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Sample records for couplage chimie transport

  1. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  2. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  3. Methodological study of the diffusion of interacting cations through clays. Application: experimental tests and simulation of coupled chemistry-diffusion transport of alkaline ions through a synthetical bentonite; Etude methodologique de la diffusion de cations interagissants dans les argiles. Application: mise en oeuvre experimentale et modelisation du couplage chimie-diffusion d'alcalins dans une bentonite synthetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkior, Th

    2000-07-01

    The subject of this work deals with the project of underground disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It concerns the study of the migration of radionuclides through clays. In these materials, the main transport mechanism is assumed to be diffusion under natural conditions. Therefore, some diffusion experiments are conducted. With interacting solutes which present a strong affinity for the material, the duration of these tests will be too long, for the range of concentrations of interest. An alternative is to determine on one hand the geochemical retention properties using batch tests and crushed rock samples and, on the other hand, to deduce the transport parameters from diffusion tests realised with a non-interacting tracer, tritiated water. These data are then used to simulate the migration of the reactive elements with a numerical code which can deal with coupled chemistry-diffusion equations. The validity of this approach is tested by comparing the numerical simulations with the results of diffusion experiments of cations through a clay. The subject is investigated in the case of the diffusion of cesium, lithium and sodium through a compacted sodium bentonite. The diffusion tests are realised with the through-diffusion method. The comparison between the experimental results and the simulations shows that the latter tends to under estimate the propagation of the considered species. The differences could be attributed to surface diffusion and to a decrease of the accessibility to the sites of fixation of the bentonite, from the conditions of clay suspensions in batch tests to the situation of compacted samples. The influence of the experimental apparatus used during the diffusion tests on the results of the measurement has also been tested. It showed that these apparatus have to be taken into consideration when the experimental data are interpreted. A specific model has been therefore developed with the numerical code CASTEM 2000. (author)

  4. Couplings in multiphasic geo-materials: temperature and chemistry effects; Couplages dans les geomateriaux multiphasiques: effets de la temperature et de la chimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemzadeh, H.

    2006-05-15

    Transport of chemical components in soil through water is the major cause of pollution of the soil. This transport takes place around landfills and nuclear waste storage areas, tailings and mine wastes, and so on. A great number of these sites are unsaturated of water and in some cases heat can change the fate of chemical species, that lead us to a coupled problem. In this dissertation, numerical simulation with an existent thermo-hydro-mechanical model and theoretical modeling and numerical simulation of transport and interactions of one chemical species in multiphase media are presented. Integrated THM model in the Code-Aster is presented. Excavation, engineering barrier and thermal load of waste nuclear storage well are modeled. Verification of model is presented with these simulations. A thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour coupled with chemical phenomena is presented with a fully coupled method that water, gas, chemical species and soil skeleton were considered as constituents and corresponding unknowns are temperature, water pressure, gas pressure, chemical concentration and displacements. For each constituent, mass balance equation and linear momentum equation are written and solved simultaneously to find related unknowns. The results of this model have been compared with the theoretical and experimental results existing in the literature. Furthermore, results of some applications of this model are included. Some areas where further work is required are identified. In particular, there is a need to perform experiments to obtain necessary soil parameters to permit accurate modelling of the heat and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils. (author)

  5. Coupling of neutron transport equations. First results; Couplage d`equations en transport neutronique. premiere approche 1D monocinetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, G.

    1995-07-01

    To achieve whole core calculations of the neutron transport equation, we have to follow this 2 step method: space and energy homogenization of the assemblies; resolution of the homogenized equation on the whole core. However, this is no more valid when accidents occur (for instance depressurization causing locally strong heterogeneous media). One solution consists then in coupling two kinds of resolutions: a fine computation on the damaged cell (fine mesh, high number of energy groups) coupled with a coarse one everywhere else. We only deal here with steady state solutions (which already live in 6D spaces). We present here two such methods: The coupling by transmission of homogenized sections and the coupling by transmission of boundary conditions. To understand what this coupling is, we first restrict ourselves to 1D with respect to space in one energy group. The first two chapters deal with a recall of basic properties of the neutron transport equation. We give at chapter 3 some indications of the behaviour of the flux with respect to the cross sections. We present at chapter 4 some couplings and give some properties. Chapter 5 is devoted to a presentation of some numerical applications. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Chimie des processus biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cours : Chimie biologique radicalaire : de l’origine de l’ADN au métabolisme d’aujourd’hui Il est généralement admis que les radicaux libres, espèces chimiques très réactives, sont des poisons pour les systèmes vivants qui ont élaboré des mécanismes efficaces pour s’en protéger et s’en débarrasser lorsqu’ils viennent à se former, par accident. Par exemple ce qu’on appelle communément le stress oxydant est une situation caractérisée par une accumulation de radicaux issus de l’oxygène moléculai...

  7. Some results on the neutron transport and the coupling of equations; Quelques resultats sur le transport neutronique et le couplage d`equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron transport in nuclear reactors is well modeled by the linear Boltzmann transport equation. Its resolution is relatively easy but very expensive. To achieve whole core calculations, one has to consider simpler models, such as diffusion or homogeneous transport equations. However, the solutions may become inaccurate in particular situations (as accidents for instance). That is the reason why we wish to solve the equations on small area accurately and more coarsely on the remaining part of the core. It is than necessary to introduce some links between different discretizations or modelizations. In this note, we give some results on the coupling of different discretizations of all degrees of freedom of the integral-differential neutron transport equation (two degrees for the angular variable, on for the energy component, and two or three degrees for spatial position respectively in 2D (cylindrical symmetry) and 3D). Two chapters are devoted to the coupling of discrete ordinates methods (for angular discretization). The first one is theoretical and shows the well posing of the coupled problem, whereas the second one deals with numerical applications of practical interest (the results have been obtained from the neutron transport code developed at the R and D, which has been modified for introducing the coupling). Next, we present the nodal scheme RTN0, used for the spatial discretization. We show well posing results for the non-coupled and the coupled problems. At the end, we deal with the coupling of energy discretizations for the multigroup equations obtained by homogenization. Some theoretical results of the discretization of the velocity variable (well-posing of problems), which do not deal directly with the purposes of coupling, are presented in the annexes. (author). 34 refs.

  8. Chimie des interactions moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Le cours de l’année 2008-2009 a porté sur « Autoorganisation et dynamique moléculaires ». Des cours ont été donnés à l’Université de Strasbourg (3 h), à l’Université Charles de Prague (3 h) et à la City University de Hong Kong (3 h). Cours au Collège de France : Autoorganisation et dynamique moléculaires Introduction Le cours a porté sur l’évolution de la chimie supramoléculaire vers la chimie dynamique constitutionnelle (CDC) et la chimie adaptative. Du fait de la labilité des interactions n...

  9. Algorithmes de couplage RANS et ecoulement potentiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Sylvain

    Dans le processus de developpement d'avion, la solution retenue doit satisfaire de nombreux criteres dans de nombreux domaines, comme par exemple le domaine de la structure, de l'aerodynamique, de la stabilite et controle, de la performance ou encore de la securite, tout en respectant des echeanciers precis et minimisant les couts. Les geometries candidates sont nombreuses dans les premieres etapes de definition du produit et de design preliminaire, et des environnements d'optimisations multidisciplinaires sont developpes par les differentes industries aeronautiques. Differentes methodes impliquant differents niveaux de modelisations sont necessaires pour les differentes phases de developpement du projet. Lors des phases de definition et de design preliminaires, des methodes rapides sont necessaires afin d'etudier les candidats efficacement. Le developpement de methodes ameliorant la precision des methodes existantes tout en gardant un cout de calcul faible permet d'obtenir un niveau de fidelite plus eleve dans les premieres phases de developpement du projet et ainsi grandement diminuer les risques associes. Dans le domaine de l'aerodynamisme, les developpements des algorithmes de couplage visqueux/non visqueux permettent d'ameliorer les methodes de calcul lineaires non visqueuses en methodes non lineaires prenant en compte les effets visqueux. Ces methodes permettent ainsi de caracteriser l'ecoulement visqueux sur les configurations et predire entre autre les mecanismes de decrochage ou encore la position des ondes de chocs sur les surfaces portantes. Cette these se focalise sur le couplage entre une methode d'ecoulement potentiel tridimensionnelle et des donnees de section bidimensionnelles visqueuses. Les methodes existantes sont implementees et leurs limites identifiees. Une methode originale est ensuite developpee et validee. Les resultats sur une aile elliptique demontrent la capacite de l'algorithme a de grands angles d'attaques et dans la region post

  10. 2011 : Année internationale de la chimie

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Lors de la 63e assemblée générale des Nations Unies, 2011 a été proclamée année internationale de la chimie. En France, les acteurs de la chimie sont mobilisés pour promouvoir quatre objectifs : mettre l’accent sur l’importance de la chimie pour un développement durable dans tous les aspects de la vie sur la planète ; accroître chez les jeunes l’intérêt pour la chimie ; susciter l’enthousiasme pour une chimie tournée vers l’avenir ; célébrer les travaux de Marie Curie et la contribution des f...

  11. Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available

  12. Coupling between reactions and transport for the modelling and simulation of CO{sub 2} geological storage; Couplage reactions-transport pour la modelisation et la simulation du stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillier, E

    2007-09-15

    In this work, we present some results about the coupling between transport and geochemistry for the modelling and the simulation of CO{sub 2} geological storage. We present a multiphase flow model and a geochemical model which enables to describe a coupled reactive multiphase flow problem. We then propose two methods of resolution, the first one is a global method, the other one is a splitting method which is used at the IFP in the software COORES. The splitting is based on physical assumptions. The coupling method used is a non iterative method, in which the splitting error is corrected by adding a penalization term. A convergence study shows that this scheme converges to the same solution as the global scheme. A part of this PhD is dedicated to diffusion and dispersion phenomena. We are interested in this term because it cannot be integrated easily in a splitting scheme, if the reactive transport is solved locally (which is necessary to use local time-step). After having highlighted the importance of this term on a representative test case, we show some difficulties encountered to integrate it in a splitting scheme. Finally, we study a miscible multiphase flow problem in 1D from a mathematical point of view. The difficulties arise with the non linearity due to the non zero gas solubility in water. We propose a definition for the weak solution of this problem and its existence is shown thanks to the convergence of a finite volume scheme. (O.M.)

  13. Coupling of discrete ordinates methods by transmission of boundary conditions in solving the neutron transport equation in slab geometry; Couplage de discretisations aux ordonnees discretes d`equations de transport 1D par passage de conditions frontieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, G. [Departement MMN, Service IMA, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1995-10-01

    Neutron transport in nuclear reactors is quite well modelled by the linear Boltzmann transport equation. Its solution is relatively easy, but unfortunately too expensive to achieve whole core computations. Thus, we have to simplify it, for example by homogenizing some physical characteristics. However, the solution may then be inaccurate. Moreover, in strongly homogeneous areas, the error may be too big. Then we would like to deal with such an inconvenient by solving the equation accurately on this area, but more coarsely away from it, so that the computation is not too expensive. This problem is the subject of a thesis. We present here some results obtained for slab geometry. The couplings between the fine and coarse discretization regions could be conceived in a number of approaches. Here, we only deal with the coupling at crossing the interface between two sub-domains. In the first section, we present the coupling of discrete ordinate methods for solving the homogeneous, isotropic and mono-kinetic equation. Coupling operators are defined and shown to be optimal. The second and the third sections are devoted to an extension of the previous results when the equation is non-homogeneous, anisotropic and multigroup (under some restrictive assumptions). Some numerical results are given in the case of isotropic and mono-kinetic equations. (author) 15 refs.

  14. Multi-domain/multi-method numerical approach for neutron transport equation; Couplage de methodes et decomposition de domaine pour la resolution de l'equation du transport des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, E

    2004-12-15

    A new methodology for the solution of the neutron transport equation, based on domain decomposition has been developed. This approach allows us to employ different numerical methods together for a whole core calculation: a variational nodal method, a discrete ordinate nodal method and a method of characteristics. These new developments authorize the use of independent spatial and angular expansion, non-conformal Cartesian and unstructured meshes for each sub-domain, introducing a flexibility of modeling which is not allowed in today available codes. The effectiveness of our multi-domain/multi-method approach has been tested on several configurations. Among them, one particular application: the benchmark model of the Phebus experimental facility at Cea-Cadarache, shows why this new methodology is relevant to problems with strong local heterogeneities. This comparison has showed that the decomposition method brings more accuracy all along with an important reduction of the computer time.

  15. Diffusion d'informations dans les autobus par couplage de technologies wifi et satellitaires

    OpenAIRE

    GRANSART, C; AMBELLOUIS, S; RIOULT, J

    2004-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d'un projet de recherche visant à fournir de l'information en temps réel aux usagers des transports en commun de type autobus. Nous montrons que de nouveaux services innovants peuvent être développés à l'attention des objets mobiles avec une bonne qualité de service (avec une bande passante moyenne ou élevée), et un accès à l'information, au contenu multimédia et aux bases de données. Ce projet utilise un couplage de technologies innovantes pour...

  16. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States); and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  17. Premières investigations du couplage fluide-structure autour d'un lanceur spatial générique

    OpenAIRE

    Lardat , Raphael; Koobus , Bruno; Ruffino , Fabrice; Farhat , Charbel; Dervieux , Alain

    2001-01-01

    Le couplage statique entre la structure d'un lanceur générique et un écoulemen- t compressible stationnaire est examiné à l'aide d'une méthode numérique instationnaire avec maillage variable et couplage en temps.

  18. Un siècle de chimie à l'Académie royale des sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Coorebyter, Vincent de; Decaix, Véronique; Franckowiak, Rémi; Francobandiera, Daria; Ierna, Carlo; Jolly, Edouard; Joly, Bernard; Joly, Bernard; Joly, Bernard; Joly, Bernard; Lehman, Christine; Masselot, Nathanaël; Mazet, Edmond; Parmentier, Marc; Parmentier, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Le laboratoire alchimique, lieu privilégié de l’élaboration de la chimie ancienne, symbolisait à la fois le caractère privé, si ce n’est secret, de cette science et sa nécessaire articulation avec une pratique qui lui donnait son sens : il ne s’agissait pas seulement de trouver la pierre philosophale, mais aussi de fabriquer médicaments et substances chimiques répondant à des demandes sociales. L’introduction de la chimie parmi les « classes » de l’Académie royale des sciences va transformer ...

  19. [Précis de chimie organique (1844-1846) and the Traité de chimie organique (1853-1856) from Charles Gerhardt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, Marie

    2007-07-01

    In 1844 and in 1853 Charles Gerhardt writes two textbooks about organic chemistry: Précis de chimie organique and Traité de chimie organique. In these textbooks Gerhard presents a way to arrange organic compounds in series. The Traité is more accomplished. The classification has improved. His idea is that all organic compounds are based on four main types (i.e., hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, and water). Why did Gerhardt chose to develop his theories in a textbook and not in scientific papers? We can think of a few reasons: in a textbook he could articulate ideas and could give constitency to his theories. It is longer than a paper. Textbook authors are less rescricted. The readers are students.

  20. Conductivite dans le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel a faible couplage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Dominic

    Le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel (2D) est souvent considere comme le modele minimal pour les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique a base d'oxyde de cuivre (SCHT). Sur un reseau carre, ce modele possede les phases qui sont communes a tous les SCHT, la phase antiferromagnetique, la phase supraconductrice et la phase dite du pseudogap. Il n'a pas de solution exacte, toutefois, plusieurs methodes approximatives permettent d'etudier ses proprietes de facon numerique. Les proprietes optiques et de transport sont bien connues dans les SCHT et sont donc de bonne candidates pour valider un modele theorique et aider a comprendre mieux la physique de ces materiaux. La presente these porte sur le calcul de ces proprietes pour le modele de Hubbard 2D a couplage faible ou intermediaire. La methode de calcul utilisee est l'approche auto-coherente a deux particules (ACDP), qui est non-perturbative et inclue l'effet des fluctuations de spin et de charge a toutes les longueurs d'onde. La derivation complete de l'expression de la conductivite dans l'approche ACDP est presentee. Cette expression contient ce qu'on appelle les corrections de vertex, qui tiennent compte des correlations entre quasi-particules. Pour rendre possible le calcul numerique de ces corrections, des algorithmes utilisant, entre autres, des transformees de Fourier rapides et des splines cubiques sont developpes. Les calculs sont faits pour le reseau carre avec sauts aux plus proches voisins autour du point critique antiferromagnetique. Aux dopages plus faibles que le point critique, la conductivite optique presente une bosse dans l'infrarouge moyen a basse temperature, tel qu'observe dans plusieurs SCHT. Dans la resistivite en fonction de la temperature, on trouve un comportement isolant dans le pseudogap lorsque les corrections de vertex sont negligees et metallique lorsqu'elles sont prises en compte. Pres du point critique, la resistivite est lineaire en T a basse temperature et devient

  1. Fontenelle et la chimie : la recherche d’une « loi fondamentale » pour la chimie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Peterschmitt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, je propose de reprendre la position de Fontenelle à l’endroit de la chimie. C’est une science qu’il connaît mal avant de devenir Secrétaire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, et dont il doit, comme Secrétaire de l’institution, chercher une légitimité qu’il a contesté à titre personnel. Or la façon dont il rend compte des mémoires de chimie montre que Fontenelle accompagne l’évolution de cette science à partir de 1699, en se montrant ouvert à ce qu’elle propose de nouveauté. Certes, il rejette ce qu’il identifie comme chimie ancienne, en coupant ainsi la chimie du début du 18e siècle de son histoire. Cette opération rhétorique ne doit pas tromper et ne signifie pas qu’il considère que la chimie qui se fait sous ses yeux n’est pas un savoir. Au contraire, il salue ce qui la met sur la voie de la science. Cela le conduit sans doute à insister sur tous les éléments mécanistes utilisés par certains chimistes. S’en tenir là reviendrait toutefois à manquer son importante réflexion sur les affinités à partir de 1718 : pour Fontenelle, elles donnent la « loi fondamentale » de la chimie. La recherche des affinités, en tant qu’elles sont distinctes de l’attraction newtonienne ou des anciennes sympathies occultes, instituent pour Fontenelle la chimie comme une science de plein droit, même si elle échappe à l’explication mécaniste.In this paper, my aim is to reexamine Fontenelle’s position as to chemistry. Before he became the Secretary of the Académie Royale des Sciences of Paris, Fontenelle knew chemistry quite badly and he ridiculed it in his personal works; but as the Secretary of the institution he has to justify its existence a science. The way in which he accounts for the memoirs of chemistry shows that Fontenelle follows the evolution of this science from 1699, proving that he is aware of its novelties. Of course, Fontenelle keeps rejecting what he identifies

  2. Uncertainty estimation and global forecasting with a chemistry-transport model - application to the numerical simulation of air quality; Estimation de l'incertitude et prevision d'ensemble avec un modele de chimie transport - Application a la simulation numerique de la qualite de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, V.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the quality of a chemistry-transport model, not by a classical comparison with observations, but by the estimation of its uncertainties due to the input data, to the model formulation and to the numerical approximations. The study of these 3 sources of uncertainty is carried out with Monte Carlo simulations, with multi-model simulations and with comparisons between numerical schemes, respectively. A high uncertainty is shown for ozone concentrations. To overcome the uncertainty-related limitations, a strategy consists in using the overall forecasting. By combining several models (up to 48) on the basis of past observations, forecasts can be significantly improved. This work has been also the occasion of developing an innovative modeling system, named Polyphemus. (J.S.)

  3. Uncertainty estimation and global forecasting with a chemistry-transport model - application to the numerical simulation of air quality; Estimation de l'incertitude et prevision d'ensemble avec un modele de chimie transport - Application a la simulation numerique de la qualite de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the quality of a chemistry-transport model, not by a classical comparison with observations, but by the estimation of its uncertainties due to the input data, to the model formulation and to the numerical approximations. The study of these 3 sources of uncertainty is carried out with Monte Carlo simulations, with multi-model simulations and with comparisons between numerical schemes, respectively. A high uncertainty is shown for ozone concentrations. To overcome the uncertainty-related limitations, a strategy consists in using the overall forecasting. By combining several models (up to 48) on the basis of past observations, forecasts can be significantly improved. This work has been also the occasion of developing an innovative modeling system, named Polyphemus. (J.S.)

  4. La chimie du XVIIe siècle : une question de principes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Franckowiak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le tournant du XVIIe au XVIIIe siècle est une période décisive pour l’histoire de la chimie qui passe de la reconnaissance institutionnelle à la contestation de son fondement théorique, pour apparaître au final comme la seule partie de la Physique à pouvoir prétendre atteindre la « vérité certaine ». Ce qui se joue alors n’est rien de moins que la redéfinition de ses principes, à savoir son socle de vérités sur lequel s’appuie la science chimique. Cette période est en fait la dernière étape de l’évolution du rapport entre les deux dimensions – théorique et pratique – dans lesquelles se déploie la chimie, qui a vu, par le développement de l’usage des principes dits seconds, l’ensemble des principes chimiques entrainé vers un réalisme empirique, ayant pour effet d’ôter de la chimie toute cohérence théorique. Aussi l’apparition du mécanisme – pas plus celui de Boyle – n’est-il en réalité responsable du bouleversement que connaît la chimie ; elle n’est pas davantage responsable de sa régénération au tout début du XVIIIe siècle. La conscience de la faiblesse théorique de la chimie va devenir pour elle promesse de vigueur théorique sur la base de ce qui représente sa force : l’expérience. À la suite de la perte de ce qui fut certitude, le chimiste devient un être à ré-instruire. Un chimiste tel que Samuel Cottereau Du Clos illustre parfaitement le passage d’une science chimique comme connaissance des principes à une chimie comme science cette fois du vraisemblable.The last decades of 17th century represent a decisive period for the history of Chemistry which switched from institutional recognition to dispute of its theoretical basis, to seem finally, during the very first years of the next century, the only part of Physics being able to claim reaching the “unquestionable truth”. What did happen then is nothing less than the redefinition of principles of Chemistry

  5. Non-linearite et couplages lumiere-matiere en electrodynamique quantique en circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Jerome

    L'électrodynamique quantique en circuit est un contexte unique pour l'optique quantique et le calcul quantique. Dans cette architecture où des qubits supraconducteurs, composés de jonctions Josephson, sont fortement couplés au champ électromagnétique de résonateurs coplanaires, la dynamique du système est semblable à celle des atomes dans des cavités optiques. La polyvalence de la conception des circuits supraconducteurs permet d'étudier l'interaction lumière-matière de différents régimes et manières. Ainsi, plusieurs qubits peuvent être couplés à un seul résonateur afin de les enchevêtrer. Une jonction Josephson peut également être intégrée directement au résonateur afin de produire une interaction non linéaire entre les photons. De la même manière, il a été suggéré que le couplage qubitrésonateur pourrait devenir l'échelle d'énergie dominante du système : le régime de couplage ultrafort. Malgré que la dynamique qubit-résonateur soit bien comprise, les modèles actuels ne permettent pas de prédire correctement les effets dispersifs du résonateur sur les qubits tels : le décalage de Lamb, l'interaction d'échange virtuelle et le temps de relaxation. Comme il n'y a pas non plus de modèle général permettant de déterminer les caractéristiques d'un résonateur non linéaire, on comprend mal comment rendre la non-linéarité plus forte, ni même si le régime de couplage ultrafort peut être physiquement réalisé dans ces circuits. Dans le cadre de ma thèse, je me suis intéressé à la modélisation de qubits et de résonateurs afin de mieux comprendre l'interaction lumière-matière en circuits, dans le but de développer des conceptions alternatives d'architectures plus performantes ou qui explorent des régimes d'interactions méconnus. Pour ce faire, j'ai développé une méthode analytique générale permettant de trouver l'hamiltonien exact de circuits distribués non linéaires, une méthode basée sur la m

  6. Les Nobel juifs de chimie le partage du savoir au XX siècle

    CERN Document Server

    Benguigui, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    L'un des traits marquants et remarquables des Juifs tout au long de leur histoire, plusieurs fois millénaire, a été leur créativité dans tous les domaines, en particulier dans le domaine scientifique. Ils ont participé de façon impressionnante à la remise en cause des valeurs, au démantèlement des dogmes et à l'irruption des forces cachées. On peut d'emblée souligner que la contribution des Juifs à la science a été sans commune mesure avec le pourcentage de la population qu'ils représentent. Cela reste vrai pour la chimie du XXe siècle. A travers la vie et l'oeuvre de 23 prix Nobel de chimie, l'auteur nous livre une histoire passionnante de ces hommes, biens souvent des exilés et d'origine modeste. dont la science fut leur vocation et le partage du savoir leur crédo.

  7. Hydro-mechanical coupling and transport in Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite: experimental and multi-scale approaches; Couplage hydro-me canique et transfert dans l'argilite de Meuse/Haute-Marne: approches experimentale et multi-echelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, S.

    2010-07-15

    This thesis deals with the hydro-mechanical behaviour of argillite. Classical Biot theory is shown to be badly adapted to the case of argillite. An original state equation is then built by use of homogenization tools, and takes into account the microstructure of argillite as well as physical phenomena happening inside the material, like the swelling overpressure inside the clay particles or the capillary effects in the porous network. This state equation explains some experiments which were not by the classical Biot theory. It is then improved by integrating the experimental data that are the dependency of the elasticity tensor with the saturation degree and the existence of a porosity surrounding the inclusions. Combined with the monitoring of length variation under hydric loading, this relevant state equation permits one to determine the Biot tensor of argillite. Since this state equation is coupled with the hydric state of the material, one is interested in modelling the variation of the saturation degree during a drying process. Two transport models are studied and compared, then a model for the porous network is proposed in order to explain the unusual permeability measurements. (author)

  8. [The "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie" and the two world wars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    The "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie" was the official publication of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris which became later on the French Academy of pharmacy. It is consequently the organ that presented scientific publications and independent position papers from pharmacists being part of this assembly and coming from universities, drugstores or pharmaceutical industries. We have analyzed the content of this journal during the last two world wars in order to evaluate to what extent the members of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris were part of the war efforts, and encouraged or criticized the on-going events. We can observe that, in both cases, pharmacists used their expert opinions to better react and manage consequences of the conflicts, but also to express their disagreement with enemy's opinions or actions, the Society doing everything possible to maintain its activities. One can observe also that both conflicts were an opportunity to reconsider the organization of pharmacy in France, especially during the Second World War where took place discussions on pharmacy reform (1941 law) and creation of the Pharmacists' Order which will ultimately occur after the war end.

  9. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel a faible couplage: Thermodynamique et phenomenes critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Une etude systematique du modele de Hubbard en deux dimensions a faible couplage a l'aide de la theorie Auto-Coherente a Deux Particules (ACDP) dans le diagramme temperature-dopage-interaction-sauts permet de mettre en evidence l'influence des fluctuations magnetiques sur les proprietes thermodynamiques du systeme electronique sur reseau. Le regime classique renormalise a temperature finie pres du dopage nul est marque par la grandeur de la longueur de correlation de spin comparee a la longueur thermique de de Broglie et est caracterisee par un accroissement drastique de la longueur de correlation de spin. Cette croissance exponentielle a dopage nul marque la presence d'un pic de chaleur specifique en fonction de la temperature a basse temperature. Une temperature de crossover est alors associee a la temperature a laquelle la longueur de correlation de spin est egale a la longueur thermique de de Broglie. C'est a cette temperature caracteristique, ou est observee l'ouverture du pseudogap dans le poids spectral, que se situe le maximum du pic de chaleur specifique. La presence de ce pic a des consequences sur l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage lorsque l'uniformite thermodynamique est respectee. Les contraintes imposees par les lois de la thermodynamique font en sorte que l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage est non triviale. On demontre entre autres que le potentiel chimique est proportionnel a la double occupation qui est reliee au moment local. Par ailleurs, une derivation de la fonction de mise a l'echelle de la susceptibilite de spin a frequence nulle au voisinage d'un point critique marque sans equivoque la presence d'un point critique quantique en dopage pour une valeur donnee de l'interaction. Ce point critique, associe a une transition de phase magnetique en fonction du dopage a temperature nulle, induit un comportement non trivial sur les proprietes physiques du systeme a temperature finie. L'approche quantitative ACDP permet de

  10. Le problème des hydrates dans le contexte de la production et du transport polyphasiques des pétroles bruts et des gaz naturels. Première partie : physico-chimie de la formation et de la dissociation des hydrates Hydrates Problem Within the Framework of Multiphase Production and Transport of Crude Oils and Natural Gases. Part One: Physical-Chemistry of Hydrates Formation and Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exploitation en mer des gisements de combustibles fossiles fluides a amplifié le besoin d'accroître nos connaissances sur les hydrates qui sont susceptibles de boucher les installations de production, de traitement et de transport. Dans cette publication, la structure moléculaire des hydrates I, II et H est rappelée, ensuite l'analyse physico-chimique de leur formation est succinctement décrite tant sur les plans thermodynamique que cinétique. Enfin, les remèdes possibles aux problèmes rencontrés par les compagnies opératrices sont indiqués, essentiellement les inhibiteurs thermodynamiques classiques tels que les alcools ou les sels qui diminuent la température de formation des hydrates, et les additifs dispersants qui évitent la croissance et/ou l'agglomération des cristaux. Pour terminer, une boucle pilote de circulation originale est présentée, ses caractéristiques qui permettent la validation des additifs dispersants dans des conditions hydrodynamiques et physico-chimiques représentatives étant soulignées. Offshore exploitation of fossil fluid fuels has emphasized the need of improving our knowledge on hydrates which can plug production, treatment and transport facilities. In this paper, the molecular structure of I, II and H hydrates is recalled, then the physical-chemistry of their formation is briefly reviewed from both the thermodynamic and the kinetic points of view. Finally, the possible remedies to the problems met by operating companies are described, mainly classical thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols or salts which decrease the hydrates formation temperature, and dispersant additives which avoid crystals growth and/or agglomeration. At last an original circulation loop at pilot scale is presented, its characteristics which allow the testing of dispersant additives under representative hydrodynamic and physico-chemical conditions being outlined.

  11. Silver Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide, Ag(2)VO(2)PO(4): Chimie Douce Preparation and Resulting Lithium Cell Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2011-08-15

    Recently, we have shown silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag(2)VO(2)PO(4), SVPO) to be a promising cathode material for lithium based batteries. Whereas the first reported preparation of SVPO employed an elevated pressure, hydrothermal approach, we report herein a novel ambient pressure synthesis method to prepare SVPO, where our chimie douce preparation is readily scalable and provides material with a smaller, more consistent particle size and higher surface area relative to SVPO prepared via the hydrothermal method. Lithium electrochemical cells utilizing SVPO cathodes made by our new process show improved power capability under constant current and pulse conditions over cells containing cathode from SVPO prepared via the hydrothermal method.

  12. Wilhelm Homberg et la chimie de la lumière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Principe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En 1705, Wilhem Homberg, le principal chimiste de l’Académie royale des sciences, proposa une nouvelle théorie chimique selon laquelle le Soufre principe des corps mixtes était identique à la lumière. Il affirma par la suite que cette lumière corporelle était la seule source d’activité et de changement dans les substances matérielles. Cet article montre comment la théorie de Homberg s’élabora progressivement pendant de nombreuses années sous l’influence de ses observations et des résultats de ses expériences de laboratoire, ce qui nous fournit un exemple de la manière selon laquelle un chimiste du début du XVIIIe siècle a pu développer une théorie raffinée grâce à l’interaction de la réflexion et de la manipulation. L’influence probable de la théorie de Homberg sur les fameuses « questions chimiques » de Newton est également signalée ici pour la première fois. Enfin l’article avance que nous comprendrons plus précisément l’histoire de la chimie si nous reconnaissons le caractère spécifique de la chimie et sa relative autonomie, plutôt que si nous cherchons à lui imposer des développements faciles et convenus tirés d’autres champs du savoir comme la philosophie ou la physique.In 1705, Wilhelm Homberg, the chief chemist of the Académie Royale des Sciences, proposed a new chemical theory that the Sulphur principle of mixed bodies was identical with light. He claimed further that this embodied light was the sole source of activity and change in material substances. This paper traces how Homberg’s theory emerged gradually over many years under the influence of his observations and the results of his laboratory experiments. It thus provides an example of how an early eighteenth-century chemist developed a sophisticated theory through the interplay of mind and hand. The probable influence of Homberg’s theory on Isaac Newton’s famous “chymical queries” is also noted here for the first

  13. La micro-échelle en synthèse organique : un outil commun chimie/génie chimique

    OpenAIRE

    Prat , Laurent E.; Loubiere , Karine; Dechy-Cabaret , Odile

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Cet article est une restitution courte de la présentation réalisée au cours des JIREC 2013 sur l'enseignement de la notion de changement d'échelle et de passage d'un mode batch à un mode continu en synthèse organique. L'enjeu est de faire travailler des étudiants issus des départements chimie et génie chimique autour d'un même outil, le microréacteur. Au cours d'une séance de travaux pratiques, les étudiants mettent en oeuvre une synthèse organique en continu à micro-échell...

  14. [The Journal de chimie médicale (Journal of Medical Chemistry) : a major innovation on French public health during the 19th century ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    JBA Chevallier is first known for his publication in 1850 of his book on falsifications. But he had also a major role for the opening of the pharmacy world to toxicological and Public Health issues, through the founding in 1825, and the management for more than 50 years, of the Journal de chimie médicale, de pharmacie et de toxicologie (Journal of Medical Chemistry, of Pharmacy and of Toxicology). The purpose of the present study has been to look at the evolution of that publication over the years and to compare its content with the reference pharmaceutical journal at that time : the Journal de pharmacie et de chimie (Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry). One can observe that the editorial lines of both journals will progressively diverge from each other, but Chevallier remained strongly connected with pharmacy, his journal merging finally in 1876 with the Répertoire de pharmacie (Index of Pharmacy).

  15. ACDV, Association Chimie du Végétal : une initiative française pour développer la chimie du végétal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friès Aurore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Industry dependence on external fossil fuel resources, fluctuations in energy and raw materials costs, climate change, environmental regulations, changing consumer attitudes etc. In France, where agriculture and the chemical industry are two pillars of the economy, these harsh realities have prompted the chemical and agro-resources sectors to look to biobased chemistry as a means of diversifying outlets for biomass and chemical sourcing, with the aim of balanced use. French players in this international sector have realised the value of joining forces, pooling skills, knowhow and resources into a single structure to drive forward the development of biobased chemistry. This shared vision and determination resulted in the creation in 2008 of the French biobased chemistry association, Association Chimie du V_eg_etal (ACDV. This initiative, still the first of its kind, brings together within a single federation all those directly involved in biobased chemistry. ACDV’s stated aim: to propose and create industrial, economic and political conditions conducive to the development of this industrial reality, within a context of competitive, responsible and sustainable agricultural and chemical sectors. ACDV acts as a source of creative ideas, presenting national and European bodies with the strategic vision and position of French industrialists as regards the international development and competitiveness of biobased chemistry. A commitment by the French chemicals industry to a target of 15% biobased raw materials by 2017 is one of the key factors underpinning the work of the ACDV.

  16. Electrochemical fluorination of La(2)CuO(4): a mild "chimie douce" route to superconducting oxyfluoride materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delville, M H; Barbut, D; Wattiaux, A; Bassat, J M; Ménétrier, M; Labrugère, C; Grenier, J C; Etourneau, J

    2009-08-17

    The fluorination of La(2)CuO(4) was achieved for the first time under normal conditions of pressure and temperature (1 MPa and 298 K) via electrochemical insertion in organic fluorinated electrolytes and led to lanthanum oxyfluorides of general formula La(2)CuO(4)F(x). Analyses showed that, underneath a very thin layer of LaF(3) (a few atomic layers), fluorine is effectively inserted in the material's structure. The fluorination strongly modifies the lanthanum environment, whereas very little modification is observed on copper, suggesting an insertion in the La(2)O(2) blocks of the structure. In all cases, fluorine insertion breaks the translation symmetry and introduces a long-distance disorder, as shown by electron spin resonance. These results highlight the efficiency of electrochemistry as a new "chimie douce" type fluorination technique for solid-state materials. Performed at room temperature, it additionally does not require any specific experimental care. The choice of the electrolytic medium is crucial with regard to the fluorine insertion rate as well as the material deterioration. Successful application of this technique to the well-known La(2)CuO(4) material provides a basis for further syntheses from other oxides.

  17. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements; Etude du couplage hyperfin dans les alliages gadolinium-praseodyme par mesures de chaleur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le couplage hyperfin d'alliages de gadolinium-praseodyme par des mesures de chaleur specifique jusqu'a 0.3 K. Dans la premiere partie de cette etude nous decrivons le dispositif experimental. La deuxieme partie est consacree a des considerations theoriques. Nous avons etudie en detail le cas du praseodyme qui est une exception dans la serie des terres rares. La troisieme partie est consacree aux resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  18. Production of Olefins and Higher Hydrocarbons by Thermal Coupling of Methane Production d'oléfines et d'hydrocarbures supérieurs par couplage thermique du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    'oxychloration d'éthylène pour un prix de pétrole brut de l'ordre de 23 à 27 $ par baril, alors que les autres procédés de production d'acétylène ne le sont jamais. Si l'hydrogène ne peut être valorisé chimiquement, le seuil de compétitivité passe à 30 $ par baril. En ce qui concerne la production d'éthylène, les figures 12a, 12b montrent que le procédé de pyrolyse du méthane devient compétitif pour un prix de pétrole brut compris entre 30 et 35 $ par baril. On remarque également qu'une unité de capacité plus faible avec une valorisation complète de l'hydrogène est plus intéressante qu'une unité de forte capacité sans utilisation chimique complète de l'hydrogène. Bien que pour un développement technologique de cet ampleur, de nombreux travaux soient encore nécessaires, les excellents résultats déjà obtenus à l'aide d'une technologie totalement innovatrice devraient permettre au couplage thermique du méthane de répondre à certains challenges futurs des pays industrialisés et de la France en particulier comme l'obtention de bases pétrochimiques non pétrolières, la réponse au besoin futur en hydrogène, le redémarrage d'une chimie fondée sur l'acétylène.

  19. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  20. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  1. Experimental study of chemical-mechanical coupling during percolation of reactive fluid through rocks under stress, in the context of the CO{sub 2} geological sequestration; Etude experimentale du couplage chimie-mecanique lors de la percolation d'un fluide reactif dans des roches sous contrainte, dans le contexte de la sequestration geologique du CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, Y

    2006-10-15

    CO{sub 2} injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO{sub 2}. Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10{sup -12} s{sup -1} on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO{sub 2} which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO{sub 2} on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)

  2. La fouille de graphes dans les bases de données réactionnelles au service de la synthèse en chimie organique

    OpenAIRE

    Pennerath , Frédéric; Napoli , Amedeo

    2006-01-01

    National audience; La synthèse en chimie organique consiste à concevoir de nouvelles molécules à partir de réactifs et de réactions. Les experts de la synthèse s'appuient sur de très grandes bases de données de réactions qu'ils consultent à travers des procédures d'interrogation standard. Un processus de découverte de nouvelles réactions leur permettrait de mettre au point de nouveaux procédés de synthèse. Cet article présente une modélisation des réactions par des graphes et introduit une mé...

  3. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  4. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  5. Étude de l'efficacité des modes de Lamb dans la signature acoustique en fonction du liquide de couplage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Despaux, G.; Saurel, J.-M.

    1998-06-01

    The acoustic signature allows to measure the velocity of the longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in bulk materials. From the velocities and density values the elastic properties can be calculated. For thin layer materials, these velocities are not directly measured but computed from the experimentally available velocities: the generalized Lamb waves velocities. These waves velocities are dispersive and their measurement depends on the liquid acting as a coupling fluid. In this study, the two faces of the layer are in contact with the liquid (methanol, water or aqueous solutions of potassium iodide KI_aq. 6 M and potassium hydroxyde KOH_aq. 12 M) chosen according to its acoustic parameters. The acoustic signature modeling allows to know their respective influence, the possible detection of the fast modes and, in general, the velocity measurement accuracy increase for all available modes. The experimental studies bear out that each mode characterization may be optimized by the appropriate choice of the frequency and of the coupling liquid according to its velocity, density and attenuation. L'étude de la signature acoustique permet de mesurer les vitesses de propagation des ondes acoustiques longitudinale et transverse dans les matériaux massifs, vitesses à partir desquelles on détermine leurs propriétés mécaniques. Pour des matériaux en couche mince, ces vitesses ne sont plus mesurées directement mais calculées à partir des vitesses accessibles expérimentalement : celles des modes de Lamb généralisés. Ces modes ont des vitesses dispersives et leur mesure dépend du liquide servant de couplant, dans lequel la couche est immergée. Dans cette étude, les liquides de couplage (méthanol, eau et solutions aqueuses de iodure de potassium KI_aq. 6 M et d'hydroxyde de potassium KOH_aq. 12 M) sont choisis en fonction de leurs paramètres acoustiques. La modélisation de la signature acoustique permet de prévoir leur influence respective, comment ils

  6. Coupling of a real time computer to nuclear detectors systems; Couplage d'un calculateur en temps reel a un ensemble experimental de detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugol, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    Electronic computers are now included in nuclear physics experiment systems. This corresponds to a general trend to replace conventional multichannel analyzers by on line, real time, computers. An one line computer performing nuclear data acquisition and storage, offers the advantage of reduction and calculation routines in real time. This advantage becomes a need when the number of experimental parameters increase. At the Saclay variable energy cyclotron we have connected a C 90-10 computer of C.I.I. We describe the input/output hardware features. In order to establish a dialogue with physicists, we have built a main display unit able to control many display consoles at different points: we describe them as well as some utility routines. (author) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire font appel, de plus en plus, a des calculateurs electroniques. Ceux-ci se substituent alors aux analyseurs multicanaux traditionnels. Un calculateur en ligne assurant l'acquisition et le stockage des donnees experimentales, presente l'avantage de pouvoir executer, en temps reel, des programmes simples de calcul et de reduction. Nous montrons la necessite de prise en charge, par un calculateur, des experiences de physique nucleaire ou le nombre des parametres experimentaux devient important. Au cyclotron a energie variable de Saclay, la solution retenue est l'emploi d'un calculateur C 90-10 de la C.I.I. Nous decrivons les interfaces necessaires au couplage. Afin d'assurer un dialogue avec les physiciens, un systeme de visualisation est realise; nous le decrivons ainsi que quelques programmes types d'utilisation de l'ensemble du systeme. (auteur)

  7. Applications of electron spin resonance to some problems of radiation chemistry; Applications de la resonance paramagnetique electronique a quelques problemes de chimie sous rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachaty, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    specifique des radicaux de la matrice par rechauffement, resultent de la protonation des anions formes par capture des electrons a 77 K. Ainsi, dans le cas de solutions vitreuses de composes nitres, il se forme les radicaux R NO{sub 2}H caracterises par a{sub N} = 15 G (nitrobenzene) ou a{sub N} = 28 G (nitro-alcanes). On observe transitoirement ces memes radicaux par photolyse U.V. de solutions de composes nitres dans les alcools, a temperature ambiante, dans la cavite du spectrometre et l'on montre qu'ils sont les precurseurs de radicaux nitroxydes R - N - R (avec N - O) observes simultanement. Les solutions de pyridine et des trois diazines dans les alcools, irradiees a 77 K donnent les radicaux produits par addition d'hydrogene sur ces composes. Il semble que le proton supplementaire, dont la constante de couplage est de 7 a 10 G, soit lie a un azote dans l'etat d'hybridation sp{sup 2}. On montre que l'addition sur un carbone donnerait une constante de couplage beaucoup plus elevee, de l'ordre de 50 a 60 G, dans le cas de la pyridine. (auteur)

  8. Un siècle de chimie à l’Académie royale des sciences de sa création (1666) à l’arrivée de Lavoisier (1768)

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Le laboratoire alchimique, qui passe volontiers pour le lieu privilégié de l’élaboration de la chimie ancienne, symbolisait à la fois le caractère privé, si ce n’est secret, de cette science et la nécessaire articulation de ses théories avec une pratique qui lui donnait son sens : il ne s’agissait pas seulement de trouver la pierre philosophale, mais aussi de fabriquer des médicaments et des substances chimiques répondant aux demandes sociales. Lieu privé, réservé à des disciples choisis, il ...

  9. Physico-Chimie des Atomcules d'Hélium antiprotonique: Modélisation de Processus réactifs en présence d'Antimatière

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauge, Sébastien

    2000-07-01

    Environ 3%des antiprotons (p) stoppés dans l'hélium survivent plusieurs microsecondes, contre quelques picosecondes dans tout autre matériau. Cette métastabilité inhabituelle résulte d'une capture sur des états liés de l'atome exotique pHe+, dénommé atomcule car il s'apparente à la fois à un atome de Rydberg quasi-circulaire quasi-classique de grand moment angulaire l n-1 37et à une molécule diatomique composée d'un noyau chargé négativement et caractérisée par une forte excitation rotationnelle J=l. En dehors de cette structure duale originale accessible par spectroscopie laser, la physico-chimie de leur interaction avec d'autres atomes ou molécules a fait l'objet d'études microscopiques. Alors que les atomcules résistent à des millions de collisions dans l'hélium pur, des contaminants moléculaires comme H2 les détruisent immédiatement, y compris à basse température. Dans le cadre Born-Oppenheimer, nous interprétons l'interaction moléculaire, calculée par des techniques de chimie quantique {ab initio}, en termes de chemins réactifs classiques, qui présentent des barrières d'activation compatibles avec celles mesurées dans He et H2.Nous montrons par une approche Monte Carlo de trajectoires classiques que la thermalisation détruit fortement les populations initiales, portant la fraction estimée des états de capture à 3%. Nous étudions aussi la recombinaison dissociative pHe+ + e+ e -dans une approche de trajectoires classiques pour les noyaux: nous prédisons la synthèse d'antihydrogène avec un rapport de branchement de 10%, ainsi qu'une nouvelle classe d'atomcules métastables ?={p}, e+, 2e-, qui pourrait être confirmée par spectroscopie. Ce travail illustre la transférabilité des concepts de chimie physique à l'étude de processus exotiques en présence d'antimatière, et apporte un éclairage nouveau sur la physico-chimie des radicaux interstellaires froids.

  10. Étude numérique du couplage thermohydromécanique dans les roches. Influence des termes de couplage non linéaires pour un matériau isotrope linéaire Numerical Analysis of a Thermohydromechanical Coupling in Rocks. Influence of Nonlinear Coupling Terms on a Linear Isotropic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons dans ce travail une étude numérique basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, du comportement thermoporoélastique de certaines roches. Les trois effets de couplage : déformabilité de la roche, pression interstitielle et température sont pris en compte simultanément dans la résolution numérique. Une application simple sur un puits pétrolier en conditions axisymétriques est finalement présentée afin de dégager en particulier l'influence du terme de couplage convectif non linéaire, obtenu dans l'équation de diffusivité thermique, sur l'évolution de la température et de la pression interstitielle autour du forage. This article describes a finite-element method for solving the problem of nonlinear coupling between interstitial pressure and temperature during stress on a poroelastic rock. Such coupling phenomena occur during massive injection of cold water into a petroleum borehole for example. The implementation of such a numerical solution, used here with the assumption of small deformations, first requires a review of the behavior law of the material (Eq. 2. 2 and of the equations for hydraulic diffusivity (Eq. 2. 3 and thermal diffusivity (Eq. 2. 4. This last equation (2. 4 is the one containing the nonlinear coupling terms in Grad P Grad P and Grad T. Grad P. During simulation of flow at a high flow rate, these products can no longer be neglected as shown by the results in Fig. 2. The variational formulation of the problem is then determined in relation to the three equations for equilibrium, thermal diffusivity and hydraulic diffusivity. After geometric and temporal discretizations, this formulation leads to a finite-element calculating scheme resulting in the simultaneous solving of all three equations. This solution, based on the inversion of the system of equations (2. 15, requires the updating of the rigidity matrix at each time step to take nonlinear coupling into consideration. Calculations with an

  11. Modélisation cinétique et hydrodynamique pour la physique, la chimie et la santé, analyse mathématique et numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Mes travaux de recherche portent sur la mécanique des fluides, et plus précisément sur les systèmes de particules, avec plusieurs domaines d'applications : le poumon (aérosol thérapie, pollution, régimes diffusifs), la formation d'opinion (sociophysique), et le couplage entre un fluide et une phase dispersée. La plupart de mes travaux s'appuient sur la théorie cinétique, où apparaissent des équations aux dérivées partielles cinétiques où l'inconnue est une fonction de distribution ayant pour ...

  12. The exhibition"La France au CERN" was inaugurated by Danièle Hulin, Directrice adjointe Secteur Physique, Chimie, Sciences pour l'Ingénieur (PCSI), Ministère délégué à l'Enseignement supérieur et à la recherche.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The exhibition"La France au CERN" was inaugurated by Danièle Hulin, Directrice adjointe Secteur Physique, Chimie, Sciences pour l'Ingénieur (PCSI), Ministère délégué à l'Enseignement supérieur et à la recherche.

  13. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  14. Un siècle de chimie à l’Académie royale des sciences de sa création (1666 à l’arrivée de Lavoisier (1768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Joly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le laboratoire alchimique, qui passe volontiers pour le lieu privilégié de l’élaboration de la chimie ancienne, symbolisait à la fois le caractère privé, si ce n’est secret, de cette science et la nécessaire articulation de ses théories avec une pratique qui lui donnait son sens : il ne s’agissait pas seulement de trouver la pierre philosophale, mais aussi de fabriquer des médicaments et des substances chimiques répondant aux demandes sociales. Lieu privé, réservé à des disciples choisis, il ...

  15. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  16. Physique, chimie 1re S

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    • Des activités conçues pour correspondre aux pratiques des enseignants ou au temps d’enseignement attribué à une notion. Avec des « Découverte » courtes basées sur les savoirs que possède l’élève en début de chapitre et des « Documentaires » pour construire le cours avec leur « aide aux activités ». Ainsi que des TP pour pratiquer expérimentalement ou exploiter des données. • Un Cours structuré renvoyant aux activités, illustré, enrichi d’applications du cours avec renvois vers les exercices. Il se termine par l’essentiel. • De nombreux Exercices résolus avec des corrections détaillées et après le test de compétences, des exercices classés en entraînement et approfondissement et un exercice en langue anglaise. • Pour satisfaire la curiosité des élèves : Des pages « Culture et Sciences » en fin de cours. Et au long du manuel : L’histoire des sciences et L’histoire des arts. Un site pour les élèves www.micromega-hatier.com • Simulateurs en ...

  17. Influence des traitements thermiques et de la microstructure sur les phénomènes de découplage dans les composés au bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, M.; Guyen van Huong, C. N.; Burger, J. P.; Dubon, A.; Fitoussi, J. P.; Laval, J. Y.

    1991-11-01

    a.c. susceptibility measurements and 3D electronic microscopy observation were carried out on three Bi-compounds (2212 and 2223). Depending on the annealing conditions, one observes lamellar-type materials organized either in a more or less dense structure of fine particles or in very large slabs. The a.c. susceptibility signals allow to separate the intergranular from the intragranular effects. The combined results obtained by both techniques lead us to conclude that the intergranular and the intragranular decoupling, induced by magnetic fields are of same nature, i.e. occur at the (BiO)2 slab. Nous avons couplé des mesures de susceptibilité altemative et d'observation au microscope électronique en 3D sur trois échantillons supraconducteurs au bismuth (2212 et 2223). Selon les conditions de recuit, on observe des matériaux de type lamellaire, organisés soit en une structure plus ou moins dense de fines particules, soit en larges plaquettes. L'étude des signaux de susceptibilité alternative χ' et χ'' permet de séparer les effets intergranulaires des effets intragranulaires. les résultats combinés des deux techniques nous ont conduit à conclure que les deux types de découplage (inter et intragranulaires), induits par les champs magnétiques sont de même nature, c'est-à-dire se produisent au niveau des bicouches (BiO)2.

  18. A Physics and Tabulated Chemistry Based Compression Ignition Combustion Model: from Chemistry Limited to Mixing Limited Combustion Modes Un modèle de combustion à allumage par compression basé sur la physique et la chimie tabulée : des modes de combustion contrôlés par la chimie jusqu’aux modes contrôlés par le mélange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordet N.

    2011-11-01

    experimental measurements carried out on a 2 liter Renault Diesel engine and good agreements are found. Ce papier présente une nouvelle approche 0D phénoménologique pour prédire le déroulement de la combustion dans les moteurs Diesel à injection directe pour toutes les conditions d’utilisation usuelles. Le but de ce travail est de développer une approche physique en vue d’améliorer la prédiction de la pression cylindre et du dégagement d’énergie, avec un nombre minimum d’essais nécessaires à la calibration. Les contributions principales de cette étude sont la modélisation de la phase de pré-mélange de la combustion et une extension du modèle pour les stratégies d’injections multiples. Dans ce modèle, le taux de dégagement d’énergie dû à la combustion pour la phase pré-mélangée est relié à un taux de réaction moyen du carburant. Ce taux de réaction moyen de carburant est évalué à l’aide d’une approche basée sur un taux de réaction local de carburant tabulé et la détermination d’une fonction de densité de probabilité (PDF de la fraction de mélange (Z. Cette PDF permet de prendre en compte la distribution de richesse existante dans la zone pré-mélangée. L’allure de cette PDF présumée est une β-fonction standardisée. Les fluctuations de la fraction de mélange sont décrites avec une équation de transport pour la variance de Z. La définition standard de la fraction de mélange, établie dans le cas de flammes de diffusion, est ici adaptée à une combustion pré-mélangée de type Diesel pour décrire l’inhomogénéité de la richesse dans le volume de contrôle. La chimie détaillée est décrite au travers de la tabulation du taux de réaction relatif à la flamme principale et du délai d’auto-inflammation relatif à la flamme froide, ces tabulations sont fonction de la variable d’avancement c, du taux de gaz brûlé ainsi que des grandeurs thermodynamiques telles que la température et la pression. Le

  19. Description and principles of use of an automatic control device usable, in particular, in analytical chemistry; Description et principes d'utilisation d'un dispositif de commande automatique utilisable, en particulier, en chimie analytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaudiere, Roger; Jeanmaire, Lucien [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction de la Protection et de la Surete Radiologiques, Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Section de Controle Sanitaire (France)

    1969-07-01

    This note describes an automatic control device for the programming of about 20 different functions, chronologically and during a given time. Any voltage can be chosen at the output to perform the different functions. Three examples of utilisation taken in analytical chemistry are given to illustrate the possibilities offered by this device, but its domain of use is much more universal and independent of the type of functions [French] Description d'un dispositif de commande automatique destine a programmer une vingtaine de fonctions differentes dans l'ordre et pendant le temps desire. Aux bornes d'utilisation de ce dispositif, on peut choisir a volonte du 24 V continu, du 220 V alternatif ou un contact de court-circuit pour realiser les fonctions elles-memes. Afin d'illustrer concretement les possibilites de cet appareil, il est donne trois exemples d'utilisation empruntes a la chimie analytique pour laquelle il a ete prevu initialement. En realite, son domaine d'utilisation est beaucoup plus universel, car il est relativement independant de la nature des fonctions. (auteurs)

  20. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  1. N.M.R. study of organo-phosphorus compounds: non equivalence of methylenic protons in the {alpha} position of an asymmetric phosphorus atom. Application to study of coupling constants J{sub P,H} and J{sub H,H}; R.M.N. de composes organo-phosphores: non equivalence de protons methyleniques en {alpha} d'un phosphore asymetrique. Application a l'etude des constantes de couplage J{sub P,H} et J{sub H,H}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrand, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Non-equivalent methylenic protons, with respect to an asymmetric center, have been observed in the n.m.r. spectra of some three- and tetra-coordinated phosphorus compounds. The analysis of these spectra yield the following results: in the studied secondary phosphines, the inversion rate at the phosphorus atom is slow on the n.m.r. time scale; the geminal coupling constant, for a free-rotating methylene group attached to a phosphorus atom, is negative; in phosphines the non equivalence of methylenic protons reveals two {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} coupling constants which differ by about 5 Hz. This result is in agreement with previous studies on cyclic phosphines. In phosphine oxides, the {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} values are negative. The {sup 3}J{sub H-P-C-H} coupling constant is positive in both phosphines and phosphine oxides. In phosphines, the non-equivalent methylenic protons exhibit two nearly equal values for this coupling constant. (author) [French] La non-equivalence de protons methyleniques observee dans quelques composes phosphores tricoordines et tetracoordines a apporte les resultats suivants, concernant la stereochimie et les constantes de couplage dans ces composes: dans les phosphines secondaires, la structure pyramidale des liaisons issues du phosphore est fixe a l'echelle de temps de mesure de la R.M.N.; la constante de couplage {sup 2}J{sub H-C-H}, pour un methylene en libre rotation en {alpha} d'un atome de phosphore, est negative; dans les phosphines etudiees, la non-equivalence. observee pour les protons methyleniques s'accompagne d'une difference importante (5 Hz) entre les deux constantes de couplage {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} determinees par l'analyse; ce resultat est en accord avec la stereospecificite deja observee pour ce couplage dans les phosphines cycliques. Les valeurs observees pour {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} dans les oxydes de phosphines sont negatives. Les valeurs de la constante de couplage {sup 3}J{sub H-P-C-H}, dans les phosphines et oxydes de phosphine

  2. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  3. Coupling between mechanical behaviour and drying of cementing materials: experimental study on mortars; Couplage comportement mecanique et dessiccation des materiaux a matrice cimentaire: etude experimentale sur mortiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurtdas, I

    2003-10-15

    The aim of this work is to understand the desiccation effects on the mechanical behaviour of cement materials. Two mortars of ratio E/C=0.5 and 0.8 have been tested. All the tests have been implemented after a six months maturing in water. The experimental study has been carried out as follows: 1)tests characterizing the differed behaviour and the transport properties have been carried out 2)tests characterizing the short term multiaxial mechanical behaviour have been carried out. The desiccation shrinkage in terms of the weight loss presents three characteristic phases. The permeability measurement on the mortar 05 shows that the permeability of the specimens dried and crept is greater than those of the specimens dried before being crept, and the permeability of the specimens submitted to a desiccation creep and then dried is sensibly the same as the last one in spite of a very important differed deformation. The influence of the desiccation on the uniaxial and deviatoric compressions resistance depends of the binding agent: for a cement paste of good quality (E/C=0.5), the resistances increase with the desiccation because of the capillary depression and of the hydric gradients. For a cement paste of low quality (E/C=0.8), there is a competitive effect between the increase of the microcracks induced and the specimen rigidification; the microcracking becomes then the parameter controlling the rupture process. The elasto-plastic behaviour becomes a damageable elasto-plastic behaviour during desiccation which induces, as the decrease of the E/C ratio, a translation of the elastic limit surfaces and ruptures towards higher stresses. In parallel, the elastic properties and the incompressibility modulus are damaged and the volume deformations increase after the drying. At last, the decrease of the Young modulus and the passage to the third shrinkage phase in terms of the weight loss coincide. This can be attributed to the induced microcracking: this decrease of the

  4. Concrete durability: physical chemistry of the water attack; Durabilite du beton: physico-chimie de l`alteration par l`eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucon, P

    1997-01-22

    Cement paste constitutes an basic medium, thermodynamically stable for high pH`s. For this reason, water constitutes an aggressive environment. For hydraulic structures, or nuclear waste disposal, water must be considered as a `chemical loading`. In the short- and medium-term water-degradation of cement paste is principally due to transport of matter between the healthy zone and the aggressive solution through diffusion of ionic species from the interstitial solution of the cement paste. In the long-term, dissolution of the surface may occur. Various cement pastes were prepared and leached with continually demineralized water. After a critical time, which depends on the type of paste, the dissolution of the surface layer in contact with water will control the degradation kinetics. The diffusive and chemical properties of the degraded layer are therefore fundamental for the prediction of the long-term behaviour of concrete in water. {sup 29}Si Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) combined with {sup 27}A1 MAS NMR and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy indicate that the superficial layer is formed by a CSH with a molecular structure near from the tobermorite mineral. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques allow us to demonstrate the fundamental role of cationic substitutions occurring in the CSH during degradation on the superficial layer solubility. Our experimental results were used to model the cement paste behaviour taking into account the diffusion and the dissolution of the material. (author).

  5. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The French membranes club (CFM), with the sustain of the French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized this meeting which aims to present the most recent industrial realizations in the domain of membrane processes in the chemistry and energy generation sectors. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations: 1 - hydrogen purification and CO{sub 2} extraction: development of polymer matrix and metal nano-particulate hybrid membranes for selective membrane applications; study of silicone-based mixed matrix membranes for hydrogen purification via inverse selectivity principle; CO{sub 2} capture from gaseous effluents for its sequestration: role and limitations of membrane processes; membranes and processes for the abatement of the acid gas content of smokes; new structural model for Nafion{sup R} membranes, the benchmark polymer for low temperature fuel cells; 2 - molecular screen-based membranes: MFI-alumina nano-composite ceramic membranes: preparation and characterization, gaseous transport and separation; characterization and permeation properties of supported MFI membranes; in-situ measurement of butane isomers diffusion in MFI zeolite membranes through transient permeation tests; 3 - vapors separation: stability of silver particulates in PA12-PTMO/AgBF{sub 4} composite membranes and its effect on the easier ethylene transport inside these membranes; 4 - separation of liquid organic mixtures: isomers separation using cyclo-dextrins bearing membranes: application to the extraction and separation of xylene isomers; electrodialysis in organic environment: application to the electro-synthesis; study of polymer materials permeability; 5 - treatment of industrial waters: use of NanoFlux software in the modeling of nano-filtration membrane processes in the chemical industry: elimination of sulfate impurities from 'Chloralkali' brines; ultra-filtration of a wastewater containing partially emulsified oil; efficiency of a hybrid membrane separation

  6. Contribution to the study of the {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H spin spin coupling constant N. M. R. in three co-ordinated phosphorus compounds. Influence of the bond orientation and of the nature of the substituent around the phosphorus atom; Contribution a l'etude des constantes de couplage {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H en R.M.N. dans les composes organo-phosphores tricoordines. Influence des facteurs geometriques et de la nature des substituants au niveau du phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the configuration at the phosphorus atom and the influence of the substituents attached to the phosphorus atom on the J{sub PH} spin spin coupling constant, we have performed the NMR spectrum analysis of some three coordinated organo-phosphorus compounds. The studied coupling constants are {sup 3}J{sub PH} through P-O-C-H and P-C-C-H fragments and {sup 2}J{sub PH} through P-C-H fragment. The results clearly show that on the NMR time scale, in all the studied compounds (1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes, 3-phospha-cyclopentene and 4-phosphorinanone) there is no inversion of the bonds around phosphorous. This conclusion held also for secondary phosphines. For a given geometry of the bonds joining the P and H atoms, and a given disposition of the bonds around the phosphorus atom, there is only a little influence of the nature of the substituents on the J{sub PH} spin coupling constants. The geometrical dependence of the {sup 3}J{sub PH} cannot be explained by a 'Karplus law'. There is an influence of the bond disposition around phosphorus. In the case of the {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H}, one can plot a curve {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) (0{<=} {alpha} {<=} 180), {alpha} denote the dihedral angle of the two plane defined the first one by the P, C and H atoms, and the second one by the P-C bond together with the three-fold axis of the bond around phosphorus assuming a regular pyramidal arrangement. The function {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) has two maxima, one for {alpha} = 0 degrees and the other for {alpha} = 180 degrees, and also a minimum for {alpha} = 110 degrees. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste en l'analyse par resonance magnetique nucleaire des constantes de couplage phosphore-proton dans des derives organo-phosphores tricoordines dans un double but: examen de la stabilite des liaisons au niveau du phosphore et etude de l'influence de la disposition des liaisons et de la nature de substituants au

  7. 109 Composition chimique et propriétés antibactériennes des huiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOM

    2Laboratoire des Produits Naturels (LPN), Département de chimie, Faculté des sciences et techniques, .... analytique, la technique a été améliorée par la mise en ligne deux colonnes capillaires de polarité différente ... couplage CPG/SM a été réalisé sur colonne capillaire en silice fondue (25 m x 0,23 x 0,25 µm) avec de.

  8. Role of Exchange Equilibria in Structural Chemistry; Role des Equilibres d'Echange en Chimie Structurale; Rol' ravnovesiya obmena v strukturnoj khimii; Papel de los Equilibrios de Intercambio en Quimica Estructural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wazer, J. R.; Moedritzer, K. [Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MI (United States)

    1965-10-15

    , 16]. The topics reviewed above were exemplified by specific systems [e.g. 2, 12, 24, 28] selected from our recent work. In addition to the equilibrium studies, some attention was given to the kinetics [26, 27] of the exchange processes involved. Several general theorems useful in the a priori prediction of the kinds and amounts of products [ 6,18] were presented. (author) [French] Une grande partie des etudes faites jusqu'a present sur les echanges a ete consacree a l'introduction de substituants monofonctionnels dans des atomes ou fragments de molecule polyfonctionnels, mais il se peut aussi que des molecules compliquees subissent un echange de parties de maniere a parvenir a une distribution en equilibre de molecules de tailles et de formes diverses. L'emploi de la resonance magnetique nucleaire (RMN) a fort pouvoir de resolution dans les recherches sur ces melanges equilibres de composes a fait l'objet de plusieurs communications du Monsanto Co.Laboratory (voir ref. [1-34] a la fin des resumes), en 1964 et 1965. Les systemes etudies par cette methode comprennent plusieurs nouvelles familles de composes; les genres de produits resultant des echanges ont ete definis et leurs quantites determinees en fonction d'un petit nombre de constantes d'equilibre. L'auteur a applique une nouvelle theorie mathematique [6] en vue d'etablir la forme et le nombre minimal de constantes d'equilibres qui relient entre elles structures acycliques et parties de structures moleculaires. En outre, il a etudie quantitativement les equilibres entre structures cycliques et acycliques. L'importance que l'on donne aux composes du carbone (ce que fait ressortir la division de la chimie descriptive en chimie organique et inorganique) est due au fait que les echanges portant sur des liaisons C-C ou des liaisons entre un atome de carbone et un autre atome qui ne presente pas d'orbites de liaison libres de basse energie (par exemple Si, Ge, N, P, As, O, S, Se, F, Cl, Br) sont extremement lents. En

  9. Nitrous Oxide from Combustion and Industry: Chemistry, Emissions and Control Protoxyde d'azote provenant de la combustion et de l'industrie : chimie, émissions et techniques de réduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    'industrie chimique, d'autre part il s'interroge sur les technologies possibles de destruction de N2O dans les cas où sa teneur dans les fumées ou autres effluves industriels pose des problèmes. Comme les émissions, aussi bien que les moyens de les abattre, sont fortement tributaires des mécanismes chimiques responsables de la production et de la destruction du N2O, une introduction substantielle sur la cinétique homogène et hétérogène de sa formation/réduction, telle qu'elle apparaît dans un contexte de combustion, est fournie, permettant au lecteur de comprendre le pourquoi de ces émissions et le comment des technologies d'abattement suggérées. Dans une première section de l'introduction, on rappelle brièvement la chimie du N2O en phase gazeuse et ses relations avec la chimie du monoxyde d'azote NO (fig. 1 ; l'effet de la température sur la production nette de N2O est accentué, puisqu'elle expliquera en grande partie les émissions relativement élevées de la combustion à basse température, telle qu'elle est mise en oeuvre dans les lits fluidisés (fig. 2. On mentionne pour finir les réactions du système rédox SO2/NO (fig. 3, responsable de la formation artificiellede N2O dans les échantillons de fumées stockés. La deuxième section de l'introduction traite de la chimie hétérogène du protoxyde d'azote, dont la compréhension est actuellement encore relativement fragmentaire. Parmi les mécanismes hétérogènes non catalytiques, figurent principalement : la réduction de N2O sur le carbone constitutif du charbon et du coke, la formation de N2O à partir de l'azote constitutif de ces derniers et la production de N2O par des réactions entre carbone, NO et sulfates. Les deux premiers mécanismes sont traités en parallèle avec ceux, similaires, qui opèrent sur le NO, auxquels ils sont intimement liés (voir tableau 1 et réactions S1 à S8 dans le texte. La réduction de N20 sur carbone constitutif ne produit que peu de N2O, au moins en absence d

  10. Evaluation of the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model during the ICARTT/ITOP Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, N.; Attie, J. L.; Peuch, V. H.; Michou, M.; Pfister, G.; Edwards, D.; Emmons, L.; Arnold, S.; Heckel, A.; Richter, A.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the Meteo-France global chemistry transport 3D model MOCAGE (MOdele de Chimie Atmospherique a Grande Echelle) using the important set of aircraft measurements collected during the ICARRT/ITOP experiment. This experiment took place between US and Europe during summer 2004 (July 15-August 15). Four aircraft were involved in this experiment providing a wealth of chemical data in a large area including the North East of US and western Europe. The model outputs are compared to the following species of which concentration is measured by the aircraft: OH, H2O2, CO, NO, NO2, PAN, HNO3, isoprene, ethane, HCHO and O3. Moreover, to complete this evaluation at larger scale, we used also satellite data such as SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO. Interestingly, the comprehensive dataset allowed us to evaluate separately the model representation of emissions, transport and chemical processes. Using a daily emission source of biomass burning, we obtain a very good agreement for CO while the evaluation of NO2 points out incertainties resulting from inaccurate ratio of emission factors of NOx/CO. Moreover, the chemical behavior of O3 is satisfactory as discussed in the paper.

  11. The effective lifetime and temperature coefficient in a coupled fast-thermal reactor; Temps de vie effectif et coefficient de temperature dans un reacteur a couplage neutrons rapides-neutrons thermiques; Ehffektivnyj srok zhizni i temperaturnyj koehffitsient nejtronov v dvoyakom reaktore na bystrykh i teplovykh nejtronakh; Vida efectiva y coeficiente de temperatura en un reactor con acoplamiento rapido-termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W. [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    The theory of coupled systems was extensively developed by Avery and co-workers at the Argonne National Laboratory. One of the main points of interest in a coupled system is the larger effective lifetime of neutrons. The effect of the thermal component acts as a sort of neutron-delayer. As in the theory of delayed neutrons the delaying effect disappears if the reactivity worth is high enough to make the fast component critical by itself. In the study a coupled reactor is considered where the fast component suffers a sudden reactivity step {alpha}{sub 0}. Because of the increasing power-level the temperature rises and two temperature coefficients start to work: the temperature coefficient of the fast component and the temperature coefficient of the thermal component. The problem is considered with one group of delayed neutrons (in the ordinary meaning). A formalism is given to express the effective lifetime and temperature coefficient during the different stages of the excursion. Excursions for different {alpha}{sub 0} are given so that the limit of fast-reactor kinetics is reached. (author) [French] La theorie des systemes a couplage a ete mise au point par Avery et ses collaborateurs au Laboratoire national d'Argonne. L'une des caracteristique les plus interessantes d'un systeme a couplage est que le temps de vie effectif des neutrons est plus long. L'effet de la partie thermique contribue en quelque sorte a retarder les neutrons. Comme dans la theorie des neutrons retardes, l'effet de retardement disparait lorsque la reactivite a une valeur suffisamment elevee pour rendre la partie rapide critique par elle-meme. L'auteur du memoire considere un reacteur a couplage dont la partie rapide subit un saut instantane de reactivite, {alpha}{sub 0}. La temperature s'eleve a cause de l'augmentation de puissance et deux coefficients de temperature commencent a s'appliquer: le coefficient de temperature de la partie rapide et le coefficient de temperature de la partie

  12. Contribution to the study of the {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H spin spin coupling constant N. M. R. in three co-ordinated phosphorus compounds. Influence of the bond orientation and of the nature of the substituent around the phosphorus atom; Contribution a l'etude des constantes de couplage {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H en R.M.N. dans les composes organo-phosphores tricoordines. Influence des facteurs geometriques et de la nature des substituants au niveau du phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J.B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the configuration at the phosphorus atom and the influence of the substituents attached to the phosphorus atom on the J{sub PH} spin spin coupling constant, we have performed the NMR spectrum analysis of some three coordinated organo-phosphorus compounds. The studied coupling constants are {sup 3}J{sub PH} through P-O-C-H and P-C-C-H fragments and {sup 2}J{sub PH} through P-C-H fragment. The results clearly show that on the NMR time scale, in all the studied compounds (1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes, 3-phospha-cyclopentene and 4-phosphorinanone) there is no inversion of the bonds around phosphorous. This conclusion held also for secondary phosphines. For a given geometry of the bonds joining the P and H atoms, and a given disposition of the bonds around the phosphorus atom, there is only a little influence of the nature of the substituents on the J{sub PH} spin coupling constants. The geometrical dependence of the {sup 3}J{sub PH} cannot be explained by a 'Karplus law'. There is an influence of the bond disposition around phosphorus. In the case of the {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H}, one can plot a curve {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) (0{<=} {alpha} {<=} 180), {alpha} denote the dihedral angle of the two plane defined the first one by the P, C and H atoms, and the second one by the P-C bond together with the three-fold axis of the bond around phosphorus assuming a regular pyramidal arrangement. The function {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) has two maxima, one for {alpha} = 0 degrees and the other for {alpha} = 180 degrees, and also a minimum for {alpha} = 110 degrees. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste en l'analyse par resonance magnetique nucleaire des constantes de couplage phosphore-proton dans des derives organo-phosphores tricoordines dans un double but: examen de la stabilite des liaisons au niveau du phosphore et etude de l'influence de la disposition des liaisons et de la nature de

  13. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  14. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  15. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  16. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  17. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  18. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  19. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  20. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  1. From the coupling between ion beam analysis techniques and physico-chemical characterization methods to the study of irradiation effects on materials behaviour; Du couplage des techniques d'analyse par faisceaux d'ions et des methodes de caracterisation physico-chimique a l'etude des effets d'irradiation sur le comportement des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard-Pinard, N

    2003-07-01

    The general purpose of my research work is to follow and to interpret the surface evolution of materials, which have received several treatments. During my PhD and my post-doc work, my field of research was tribology. Since I arrived in the 'Aval du Cycle Electronucleaire' group of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, my research activities are in line with the CNRS program 'PACE ' (Programme sur l'Aval du Cycle Electronucleaire) within the ACTINET network. They are coordinated by the PARIS (Physico-chimie des actinides et autres radioelements en solution et aux interfaces) and NOMADE (NOuveaux MAteriaux pour les DEchets) GDR with ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), EDF and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) as partner organisations. My work focused on the study of fission products and actinides migration in barrier materials, which may be capable of assuring the long term safety of deep geological repositories. Until now, it was necessary to use the coupling of ion beam analysis techniques and physico-chemical characterization techniques. During the last few months, I have became interested in understanding radiolytic effects. This new orientation has led us to use ion beams as an irradiating tool. These irradiation experiments are pursued in three major projects. The study of cobalt sulfide inhibition effects of radiolysis gas production during the irradiation of model organic molecules. This is a collaboration with the IRSN, the Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse and the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne. A PhD, co-directed by M. Pijolat from ENSMSE and myself, concerning this study will start in October 2003. Water radiolysis effects on iron corrosion are also studied in the particular case of vitrified nuclear waste containers, which will be stored in deep geological repositories. One ANDRA financed PhD, co-directed by Nathalie Moncoffre and myself, is dedicated to this study

  2. From the coupling between ion beam analysis techniques and physico-chemical characterization methods to the study of irradiation effects on materials behaviour; Du couplage des techniques d'analyse par faisceaux d'ions et des methodes de caracterisation physico-chimique a l'etude des effets d'irradiation sur le comportement des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard-Pinard, N

    2003-07-01

    The general purpose of my research work is to follow and to interpret the surface evolution of materials, which have received several treatments. During my PhD and my post-doc work, my field of research was tribology. Since I arrived in the 'Aval du Cycle Electronucleaire' group of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, my research activities are in line with the CNRS program 'PACE ' (Programme sur l'Aval du Cycle Electronucleaire) within the ACTINET network. They are coordinated by the PARIS (Physico-chimie des actinides et autres radioelements en solution et aux interfaces) and NOMADE (NOuveaux MAteriaux pour les DEchets) GDR with ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), EDF and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) as partner organisations. My work focused on the study of fission products and actinides migration in barrier materials, which may be capable of assuring the long term safety of deep geological repositories. Until now, it was necessary to use the coupling of ion beam analysis techniques and physico-chemical characterization techniques. During the last few months, I have became interested in understanding radiolytic effects. This new orientation has led us to use ion beams as an irradiating tool. These irradiation experiments are pursued in three major projects. The study of cobalt sulfide inhibition effects of radiolysis gas production during the irradiation of model organic molecules. This is a collaboration with the IRSN, the Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse and the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne. A PhD, co-directed by M. Pijolat from ENSMSE and myself, concerning this study will start in October 2003. Water radiolysis effects on iron corrosion are also studied in the particular case of vitrified nuclear waste containers, which will be stored in deep geological repositories. One ANDRA financed PhD, co-directed by Nathalie Moncoffre and myself, is

  3. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  4. Synthèses des propargylamines sur des catalyseurs Au-Co / TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    FEKIR, Amina

    2015-01-01

    La réaction de couplage C-C est une réaction fondamentale de la chimie organique. C’est une transformation qui permet l'association de deux radicaux hydrocarbures. Cette réaction, réalisée à partir d’un dérivé de bore et d’un dérivé électrophile, en présence d’un catalyseur organométallique et d’une base[1]. Actuellement, un des défis de la chimie fondamentale et industrielle est de synthétiser rapidement des collections de molécules (appelées également chimiothèques) pour pouv...

  5. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  6. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  7. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  8. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  9. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  10. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  11. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  12. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  13. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  14. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  15. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  16. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  17. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  18. Analyse quantitative détaillée des distillats moyens par couplage CG/SM. Application à l'étude des schémas réactionnels du procédé d'hydrotraitement Quantitative Analysis of Middle Distillats by Gc/Ms Coupling. Application to Hydrotreatment Process Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafet A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'analyse détaillée des distillats moyens est une étape indispensable à la compréhension des mécanismes réactionnels et à la cinétique de certains procédés de raffinage comme l'hydrotraitement. Une nouvelle méthode associant, d'une part un couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (CG/SM et, d'autre part une analyse quantitative par famille chimique par spectrométrie de masse a été développée. La chromatographie en phase gazeuse, réalisée sur une colonne apolaire, effectue la distillation des composés présents dans le gazole et la spectrométrie de masse quantifie les familles chimiques par intervalle de nombre d'atomes de carbone ou de point d'ébullition. Elle permet d'accéder ainsi à la répartition par nombre d'atomes de carbone de chaque famille chimique (alcanes, cycloalcanes, hydrocarbures aromatiques à un ou plusieurs noyaux, hydrocarbures aromatiques soufrés. Cette méthode a été validée et appliquée à une charge et à une recette d'hydrotraitement. A detailed analysis of middle distillates is essential for understanding the reaction mechanism and for studying the kinetics of refining processes such hydrotreatment. In fact, when we see the complexity of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures appearing in gas oil, we realize that it's necessary to have a very detailed analysis of those cuts to understand the mechanisms involved in refining processes and to be able to describe their kinetics. Each gas oil has a very different composition and therefore a specific reactivity. That is why we have tried to develop predictive kinetic models to avoid experimenting in pilot plants, which is very expensive. But, even if all the compounds of a gasoline (PI-200°C have now been identified and quantified, using gas chromatography (1, such is not the case for heavier cuts. Only an overall characterization can be made, by chemical family. The techniques employed are, for example, HPLC (3,4 or

  19. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  20. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  2. Chemistry, sun, energy and environment; Chimie, soleil, energie et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchy, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France); Enea, O. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Flamant, G. [IMP-Odeillo-CNRS (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This document provides the 35 papers presented at the 'Chemistry, Sun, Energy and Environment' meeting, held February 3-4, 2000 in Saint-Avold, France. The main studied topic was the use of solar radiation for water treatment, volatile organic compounds decomposition and in some thermochemical processes. These research subjects are tackled in a fundamental and practical point of view. (O.M.)

  3. Coupling between corrosion and biphasic transport in porous media: Application to the evolution of a radioactive wastes disposal; Couplage entre corrosion et comportement diphasique dans un milieu poreux: Application a l'evolution d'un stockage des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dridi, W

    2005-04-15

    In the actual concepts of geological disposal, high level radioactive wastes are packed in metallic containers surrounded by a partially or totally saturated clay media. In contact with the interstitial water, anoxic corrosion of this container will start producing hydrogen. In the scope of safety assessment, the present study deals with two main topics: prediction of the long-term corrosion of carbon steel with respect to clay water content and evaluation of the risk of damage of the clay barrier related to gas production. Elementary processes controlling the kinetics of corrosion are limited to oxide growth and mass transfer through the porosity of this film. Thanks to a macroscopic description of theses processes, followed by an interfacial kinetic law, a mechanistic modeling of the anoxic corrosion in partially saturated porous media is proposed. This approach is validated when confronted to the long-term corrosion tests performed in saturated clay. Both modeling and laboratory experiments have confirmed that kinetics of anoxic corrosion in partially saturated clay is mainly controlled by the surrounding relative humidity as in the case of aerated or atmospheric corrosion. In the gas generation topic, some numerical simulations are performed concerning the oedometric and triaxial test dealing with gas migration in saturated clay. Finally, long-term calculations are conducted concerning hydro-mechanical impact of corrosion in deep geological repositories. Due to a more realistic prediction of the long-term corrosion, the risks of gas overpressures, local desaturation and mechanical damage are reduced. (author)

  4. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  5. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  6. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  7. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  8. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  9. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  10. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  11. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  12. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  13. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  14. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  15. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  16. Iminoéthers-1 3 cycliques : chimie et applications dans le domaine des additifs pétroliers et des matériaux organiques Cyclic 1,3-Iminoethers: Chemistry and Applications in the Field of Petroleum Additives and Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Perchec P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré aux iminoéthers-1,3 cycliques les plus courants : les oxazines-1,3 et oxazolines-1,3. La première partie rappelle les synthèses de ces composés et quelques aspects récents de leur chimie : réactions d'hydrolyse, réactions de déprotonation avec ouverture de cycle, réactions des organométalliques, réactions d'addition des nucléophiles en positions 2 et 5, des sels d'iminoéthers correspondants, propriétés complexantes vis-à-vis des métaux, réactions d'aminolyse et formation de structures tensioactives, enfin polymérisations et copolymérisations cationiques. La seconde partie est consacrée à l'étude des travaux qui traitent des applications. En ce qui concerne le domaine des additifs pétroliers, on s'intéresse à la stabilité du cycle oxazoline et à son caractère polaire. Les dérivés tensioactifs dérivés d'oxazoline portant des chaînes hydrocarbonées ont été revendiqués comme additifs dispersants et multifonctionnels pour les carburants et les lubrifiants. De nombreuses formulations (dispersants, antioxydants antirouilles, antiusures, extrême pressions, réducteurs de frictions. . . ont été proposées. Certains dérivés d'hydroxyméthyl oxazolines présentent des propriétés lubrifiantes et d'autres ont un intérêt dans les formulations de boues de forage. En ce qui concerne le domaine des matériaux, on s'intéresse à la réactivité du cycle oxazoline pour réaliser soit des extensions de chaînes des thermoplastiques, soit des réticulations pour des applications de peintures et revêtements. Les homopolymères d'oxazoline qui ont un caractère polaire très marqué peuvent trouver des applications comme promoteur d'adhésion, ou tensioactifs pour les polymérisations en émulsion. Enfin, l'utilisation d'oxazolines stables a été revendiquée dans des formulations de vernis d'émaillage. This article deals with the most common cyclic 1,3-iminoethers, i. e. 1,3-oxazines and 1

  17. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  18. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  19. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  20. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  1. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  2. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  3. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  4. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  5. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  6. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  7. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  8. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  9. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  10. Aerosol data assimilation in the chemical transport model MOCAGE during the TRAQA/ChArMEx campaign: aerosol optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sič, Bojan; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Piacentini, Andrea; Marécal, Virginie; Emili, Emanuele; Cariolle, Daniel; Prather, Michael; Attié, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we describe the development of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation module in the chemistry transport model (CTM) MOCAGE (Modèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle). Our goal is to assimilate the spatially averaged 2-D column AOD data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, and to estimate improvements in a 3-D CTM assimilation run compared to a direct model run. Our assimilation system uses 3-D-FGAT (first guess at appropriate time) as an assimilation method and the total 3-D aerosol concentration as a control variable. In order to have an extensive validation dataset, we carried out our experiment in the northern summer of 2012 when the pre-ChArMEx (CHemistry and AeRosol MEditerranean EXperiment) field campaign TRAQA (TRAnsport à longue distance et Qualité de l'Air dans le bassin méditerranéen) took place in the western Mediterranean basin. The assimilated model run is evaluated independently against a range of aerosol properties (2-D and 3-D) measured by in situ instruments (the TRAQA size-resolved balloon and aircraft measurements), the satellite Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument and ground-based instruments from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) network. The evaluation demonstrates that the AOD assimilation greatly improves aerosol representation in the model. For example, the comparison of the direct and the assimilated model run with AERONET data shows that the assimilation increased the correlation (from 0.74 to 0.88), and reduced the bias (from 0.050 to 0.006) and the root mean square error in the AOD (from 0.12 to 0.07). When compared to the 3-D concentration data obtained by the in situ aircraft and balloon measurements, the assimilation consistently improves the model output. The best results as expected occur when the shape of the vertical profile is correctly simulated by the direct model. We

  11. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  12. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  13. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  14. Analysis and development of spatial hp-refinement methods for solving the neutron transport equation; Analyse et developpement de methodes de raffinement hp en espace pour l'equation de transport des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, D.

    2011-10-10

    The different neutronic parameters have to be calculated with a higher accuracy in order to design the 4. generation reactor cores. As memory storage and computation time are limited, adaptive methods are a solution to solve the neutron transport equation. The neutronic flux, solution of this equation, depends on the energy, angle and space. The different variables are successively discretized. The energy with a multigroup approach, considering the different quantities to be constant on each group, the angle by a collocation method called SN approximation. Once the energy and angle variable are discretized, a system of spatially-dependent hyperbolic equations has to be solved. Discontinuous finite elements are used to make possible the development of hp-refinement methods. Thus, the accuracy of the solution can be improved by spatial refinement (h-refinement), consisting into subdividing a cell into sub-cells, or by order refinement (p-refinement), by increasing the order of the polynomial basis. In this thesis, the properties of this methods are analyzed showing the importance of the regularity of the solution to choose the type of refinement. Thus, two error estimators are used to lead the refinement process. Whereas the first one requires high regularity hypothesis (analytical solution), the second one supposes only the minimal hypothesis required for the solution to exist. The comparison of both estimators is done on benchmarks where the analytic solution is known by the method of manufactured solutions. Thus, the behaviour of the solution as a regard of the regularity can be studied. It leads to a hp-refinement method using the two estimators. Then, a comparison is done with other existing methods on simplified but also realistic benchmarks coming from nuclear cores. These adaptive methods considerably reduces the computational cost and memory footprint. To further improve these two points, an approach with energy-dependent meshes is proposed. Actually, as the

  15. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  16. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  18. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  19. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  20. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  1. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  2. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  3. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  4. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  5. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  6. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  7. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  8. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  9. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  10. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  11. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  12. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  13. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  14. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  15. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  17. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  18. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  19. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  20. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  1. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  2. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  3. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  4. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  5. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  6. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  8. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  9. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  10. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  11. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  12. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  13. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  14. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  16. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  17. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  18. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  19. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  20. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  1. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  2. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  3. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  4. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  5. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  6. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  7. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  8. A linear CO chemistry parameterization in a chemistry-transport model: evaluation and application to data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claeyman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of a new linear parameterization valid for the troposphere and the stratosphere, based on a first order approximation of the carbon monoxide (CO continuity equation. This linear scheme (hereinafter noted LINCO has been implemented in the 3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmospherique Grande Echelle. First, a one and a half years of LINCO simulation has been compared to output obtained from a detailed chemical scheme output. The mean differences between both schemes are about ±25 ppbv (part per billion by volume or 15% in the troposphere and ±10 ppbv or 100% in the stratosphere. Second, LINCO has been compared to diverse observations from satellite instruments covering the troposphere (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere: MOPITT and the stratosphere (Microwave Limb Sounder: MLS and also from aircraft (Measurements of ozone and water vapour by Airbus in-service aircraft: MOZAIC programme mostly flying in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. In the troposphere, the LINCO seasonal variations as well as the vertical and horizontal distributions are quite close to MOPITT CO observations. However, a bias of ~−40 ppbv is observed at 700 Pa between LINCO and MOPITT. In the stratosphere, MLS and LINCO present similar large-scale patterns, except over the poles where the CO concentration is underestimated by the model. In the UTLS, LINCO presents small biases less than 2% compared to independent MOZAIC profiles. Third, we assimilated MOPITT CO using a variational 3D-FGAT (First Guess at Appropriate Time method in conjunction with MOCAGE for a long run of one and a half years. The data assimilation greatly improves the vertical CO distribution in the troposphere from 700 to 350 hPa compared to independent MOZAIC profiles. At 146 hPa, the assimilated CO distribution is also improved compared to MLS observations by reducing the bias up to a factor of 2 in the tropics

  9. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  10. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  11. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  12. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  13. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  14. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  15. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  16. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  17. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  18. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  19. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  20. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  1. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  2. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  3. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  4. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  5. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  6. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  7. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  8. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  9. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  10. Electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the electron transport properties of liquid alkali metals is described. Conductivity coefficients, Boltzmann theory, Ziman theory, alkali form factors, Ziman theory and alkalis, Faber-Ziman alloy theory, Faber-Ziman theory and alkali-alkali methods, status of Ziman theory, and other transport properties, are all discussed. (UK)

  11. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  12. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  13. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  14. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  15. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  16. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  18. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  19. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  20. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  1. Children and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-12-09

    This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.

  2. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  3. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  5. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  6. Transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  7. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  8. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  9. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  12. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  13. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  14. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  15. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  16. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  17. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  18. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  19. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  20. Development of Indian passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1998-05-01

    The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

  1. Transportation statistics annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information compiled by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) Research and Innovative Technology Admini...

  2. Transportation statistics annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information selected by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT's) Research and Innovative Technology Administra...

  3. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  4. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  5. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  6. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  7. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  8. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  9. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  11. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  12. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  13. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  14. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  15. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  16. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  17. Transportation and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...

  18. Risicobeheersing transport diervoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Ipema, A.H.; Boekhoff, M.

    2007-01-01

    Welke knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen bestaan in de praktijk van het transport diervoeders met betrekking tot de implementatie van de diervoederhygiëneverordening, toegespitst op informatievoorziening over wettelijke en bovenwettelijke eisen, naleving, controle en handhaving?

  19. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  20. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  1. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  3. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  4. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  5. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  6. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  7. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  8. CHARTB multigroup transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.

    1979-03-01

    The physics and numerical implementation of the radiation transport routine used in the CHARTB MHD code are discussed. It is a one-dimensional (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry), multigroup,, diffusion approximation. Tests and applications will be discussed as well

  9. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  10. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  11. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  12. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  13. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  14. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  15. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  16. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, E.F.; McDowell, W.; Modjeski, N.S.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  17. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  18. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  19. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  20. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  1. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  2. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  3. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  4. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  5. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  6. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  7. Determination of iodine at ppt level in a nitric acid medium by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: influence of the chemical forms; Etude de la determination de traces d'iode en solution par spectrometrie de masse a secteur magnetique utilisant un plasma a couplage inductif comme source d'ionisation: influence de la forme chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, B

    2001-07-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP/SFMS) was used to determine several chemical forms of iodine, at ppt level, in a nitric acid media. Ascorbic acid was added as a reducing agent in order to maintain iodine as iodide. In a preliminary approach, the influence of the chemical form was studied by comparing inorganic iodine (NaI) and organic iodine (CH3I). Different signal responses were observed. With a conventional sample introduction system, sensitivities obtained for iodo-methane could differ by a factor of 5. This was not caused by a problem of atomization or by a change in the ionization efficiency of the iodo-compound into the plasma. The low volatilization temperature of iodo-methane (315.5 K) seemed to be the main explanation of this phenomena. Actually, nebulization resulted in the volatilization of a 2% nitric acid solution containing iodo-methane. As a result, the transport efficiency of iodo-methane between the nebulizer and the torch was approaching 100%. A Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer (DIHEN) allowed us to minimize the behavior difference between the two iodine species, but the sensitivity ratio was inverted and still differed by 20 - 40%. Moreover, the association of a guard electrode and the direct injection system was studied in order to apply these equipments to the determination of iodine. This association allowed us to improve the sensitivity by a factor of 10 and to minimize memory effects, when compared with a conventional system. Further studies indicated that signal responses obtained with different iodine-containing species, except for iodo-methane, were found to be similar. (author)

  8. Paleoclassical transport explains electron transport barriers in RTP and TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Callen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed paleoclassical transport model sets the minimum level of electron thermal transport in a tokamak. This transport level has proven to be in good agreement with experimental observations in many cases when fluctuation-induced anomalous transport is small, i.e. in (near-) ohmic

  9. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  10. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  11. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  12. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  13. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  14. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  15. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Hydrogen and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 43 PJ, which makes up 23% of the total priMary resources used in the country. On the world scale this latter figure was 17.6% in 2003. On the 1st October of 2005 in Latvia 808.6 thous. of cars, 119.9 thous. of lorries, 10,7 thous. of buses and 27.1 thous. of motorcycles were registred. The annual growth in the number of light motor cars in the last years was 5.5% on the average. In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 335 thous. tons of petrol and 542 thous. tons of diesel fuel, which makes up 87.4% of the total resources used (in terms of the combustion heat). In the period of 2002-2005 the annual growth of energy resources consumed by transport was 4.87% on the average. According to forecasts, in 2015 the transports of our country will spend 1.64 times more energy resources as compared with 2005. If the transport of 2015 uses hydrogen, then for Latvia 270 thous. tons of this product will be needed. To obtain 270 thous. tons of hydrogen from water using the up-to-date equipment for electrolysis a considerable amount of electric energy is required. Such amount can be produced by generating stations of the total capacity of 1680 MWe(net). This figure is close to that for the total installed capacity of electric energy production already existing in Latvia. (Author)

  17. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  18. Transport in Stochastic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption

  19. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  1. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  2. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Transport is a large, multidisciplinary and fascinating field, encompassing vastly different areas of research. In fact transport interests span from not very well understood (in fieldwork) issues related with survey methods to highly complex questions associated with the dynamic equilibration...... of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport....... For these reasons, in this chapter we will just concentrate on issues related with modelling the demand for travel in the relatively short term. In particular, we will refer to modelling discrete short-term choices, such as mode, route and/or trip timing; although in our analysis we will pay attention to research...

  3. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  4. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  7. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  8. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  9. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  10. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  11. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  12. Transportable hyperpolarized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Bornet, Aurélien; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Gajan, David; Rossini, Aaron J.; Emsley, Lyndon; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-labelled metabolites by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can enhance the NMR signals of metabolites by several orders of magnitude, which has enabled in vivo metabolic imaging by MRI. However, because of the short lifetime of the hyperpolarized magnetization (typically <1 min), the polarization process must be carried out close to the point of use. Here we introduce a concept that markedly extends hyperpolarization lifetimes and enables the transportation of hyperpolarized metabolites. The hyperpolarized sample can thus be removed from the polarizer and stored or transported for use at remote MRI or NMR sites. We show that hyperpolarization in alanine and glycine survives 16 h storage and transport, maintaining overall polarization enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude. PMID:28072398

  13. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  14. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  15. Bæredygtig transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Søndergaard, Mads

    2009-01-01

    I denne artikel sættes fokus på bæredygtighed og transport. Baggrunden for artiklen er en undersøgelse af status for bæredygtig transport i et antal danske virksomheder i samarbejde med DHL. Indledningen giver en baggrund for fokus på bæredygtighed, efterfølgende sættes der fokus på "Green SCM......" for at afklare hvad det indeholder, definitioner mv. Dette er udgangspunktet for en præsentation af resultaterne fra undersøgelsen af bæredygtig transport. Undersøgelsen opsummeres og leder frem til en række implikationer for henholdsvis kunder (transportkøberne) og transportleverandørerne....

  16. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  17. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  18. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  19. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  20. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  1. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  2. Transporte de equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Diego

    2012-01-01

    El transporte de caballos es una actividad muy frecuente que se realiza por distintos motivos: competencias de equitación, cría, subastas, tratamientos, etc. En todos los casos, una de las principales preocupaciones de los propietarios es procurar un traslado seguro y confortable. Esto sucede porque si el medio de transporte no es el adecuado puede provocar en los equinos un importante distrés, que se manifiesta en patologías de origen respiratorio, así como traumatismos en los miembros, lo q...

  3. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  4. TRANSPORT OF COUNTERFEIT GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  5. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  6. PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION PLANNERS

    OpenAIRE

    FREDERICO DOS SANTOS LIPORACE

    2005-01-01

    Oleodutos têm um papel importante no transporte de petróleo e de seus derivados, pois são a maneira mais eficaz de transportar grandes volumes por longas distâncias. A motivação deste trabalho é que uma parte não negligenciável do preço final de um derivado de petróleo é influenciada pelo custo de transporte. Apesar disso, até onde sabemos, apenas alguns autores trabalharam neste problema específico, a maioria utilizando técnicas de programação inteira. Este tr...

  7. Transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During november and december 2001, 2 events concerning nuclear transport were reported and classified on the first grade (grade 1) of the INES scale. The first event concerns a hole in a transport cask of contaminated tools. The hole seems to have been made by the fork of a handling equipment. The second event concerns the loss of a parcel containing a technetium generator, this generator represented an activity of about 141 G Becquerel of 99 Mo the day it left the premises of CIS-bio in Saclay. (A.C.)

  8. Introduction to radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This lecture will present time-dependent radiation transport where the radiation is coupled to a static medium, i.e., the material is not in motion. In reality, radiation exerts a pressure on the materials it propagates through and will accelerate the material in the direction of the radiation flow. This fully coupled problem with radiation transport and materials in motion is referred to as radiation-hydrodynamics (or in a shorthand notation: rad-hydro) and is beyond the scope of this lecture

  9. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  10. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo

    1986-01-01

    by a given supply of transport. In contrast with conventional methods, this method operates with real measures, i.e. real location (instead of traffic zones), real time (instead of average travel time), and real costs (instead of proxy-costs). The purpose is to produce relevant and easily understandable......This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...

  11. Transport research: Quo Vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available the national R&D programme in transport became fragmented and consequently very little R&D has been done in the 2000s. This paper analyses the lessons learnt from six historic research programmes in both the public and private sector and in several project...

  12. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  13. Urban Transportation Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Kurt A.; Foster, Patrick N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that involves planning a community and then altering the transportation system to meet new specifications. Includes the rationale for the activity, how it fits into the technology education curriculum, and how it was implemented to fit a variety of age and grade levels. (JOW)

  14. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  15. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  16. Transport near slippery interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, A. Sander

    2016-01-01

    Some surfaces exhibit wall slip, meaning that a owing uid has a velocity relative to that surface. This leads to increased advection in the direct vicinity of the wall. As this directly a ects the rate of transport at larger scales, slippery surfaces have a potentially important application in

  17. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the neoclassical transport theory. Ch. 8 deals with toroidal magnetic confinement. Ch. 9 studies the motion of an individual particle in a toroidal field. Ch.'s 10 and 11 are devoted to the study of the kinetic equation appropriate to the situation that prevails in the neoclassical theory. Ch. 12 is devoted to the general study of the macroscopic moment equations in toroidal geometry. In ch. 13 the first new transport equations are derived. They include the strange Pfirsch-Schlueter effect. In ch. 14 the method of solution of the kinetic equation in the long free path regime is developed. In ch. 15 the typical long mean free path neoclassical transport equations are obtained and discussed; their very pecular differences with the classicial ones are emphasized. Ch. 16 introduces a mean free path regime as well as a method of interpolation of the results over the whole range of collisionalities. Ch. 17 provides the connection of the transport theory with non-equilibrium thermodynamics in a regime (long mean free path) where the applicability of the latter seems, at first sight, questionable. Nevertheless a complete and consistent thermodynamic theory can be set up, even in this regime. Finally, ch. 18 goes back to the hydrodynamical equations and treats the problem of their closure (in toroidal geometry)

  18. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  19. Helium transport in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Chan, A.

    1986-09-01

    Initial measurements of the 15 MeV protons produced in TFTR by the d( 3 He, p)α fusion reaction have been used to determine the time evolution of the central 3 He density. The signals following short 3 He gas puffs indicate inward transport times of about 100 msec

  20. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Solute transport in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with

  2. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  3. What can Transport Deliver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Fulton, Lewis; Figueroa, Maria J.

    We compare detailed projections of transport energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to the year 2050 and review representative pathways towards the specific mitigation targets outlined in the Fifth Assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5), contrasting sectora...

  4. Lightweight Monorail Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Harold F.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Strecker, Myron T.

    1987-01-01

    Report proposes monorail transportation system for zero-gravity environment. System carries materials and parts between locations on space station. Includes tubular rails instead of open channels usually found in overhead conveyor systems. Since resistance to torque of closed tube greater than that of open channel for same amount of material, tubular monorail designed for higher loads or for greater spacing between support points.

  5. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Phloem transport in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Shinichi. Asao

    2014-01-01

    Phloem is like an enigmatic central banker: we know how important phloem is to plant function, but very little about how phloem functions as part of a whole-plant economy. Phloem transports carbohydrates, produced by photosynthesis and hydrolysis of reserve compounds, to sink tissues for growth, respiration and storage. At photosynthetic tissues, carbohydrates are...

  7. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  8. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  9. Atomic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in the first chapter of this book, atomic transport properties govern a large panel of nuclear fuel properties, from its microstructure after fabrication to its behaviour under irradiation: grain growth, oxidation, fission product release, gas bubble nucleation. The modelling of the atomic transport properties is therefore the key to understanding and predicting the material behaviour under irradiation or in storage conditions. In particular, it is noteworthy that many modelling techniques within the so-called multi-scale modelling scheme of materials make use of atomic transport data as input parameters: activation energies of diffusion, diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, all of which are then required to be known accurately. Modelling approaches that are readily used or which could be used to determine atomic transport properties of nuclear materials are reviewed here. They comprise, on the one hand, static atomistic calculations, in which the migration mechanism is fixed and the corresponding migration energy barrier is calculated, and, on the other hand, molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, for which the time evolution of the system is explicitly calculated. (author)

  10. Radioactive materials transport experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhaar, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the kinds of packaging suitable for different types of waste, the roles of highway and rail transport, restrictions imposed by political entities and carriers, and safety. The U. S. accident record is described, with some statistics given

  11. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. VIVITRON beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.

    1989-07-01

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined [fr

  13. Bystruktur og transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2003-01-01

    Paperet præsenterer hovedkonklusionerne fra et PhD-studie af sammenhængene mellem bystruktur (særligt boliglokalisering) og transport i Aalborg. Det konkluderes at boliglokaliseringen har væsentlig betydning for transporten i det daglige. Det gælder især lokaliseringen i forhold til det samlede...

  14. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  16. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  17. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  18. Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data | Transportation Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Photo of reporters test driving Toyota prototype electric and fuel cell vehicles. Consumer for the development and implementation of these technologies. NREL collects, analyzes, and reports on

  19. SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF TRANSPORT SERVICES ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Sadlovska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  20. Transportation programs : challenges facing the department of transportation and congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A safe, efficient, and convenient : transportation system is integral to : the health of our economy and : quality of life. Our nations vast : transportation system of airways, : railways, roads, transit systems, : and waterways has served this : ...

  1. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  2. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  4. On the relation between neoclassical transport and turbulent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated through the flux-force relationship in the neoclassical theory that when neoclassical transport fluxes are improved, the damping rate of the radial electric field of the zonal flow is reduced. This, in turn, leads to improved turbulent transport fluxes. Thus, two seemingly unrelated transport fluxes are intimately connected through the momentum equation, and the neoclassical flux-force relation. This also implies a method to improve turbulent transport by improving neoclassical fluxes

  5. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  6. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  7. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  8. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  9. Anomalous transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of what is known about anomalous transport in tokamaks. It is generally thought that this anomalous transport is the result of fluctuations in various plasma parameters. In the plasma edge detailed measurements of the quantities required to directly determine the fluctuation driven fluxes are available. The total flux of particles is well explained by the measured electrostatic fluctuation driven flux. However, a satisfactory model to explain the origin of the fluctuations has not been identified. The processes responsible for determining the edge energy flux are less clear, but electrostatic convection plays an important part. In the confinement region experimental observations are presently restricted to measurements of density and potential fluctuations and their correlations. The characteristics of the measured fluctuations are discussed and compared with the predictions of various models. Comparisons between measured particle, electron heat and ion heat fluxes, and those fluxes predicted to result from the measured fluctuations, are made. Magnetic fluctuations is discussed

  10. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  11. Near field transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1991-01-01

    In repositories for nuclear waste there are many processes which will be instrumental in corroding the canisters and releasing the nuclides. Based on experiences from studies on the performance of repositories and on an actual design the major mechanisms influencing the integrity and performance of a repository are described and discussed. The paper addresses only conditions in crystalline rock repositories. The low water flow rate in fractures and channels plays a dominant role in limiting the interaction between water and waste. Molecular diffusion in the backfill and rock matrix as well as in the mobile water is an important transport process but actually limits the exchange rate because diffusive transport is slow. Solubility limits of both waste matrix and of individual nuclides are also important. Complicating processes include gas generation by iron corrosion and alpha-radiolysis. (au) (19 refs., 2 figs.)

  12. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  13. Shielded Canister Transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidem, G.G. Jr.; Fages, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will produce canisters filled with high-level radioactive waste immobilized in borosilicate glass. This report discusses a Shielded Canister Transporter (SCT) which will provide the means for safe transportation and handling of the canisters from the Vitrification Building to the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The stainless steel canisters are 0.61 meters in diameter, 3.0 meters tall, and weigh approximately 2,135 kilograms, with a maximum exterior surface dose rate of 90,000 R/hr. The canisters are placed into storage tubes to a maximum of three tall (two for overpack canisters) with an impact limiter placed at the tube bottom and between each canister. A floor plug seals the top of the storage tube at the operating floor level of the CSB

  14. GERENCIAMENTO DE TRANSPORTE COLETIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bodmer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da primeira produção acadêmica voltada para as necessidades do setor de transporte de passageiros. O trabalho, destinado não só aos executivos das empresas, como também aos técnicos, aos pesquisadores e consultores da área de transporte de passageiros, traz no seu bojo a preocupação de aproximar as contribuições teóricas ao estado da prática nas empresas operadoras. O livro, através dos seus oito capítulos, abre as portas para os tópicos que devem ser considerados essenciais para as possibilidades de aperfeiçoamento e modernização gerencial.

  15. retardo de transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Niño-Suárez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la obtención del modelo exacto en tiempo discreto de un robot móvil tipo (2,0, bajo la consideración de la existencia de retardos de transporte en la señal de control, producidos por la propagación de las señales entre los sensores y actuadores del robot y el control remoto. El modelo obtenido es evaluado mediante simulación, comparando su desempeño con un modelo discreto aproximado que incluye también retardos de transporte y con el modelo en tiempo continuo del mismo sistema.

  16. Axisymmetric tokamak scapeoff transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Langer, W.D.

    1982-08-01

    We present the first self-consistent estimate of the magnitude of each term in a fluid treatment of plasma transport for a plasma lying in regions of open field lines in an axisymmetric tokamak. The fluid consists of a pure hydrogen plasma with sources which arise from its interaction with neutral hydrogen atoms. The analysis and results are limited to the high collisionality regime, which is optimal for a gaseous neutralizer divertor, or to a cold plasma mantle in a tokamak reactor. In this regime, both classical and neoclassical transport processes are important, and loss of particles and energy by diamagnetic flow are also significant. The prospect of extending the analysis to the lower collisionality regimes encountered in many existing experiments is discussed

  17. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  18. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  19. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  20. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  1. Urban Transport and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irandu, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The population according to the 1989 census was 21,448,774 inhabitants. This figure shows that on average the total population has been increasing by more than 40% every decade since 1948. As a result the widening gap between fertility and mortality, the population is growing at an accelerated rate. The current official population growth rate figure of 3.4% per annum puts the country among the world's most rapidly growing nations. It is projected that by the year 2010, the population will be about 37.4 million. At present the urban centres with a population size of 2,000 people and above constitute about 18.1% of the total population (Kenya, 1994). Rapid economic growth has led to the development of a number of urban centres as centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Consequently, this has led to rural urban drift. This drift to urban areas causes a number of problems which if unresolved will limit the ability of the urban centres to support their population The rapid increase in urban population causes a shortage of facilities to meet the increasing demand in services such as public transport, water supply, sewage and housing (Ramatullah, 1997: 161-168). Urban Transport acts as catalyst to both urban and national development, by facilitating the movements associated with urban and national Development. They provide a means by which goods and services are made available to industry and consumers, creating opportunity for social and economic interaction and employment. Without urban transport, access to health, education and employment would not be possible. Indeed urban transport is what gives life to urban development

  2. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  3. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  4. Energy use in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R. R.

    1977-10-15

    Brief data and information on consumption of oil-based fuels in New Zealand transport are presented. Then the role of the private car, conservation attitudes and behavior, social impacts of energy conservation are discussed. Apart from the methanol and LP-gas options which do not conserve energy, but only substitute energy sources by local supplies, noticeable fuel savings without sacrificing mobility and changing living patterns can be achieved only by concerted implementation of a package of measures.

  5. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  6. Polaronic transport in polysilanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Nožár, Juraj; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I. I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures /16./. Montpellier, 24.08.2009-28.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polaronic transport * polysilanes * charge carrier mobility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Ion transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  8. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  9. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  10. Thermalhydraulics and activity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.; Wren, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The potential consequences of a reactor accident, in terms of its impact on public safety, rest on the source term of radioactive fission products. The source term, as, as defined by an international group of experts, is the quantity of radioactive material which might be released in a nuclear accident: its physical and chemical form and the other quantities needed to completely specify its dispersion in the environment (e.g., energy in the plume, height of release, duration of release etc.). Although there are a large number of physical and chemical factors that will contribute to the determination of the source term for a given accident scenario, those factors having a direct impact on the rate of transport are of obvious importance. The thermalhydraulic conditions controlling the rate of mass transport, among other things, are probably the most important factors influencing the source term. This paper is an overview of the areas in which thermalhydraulics most strongly influences activity transport during a severe accident in a water-cooled reactor. It also includes some discussion of the areas where coupling between the physics used in separate computer models of the two phenomena must be considered in any mechanistic best-estimate calculations of the source term

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  12. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  13. Energy transport in dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supritz, C. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: christoph.supritz@uni-ulm.de; Engelmann, A. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Reineker, P. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core.

  14. The transport safety programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    The transport safety programme is one of the smaller technical sub-programmes in the Radiation Safety Section of the Division of Nuclear Safety, in terms of both regular budget and professional staff allocations. The overall aim of the programme is to promote the safe movement of radioactive material worldwide. The specific objectives are the development, review and maintenance of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No 6, and its supporting documents Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80 and the assistance to Member States and International Organizations in the proper implementation of the Regulations. One of the important issues that emerged during an ongoing Review/Revision process is the transport of Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). Many of the radioactive waste materials fall in one of these categories. The subject has gained substance because it is expected that in the next decade radioactive waste could become available in so far unprecedented quantities and volumes due to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  15. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  16. Bubble transport in bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  17. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  18. Transportation Statistics Annual Report, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report describes the Nations transportation system, the systems performance, its contributions to the economy, and its effects on people and the environment. This 22nd edition of the report is based on infor...

  19. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  20. Globalisation, transport and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    OECD and the International Transport Forum (ITF) held a GLobal Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008 in Guadalajara, Mexico. There were around 200 participants from 23 countries at the global forum, representi...

  1. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  2. North American Transportation Statistics Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains tables of data for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Data tables are divided up into 12 categories, including a country overview, transportation flows,...

  3. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  4. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  5. Transportation statistics annual report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 20th edition of the report is : base...

  6. Transportation statistics annual report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 18th edition of the report is : base...

  7. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  8. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  9. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  10. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  11. Transport infrastructure development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical configuration process of transportation systems in China and examines the relationship between economic development and transport system at three different levels. The current status of transport infrastructure system development in China is summarized at national and regional level. The investment trends for transport infrastructure in China are also depicted. The keys issues relating to government initiatives are presented.

  12. Nanoscale thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  13. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A critique is presented of current methods of transporting spent nuclear fuel and the inadequacies of the associated contingency plans, with particular reference to the transportation of irradiated fuel through London. Anti-nuclear and pro-nuclear arguments are presented on a number of factors, including tests on flasks, levels of radiation exposure, routine transport arrangements and contingency arrangements. (U.K.)

  14. NWMO transportation technical work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  15. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  16. Lectures on neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1986-02-01

    This note is divided in two parts. In the first one the basis of transport theory, that is, the principal forms of the transport equation and the resulting theorems, are presented. The second part is particularly devoted to the applications of integral transport theory to reactor lattice problems [fr

  17. Transport, chaos and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkadda, S.; Doveil, F.; Elskens, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop made it possible to gather for the first time plasma physicists, dynamical systems physicists and mathematicians, around a general theme focusing on the characterisation of chaotic transport. The participations have been divided into 4 topics: - dynamical systems and microscopic models of chaotic transport, - magnetic fluctuations and transport in tokamaks, - drift wave turbulence, self-organisation and intermittency, and - Wave-particle interactions

  18. Transport studies for ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, A.; Schultz, G.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a predictive study of plasma energy confinement in IGNITOR, performed with a 1 1/2-D transport code and the Tang an Redi transport model, are reported. For comparison, performance predictions for NET adopting similar assumptions on plasma transport are also presented. (author) 16 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  19. NWMO transportation technical work program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, C. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  20. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  1. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  3. The transportation institutional plan: Cooperative planning for NWPA transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Transportation Institutional Plan, published in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), defines a process for effective interaction among those who may be affected by transportation activities conducted under provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The Plan describes formal mechanisms for identifying, addressing, and resolving specific transportation issues. An appendix to the Plan includes detailed discussion of the following transportation issues: (1) the transportation of defense waste; (2) prenotification; (3) physical and rail shipments; (4) highway routing; (5) rail routing; (6) inspection and enforcement for highway and rail shipments; (7) emergency response; (8) liability coverage for transportation to NWPA facilities; (9) cask design and testing; (10) overweight truck shipments; (11) rail service analysis; (12) mixture of transportation modes; (13) transportation infrastructure improvements; (14) OCRWM training standards; (15) transportation operational procedures; and (16) State, Tribal, and local regulation of transportation. The OCRWM's intent is to provide an open accounting of planning, to identify opportunities for public involvement in program activities, and to foster communication and negotiation in the cooperative development of a safe, efficient, and cost-effective NWPA transportation program

  4. The transport forecast - an important stage of transport management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Vasile; Dinu, Oana; Oprea, Cristina; Alina Roman, Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    The transport system is a powerful system with varying loads in operation coming from changes in freight and passenger traffic in different time periods. The variations are due to the specific conditions of organization and development of socio-economic activities. The causes of varying loads can be included in three groups: economic, technical and organizational. The assessing of transport demand variability leads to proper forecast and development of the transport system, knowing that the market price is determined on equilibrium between supply and demand. The reduction of transport demand variability through different technical solutions, organizational, administrative, legislative leads to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of transport. The paper presents a new way of assessing the future needs of transport through dynamic series. Both researchers and practitioners in transport planning can benefit from the research results. This paper aims to analyze in an original approach how a good transport forecast can lead to a better management in transport, with significant effects on transport demand full meeting in quality terms. The case study shows how dynamic series of statistics can be used to identify the size of future demand addressed to the transport system.

  5. Products - transport - storage; Produits - transports - stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-15

    9 articles are gathered in this data-sheet; they deal with LPG products, transport and storage. Blackmer offers a full line of LPG equipment for the transfer of propane, butane and anhydrous ammonia. Clesse Industries and Gas Equipment Company equip luxury hotels in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Since 1975 the company FAS Flussiggas-Anlagen Gmbh, Salzgitter - Germany is one of the leading manufacturers of LPG equipment and components for mobile and stationary bulk plants in Europe. The main products are dispensers, pumps, Auto-gas filling stations, vaporizers, loading arms, electronic cylinder filling scales, flanged valves and safety equipment. FAS is certified with 2 process orientated management systems according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 and to PED - Module H1 - Category IV. The company supplies all products and services according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with CE-mark as well according to regulations ATEX, OIML, TUV, PTB... ECII Engineered Controls International/Rego USA is well known as a worldwide leader and designer/manufacturer of LPG and anhydrous ammonia equipment. The 10. of January Per Sture Jenssen retired from Ragasco A.S. Managing Director after 6 years in the company. Oyvind Hamre who has taken over from Mr. Jenssen, is 39 years of age and he has been 10 years with Ragasco, most recently as R and D Manager. Per Sture Jenssen will still be present in the company until summer 2005 to support during the transition. Corken has put in the market two new products: a new valve and a new pump. Impco Technologies announces completion of BRC acquisition. VOC reduction is a common discussion issue in almost all sectors of the oil business and beyond. Each industry sector has a different strategy towards this issue according to its perceived impact on the business. Although largely motivated by the need to satisfy national and international emission standards, the move towards reduction has encouraged equipment manufacturers to develop advanced

  6. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  7. Transportation Options | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Options Transportation Options Transportation to, from, and within a research campus from business travel often enlarge the footprint more than expected. To understand options for climate

  8. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  9. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  12. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  14. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  15. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  16. Radiation transport in MEDUSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.J.; Evans, R.G.

    1983-09-01

    The transport of energy by X-ray photons has been included in the lD Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, MEDUSA. Calculations of the implosion by 0.53 μm laser irradiation of plastic and glass microballoons of current interest at the Central Laser Facility show that radiation preheats the fill gas and alters the temperature and density profiles during the implosion. A lower maximum gas temperature is obtained and this results, for a DT gas fill, in a greatly reduced neutron yield. (author)

  17. Neutralized transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Thoma, C.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental details on providing active neutralization of high brightness ion beam have been demonstrated for Heavy Ion Fusion program. A K + beam was extracted from a variable-perveance injector and transported through 2.4 m long quadrupole lattice for final focusing. Neutralization was provided by a localized cathode arc plasma plug and a RF volume plasma system. Effects of beam perveance, emittance, convergence focusing angle, and axial focusing position on neutralization have been investigated. Good agreement has been observed with theory and experiment throughout the study

  18. Urban regeneration and transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available -density development, progressively reducing in density as it moves out from the centre. Transit-Oriented Development includes design features such as (Morris 1996; Renne 2009): A neighbourhood designed for cycling and walking and having sufficient facilities...://transport.dot.gov.za/communication_centre_sub.aspx? DOT 2009. ?DOT Secretary Ray LaHood, HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan and EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson Announce Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities?, Press release, Tuesday June 16, 2009, http://www.dot-gov/affairs/2009 DTI 2010...

  19. Crew Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  20. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  1. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  2. Heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acts as a pneumatic spring for the system. This system is suitable for use in a nuclear-powered artificial heart

  3. Management of Transportation Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Record% % %. "jP -M -. M LIh TRANSPORTATION MAENTKENAI4CE SHOP WORKLOAD CONTROL WORK CENTER SADR A-OR .a’* tLR 4.,R53 8114LM 0 o 251 50 75 100 125 ISO ...PDBP 06 7 4892 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 14001-20000 PDBP 06 7 4893 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 20001-27000 PDBP 06 7 4894 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP...27K TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP & UP P-i LINE ITEM 07 LIGHTING AND POWER GENERATION EQUIPMENT 5110 T FLOODLIGHT ELEC FLOODLIGHT, ELEC, TRUCK

  4. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  5. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  6. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  7. Transport barrier in Helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  8. Environmental assessment of freight transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodstroem, E. [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    This report is a short version in English of two reports in Swedish: KFB report 1994:6 `Environmental effects of change of transport mode for goods transportation` and `Combining of transport models` which was performed as a commission for the Swedish environmental protection agency. The aim of both studies is to investigate the environmental effects of political measures to transfer goods from one transport mode to another. To be able to calculate the environmental effects a method to follow the transport chains has been developed. By defining the transport chains with a main transport mode it has been possible to relate the emissions to the different modes. The main results are that the transferable volumes are limited and even if a maximum volume is transferred, the positive environmental effects are small compared to the effects of measures to reduce the emissions from the vehicles 3 refs, 22 figs, 34 tabs

  9. Couplage des équations électriques et magnétiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, P.; Meunier, G.

    1993-03-01

    The non-linear analysis of electrical devices is often limited by the complexity of the power supply. In effect, in the case of solid conductors, the voltage is required, while in the case of stranded conductors, the current must be known. These restrictions are due to the nature of the field equations. A new formulation is proposed which allows the possibility to choose the power supply and choose any kind of connection between components. Two types of “magnetic conductors” are considered: solid conductors, in which eddy current can be induced and stranded conductors without eddy current. An equation combining the magnetic potential, the current and the voltage is established for each conductor. This equation is introduced into a conventional circuit analysis method. The magnetic field and circuit equations can be solved simultaneously in the resulting system. An implicit method is used to discretize the equation in time. A NewtonRaphson linearization algorithm is used to handle problems that include materials with non linear properties. This formulation is used in the commercial program FLUX2D. To illustrate one of the many applications, an A.C. electromagnet is studied. L'analyse des dispositifs électrotechniques est souvent limitée par les sources d'alimentation. En effet, dans le cas de conducteurs massifs, la valeur de la tension est requise, alors que, dans le cas de conducteurs bobinés, le courant doit être connu. Ces restrictions sont dues à la nature des équations de champ. Une nouvelle formulation est proposée qui permet de choisir la source d'alimentation et d'autoriser tous les types de connexions entre les composants. Deux types de “conducteurs magnétiques” sont considérés : les conducteurs massifs, dans lesquels des courants de Foucault peuvent être induits et les conducteurs bobinés sans courants de Foucault. Une équation associant le potentiel vecteur magnétique, le courant et la tension est établie pour chaque type de conducteurs. Cette équation est introduite dans une méthode conventionnelle d'analyse des circuits électriques. Les équations électriques et magnétiques sont résolues simultanément. Une méthode implicite est utilisée pour discrétiser les équations dans le temps. Un algorithme de linéarisation de Newton-Raphson est utilisé pour les problèmes qui incluent des matériaux à caractéristiques non linéaires. Cette formulation a été implantée dans un logiciel commercial FLUX2D. Pour illustrer une des nombreuses applications, un contacteur électromagnétique avec spires de Frager est modélisé.

  10. Mesure des couplages trilineaires anomaux des bosons de jauge avec le detecteur OPAL au LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigger, Isabel Marian

    Since 1996, the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) at CERN has run at energies sufficiently high for the pair production of electroweak gauge bosons. This permits stringent new tests of the Standard Model of particle physics, which makes very precise predictions of the force and nature of the couplings between these bosons. Two of the possible production processes for W+W- pairs are e+e - --> Z0/γ --> W+W -, which involve W+W-Z 0 and W+W-γ couplings. A detailed study of W+W- events can be used to verify the non-Abelian nature of electroweak interactions, and also, eventually, to probe for phenomena arising from physics beyond the Standard Model. The existence of certain new heavy particles, for example, might result in anomalous couplings. We measure the W+W-Z0 and W+W-γ couplings directly, from the rate of W+W- production in the OPAL detector and from characteristics of the decay product distributions of these events. There are three possible final states for W+W - decays: (i) two oppositely charged leptons and missing energy (W+W- --> l - n l+ n ); (ii)one charged lepton, two jets and missing energy (W+W- --> qq¯l n ); or (iii)four hadronic jets (W+W - --> qq¯qq¯). This thesis principally describes the four-jet decays. This is a complicated final state to reconstruct, as the kinematics of the event must be used to determine which of three possible jet pairings corresponds to the true W+ and W- , and in order to increase the sensitivity to anomalous couplings, it is also necessary to use the charges and momenta of the hadrons in the jets to reconstruct the charge of each W. The angular distributions of the W+/- and of their decay products are directly related to the helicities of the Ws, and provide an insight into the nature of the gauge boson couplings.

  11. COUPLAGE SPECTRO-ÉLECTROCHIMIQUE RAMAN-IMPÉDANCE : APPLICATION À LA POLYANILINE

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) leads to information on electrochemical kinetics mechanisms, but cannot identify the nature of species adsorbed at the electrode surface. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for structural investigations; it can provide the information needed on the molecular level, which is missing in the measure of EIS. The purpose of this work was to couple dynamically these two techniques. This new technique -Spectro-electrochemical Raman-impedancewas ap...

  12. Modélisation du comportement et des couplages HMC des milieux poreux

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang , Ha

    2012-01-01

    Modelling of the behavior and the couplings HMC of the porous circles; La modélisation du comportement hydromécanique chimique des milieux poreux saturés et non saturés est abordée au niveau microscopique et mésoscopique. Au niveau microscopique la modélisation des écoulements diphasiques est basée sur une représentation du réseau poral comme un ensemble de tubes dont les orientations et les rayons sont choisis sur un principe d’équivalence avec les pores. L’algorithme régissant la génération...

  13. Advanced transport modeling of toroidal plasmas with transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Honda, M.; Izumi, Y.; Yagi, M.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Transport modeling of toroidal plasmas is one of the most important issue to predict time evolution of burning plasmas and to develop control schemes in reactor plasmas. In order to describe the plasma rotation and rapid transition self-consistently, we have developed an advanced scheme of transport modeling based on dynamical transport equation and applied it to the analysis of transport barrier formation. First we propose a new transport model and examine its behavior by the use of conventional diffusive transport equation. This model includes the electrostatic toroidal ITG mode and the electromagnetic ballooning mode and successfully describes the formation of internal transport barriers. Then the dynamical transport equation is introduced to describe the plasma rotation and the radial electric field self-consistently. The formation of edge transport barriers is systematically studied and compared with experimental observations. The possibility of kinetic transport modeling in velocity space is also examined. Finally the modular structure of integrated modeling code for tokamaks and helical systems is discussed. (author)

  14. Charge transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent report (UCID 17346, ''Relativistic Particle Beam in a Semi-Infinite Axially Symmetric conducting channel extending from a perfectly conducting plane,'' Dec. 13, 1976) Cooper and Neil demonstrate that the net charge transported by a beam pulse injected into a channel of finite conductivity equals the charge of the beam itself. The channel is taken to be infinite in the positive z direction, has finite radius and is terminated by a conducting ground plane at z =0. This result is not an obvious one, and it is restricted in its applicability by the special model assumed for the channel. It is the purpose to explain the result of Cooper and Neil in more qualitative terms and to make similar calculations using several other channel models. It must be emphasized that these calculations are not concerned with the fate of the transported charge after the pulse has stopped, but rather with how much charge leaves the ground plane assuming the pulse does not stop

  15. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  16. Transport roads on peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, G

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory tests have given good experiences to develop the technology of building transport roads for truck on peat bogs. The experiences can be summarized in the following points: The bearing capacity can be increased 15-20 times by mixing down, to the depth of 0,5 m, a mixture of gypsum and T-lime. high bearing surface capacity has been achieved at laboratory tests by mixing sulfonated lignin/sodiumbichromate or cement into peat. These mixtures can take a load of 610 kPa will be tested in the field. An ordinary base machine can be used with some modifications for the new technique. Costs for building roads and stores with the new technique can save 6 MSEK/year in Sweden. Remainig problems at full scale tests are: Testroads should be built to get knowledge of settlement, bearing capacity cost of maintenance etc. Heavy metals pollution. Machinery for transportation and admixture of the stabilizing agents must be deloped. By experience a good mixture between firm soil and peat is difficult to achieve. Technique and dimensioning to make a soft mixture ought to be studied.

  17. Analysis of colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The population balance methodology is described and applied to the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. The transient model includes particle growth, capture, convective transport, and dispersion. We also follow the dynamic accumulation of captured colloids on the solids. The multidimensional parabolic partial differential equation was solved by a recently enhanced method of characteristics technique. This computational technique minimized numerical dispersion and is computationally very fast. The FORTRAN 77 code ran on a VAX-780 in less than a minute and also runs on an IBM-AT using the Professional FORTRAN compiler. The code was extensively tested against various simplified cases and against analytical models. The packed column experiments by Saltelli et al. were re-analyzed incorporating the experimentally reported size distribution of the colloid feed material. Colloid capture was modeled using a linear size dependent filtration function. The effects of a colloid size dependent filtration factor and various initial colloid size distributions on colloid migration and capture were investigated. Also, we followed the changing colloid size distribution as a function of position in the column. Some simple arguments are made to assess the likelihood of colloid migration at a potential NTS Yucca Mountain waste disposal site. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  19. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  20. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  1. Neutron transportation simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenohara, Yuzo.

    1995-01-01

    In the present invention, problems in an existent parallelized monte carlo method is solved, and behaviors of neutrons in a large scaled system are accurately simulated at a high speed. Namely, a neutron transportation simulator according to the monte carlo method simulates movement of each of neutrons by using a parallel computer. In this case, the system to be processed is divided based on a space region and an energy region to which neutrons belong. Simulation of neutrons in the divided regions is allotted to each of performing devices of the parallel computer. Tarry data and nuclear data of the neutrons in each of the regions are memorized dispersedly to memories of each of the performing devices. A transmission means for simulating the behaviors of the neutrons in the region by each of the performing devices, as well as transmitting the information of the neutrons, when the neutrons are moved to other region, to the performing device in a transported portion are disposed to each of the performing devices. With such procedures, simulation for the neutrons in the allotted region can be conducted with small capacity of memories. (I.S.)

  2. Biofuels for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of strong government policies, the IEA projects that the worldwide use of oil in transport will nearly double between 2000 and 2030, leading to a similar increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels, such as ethanol, bio-diesel, and other liquid and gaseous fuels, could offer an important alternative to petroleum over this time frame and help reduce atmospheric pollution. This book looks at recent trends in biofuel production and considers what the future might hold if such alternatives were to displace petroleum in transport. The report takes a global perspective on the nascent biofuels industry, assessing regional similarities and differences as well as the cost and benefits of the various initiatives being undertaken around the world. In the short term, conventional biofuel production processes in IEA countries could help reduce oil use and thence greenhouse gas emissions, although the costs may be high. In the longer term, possibly within the next decade, advances in biofuel production and the use of new feedstocks could lead to greater, more cost-effective reductions. Countries such as Brazil are already producing relatively low-cost biofuels with substantial reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. This book explores the range of options on offer and asks whether a global trade in biofuels should be more rigorously pursued

  3. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  4. Quality Assurance Plan for Transportation Management Division Transportation Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) implemented new rules requiring minimum levels of training for certain key individuals who handle, package, transport, or otherwise prepare hazardous materials for transportation. In response to these rules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Transportation Management Division (TMD), has developed a transportation safety training program. This program supplies designed instructional methodology and course materials to provide basic levels of DOT training to personnel for whom training has become mandatory. In addition, this program provides advanced hazardous waste and radioactive material packaging and transportation training to help personnel achieve proficiency and/or certification as hazardous waste and radioactive material shippers. This training program does not include site-specific or task-specific training beyond DOT requirements

  5. TRANSPORT OUTSOURCING AND TRANSPORT COLLABORATION RELATIONSHIP - THE RISK HEDGING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica M. Stojanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although transport outsourcing decision-making and collaborative transport management (CTM have been “hot topics” for years, their links are still not thoroughly explored. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between them. In particular, we focus on the conflicting and complementary features of these concepts with regard to their capability to hedge against transport outsourcing-related risks. Transport outsourcing is often a tool for transferring part of the demand risks from the primary parties in supply chains to transport service providers. However, new relationships introduce some new risks - outsourcing contract risks. It is important to identify, estimate and compare such kinds of risks. Transport collaboration may decrease both the demand risks and the outsourcing contract risks, although the relationship with the latter is more complex. It is used an exploratory research based on a combination of a literature review and empirical examples.

  6. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  7. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Boron transport in plants: co-ordinated regulation of transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Background The essentiality of boron (B) for plant growth was established >85 years ago. In the last decade, it has been revealed that one of the physiological roles of B is cross-linking the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in primary cell walls. Borate cross-linking of pectic networks serves both for physical strength of cell walls and for cell adhesion. On the other hand, high concentrations of B are toxic to plant growth. To avoid deficiency and toxicity problems, it is important for plants to maintain their tissue B concentrations within an optimum range by regulating transport processes. Boron transport was long believed to be a passive, unregulated process, but the identification of B transporters has suggested that plants sense and respond to the B conditions and regulate transporters to maintain B homeostasis. Scope Transporters responsible for efficient B uptake by roots, xylem loading and B distribution among leaves have been described. These transporters are required under B limitation for efficient acquisition and utilization of B. Transporters important for tolerating high B levels in the environment have also been identified, and these transporters export B from roots back to the soil. Two types of transporters are involved in these processes: NIPs (nodulin-26-like intrinsic proteins), boric acid channels, and BORs, B exporters. It is demonstrated that the expression of genes encoding these transporters is finely regulated in response to B availability in the environment to ensure tissue B homeostasis. Furthermore, plants tolerant to stress produced by low B or high B in the environment can be generated through altered expression of these transporters. Conclusions The identification of the first B transporter led to the discovery that B transport was a process mediated not only by passive diffusion but also by transporters whose activity was regulated in response to B conditions. Now it is evident that plants sense internal and external B

  9. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  10. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  11. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  12. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, the term 'transport-optimized' stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  13. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, David [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Murphy, Catherine [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Martin, Lane [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  14. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel J [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  15. Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry; Etude des phenomenes catalytiques en chimie des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dran, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    Two phenomena have been studied: the action of {gamma} rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO{sub 4} of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O{sub 2}. The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (Te{sup IV}, Pt{sup 11}, As{sup 111}) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO{sub 4} has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute by{gamma} rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 10{sup 5} l.mol{sup -1}. sec{sup -1}. (author) [French] Deux phenomenes ont ete etudies: l'action des rayons {gamma} du radio-cobalt sur les proprietes adsorptives et catalytiques de ZnO et NiO en relation avec l'oxydation heterogene de CO et la catalyse homogene par OsO{sub 4} de l'oxydation de divers solutes en phase aqueuse par ce meme rayonnement. L'irradiation prealable de ZnO et de NiO n'a pas modifie leur activite catalytique, mais a generalement accru l'energie d'adsorption des gaz CO et O{sub 2}. L'influence des radiations semble liee a la presence de traces d'eau sur ZnO et d'un exces d'oxygene sur NiO. Le tetroxyde d'osmium qui n'est pas altere par le rayonnement en solution acide, accelere l'oxydation radiolytique de certains composes. (Te{sup IV}, Pt{sup 11} et As{sup 111}) en la presence d'oxygene, par suite de son effet sensibilisateur sur l'oxydation par H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Dans le cas des phosphites, par contre, OsO{sub 4} exerce une action protectrice dans certaines conditions d'acidite, en conduisant eventuellement a la suppression, de la reaction en chaine qui caracterisa l'oxydation de ce solute par les rayons {gamma}. Un mecanisme general de ces phenomenes est propose. La constante de vitesse de la reaction OsO{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} est evalue a 5,7.10{sup 5} I.mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. (auteur)

  16. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  17. Industrial applications of radiation chemistry; Perspectives industrielles de la chimie sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Jean Rene [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de chimie-physique, CEN de Saclay (France)

    1959-07-01

    The status of industrial applications of radiation chemistry as it stands 6 months after the second Geneva international conference is described. The main features of the interaction of ionizing radiations with matter are briefly stated and a review is made of the best studied and the more promising systems of radiation chemistry. The fields of organics, plastics, heterogeneous catalysis are emphasized. Economies of radiation production and utilization are discussed. Reprint of a paper published in Industries atomiques - no. 5-6, 1959.

  18. Départetnent dc Chimie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical properties of qninones make them a promising class of compounds to ... in order to investigate the possibility to use it in manufacturing batteries [4]. ... Figures I and 2 show the dependence of the peak current and the peak ...

  19. Analytical chemistry equipment for radioactive products; Installation de chimie analytique pour produits radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, M; Guillon, A; Laurent, H; Sauvagnac, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The report deals with a shielded enclosure, hermetic, for analytical examination and handling of radioactive products. Remote handling for the following is provided: pipette absorption - weighing - centrifuging - desiccation - volumetric - pH measurement - potentiometric - colorimetric - polarographic. The above list is not restrictive: the enclosure is designed for the rapid installation of other equipment. Powerfully ventilated and screened to 400 m-curies long life fission product levels by 5 cm of lead, the enclosure is fully safe to the stated level. (author) [French] La presente communication decrit une enceinte etanche et blindee permettant un travail et un controle analytique sur des produits radioactifs. Les techniques suivantes sont adaptees pour une manipulation a distance: pipettage, pesees, centrifugation, dessiccation, volumetrie, mesure de pH, potentiometrie, colorimetrie, polarographie. Cette liste n'est pas limitative. La conception de l'installation permet la mise en place rapide d'autres appareils. Protegee par 5 cm de plomb et fortement ventilee, elle donne toute securite de manipulation jusqu'a un niveau d'activite 400 mcuries en produits de fission a vie longue. (auteur)

  20. Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry; Etude des phenomenes catalytiques en chimie des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dran, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    Two phenomena have been studied: the action of {gamma} rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO{sub 4} of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O{sub 2}. The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (Te{sup IV}, Pt{sup 11}, As{sup 111}) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO{sub 4} has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute by{gamma} rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 10{sup 5} l.mol{sup -1}. sec{sup -1}. (author) [French] Deux phenomenes ont ete etudies: l'action des rayons {gamma} du radio-cobalt sur les proprietes adsorptives et catalytiques de ZnO et NiO en relation avec l'oxydation heterogene de CO et la catalyse homogene par OsO{sub 4} de l'oxydation de divers solutes en phase aqueuse par ce meme rayonnement. L'irradiation prealable de ZnO et de NiO n'a pas modifie leur activite catalytique, mais a generalement accru l'energie d'adsorption des gaz CO et O{sub 2}. L'influence des radiations semble liee a la presence de traces d'eau sur ZnO et d'un exces d'oxygene sur NiO. Le tetroxyde d'osmium qui n'est pas altere par le rayonnement en solution acide, accelere l'oxydation radiolytique de certains composes. (Te{sup IV}, Pt{sup 11} et As{sup 111}) en la presence d'oxygene, par suite de son effet sensibilisateur sur l'oxydation par H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Dans le cas des phosphites, par contre, OsO{sub 4} exerce une action protectrice dans certaines conditions d'acidite, en conduisant eventuellement a la suppression, de la reaction en chaine qui caracterisa l'oxydation de ce solute par les rayons {gamma}. Un mecanisme general de ces phenomenes est propose. La constante de vitesse de la reaction OsO{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} est evalue a 5,7.10{sup 5} I.mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. (auteur)

  1. Installation for analytic chemistry under irradiation; Installation de chimie analytique sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J; Azoeuf, P; Guillon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    An installation has been set up for carrying out manipulations and chemical analyses on radioactive products. It is completely remote-controlled and is of linear shape, 15 metres long; it is made up of three zones: - an active zone containing the apparatus, - a rear zone giving access to the active zone, - a forward zone independent of the two others and completely protected from which the remote-control of the apparatus is effected. The whole assembly has been designed so that each apparatus corresponding to an analytical technique is set up in a sealed enclosure. The sealed enclosures are interconnected by a conveyor. After three years operation, a critical review is now made of the installation. (authors) [French] L'installation a ete realisee pour effectuer des manipulations et des analyses chimiques sur des produits radioactifs. Elle est totalement telecommandee et se presente sous une forme lineaire de 15 metres de longueur et comporte trois zones: - une zone active d'appareillage, - une zone arriere d'intervention, - une zone avant independante des deux premieres et totalement protegee, ou s'operent les telecommandes de l'appareillage. L'ensemble a ete concu de facon a ce que chaque appareillage correspondant a une technique d'analyse soit implante dans une enceinte etanche. Les enceintes etanches sont reliees entre elles par un convoyeur. Apres trois annees de fonctionnement nous faisons le bilan et les critiques de l'installation. (auteurs)

  2. Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne C.N.R.S., Marsielle, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, M; Giudici, D; Abou-Jaoudé, A; Casse, F; Pascal, M C

    1978-04-06

    Mutants of E. coli, completely devoid of nitrite reductase activity with glucose or formate as donor were studied. Biochemical analysis indicates that they are simultaneously affected in nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, fumarate reductase and hydrogenase activities as well as in cytochrome C552 biosynthesis. The use of an antiserum specific for nitrate reductase shows that the nitrate reductase protein is probably missing. A single mutation is responsible for this phenotype: the gene affected, nir R, is located close to tyr R i.e. at 29 min on the chromosomal map.

  3. Chemistry 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Chimie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both French and English versions, is the Chemistry 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 44 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  4. Chlorine transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautkaski, Risto; Mankamo, Tuomas.

    1977-02-01

    An assessment has been made on the toxication risk of the population due to the bulk rail transportation of liquid chlorine in Finland. Fourteen typical rail accidents were selected and their probability was estimated using the accident file of the Finnish State Railways. The probability of a chlorine leak was assessed for each type of accident separately using four leak size categories. The assessed leakage probability was dominated by station accidents, especially by collisions of a chlorine tanker and a locomotive. Toxication hazard areas were estimated for the leak categories. A simple model was constructed to describe the centring of the densely populated areas along the railway line. A comparison was made between the obtained risk and some other risks including those due to nuclear reactor accidents. (author)

  5. Dynamic Transportation Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    Miniaturization of computing devices, and advances in wireless communication and sensor technology are some of the forces that are propagating computing from the stationary desktop to the mobile outdoors. Some important classes of new applications that will be enabled by this revolutionary development include intelligent traffic management, location-based services, tourist services, mobile electronic commerce, and digital battlefield. Some existing application classes that will benefit from the development include transportation and air traffic control, weather forecasting, emergency response, mobile resource management, and mobile workforce. Location management, i.e., the management of transient location information, is an enabling technology for all these applications. In this chapter, we present the applications of moving objects management and their functionalities, in particular, the application of dynamic traffic navigation, which is a challenge due to the highly variable traffic state and the requirement of fast, on-line computations.

  6. Thermalization through parton transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin

    2010-01-01

    A radiative transport model is used to study kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. The parton system is found to be able to overcome expansion and move toward thermalization via parton collisions. Scaling behaviors show up in both the pressure anisotropy and the energy density evolutions. In particular, the pressure anisotropy evolution shows an approximate α s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. The energy density evolution shows an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that partial thermalization can be achieved and viscosity is important for the evolution during the early longitudinal expansion stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  8. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  9. Mass transport by groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, E.; Goblet, P.; Jamet, Ph.; De Marsily, G.; Des Orres, P.E.; Lewi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The first analyses of the safety of radioactive waste disposal published in 1970s were mostly of a generic type using the models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These simply constructed models gave way to more sophisticated techniques in order to represent better the complexity and diversity of geological media. In this article, it is attempted to review the various concepts used to quantify radionuclide migration and the evolution of their incorporation into the models. First, it was examined how the type of discontinuity occurring in geological media affects the choice of a representative model. The principle of transport in the subsurface was reviewed, and the effect that coupled processes exert to groundwater flow and mass migration was discussed. The processes that act directly to cause groundwater flow were distinguished. The method of validating such models by comparing the results with the geochemical systems in nature was explained. (K.I.)

  10. Safety culture in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decobert, V.

    1998-01-01

    'Safety culture' is a wording that appeared first in 1986, during the evaluation of what happened during the Tchernobyl accident. Safety culture is defined in the IAEA 75-INSAG-4 document as the characteristics and attitude which, in organizations and in men behaviours, make that questions related to safety of nuclear power plants benefits, in priority, of the attention that they need in function of their importance. The INSAG-4 document identifies three different elements necessary to the development of the safety culture: commitment of the policy makers, commitment of the managers of the industry, and commitment of individuals. This paper gives examples to show how safety culture is existing in the way Transnucleaire performs the activities in the field of transport of nuclear materials. (author)

  11. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  12. Appraisal of Transport Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    and robustness measures have been elaborated, which examine the subjective part of the MCDA (in form of criteria weights) and its role in decision support making. For this purpose both deterministic and stochastic sensitivity analyses have been developed. In addition, the focus has been formulating a framework...... into account the interests and preferences of different stakeholders. These various interests and preferences have been revealed by the use of decision conferencing, which engage the stakeholders and provide a common platform for understanding the decision problem. Leading up to this framework, this thesis has......, as robustness of a recommended solution is major concern in the final steps of decision making. As mentioned, the appraisal of transport projects is a complex issues involving conflict of various interests and this calls for new approaches to the practice of appraisal. The presented appraisal framework...

  13. Transport as economical lever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurelut, J.

    2007-01-01

    In a changing European market, GRTgaz company is in charge of the double mission of supplying natural gas to the end user in optimal cost and security conditions, and also of accompanying the opening of the gas market in France by making the necessary arrangements for a non-discriminatory access of the network to all granted suppliers. GRTgaz, daughter company of Gaz de France group and in charge of gas transport, has laid down the goal to develop its supply capacity thanks to an ambitious program of investment for the 10 years to come. Beside the advantage of allowing the end user to chose his gas supplier, these investments offer the opportunity of improving the safety of facilities and of reducing their environmental impact. This article presents an interview of J. Laurelut, general director of GRTgaz, who explains the 10 years development plan of his company. (J.S.)

  14. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  15. Controlador Inteligente De Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Cabrera Sarmiento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} En el presente trabajo se expone la concepción, desarrollo e implementación de un Controlador Inteligente de Transporte, el cual se encarga del control de una intersección semaforizada. La estructura hardware del controlador ha sido dividida en dos clases de tarjetas: las Tarjetas de Luces, encargadas de activar las señales para las indicaciones en una intersección (luces, sonido, etc. y la Tarjeta de Control, encargada del control de la intersección gobernando hasta cuatro tarjetas de luces con las cuales se comunica, así como de establecer comunicación con un nivel jerárquico superior. Ambas tarjetas han sido desarrolladas en base a microcontroladores de 8 bits de Microchip. El firmware de ambos tipos de tarjetas ha sido desarrollado y puesto a punto utilizando PIC C de CCS. El desarrollo de este controlador, de prestaciones superiores a los existentes actualmente en el país, permite su inserción en un Sistema Inteligente de Transporte (SIT que se encuentra en fase de desarrollo.

  16. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts to...... contribution to the discussions within the Eusponsored BEST Thematic Network (Benchmarking European Sustainable Transport) which ran from 2000 to 2003....

  17. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  18. Tariff Model for Combined Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Kolar

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By analysing the cwTen.t situation on the Croatian transportationmarket, and considering all parameters needed forthe development of combined transport, measures are suggestedin order to improve and stimulate its development. Oneof the first measures is the standardisation and introduction ofunique tariffs for combined transport, and then government incentivefor the organisation and development of combinedtransport means and equipment. A significant role in thisshould be set on adequately defined transport policy.

  19. Mathematical foundations of transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, Yu.I.; Shikhov, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of mathematical transport theory are presented. Definitions and theorems of functional analysis are given. Linear kinetic equation of neutron transport in multiplication media is derived. A model of neutron interaction with nuclei of medium determining completely the coefficient properties in transport equation is described. Non-stationary problems regarding and without regard of d=e layed neutrons are analyzed. Results of solving Cauchy problem are discussed

  20. Emergency transport by aeromedical blimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Cottrell, J. J.; Garrard, C.

    1989-01-01

    Recently there has been an explosive growth in the use of helicopters and fixed wing aircraft for the transportation of patients who are ill and injured. Although using such methods of transport may result in faster access to health care centres, their ultimate role for the civilian population is unclear. Unfortunately, there are many problems associated with aeromedical transport, particularly with rotary wing aircraft, which have shown an alarming tendency to crash. The use of lighter than ...