity in the global response of coupled neuron systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Toni; Mirasso, Claudio R; Toral, Raúl; Gunton, James D

    2010-12-28

    We study the effect that the heterogeneity present among the elements of an ensemble of coupled excitable neurons has on the collective response of the system to an external signal. We consider two different interaction scenarios, one in which the neurons are diffusively coupled and another in which the neurons interact via pulse-like signals. We find that the type of interaction between the neurons has a crucial role in determining the response of the system to the external modulation. We develop a mean-field theory based on an order parameter expansion that quantitatively reproduces the numerical results in the case of diffusive coupling.

  9. Hexagonal Array Structure for 2d Nde Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewierz, J.; Ramadas, S. N.; Gachagan, A.; O'Leary, R. L.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a combination of simulation and experimentation to evaluate the advantages offered by utilizing a hexagonal shaped array element in a 2D NDE array structure. The active material is a 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric composite structure incorporating triangular shaped pillars—each hexagonal array element comprising six triangular pillars. A combination of PZFlex, COMSOL and Matlab has been used to simulate the behavior of this device microstructure, for operation around 2.25 MHz, with unimodal behavior and low levels of mechanical cross-coupling predicted. Furthermore, the application of hexagonal array elements enables the array aperture to increase by approximately 30%, compared to a conventional orthogonal array matrix and hence will provide enhanced volumetric coverage and SNR. Prototype array configurations demonstrate good corroboration of the theoretically predicted mechanical cross-coupling between adjacent array elements (˜23 dB).

  10. Algorithmic requirements for swarm intelligence in differently coupled collective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradner, Jürgen; Thenius, Ronald; Zahadat, Payam; Hamann, Heiko; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Swarm systems are based on intermediate connectivity between individuals and dynamic neighborhoods. In natural swarms self-organizing principles bring their agents to that favorable level of connectivity. They serve as interesting sources of inspiration for control algorithms in swarm robotics on the one hand, and in modular robotics on the other hand. In this paper we demonstrate and compare a set of bio-inspired algorithms that are used to control the collective behavior of swarms and modular systems: BEECLUST, AHHS (hormone controllers), FGRN (fractal genetic regulatory networks), and VE (virtual embryogenesis). We demonstrate how such bio-inspired control paradigms bring their host systems to a level of intermediate connectivity, what delivers sufficient robustness to these systems for collective decentralized control. In parallel, these algorithms allow sufficient volatility of shared information within these systems to help preventing local optima and deadlock situations, this way keeping those systems flexible and adaptive in dynamic non-deterministic environments.

  11. Small polarons in 2D perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-11-02

    We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of 2-D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, S.; Sahoo, P.; Afaneh, T.; Rodriguez Gutierrez, H.

    Atomically thin transition-metal dichacogenides (TMD), graphene, and boron nitride (BN) are two-dimensional materials where the charge carriers (electrons and holes) are confined to move in a plane. They exhibit distinctive optoelectronic properties compared to their bulk layered counterparts. When combined into heterostructures, these materials open more possibilities in terms of new properties and device functionality. In this work, WSe2 and graphene were grown using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques. The quality and morphology of each material was checked using Raman, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Graphene had been successfully grown homogenously, characterized, and transferred from copper to silicon dioxide substrates; these films will be used in future studies to build 2-D devices. Different morphologies of WSe2 2-D islands were successfully grown on SiO2 substrates. Depending on the synthesis conditions, the material on each sample had single layer, double layer, and multi-layer areas. A variety of 2-D morphologies were also observed in the 2-D islands. This project is supported by the NSF REU Grant #1560090 and NSF Grant #DMR-1557434.

  13. The 2D κ-Dirac oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Fabiano M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O., E-mail: edilbertoo@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís-MA (Brazil)

    2014-11-10

    In this Letter, 2D Dirac oscillator in the quantum deformed framework generated by the κ-Poincaré–Hopf algebra is considered. The problem is formulated using the κ-deformed Dirac equation. The resulting theory reveals that the energies and wave functions of the oscillator are modified by the deformation parameter.

  14. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  15. Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming-Hui

    2016-09-20

    It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

  17. Many-body effects in coupled light-matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordyuh, Mykola

    Interaction between light and matter is one of the most basic processes in nature and represents a cornerstone in our understanding of a broad range of physical phenom- ena. The increasing level of control over light-matter interactions with atomic and solid-state systems has brought forth a new class of quantum many-body systems realized on photon lattices where light and matter play equally important roles in emergent phenomena. Systems of strongly interacting atoms and photons, that can be realized by wiring up individual cavity QED systems into lattices, are perceived as a new platform for engineering synthetic hybrid light-matter systems. While sharing important properties with other systems of interacting quantum particles, here we argue that the nature of light-matter interaction gives rise to unique features with no analogs in condensed matter or atomic physics setups. The central topic of the thesis is a lattice of cavity QED systems described by the Rabi-Hubbard model. We de- scribe the most prominent features of the model associated with quantum criticality. We consider a realistic case of the system open to the environment and investigate thermal radiation from a lattice of cavity QED systems. Next, we demonstrate that the output radiation displays unique features associated with collective excitations of light and matter. Further, we consider a non-equilibrium lattice of cavity QED systems and demonstrate exotic attractors in the phase diagram, associated with the action of the environment, not present in the equilibrium analogs. We conclude the discussions with a theory of measurement applied to the non-equilibrium Dicke model and compare our findings to a recent experiment.

  18. Rayleigh scattering in an emitter-nanofiber-coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shui-Jing; Gao, Fei; Xu, Da; Li, Yan; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Scattering is a general process in both fundamental and applied physics. In this paper, we investigate Rayleigh scattering of a solid-state-emitter coupled to a nanofiber, by S -matrix-like theory in k -space description. Under this model, both Rayleigh scattering and dipole interaction are studied between a two-level artificial atom embedded in a nanocrystal and fiber modes (guided and radiation modes). It is found that Rayleigh scattering plays a critical role in the transport properties and quantum statistics of photons. On the one hand, Rayleigh scattering produces the transparency in the optical transmitted field of the nanofiber, accompanied by the change of atomic phase, population, and frequency shift. On the other hand, the interference between two kinds of scattering fields by Rayleigh scattering and dipole transition modifies the photon statistics (second-order autocorrelation function) of output fields, showing a strong wavelength dependence. This study provides guidance for the solid-state emitter acting as a single-photon source and can be extended to explore the scattering effect in many-body physics.

  19. Vibro-acoustic modeling and analysis of a coupled acoustic system comprising a partially opened cavity coupled with a flexible plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuangxia; Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Liu, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling and solution method of a three-dimensional (3D) coupled acoustic system comprising a partially opened cavity coupled with a flexible plate and an exterior field of semi-infinite size, which is ubiquitously encountered in architectural acoustics and is a reasonable representation of many engineering occasions. A general solution method is presented to predict the dynamic behaviors of the three-dimensional (3D) acoustic coupled system, in which the displacement of the plate and the sound pressure in the cavity are respectively constructed in the form of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional modified Fourier series with several auxiliary functions introduced to ensure the uniform convergence of the solution over the entire solution domain. The effect of the opening is taken into account via the work done by the sound pressure acting at the coupling aperture that is contributed from the vibration of particles on the acoustic coupling interface and on the structural-acoustic coupling interface. Both the acoustic coupling between finite cavity and exterior field and the structural-acoustic coupling between flexible plate and interior acoustic field are considered in the vibro-acoustic modeling of the three-dimensional acoustic coupled acoustic system. The dynamic responses of the coupled structural-acoustic system are obtained using the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure based on the energy expressions for the coupled system. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through numerical examples and comparison with results obtained by the boundary element analysis. Furthermore, the influence of the opening and the cavity volume on the acoustic behaviors of opened cavity system is studied.

  20. Design of an Improved Type Rotary Inductive Coupling Structure for Rotatable Contactless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the rotary inductive coupling structure of contactless rotary transformer. The main feature of the proposed rotatable contactless power transfer system is which winding is coaxial-interlayered for improving the magnetic coupling capability. There is no ferrite core used in the secondary-side of the rotary inductive coupling structure, this helps to ease the exerted force that is stress by the secondary-side on spindle. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed contactless power transfer system for rotary applications, an inductive powered rotary machinery and the control system have been integrated. The experimental results show that the maximum power transfer efficiency of the proposed rotary inductive coupling structure is about 94.8%. The maximum output power received in the load end is 1030 W with transmission efficiency of 88%.