WorldWideScience

Sample records for county bioterrorism response

  1. Summary and results of the joint WMD-DAC/Alameda County bioterrorism response plan exercise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Lipkin, Joel; West, Todd H.; Tam, Ricky; Hirano, Howard H.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2003-11-01

    On June 12,2003, the Alameda County Public Health Department and Sandia National Laboratories/CA jointly conducted an exercise that used a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) bioterrorism attack simulation to test the effectiveness of the county's emergency response plan. The exercise was driven by an assumed release (in the vicinity of the Berkeley Marina), and subsequent spread, of a small quantity of aerosolized, weapons-grade anthrax spores. The simulation used several key WMD-DAC capabilities, namely: (1) integration with an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate expected dose levels in the affected areas, (2) a individual-tracking capability for both infected and non-infected persons as they made decisions, sought treatment, and received prophylaxis drugs, and (3) a user interface that allows exercise participants to affect the scenario evolution and outcome. The analysis of the county's response plan included documenting and reviewing the decisions made by participants during the exercise. Twenty-six local and regional officials representing the health care system, emergency medical services and law enforcement were involved in responding to the simulated attack. The results of this joint effort include lessons learned both by the Alameda County officials regarding implementation of their bioterrorism response plan and by the Sandia representatives about conducting exercises of this type. These observations are reviewed in this report, and they form a basis for providing a better understanding of group/individual decision processes and for identifying effective communication options among decision makers.

  2. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites.

  3. Assessing bioterrorism preparedness and response of rural veterinarians: experiences and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Jacobson, Holly; Feldman, Katherine; Miller, Jerry A; Rodriguez, Lori; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Veterinarians play a unique role in emergency preparedness and response, and federal agencies and academic institutions therefore allocate considerable resources to provide training to enhance their readiness. However, the level of preparedness of veterinarians in many rural regions is yet to be improved. This article reports an assessment of the bioterrorism preparedness, specifically the experience and training needs, of rural veterinarians in North Texas. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a study population that included all veterinarians (N = 352) in the 37 counties within Texas Department of State Health Services Regions 2 and 3. Data on veterinarians practicing or residing in the target region were obtained from the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. The response rate was 35% (n = 121). Results indicate that chemical exposure was the condition most frequently seen and treated, followed by botulism and anthrax. The majority (80%) of respondents indicated that they had not previously participated in training related to bioterrorism preparedness, and many (41%) also indicated a willingness to participate in a state health department-initiated bioterrorism response plan. However, only 18% were confident in their ability to diagnose and treat bioterrorism cases. These results suggest that many North Texas veterinarians practicing in rural regions could benefit from additional training in bioterrorism preparedness and response. An area in particular need of further training is the diagnosis and treatment of Category A agents. Federal, state, and local health agencies are urged to increase training opportunities and to make additional efforts to involve veterinarians in bioterrorism preparedness and response.

  4. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  5. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  6. Biowarfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Bioterrorism is not only a reality of the times in which we live but bioweapons have been used for centuries. Critical care physicians play a major role in the recognition of and response to a bioterrorism attack. Critical care clinicians must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of the most likely bioterrorism agents, and also be adequately prepared to manage a mass casualty situation. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most likely agents of biowarfare and bioterrorism.

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  8. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  9. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  10. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner

    2008-09-01

    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  11. Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T; Fleischmann, Kenneth R; Preece, Jennifer; Shneiderman, Ben; Wu, Philip Fei; Qu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    Access to accurate and trusted information is vital in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. To facilitate response in large-scale emergency situations, Community Response Grids (CRGs) integrate Internet and mobile technologies to enable residents to report information, professional emergency responders to disseminate instructions, and residents to assist one another. CRGs use technology to help residents and professional emergency responders to work together in community response to emergencies, including bioterrorism events. In a time of increased danger from bioterrorist threats, the application of advanced information and communication technologies to community response is vital in confronting such threats. This article describes CRGs, their underlying concepts, development efforts, their relevance to biosecurity and bioterrorism, and future research issues in the use of technology to facilitate community response.

  12. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  13. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents ar...

  14. [The strategic plan for preparedness and response to bioterrorism in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Soon

    2008-07-01

    Following the Anthrax bioterrorism attacks in the US in 2001, the Korean government established comprehensive countermeasures against bioterrorism. These measures included the government assuming management of all infectious agents that cause diseases, including smallpox, anthrax, plaque, botulism, and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola fever, marburg fever, and lassa fever) for national security. In addition, the Korean government is reinforcing the ability to prepare and respond to bioterrorism. Some of the measures being implemented include revising the laws and guidelines that apply to the use of infectious agents, the construction and operation of dual surveillance systems for bioterrorism, stockpiling and managing products necessary to respond to an emergency (smallpox vaccine, antibiotics, etc.) and vigorously training emergency room staff and heath workers to ensure they can respond appropriately. In addition, the government's measures include improved public relations, building and maintaining international cooperation, and developing new vaccines and drugs for treatments of infectious agents used to create bioweapons.

  15. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  16. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  17. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page: About CDC.gov . Emergency Preparedness and Response Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Bioterrorism Chemical Emergencies Recent ... No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232- ...

  18. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On July 21, 2010, the Department of Health and Human...

  19. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Public Health Security and... potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. In determining whether to include an agent...

  20. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  1. 生物恐怖对公众心理健康的影响及应对%Effects and Response of a Bioterrorism to Public Mental Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅霓

    2012-01-01

    In this article,the effects and response of a bioterrorism emergency to public mental health has introduced.Based on the characteristics of the bioterrorism,reviewed the effects to public mental health,the strategies for preparation and response to bioterrorism were suggested.Bioterrorism presents special challenges with psychological disorders or physical illnesses for the society.Initial psychosocial interventions also include effective psycho-education and the delivery of authoritative information,may release their fear of infection.So it was concluded that the effective response will reduce even eliminate the bioterrorism's effects to public mental health.%[目的]探讨生物恐怖突发公共卫生事件对公众心理健康的影响及应对。[方法]通过分析生物恐怖事件的特点,探讨其对公众心理健康的影响,并提出应对措施。[结果]生物恐怖事件的发生,必然会给社会公众带来不同程度的心理影响。通过健康教育的普及,权威信息的及时发布以及切实的心理干预,可以有效降低公众的恐惧心理。[结论]生物恐怖事件对公众心理健康的影响,可通过有效的应对措施予以减轻或消除。

  2. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  3. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select... accordance with the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002, we are soliciting public comment... and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 provides for the regulation of...

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  5. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video ... Note: Parts of this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health ...

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  10. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-25

    application of radiation processing: radiation crosslinking of polymers and radiation sterilization of health care products have developed into substantial...municipal waste water, • radiation inactivation of bioterrorism agents, • electron beam processing of flue gases, • radiation crosslinking , • radiation...Electron beam processing of flue gases 6. Radiation crosslinking 7. Radiation curing 3 Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism L.G. Gazsó and G

  11. Planning for Bioterrorism. Behavioral & Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction & Mass Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-16

    that had to be stationary that did air sampling, concentration, and then literally using smart tickets, or ELISA-based antibody antigen assays , were...exposed to a nerve agent. Then the entire group felt they were exposed and all came in to the emergency room. It was a phenomenal event. I remember Cam ...TODAY PREVENTS DEAD DUCK TOMORROW 40 9 Appendix 3 Disaster Responses: Nuclear, Natural, & Human-Made Evelyn J. Bromet 40 .ccu~u -CUC c(D c co~0.0 1- 0

  12. Incorporating bioterrorism content in the nursing curriculum: a creative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melondie R; Gaskins, Susan W

    2010-07-01

    The community health faculty has developed a creative and comprehensive approach with community agencies to present bioterrorism content that could be useful to community health faculty in other schools of nursing. Since September 11, 2001, the United States has recognized that the threat of bioterrorism is real. Nurses are recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as key players in disaster response efforts. However, bioterrorism knowledge among nurses and nursing students has been reported to be low, and textbooks do not include comprehensive information about bioterrorism preparedness. Our college of nursing has collaborated with the U.S. Public Health Department to design a creative educational experience for community health students on bioterrorism and disaster preparedness. Content areas include the National Stockpile, the Planned Response to Pandemic Influenza provided by the U.S. Public Health Department, recognition and treatment of biological threats, and the care of patients with smallpox.

  13. Bioterrorism in Canada: An Economic Assessment of Prevention and Postattack Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald St John

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper calculates the human and economic consequences of a bioterrorist attack on Canadian soil using aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum. The study assumed that 100,000 people in a Canadian suburban neighbourhood were exposed over a 2 h period to an infectious dose of one of the agents. Using an epidemic curve based on the epidemiology and management of anthrax and botulinum poisoning, the costs of intervention and treatment after an attack were compared with the costs of preparedness before a bioterrorist attack. The results show that an investment in planning and preparedness to manage the consequences of an attack can reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs. The sooner that an intervention program is instituted, the more significant are the health and economic benefits. The greatest benefits were realized when postattack intervention was initiated before day 3 after the event. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack in Canada could range from $6.4 billion/100,000 exposed to B anthracis to $8.6 billion/100,000 exposed in an attack using C botulinum. Without the benefit of an effective consequence management program, predicted deaths totalled 32,875 from anthrax and 30,000 from botulinum toxin. Rapid implementation of a postattack prophylaxis program that includes the stockpiling of antibiotics, vaccines and antitoxins; training of first responders in the diagnosis, handling and treatment of pathogens; and the general enhancement of Canada's response capability would reduce both human and economic losses.

  14. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  15. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  16. Research progress in response strategies to smallpox bioterrorism%生物恐怖视角下的天花应对策略研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2013-01-01

    Emergency prevention and control of smallpox transmission in the context of bioterrorism require effective response strategies. This paper began by describing the general process of computational experiments on smallpox response strategies. Then,the current achievement of this method was summarized in terms of the experimental environment, the computational model and intervention strategies. Finally, problems with smallpox response strategy simulation and directions of further research were discussed.%生物恐怖视角下天花传播的应急防控需要科学的应对策略.本文首先介绍天花应对策略计算实验的一般过程,然后从实验环境、计算模型及干预策略3个方面总结当前的研究及取得的进展,并就天花应对策略模拟存在的问题及进一步研究方向进行讨论.

  17. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  18. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  19. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  20. John Bartlett and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D A

    2014-09-15

    Until 1997, the subject of bioterrorism was not discussed within the medical community and deliberately ignored in national planning efforts. Biological weapons were regarded as "morally repulsive." This complacency stemmed from a 1972 Biological Weapons Convention where all countries agreed to cease offensive biological weapons research. In the 1990s, however, the Soviet Union was discovered to have an extensive bioweapons program and a Japanese religious cult sought to launch an anthrax attack on Tokyo. Biological weapons such as smallpox and anthrax had the potential to cause a national catastrophe. However, little was done until John Bartlett in 1997 led a symposium and program to educate the medical community and the country of the need for definitive bioweapons programs. It was highly persuasive and received a final stimulus when the anthrax attack occurred in the United States in 2001.

  1. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  2. BIRS - Bioterrorism Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Rashi; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bioterrorism is the intended use of pathogenic strains of microbes to widen terror in a population. There is a definite need to promote research for development of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostic methods as a part of preparedness to any bioterror attack in the future. BIRS is an open-access database of collective information on the organisms related to bioterrorism. The architecture of database utilizes the current open-source technology viz PHP ver 5.3.19, MySQL and IIS server under windows platform for database designing. Database stores information on literature, generic- information and unique pathways of about 10 microorganisms involved in bioterrorism. This may serve as a collective repository to accelerate the drug discovery and vaccines designing process against such bioterrorist agents (microbes). The available data has been validated from various online resources and literature mining in order to provide the user with a comprehensive information system. The database is freely available at http://www.bioterrorism.biowaves.org.

  3. Francisella tularensis as a potential agent of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Max

    2015-02-01

    Francisella tularensis is a category A bioterrorism agent. It is the etiological agent of tularemia, a zoonotic disease found throughout the northern hemisphere. The intentional spread of F. tularensis aerosols would probably lead to severe and often fatal pneumonia cases, but also secondary cases from contaminated animals and environments. We are not ready to face such a situation. No vaccine is currently available. A few antibiotics are active against F. tularensis, but strains resistant to these antibiotics could be used in the context of bioterrorism. We need new therapeutic strategies to fight against category A bioterrorism agents, including development of new drugs inhibiting F. tularensis growth and/or virulence, or enhancing the host response to infection by this pathogen.

  4. Bioterrorism: a laboratory who does it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David W; Lee, Philip A; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire

    2014-07-01

    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed.

  5. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  6. 美国应对地铁生物恐怖袭击的科技措施与启示%Technological response measures against subway bioterrorism in the United States:investigation and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 祖正虎; 刘健; 许晴; 朱联辉; 黄培堂; 沈倍奋; 郑涛

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large population and relatively closed space environment , the subway system is vulnerable to bioterrorist attacks.This paper analyzes the technological response measures against subway bioterrorism in the United States, including Detect to Protect program of Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and PROTECTS program of Depart-ment of Energy ( DOE) .We also put forward some proposals on how to improve China′s capability of prevention of and response to subway bioterrorism .%地铁系统由于人口流动性大和相对封闭的空间环境是遭受潜在生物恐怖袭击的一个重要目标。该文分析了美国防范和应对地铁系统生物恐怖袭击的一些科技措施,包括国土安全部提高地铁生物监测预警能力措施以及能源部开展的地铁化学和生物恐怖袭击应对与技术支持项目情况等,并提出了提高我国地铁生物恐怖应对能力的一些措施建议。

  7. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity.

  8. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: 1. A Primer on Bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of and describes what biology educators should know about the topic of bioterrorism. Suggests materials that can be used to communicate more effectively with students and the community and prepare a classroom discussion on bioterrorism. (KHR)

  9. [Analysis of policies in activating the Infectious Disease Specialist Network (IDSN) for bioterrorism events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Soo

    2008-07-01

    Bioterrorism events have worldwide impacts, not only in terms of security and public health policy, but also in other related sectors. Many countries, including Korea, have set up new administrative and operational structures and adapted their preparedness and response plans in order to deal with new kinds of threats. Korea has dual surveillance systems for the early detection of bioterrorism. The first is syndromic surveillance that typically monitors non-specific clinical information that may indicate possible bioterrorism-associated diseases before specific diagnoses are made. The other is infectious disease specialist network that diagnoses and responds to specific illnesses caused by intentional release of biologic agents. Infectious disease physicians, clinical microbiologists, and infection control professionals play critical and complementary roles in these networks. Infectious disease specialists should develop practical and realistic response plans for their institutions in partnership with local and state health departments, in preparation for a real or suspected bioterrorism attack.

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Page last updated: October 7, 2014 Content source: Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) Maintained By: Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) Email ...

  11. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  12. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) Maintained By: Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  13. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & ... Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army ...

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), ...

  15. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You ... Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), ...

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & ... Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army ...

  17. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2007 Page last updated: October 7, 2014 Content source: Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  18. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT ... INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888-232-6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services ...

  20. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  1. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  2. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  3. The Effect of Anthrax Bioterrorism on Emergency Department Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: From September through December 2001, 22 Americans were diagnosed with anthrax, prompting widespread national media attention and public concern over bioterrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the threat of anthrax bioterrorism on patient presentation to a West Coast emergency department (ED. Methods: This survey was conducted at an urban county ED in Oakland, CA between December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. During random 8-hour blocks, all adult patients presenting for flu or upper respiratory infection (URI symptoms were surveyed using a structured survey instrument that included standard visual numerical and Likert scales. Results: Eighty-nine patients were interviewed. Eleven patients (12% reported potential exposure risk factors. Eighty percent of patients watched television, read the newspaper, or listened to the radio daily, and 83% of patients had heard about anthrax bioterrorism. Fifty-five percent received a chest x-ray, 10% received either throat or blood cultures, and 28% received antibiotics. Twenty-one percent of patients surveyed were admitted to the hospital. Most patients were minimally concerned that they may have contracted anthrax (mean=3.3±3.3 where 0=no concern and 10=extremely concerned. Patient concern about anthrax had little influence on their decision to visit the ED (mean=2.8±3.0 where 0=no influence and 10=greatly influenced. Had they experienced their same flu or URI symptoms one year prior to the anthrax outbreak, 91% of patients stated they would have sought medical attention. Conclusions: After considerable exposure to media reports about anthrax, most patients in this urban West Coast ED population were not concerned about anthrax infection. Fear of anthrax had little effect on decisions to come to the ED, and most would have sought medical help prior to the anthrax outbreak.

  4. Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by bacteria. Anthrax most commonly occurs in cattle and sheep. It is rare in humans. It ... anthrax exposure.Fortunately, anthrax can be treated with antibiotics. The treatment and its success depend on the ...

  5. Bioterrorism Preparedness: What School Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer N.; Rank, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the safety of school-aged children and adolescents, school counselors must not ignore or deny the public health threat of bioterrorism (Henderson, 1998). Rather, school counselors must be prepared with knowledge about bioterrorism and intervention skills. Bioterrorism within the United States is a continuing threat. Because children and…

  6. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  7. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  8. Risk of Disease Spread through Bioterrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Richard E.

    2006-08-01

    Bioterrorism is seen as a clear and present danger, although historically, acts of bioterrorism have been relatively unpredictable, rare and, thus far, small-scale events. The risk of an event is elevated by increasing contact among species and a global connectivity that provides rapid dissemination of infectious diseases regardless of origin. Virtually any pathogenic microbe could be used by bioterrorists. An attack may be difficult to distinguish from a naturally occurring infectious disease outbreak; however, consequences are likely to be similar. The U.S. agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to bioterrorist attacks because our animals and plants have little or no innate resistance to foreign pathogens and are not vaccinated or otherwise protected against these diseases. It is also important to note that weapons or delivery systems are not an issue because the animals and plants themselves are the primary vector for transferring agents. Most bioterrorism agents are zoonotic in origin, thus an attack on animal populations could pose a health risk to humans. Additionally, disease outbreaks resulting from bioterrorism could jump to wildlife species, persist in the environment, replace locally adapted enzootic strains, expand their range, or emerge as a new zoonotic disease in naïve human and animal populations.

  9. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  10. Bioterrorism and Real-World Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Recent events, such as the anthrax scares and the SARS outbreak, have forced teachers to focus on issues such as disease control and bioterrorism in their own backyards. Students are aware of the current biological issues in the news and are curious about infectious diseases and the issues relating to biological warfare. In order to address the…

  11. Science Publishing in the Age of Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax bioterrorism mailings, the science community and others worried that technical articles might inadvertently aid those planning acts of terrorism. Some authors asked the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) for permission to withhold critical information from…

  12. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster.

  13. [Bioterrorism: data of a recent history of risks and uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Dora Rambauske; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Today, bioterrorism is a real threat in the whole world. Considering the actions of bioterrorism by using biological agents capable of promoting great epidemics and overload in the health systems of any city, state or country, the bioterrorism is not only a health professional concern, but government and military also. This article discusses a bibliographical review done in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO and REPIDISCA databases, during the period of 1997 the 2007, the characteristics of related national publications to the bioterrorism, the type of biological agents studied, and the existing knowledge in the country to face a bioterrorism event, in order to feed with information the professionals who will act in first reply to the bioterrorism events and that are essential to reduce the number of victims.

  14. Bioterrorism in 2001: How Ready Are We?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Lynn Johnston

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On January 30, 2001, the federal Immigration Department's headquarters in Ottawa were evacuated and shut down following a bioterrorism scare, which turned out to be a hoax. The building reopened 48 h later, after it was determined that the substance found was not anthrax (1. In the same week, a similar hoax forced the evacuation of an Ontario provincial government building in Toronto (1.

  15. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  16. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  17. Infectious agents of bioterrorism: a review for emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kman, Nicholas E; Nelson, Richard N

    2008-05-01

    The terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 and the anthrax release soon after brought the issue of bioterrorism to the forefront in the medical community. Bioterrorism is the use of a biologic weapon to create terror and panic. Biologic weapons, or bioweapons, can be bacteria, fungi, viruses, or biologic toxins. Because the emergency department represents the front line of defense for the recognition of agents of bioterrorism, it is essential that emergency physicians have the ability to quickly diagnose victims of bioterrorism. This review examines the most deadly and virulent category A agents of bioterrorism, that is, anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, hemorrhagic fever viruses, and tularemia. The focus is on epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  18. Effect of Education on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Bioterrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hamzeh pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in recent years. To date, the effect of education on knowledge and attitude of students regarding bioterrorism has not been evaluated in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how education affects knowledge and attitude of biological sciences students about bioterrorism. Methods: The present interventional before-after study was carried out on the students of different branches of biological sciences. The students’ level of knowledge on nature of bioterrorism and its causatives, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, management at the time of biological and bioterrorist attacks, and tendency to participate in relief at these events were evaluated before and after training using a pre-designed checklist. Then the effect of education on the students’ knowledge and attitude was evaluated based on their sex. Results: 120 students were included (60% female; mean age 21 ± 3.2 years. The knowledge score was not significantly different between female and male students before educational intervention (p > 0.05. After education, the knowledge score raised significantly in the 4 areas of bioterrorism nature (p < 0.0001, causative factors (p < 0.0001, diagnosing bioterrorism agents (p < 0.0001, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks (p < 0.0001 in female participants, but not in male students (p > 0.05. In addition, after education both male and female participants showed greater tendency to work and do research in the field of bioterrorism (p < 0.0001 but the increase was more significant in females (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Educational intervention led to an improvement in female participants’ knowledge regarding bioterrorism nature, causative factors, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks. Yet, the low level of knowledge and tendency of the students indicates the need for more education in this field.

  19. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations.

  20. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  1. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  2. Biosensors for security and bioterrorism applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of biomarker/biosensor interactions for the rapid detection of weapons of bioterrorism, as well as current research trends and future developments and applications. It will be useful to researchers in this field who are interested in new developments in the early detection of such. The authors have collected very valuable and, in some aspects indispensable experience in the area i.e. in the development and application of portable biosensors for the detection of potential hazards. Most efforts are centered on the development of immunochemical assays including flow-lateral systems and engineered antibodies and their fragments. In addition, new approaches to the detection of enzyme inhibitors, direct enzymatic and microbial detection of metabolites and nutrients are elaborated. Some realized prototypes and concept devices applicable for the further use as a basis for the cooperation programs are also discussed. There is a particular focus on electrochemical and optical det...

  3. Challenges of Detecting Bioterrorism Agents in Complex Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    This chapter offers an overview of the shift from the use of mass ­spectrometry for studying purified bioterrorism agents to the development of methods for rapid detection thereof in environmental and clinical samples. We discuss the difficulties of working with such complex matrices and present methods for quickly and effectively reducing complexity through sample preparation. Finally, we examine a success story wherein the common pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent norovirus is detected at clinically relevant levels in human stool.

  4. Bio-terrorism: still interesting or concerning nowadays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu E. Sbârcea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-terrorism involves using biological agents/toxins with the intent to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives, usually leading to deaths or illnesses of humans but also of plants/animals. Their use would probably initially be considered as a natural or unintentional event, especially in case of live biological agents. Moreover, a natural occurring disease outbreak could have the same destructive outcome as an efficient biological weapon. There is a need for proper differentiation between natural and intentional events although in the first stages the medical response should be similar; however, the course of incident management would take different paths later on. Biological agents’ investigation of dangerous pathogens, from natural unusual outbreaks or bioterrorist attacks/other intentional use, imply the collaboration of different institutions with responsibilities in public health but also in national security and defense. The National Security and the Defense System institutions think mainly in security terms while national health care system institutions think principally` in medical care/prevention terms. These two ways of acting have to be combined in order to deal properly with hazardous biological agents.

  5. Evaluation of an online bioterrorism continuing medical education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical education (CME) activity designed to address clinical issues involving suspected bioterrorism and reporting procedures in the United States. This was a retrospective survey of physicians who had completed an online CME activity on bioterrorism compared with a nonparticipant group who had completed at least 1 unrelated online CME course from the same medical school Web site and were matched on similar characteristics. An online survey instrument was developed to assess clinical and systems knowledge and confidence in recognition of illnesses associated with a potential bioterrorism attack. A power calculation indicated that a sample size of 100 (50 in each group) would achieve 90% power to detect a 10% to 15% difference in test scores between the two groups. Compared with nonparticipant physicians, participants correctly diagnosed anthrax (p = .01) and viral exanthem (p = .01), but not smallpox, more frequently than nonparticipants. Participants knew more frequently than nonparticipants who to contact regarding a potential bioterrorism event (p = .03) Participants were more confident than nonparticipants about finding information to guide diagnoses of patients with biologic exposure (p = .01), chemical exposure (p = .02), and radiation exposure (p = .04). An online bioterrorism course shows promise as an educational intervention in preparing physicians to better diagnose emerging rare infections, including those that may be associated with a bioterrorist event, in increasing confidence in diagnosing these infections, and in reporting of such infections for practicing physicians.

  6. Undergraduate teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism at medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen T; Cladi, Lorenzo; Morris, Paul; Forde, Donall

    2013-06-20

    To determine if individual undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and the Republic of Ireland provide any teaching to medical students about biological weapons, bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation, if they perceive them to be relevant issues and if they figure them in their future plans. A cross-sectional study utilising an internet-based questionnaire sent to key figures responsible for leading on the planning and delivery of undergraduate medical teaching at all schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland. All identified undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland between August 2012 and December 2012. Numerical data and free text feedback about relevant aspects of undergraduate teaching. Of the 38 medical schools approached, 34 (28 in UK, 6 in Ireland) completed the questionnaire (89.47%). 4 (all in UK) chose not to complete it. 6/34 (17.65%) included some specific teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism. 7/34 (20.59%) had staff with bioterrorism expertise (mainly in microbiological and syndromic aspects). 4/34 (11.76%) had plans to introduce some specific teaching on bioterrorism. Free text responses revealed that some felt that because key bodies (eg, UK's General Medical Council) did not request teaching on bioterrorism, then it should not be included, while others regarded this field of study as a postgraduate subject and not appropriate for undergraduates, or argued that the curriculum was too congested already. 4/34 (11.76%) included some specific teaching on chemical weapons, and 3/34 (8.82%) on weaponised radiation. This study provides evidence that at the present time there is little teaching at the undergraduate level in the UK and Ireland on the subjects of biological weapons and bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation and signals that this situation is unlikely to change unless there were to be high-level policy guidance.

  7. Health system preparedness for bioterrorism: bringing the tabletop to the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Kelly J; Brennan, Patrick J; Hoegg, Cindy; O'Rourke, Eileen; Dyer, Bernard D; Grace, Thomas L

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the acceptance and usefulness of a hospital-based tabletop bioterrorism exercise. A descriptive study of responses to a smallpox scenario delivered as a tabletop exercise in three modules. A large, multi-institutional urban health system. Healthcare workers representing 16 hospital departments. Thirty-nine (78%) of 50 invited employees from 4 hospitals participated. Key responses highlighted the importance of pre-event planning in intra-departmental communication, identification of resources for the dependents of healthcare workers, clarification of the chain of command within the hospital, establishment of a link to key governmental agencies, and advanced identification of negative pressure rooms for cohorting large numbers of patients. Almost one-fourth of the participants described their hospital department as poorly prepared for a bioterrorism event of moderate size. At the conclusion of the tabletop, 79% of the participants stated that the exercise had increased their knowledge of preplanning activities. Seventy-nine percent of all participants, 94% of physicians and nurses, and 95% of participants from non-university hospitals ranked the exercise as extremely or very useful. The exercise was completed in 3 1/2 hours and its total direct cost (excluding lost time from work) was 225 dollars (U.S.). Tabletop exercises are a feasible, well-accepted modality for hospital bioterrorism preparedness training. Hospital employees, including physicians and nurses, rank this method as highly useful for guiding preplanning activities. Infection control staff and hospital epidemiologists should play a lead role in hospital preparedness activities. Further assessment of the optimal duration, type, and frequency of tabletop exercises is needed.

  8. Agricultural Bioterrorism: A Federal Strategy to Meet the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    infection in the host can then be transmitted rapidly to nearby members of the population. An infection may go undetected or undiag- nosed for days; thus...Information National Mastitis Council Poultry Science Association 66 AGRICULTURAL BIOTERRORISM Society of Nematologists United States Animal Health

  9. The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill

    This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff…

  10. Evaluation of an Online Bioterrorism Continuing Medical Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical…

  11. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of ...

  12. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure.

  13. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

  14. Patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial prophylaxis for anthrax during the 2001 bioterrorism-related outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aber Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate use of antibiotics by individuals worried about biological agent exposures during bioterrorism events is an important public health concern. However, little is documented about the extent to which individuals with self-identified risk of anthrax exposure approached physicians for antimicrobial prophylaxis during the 2001 bioterrorism attacks in the United States. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected members of the Pennsylvania Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians to assess patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial agents during the 2001 anthrax attacks. Results Ninety-seven physicians completed the survey. Sixty-four (66% respondents had received requests from patients for anthrax prophylaxis; 16 (25% of these physicians prescribed antibiotics to a total of 23 patients. Ten physicians prescribed ciprofloxacin while 8 physicians prescribed doxycycline. Conclusion During the 2001 bioterrorist attacks, the majority of the emergency physicians we surveyed encountered patients who requested anthrax prophylaxis. Public fears may lead to a high demand for antibiotic prophylaxis during bioterrorism events. Elucidation of the relationship between public health response to outbreaks and outcomes would yield insights to ease burden on frontline clinicians and guide strategies to control inappropriate antibiotic allocation during bioterrorist events.

  15. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Zhu, Jingen; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Fitts, Eric C.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Lawrence, William S.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax–plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats. PMID:28694806

  16. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Tao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax–plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats.

  17. A Bivalent Anthrax-Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Zhu, Jingen; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kirtley, Michelle L; Fitts, Eric C; Andersson, Jourdan A; Lawrence, William S; Leppla, Stephen H; Chopra, Ashok K; Rao, Venigalla B

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel(®) elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax-plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats.

  18. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  19. A Bioterrorism Prevention Strategy for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    organisms include smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulinum toxin, tularemia, Ebola and Marburg virus , and Lassa and Junin virus . However, this list...this topic. “Bioterrorism is the intentional use of any microorganism, virus , infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered as a...result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of any such microorganism, virus , infectious substance, or biologic

  20. Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness in Aging (BTEPA): HRSA-Funded GEC Collaboration for Curricula and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arleen; Roush, Robert E., Jr.; Howe, Judith L.; Sanders, Margaret; McBride, Melen R.; Sherman, Andrea; Palmisano, Barbara; Tumosa, Nina; Perweiler, Elyse A.; Weiss, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Frail elders living alone or in long-term care settings are particularly vulnerable to bioterrorism and other emergencies due to their complex physical, social and psychological needs. This paper provides an overview of the recent literature on bioterrorism and emergency preparedness in aging (BTEPA); discusses federal initiatives by the health…

  1. Use of medical simulation to teach bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Martin E

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attacks demonstrated vulnerability for future similar attacks. This article describes mechanisms that can be used to prepare the medical community and healthcare facilities for the diagnosis and management of a subsequent bioterrorism attack should such an event occur and the fundamentals of medical simulation and its use in teaching learners about the diagnosis of management of anthrax exposure.

  2. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  3. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  4. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  5. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  6. Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Clow; Charles C. Rhoades; Jennifer Briggs; Megan Caldwell; William M. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Pine forest in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming, USA, are experiencing the most severe mountain pine beetle epidemic in recorded history, and possible degradation of drinking-water quality is a major concern. The objective of this study was to investigate possible changes in soil and water chemistry in Grand County, Colorado in response to the epidemic,...

  7. Bioterrorism versus radiological terrorism: notes from a bio/nuclear epidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The antiterrorism and disaster planning communities often speak of the high potential for bioterrorism and possible potential for radioterrorism, specifically the explosion of a fission device on US soil. Information gained from an epidemiologist's work in the national and international scene, which inevitably involves Intel regarding the cultures and subcultures being studied, suggest that bioterrorism is far less likely to be a major threat, that has been over-emphasized at the state level due to warnings from Homeland Security, and that Homeland Security itself appears biased toward bioterrorism of late with very little available rational basis.

  8. Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Anton

    2003-10-01

    Bioterrorist attacks occupy a special place amongst the innumerable potential types of terrorist attack, with the intentional release of pox viruses being especially feared in this connection. Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals. This risk scenario also includes recombinations between the various pox viruses, changes in hosts and genetically engineered manipulations of pox viruses. For over 200 years, the method of choice for combatting smallpox was via vaccination with a reproductive, original vaccinia virus. Worldwide eradication of smallpox at the end of the 1970s and the discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination in 1980 can be credited to such vaccination. Unfortunately, these vaccinations were associated with a large number of postvaccinal impairments, sometimes resulting in death (e.g. postvaccinal encephalitis). The only way to restrict such postvaccinal complications was to carry out initial vaccination within the first 2 postnatal years. Initial vaccination at a later age led to such a sharp increase in the number of vaccines with complications that vaccination had to be discouraged. The dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks stems from the fact that a large portion of these stocks are produced with the same vaccinia strains as before. This is irresponsible, especially as the percentage of immune-suppressed persons in the population, for whom vaccination-related complications pose an especial threat, is increasing. One solution to the dilemma of the smallpox vaccine stocks is the MVA strain. It is harmless, protects humans and animals equally well against smallpox and can be applied parenterally.

  9. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-06

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  10. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Bioterrorism presents a real and omnipresent risk to public health throughout the world. More than 30 biological agents have been identified as possessing the potential to be deployed in a bioterrorist attack. Those that have been determined to be of the greatest concern and possess the greatest potential of use in this arena are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); Variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); viral hemorrhagic fevers; and Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism toxin). Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention utilizes surveillance systems to identify illnesses, the weight of diagnosing, effectively treating, and notifying the appropriate public health officials lies squarely on the shoulders of emergency care personnel. Part I of this two-part review will focus on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. The subsequent Part II of this review will discuss smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism toxin, and the provision of mass prophylaxis.

  11. Simulation modeling of anthrax spore dispersion in a bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetin, Vladimir P; Regens, James L

    2003-12-01

    Recent events have increased awareness of the risk posed by terrorist attacks. Bacillus anthracis has resurfaced in the 21st century as a deadly agent of bioterrorism because of its potential for causing massive civilian casualties. This analysis presents the results of a computer simulation of the dispersion of anthrax spores in a typical 50-story, high-rise building after an intentional release during a bioterrorist incident. The model simulates aerosol dispersion in the case of intensive, small-scale convection, which equalizes the concentration of anthrax spores over the building volume. The model can be used to predict the time interval required for spore dispersion throughout a building after a terrorist attack in a high-rise building. The analysis reveals that an aerosol release of even a relatively small volume of anthrax spores during a terrorist incident has the potential to quickly distribute concentrations that are infectious throughout the building.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY EXPENDITURES OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES FROM BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveanu Tomina Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the social responsibility expenditures of small and medium enterprises (SME in Bihor County. In line with the literature we consider donations and sponsorship the expression of philanthropic behavior of companies. Positioned at the top of the CSR pyramid such actions are some of the few on which there is consensus in considering forms of CSR. Explaining the factors that drive such expenditures at the level of small and medium enterprises fills in a gap in the scientific knowledge both at international and national level. Particularly in Romania, the CSR processes are less studied and seem developed mimetically by large companies from the example of multinational companies. However the data provided in this paper reveals that a significant number of small and medium enterprises are engaged in CSR actions, as almost 20% of SME with registered profit donate money. The factors explaining this orientation are in line with the literature as the size of the enterprise influences both the decision to donate and the amounts donated. The larger a company in terms of profit, turnover and number of employees the bigger the chances it donates money and the amounts donated are larger. The data was extracted from the National Agency of Fiscal Administration regarding expenditures of small and medium enterprises in 2013. Future studies should include information regarding the destination of these expenditures. More, in order to fully explain CSR at SMEs level qualitative data is needed regarding the motivations of managers for such actions and the reasons behind the choice for a specific area or action.

  13. County Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...

  14. Addressing bioterrorism concerns: options for investigating the mechanism of action of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C D; Griffiths, G D

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is of concern to military and civilian populations as a bioterrorism threat agent. It is a highly potent toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus and is stable in storage and under aerosolisation; it is able to produce prolonged highly incapacitating illness at very low-inhaled doses and death at elevated doses. Concerns regarding SEB are compounded by the lack of effective medical countermeasures for mass treatment of affected populations. This article considers the mechanism of action of SEB, the availability of appropriate experimental models for evaluating the efficacy of candidate medical countermeasures with particular reference to the need to realistically model SEB responses in man and the availability of candidate countermeasures (with an emphasis on commercial off-the-shelf options). The proposed in vitro approaches would be in keeping with Dstl’s commitment to reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models in biomedical research, particularly in relation to identifying valid alternatives to the use of nonhuman primates in experimental studies.

  15. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  16. Are we preparing health services administration students to respond to bioterrorism and mass casualty management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Houser, Howard W

    2006-01-01

    Bioterrorism/natural disaster events add significant specialized demands and disrupt normal operation of the health system, often for an indefinite period of time. Health administration leaders should be educationally prepared for and informed about these potential events, but few receive this knowledge via their academic preparation in health administration. This study examined the existence of coverage of bioterrorism topics in health administration curricula and characteristics of bioterrorism coverage in current health administration programs through a self-completed survey among AUPHA graduate and undergraduate program members. Of the total survey respondents, only 32% of programs have current coverage of bioterrorism. The main reasons for nothavingbioterrorism coverage were not having enough resources; not having enough time to develop course/materials; and not thinking it is necessary to add these courses/materials. To prepare better and to inform future health administrators regarding major disruptive circumstances, advocacy and documentation are important to develop and implement bioterrorism awareness. Possibly, suggested minimum curricular requirements, content, and mechanisms for inclusion can be developed in the near future. Health administration educators should address the new reality and demonstrate that their graduates can function and lead in crises and situations disruptive to normal commerce.

  17. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion.

  18. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  19. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  20. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  1. Suggestions about the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals%军队医院应对生物恐怖能力现状调查及能力提高的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 吴杰; 于弘; 郑涛; 孙建中

    2014-01-01

    根据军队医院在应对生物恐怖能力现状调查中获得的结果,针对现阶段军队医院存在的薄弱环节,提出应对生物恐怖能力的建议:平战结合,整体提高;立足自身,任务牵引;危机管理,分级响应;军地联动,依托社会。%According to the investigation about the current ability of military hospitals to cope with bioterrorism , we suggest that military hospitals improve the capability for bioterrorism response based on the research above by satisfying mission requirements , combining peacetime with wartime , carrying out crisis management , classifying response and cooperating with local sectors .

  2. Biowarfare, bioterrorism, and animal diseases as bioweapons: Chapter 6 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between disease in humans and the maladies of animals continue to be a focus for those concerned with disease effects on human health. References to animal diseases, particularly zoonoses such as rabies and glanders, are found in the writings of Greek (Hippocrates, Democritus, Aristotle, Galen, Dioscorides), Byzantine (Oribasius, Actius of Amida), and Roman (Pliny the Elder, Celsus) physicians and naturalists.3 Also, early advances in disease knowledge were closely associated with the study of contagions in animals to the extent that “The most complete ancient accounts of the concepts of contagion and contamination are found in treatises on veterinary medicine.”4,5Opportunities for disease transfer between animals and humans have increased during modern times, partly because of advances in animal husbandry and intensive agriculture that result in increased contacts among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Infectious pathogens exploit these contacts, and must be considered in this era of increased world tensions and international terrorism (Fig. 6.1).Disease emergence and resurgence are generally associated with natural processes and unanticipated outcomes related to human behavior and actions. That perspective has been broadened by recent acts of bioterrorism. A new category of deliberately emerging diseases contains emerging microbes that are developed by humans, usually for nefarious use.211 Included are naturally occurring microbial agents and those altered by bioengineering.This chapter highlights the wildlife component of the pathogen-host-environment triad to focus attention on the potential for bioterrorists to use wildlife as a means for infectious disease attacks against society. The value of this focus is that the underlying causes of disease emergence and the optimal prevention or control response frequently differ for disease emergence, resurgence, and deliberately emerging diseases.211 Differences also exist relative to the potential

  3. Retroviruses and other latent viruses: the deadliest of pathogens are not necessarily the best candidates for bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Cassandra D; Kilby, J Michael

    2009-06-01

    HIV-1 (and other viral causes of latent, chronic infections) is not a likely candidate for bioterrorism. Scenarios resulting in the introduction of retroviral infections into a large population generally seem impractical and unpredictable as bioterrorist plots, especially relative to the frightening simplicity of deadly anthrax spores or smallpox virions. As evidenced in the above discussion, contaminating the blood supply would require a highly sophisticated plan resulting in effects of rather limited ultimate scope, and would have to evade an extremely effective screening process already in full force. Contaminating other agents given parenterally is also a potential concern, but again the virus has rather fastidious growth characteristics outside of the human host, and even if this could be accomplished it would presumably affect only a very limited number of targeted individuals. Finally, the idea of a kind of"sexual suicide bomber", an individual deliberately introduced into the community to spread a deadly infectious disease might be proposed. However, as discussed in this commentary, the impact of this rather implausible scenario would be substantially delayed, unreliable, and ultimately could be controlled through a heightened response of already existing public health mechanisms. Whereas HIV has resulted in the "perfect storm" of a devastating pandemic, a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality that is tremendously challenging to control, it does not match up very effectively with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Category A definition of an ideal agent of bioterrorism. It is not easily spread through casual or incidental contact and does not cause a substantial immediate death toll. Instead it is spread only through sexual, parenteral, or maternal/fetal transmission, and generally requires a prolonged and variable clinical latency period prior to disease progression and death. The U.S. public health system is already reasonably

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rural Primary Care: Improving Care for Mental Health Following Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Dobalian, Aram; Wiens, Brenda A.; Gylys, Julius A.; Evans, Garret D.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recent bioterrorist attacks have highlighted the critical need for health care organizations to prepare for future threats. Yet, relatively little attention has been paid to the mental health needs of rural communities in the wake of such events. A critical aspect of bioterrorism is emphasis on generating fear and uncertainty, thereby…

  5. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61228... INFORMATION: On October 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  6. Ecosystem Health Assessment at County-Scale Using the Pressure-State-Response Framework on the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delin Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing ecosystem health is helpful to determine reasonable eco-environmental restoration and resource management strategies. Based on a pressure-state-response (PSR framework, a set of comprehensive indicators including natural, social and economic aspects was proposed and applied for assessing the ecosystem health of Yuanzhou County, Loess Plateau, Ningxia Province, China. The basic data used to calculate the values of the assessment indicators include Landsat TM image and socio-economic data, and remote sensing (RS and the geographic information system (GIS were used to process image data. The results showed that the ecosystem health conditions of most townships in Yuanzhou County were at the moderately healthy level, three townships were at the healthy level, and only two townships were at the unhelathy level; the areas (percentage at the unhealthy, moderately healthy and healthy levels were 443.91 km2 (12.66%, 2438.75 km2 (69.54% and 624.50 km2 (17.81%, respectively. The results could provide useful information for local residents and the government to take measures to improve the health conditions of their township ecosystem.

  7. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests.

  8. The Bioethicist Who Cried "Synthetic Biology": An Analysis of the Function of Bioterrorism Predictions in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes a specter that has haunted bioethics almost since its inception, namely the specter of the misuse of biotechnology by maleficent agents bent on mass destruction, or the complete eradication of human kind and life as we know it. The article provides a general account of why bioethicists cry "catastrophic bioterrorism potential" when new biotechnologies emerge, and an analysis of the arguments that flow from the prediction, especially in relation to synthetic biology.

  9. Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education in bioterrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopathi, Vinodh; Mashabi, Samar Omar; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina

    2010-12-01

    Dental professionals should be well prepared to provide care during bioterrorist events. In this study, we assessed the knowledge, opinions about playing various roles during a bioterrorist event, and perceived need for education of dental professionals (dentists and dental hygienists) from one region (Oregon) that had been exposed to bioterrorism and from another region (New England) not exposed. This cross-sectional study used an eighteen-item pretested, self-administered questionnaire distributed at the 2005 Oregon Dental Conference (n=156) and 2005 Yankee Dental Conference (n=297). Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education on bioterrorist preparedness were quantified by multivariate linear and logistic modeling. More than 90 percent of the dental professionals were willing to provide care during bioterrorist events. Perceived knowledge was high; however, actual knowledge was low. Dental professionals who wanted to attend a continuing education course and who thought dental professionals should play more roles during a bioterrorist attack had higher actual knowledge. Willingness to provide care was not supported by adequate knowledge. No significant differences between New England and Oregon dental professionals were observed in terms of actual knowledge or perceived need for bioterrorism education. Integrating training and education into the predoctoral dental and dental hygiene curricula and developing continuing education courses would improve knowledge and better prepare dental professionals to effectively perform American Dental Association-recommended roles during any future bioterrorism events.

  10. Nurses' intentions to respond to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Deanna E; Mendias, Elnora P

    2010-01-01

    Although nurses historically have responded to natural disasters, little is known about nurses' intentions to respond during bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies where they and their families may be at risk. To investigate that question, we surveyed nurses following their participation in a class on bioterrorism. Participants (N = 292) completed a Personal/Professional Profile (PPP), Test of Bioterrorism Knowledge (BT Knowledge), and an Intention to Respond (IR) instrument. IR was measured by participants' scores on their likelihood to care for patients (0 = extremely unlikely, 10 = extremely likely) for each of 10 infectious disease scenarios reflecting different infection risk. We calculated scores for each scenario, totaled them, and examined the total IR related to the participant's PPP and scores on BT Knowledge. Additionally, we examined participants' written comments explaining the reasons for their IR. Total IR scores ranged from 8-100 (mean and median of 70). The IR was higher in scenarios where the infection risk was lower. Overall IR scores were positively related to BT Knowledge and having had previous emergency and disaster experience. Those less likely to respond had dependent children and more years in nursing. Results indicate that nurses differentiated risks associated with different infectious disease situations and may decide to respond during a real emergency based on such information. Implications for nursing administrators and nursing educators are discussed.

  11. Research of the Response of Ecosystem to LUCC in Miyun County, Beijing: Based on Ecosystem Services Valuation%Research of the Response of Ecosystem to LUCC in Miyun County, Beijing: Based on Ecosystem Services Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xu; Li Xiaobing; Yu Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    Miyun County, located in the northeast of Chinese capital Beijing, was underwent remarkable variations in land use in recent years. This paper aimed to detect changes in land use of Miyun from 1997 to 2005, and to qualify the response of ecosystem to LUCC based on ecosystem services valuation. With two-periods TM images, we got land use change data, and then ecosystem services values were calculated using ecosystem services valuation coefficients proposed by Chinese scholar Xie Gaodi. Results showed that water area, farm land and unused land decreased while residential land, forest land, grassland and orchard land increased during the study period. The loss of ESV was RMB 206 million and the main reason was the decrease of water area and farm land area. As for spatial variation, there were most dra- matically land use change and ESV decline in reservoir ecological protection region. The coefficient sensitivity analysis indicates that valuation coefficients used in the study are suitable and results are reasonable. The driving forces of ESV loss were rapid population growth and economic development. More work should be done to make eco-environment stay healthy.

  12. County Governor's climate change work. Roles and responsibilities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change; Fylkesmannens klimaarbeid. Roller og oppgaver for aa redusere klimagassutslipp og tilpasse seg klimaendringene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The document provides an overall description of the County Department's tasks in the work of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change. Chapters 2 and 3 provides a picture of climate change and a description of the County Department's role in the implementation of the national climate policy. Chapter 4 describes the municipalities and county municipalities' responsibilities in climate change. Chapter 5 is a specific review of the County Department of Climate tasks as a regional sector authority in the environmental area, agricultural area and the emergency and civil protection area. (AG)

  13. Local institutions responses to climate governance policies in adaptation to climate change : a case of small scale farmers in Alego Usonga-Siaya County in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Shilaho, Haron Alusiola

    2016-01-01

    Alego Usonga-Siaya County in Kenya can be considered a climate change vulnerable area with larger population dependent on substance and rain-fed farming and other social-economic activities. Drawing on national climate policy the study explore and analyse how vulnerable small scale farmers adapted more (adaptation+) to changes in local forms of institutions. The aim of the study is to gain more insights into roles of planned national climate state use policies and responses of village level i...

  14. InteractInteraction mechanism of emergency response in geological hazard perception and risk management: a case study in Zhouqu county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuan; Zhao, Hongtao

    2017-04-01

    China is one of few several natural disaster prone countries, which has complex geological and geographical environment and abnormal climate. On August 8, 2010, a large debris flow disaster happened in Zhouqu Country, Gansu province, resulting in more than 1700 casualties and more than 200 buildings damaged. In order to percept landslide and debris flow, an early warning system was established in the county. Spatial information technologies, such as remote sensing, GIS, and GPS, play core role in the early warning system, due to their functions in observing, analyzing, and locating geological disasters. However, all of these spatial information technologies could play an important role only guided by the emergency response mechanism. This article takes the establishment of Zhouqu Country's Disaster Emergency Response Interaction Mechanism (DERIM) as an example to discuss the risk management of country-level administrative units. The country-level risk management aims to information sharing, resources integration, integrated prevention and unified command. Then, nine subsystems support DERIM, which included disaster prevention and emergency data collection and sharing system, joint duty system, disaster verification and evaluation system, disaster consultation system, emergency warning and information release system, emergency response system, disaster reporting system, plan management system, mass prediction and prevention management system. At last, an emergency command platform in Zhouqu Country built up to realize DERIM. The core mission of the platform consists of daily management of disaster, monitoring and warning, comprehensive analysis, information release, consultation and decision-making, emergency response, etc. Five functional modules, including module of disaster information management, comprehensive monitoring module (geological monitoring, meteorological monitoring, water conservancy and hydrological monitoring), alarm management module, emergency

  15. 7 CFR 7.25 - County executive director duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false County executive director duties. 7.25 Section 7.25... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.25 County executive director duties. (a) The county executive director shall execute the policies established by the county committee and be responsible for...

  16. In the Event of Bioterrorism: Protecting Families from Deadly Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotics should be used as a preventive measure. Plague Once called "Black Death," plague killed millions of people in earlier times before ... in the United States. The bacteria responsible for plague are called Yersinia pestis. Cases of naturally occurring ...

  17. Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, Milton

    2002-09-01

    This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere.

  18. When bioterrorism strikes: communication issues for the local health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer-Trainor, Christine; Wilkinson, Tiffany; Snook, William D; Hoff, Gerald L; Griffin, Ron; Archer, Rex

    2005-10-01

    Public health preparedness is a multifaceted planning process that becomes grounded in a response plan and in effective communications, internal and external. This article describes an incident when the presence of anthrax spores was detected in a postal facility within Kansas City, Missouri, and discusses the communications issues faced by the Kansas City Health Department (KCHD). This incident provided the KCHD the first opportunity to operationalize its Incident Management System-based response plan. However, accompanying its implementation were unforeseen issues related to both internal and external communications. These issues and the lessons learned are discussed.

  19. Bioterrorism Preparedness in Public Health: Knowledge Needs for Robust Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Minu

    2007-01-01

    The typical response of organizations dealing with external uncertainty is to develop strategies to adapt to the situation and focus on regaining a stable state. A crucial element of responding successfully to external uncertainties is to identify changes in knowledge needs within core organizational processes. This paper discusses the changing…

  20. Hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic responses of Brewery Creek to construction of a residential subdivision, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Jopke, Peter L.; Marhshall, David W.; Sorge, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Dane County Land Conservation Department (LCD) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), investigated the instream effects from construction of a residential subdivision on Brewery Creek in Dane County, Wisconsin. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether a variety of storm-runoff and erosion-control best-management practices (BMPs) would effectively control the overall sediment load, as well as minimize any hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic stresses to Brewery Creek.

  1. Bioterrorism and biodefence research: changing the focus of microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald M

    2003-10-01

    Fear that terrorists can use biological agents as weapons of mass destruction is significantly impacting the conduct of microbiological research. Abundant new funds are available for biodefence research, and many researchers are racing to enter the field. There are some concerns, however, that a large emphasis on this issue could skew the microbiology research agenda. Furthermore, new responsibilities for safely conducting research with biothreat agents and concern that information might be misused could drive some researchers away from the field.

  2. Biosecurity: Addressing the Threats of Bioterrorism and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    state and local assistance programs to prepare against threats or incidents of terrorism and other catastrophic events.32 To boost the resiliency and...the collective response of the government and the community against a bioterrorist incident . After the SARS episode, the Singapore government realised...2000), 219. 17 The introduction of smallpox and other imported diseases such as measles and pneumonic plague to the Americas in the 1500s had greatly

  3. [Chickenpox case estimation in acyclovir pharmacy survey and early bioterrorism detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-11-01

    Early potential health hazards and bioterrorism threats require early detection. Smallpox cases caused by terrorist could, for example, be treated by prescribing acyclovir to those having fever and vesicle exanthema diagnosed as chicken pox. We have constructed real-time pharmacy surveillance scenarios using information technology (IT) to monitor acyclovir prescription. We collected the number of acyclovir prescriptions from 5138 pharmacies using the Application Server Provider System (ASP) to estimate the number of cases. We then compared the number of those given acyclovir under 15 years old from pharmacy surveillance and sentinel surveillance for chickenpox under the Infection Disease Control Law. The estimated number of under 15 years old prescribed acyclovir in pharmacy surveillance resembled sentinel surveillance results and showed a similar seasonal chickenpox pattern. The correlation coefficient was 0.8575. The estimated numbers of adults, older than 15 but under 65 years old, and elderly, older than 65, prescribed acyclovir showed no clear seasonal pattern. Pharmacy surveillance for acyclovir identified the baseline and can be used to detect unusual chickenpox outbreak. Bioterrorism attack could potentially be detected using smallpox virus when acyclovir prescription for adults suddenly increases without outbreaks in children or the elderly. This acyclovir prescription monitoring such as an application is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind anywhre.

  4. Review of a new molecular virus pathotyping method in the context of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Mikael; Belák, Sándor

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infect various avian species including domestic poultry. Clinical manifestations vary from subclinical or mild to severe multiorgan systemic disease with a near 100% mortality rate. Severe disease is caused by highly virulent specific virus strains, termed highly pathogenic AIV and velogenic NDV. Recent controversial influenza H5 adaptation studies in ferrets have highlighted the importance of preparedness against AIV as a bioterrorism agent. Furthermore, NDV also has zoonotic potential, although symptoms in humans are mild and self-limiting for naturally occurring viruses. Thus, both of these viruses pose a direct biothreat to domestic poultry but also indirectly to humans via zoonotic transmission. For diagnosis and rapid containment of disease, it is crucial to differentiate highly pathogenic AIVs and NDVs from frequently occurring low pathogenic variants. Recently, we developed a novel strategy for pathotyping of AIV and NDV that we review here. The method should be ideal for rapid testing and surveillance in food safety, for wild bird monitoring, and for combating acts of bioterrorism.

  5. 生物恐怖事件计算实验支持平台及研究实例%Computational experiment supported platform for bioterrorism events and research examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晴; 祖正虎; 张文斗; 刘健; 徐致靖; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the process of bioterrorism events is great significance for national biosecurity strategies and emergency response to such attacks. This article focuses on providing support for quantificational analysis of the whole process of various bioterrorism events, including providing infrastructure datasets, models and algorithm system-executing computational experiments-reproducing scenarios shown in 3D,and constructing a bioterrorism events computational experiment supported platform. On the basis of the platform, we make a case study of a potential anthrax aerosol attack a-gainst Beijing and assess the hazard.%定量分析研究生物恐怖事件过程对国家生物安全战略和有效处置生物恐怖事件具有重要意义.本研究着眼于为定量研究各种类型生物恐怖事件过程提供从基础数据、模型及算法体系一计算实验一情景重现、三维可视化显示的全过程支持,建立生物恐怖事件计算实验支持平台,并以此平台为基础,以北京城区遭受炭疽芽孢杆菌气溶胶袭击为想定进行实例研究并对所造成的危害进行评估.

  6. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  7. Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists Toward Bioterrorism Awareness in Dhule (Maharashtra, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal M Kshirsagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in the recent years. It is the intentional use of microorganisms and toxins to produce disease and death in humans, livestock, and crops; their attraction in war and their use in terrorist attacks are attributed to various unique features. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude of graduate dentists and postgraduate dentists toward bioterrorism in Dhule city, Maharashtra (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study included graduate dentists and postgraduate dentists in Dhule, Maharashtra, India. The list of dentists of Dhule city was obtained from the Indian Dental Association office, Dhule branch. Among 110 dentists practicing in Dhule city, 97 responded. A structured, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 15 closed-ended questions was employed. The information regarding age, gender, and profession (specialty branch was collected. The data were tabulated and subjected to analysis using Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen when knowledge and attitude of dentists and dentists with postgraduate qualification toward bioterrorism were compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dentists with postgraduate qualification have better knowledge and attitude toward bioterrorism as compared to graduate dentists. Most of the dentists felt the need to educate the public regarding suspected bioterrorist attack, and they were willing to do so and had the confidence that it was preventable.

  8. The Evaluation Indicator System for the Audit of Township Leading Cadres’ Economic Responsibility: Based on the Survey of One County in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen; LUO; Chaozhou; LU

    2014-01-01

    Economic responsibility audit evaluation of township cadres is important and difficult. According to the evaluation content and principles,the paper constructs the evaluation indicator of five subsystems: " economic management", " economic decision-making", " implementation of economic policy", " economic development",and " honest and upright administration". Through the field survey of some county in Chongqing,evaluation indicator is screened. According to the expert questionnaire,it uses the Hierarchy Analysis Process method to construct the judgment matrix and calculate the indicator weight and thereby build evaluation indicator system. It focuses on traditional indicators and evaluation indicator of sustainable development to construct a new,more complete evaluation indicator system.

  9. A decade of countering bioterrorism: incremental progress, fundamental failings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The fear and disruption caused by the 2001 anthrax attacks understandably led Americans to seek enhanced biodefenses. However, the path followed since those attacks has left the country inadequately prepared to face further risks from biological attacks. Why has security against these threats been only partially achieved? This article suggests that our responses over the past decade can be sorted into 4 levels in order of increasing difficulty. First, we rapidly appropriated funds, augmented personnel, and mandated reorganization of agencies. Though not easy to accomplish, these steps were easily conceptualized and, whatever their imperfections, could rather assuredly be achieved. A second level was more demanding, but also quite achievable. It involved the amplification of ongoing efforts. These efforts sometimes suffered as they scaled up, but, though they were qualified by delays and uncertainties, we can point to real achievements at this level. A third level was more difficult: It required evolving new strategies to deal with this largely unprecedented problem. In this regard, we have so far had only glimmers of possibility. At a fourth level, our performance and our prospects are worse still. At this level, our problems stem from resistances inherent in our country's cultural and political framework. This article identifies some of these problems and suggests, regrettably, that they are not likely to be resolved until change is catalyzed by further, and more dramatically traumatic, attacks or natural disasters. If this situational assessment is correct, what remedial strategies should we pursue? The article distinguishes 3 strategic approaches: an evolutionary one in which the U.S. continues advancing along its present path; a radical approach that attempts to address the fourth-level issues; and a third approach that prepares for punctuated evolution. This third approach accepts the improbability of level 4 change either by gradual evolution or by radical

  10. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  11. Groundwater regime and calculation of yield response in North China Plain: a case study of Luancheng County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The groundwater table has been declining at a rate of 0.65 m/yr in Luancheng County since large scale groundwater extraction carried out in the 1960s. The drop of precipitation, substantial increase in agricultural output, variations of crop planting structure and construction of water conservancy projects in the headwater area all tie up with the decline of the groundwater table. On the basis of analyzing the hydrogeological conditions and the water resources utilization of Luancheng County, a three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate the county's groundwater flow through finite-difference method using Visual Modflow software. We divide the research field into four parts after analyzing the hydrogeological condition. Based on parameter calibration and adjustment using measured data, the hydraulic conductivity and specific yield were simulated. Using the calibrated model, we analyze the agricultural water saving potentiality and its influence on the groundwater. The results are as follows: (1) if we decrease the amount of water extracted by 0.14× 108 m3, the average groundwater table of the five observation wells in December will rise by 0.33 m; (2) if we decrease the water by 0.29×10s m3, the average groundwater table of the five observation wells in December will rise by 0.64 m; and (3) if we increase the water by 0.29× 108 m3, the average groundwater table of the five observation wells in December will decline by 0.45 m. So we can draw a conclusion that controlling the agricultural water use is an important way to prevent the decline of groundwater table.

  12. On the Evaluation System of Economic Responsibility Audit of County Leaders%县长经济责任审计评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦琳

    2015-01-01

    The domestic researches on the evaluation system of economic responsibility audit of county-level party and government leaders are still in the starting phase,which presents a common problem to both cur-rent audit workers and human resources departments in audited organizations. Through analyzing the back-ground of responsibility evaluation system for county leaders,the paper illustrates the feasibility,reality and necessity of establishing the evaluation system,and points out the related difficulties and notable problems. From the prospectives of contents and evaluation standards,it emphasizes the basis on which we should build up the system and make correct evaluation. The study combines qualitative and quantitative approach-es,macro and micro views,aiming to lay foundations to establish and enhance economic responsibility audit of county leaders.%目前我国的县党政领导干部任期经济责任审计评价体系的研究还正处于起步阶段,评价体系的建立问题是目前审计工作者、被审计单位、组织人事部门所共同面临的问题。本文通过对县长任期经济责任审计评价背景的分析,在阐述建立评价体系的可行性、现实性和必要性基础上,梳理建立评价体系的难点和应注意到的诸多问题。从评价体系建立的内容和评价标准两个方面入手,重点分析了评价体系应从哪些方面建立和正确评价,并采取定量与定性分析相结合,宏观和微观指标相结合等多种方式,对深化和推进建立区县党政领导干部任期经济责任审计评价体系奠定基础。

  13. An integrated and dynamic optimisation model for the multi-level emergency logistics network in anti-bioterrorism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Lindu

    2012-08-01

    Demand for emergency resources is usually uncertain and varies quickly in anti-bioterrorism system. Besides, emergency resources which had been allocated to the epidemic areas in the early rescue cycle will affect the demand later. In this article, an integrated and dynamic optimisation model with time-varying demand based on the epidemic diffusion rule is constructed. The heuristic algorithm coupled with the MATLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the optimisation model. In what follows, the application of the optimisation model as well as a short sensitivity analysis of the key parameters in the time-varying demand forecast model is presented. The results show that both the model and the solution algorithm are useful in practice, and both objectives of inventory level and emergency rescue cost can be controlled effectively. Thus, it can provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with emergency rescue problem with uncertain demand, and offers an excellent reference when issues pertain to bioterrorism.

  14. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Tao; Marthandan Mahalingam; Jingen Zhu; Mahtab Moayeri; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Fitts, Eric C.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Lawrence, William S.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent va...

  15. Agriculture bioterrorism:risk and management%农业生物恐怖的风险及其防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱联辉; 田德桥; 郑涛

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , a series of agriculture biosecurity accidents have occurred ,such as mad cow disease , foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza , which has aroused worldwide , concern over agriculture bioterrorist attacks .This paper comprehensively analyzes the history and impact of agriculture bioterrorism , the current status of international agricul-ture bioterrorism research , and important issues to be taken into account in future efforts to deal with agriculture bioterrorism .%近年来,疯牛病、口蹄疫和禽流感等重大农业安全事件不断发生,引起了国际社会的强烈关注,也更加引发了人们对农业生物恐怖袭击的担忧,如何应对农业生物恐怖威胁已成为国际社会无法回避的安全问题之一。该文通过综合分析农业生物恐怖的“历史”、实施后的危害效果以及国际上对农业生物恐怖的研究现状,提出加强农业生物恐怖防范的对策建议。

  16. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations.

  17. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding.

  18. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  19. The germs of terror – Bioterrorism and science communication after September 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Montani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of September 11 2001 and in particular, the sending of letters containing anthrax spores the following October had a profound effect on society, and at the same time on science and its communicative mechanisms. Through a quanto-qualitative analysis of articles taken from four publications: two daily newspapers, the Corriere della Sera from Italy and the New York Times from the United States and two science magazines, Science and Nature, we have shown how the aforementioned events provoked the emergence of media attention regarding bioterrorism. A closer reading of the articles shows that today, science – including that found in science magazines – is closely related to politics, economics and the debate over the freedom to practice communicate. The very mechanisms of communication between scientists were changed as a result of this debate, as can be seen from the signing of the Denver Declaration in February 2003, which brought about the preventative self-censorship of publication of biomedical research findings.

  20. The germs of terror – Bioterrorism and science communication after September 11 (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Montani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of September 11 2001 and in particular, the sending of letters containing anthrax spores the following October had a profound effect on society, and at the same time on science and its communicative mechanisms. Through a quanto-qualitative analysis of articles taken from four publications: two daily newspapers, the Corriere della Sera from Italy and the New York Times from the United States and two science magazines, Science and Nature, we have shown how the aforementioned events provoked the emergence of media attention regarding bioterrorism. A closer reading of the articles shows that today, science – including that found in science magazines – is closely related to politics, economics and the debate over the freedom to practice communicate. The very mechanisms of communication between scientists were changed as a result of this debate, as can be seen from the signing of the Denver Declaration in February 2003, which brought about the preventative self-censorship of publication of biomedical research findings.

  1. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris

    2011-12-01

    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  2. Construction of evaluation systems for the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals%军队医院应对生物恐怖能力评估指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 郑涛; 孙建中

    2012-01-01

    作者运用自由列举访谈法、系统分析法、德尔菲法、层次分析法,对军队医院应对生物恐怖能力要素构成进行分析,提出军队医院应对生物恐怖能力评价指标体系.所构建的军队医院应对生物恐怖能力评价指标体系具有较高的科学性和可靠性.%The elements of the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals were analyzed using free list interviews , systematic analysis, Delphi method, and the analytic hierarchy process. An evaluation system for such response was constructed, which is a highly scientific and reliable index system.

  3. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  4. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  5. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  6. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  7. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  8. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  9. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  10. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  11. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  12. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  13. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  14. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures.

  16. An assessment of environmental literacy and analysis of predictors of responsible environmental behavior held by secondary teachers in Hualien County of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of nine variables in predicting teachers' responsible environmental behavior (REB). The theoretic framework of this study was based on the Hines model, the Hungerford and Volk model, and the environmental literacy framework proposed by Environmental Literacy Assessment Consortium. A nine-page instrument was administered by mailed questionnaire to 300 randomly selected secondary teachers in Hualien County of Taiwan with a 78.7% response rate. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) For all the respondents, all the nine environmental literacy variables were significant correlates of REB. These correlates included: perceived knowledge of environmental action strategies (KNOW; r =.46), intention to act (IA; r =.46), perceived skill in using environmental action strategies (SKILL; r =.45), perceived knowledge of environmental problems and issues (KISSU; r =.34), environmental sensitivity (r =.28), environmental responsibility (r =.27), perceived knowledge of ecology and environmental science (r =.27), locus of control (r =.27), and environmental attitudes (r =.21). (2) When only the nine environmental literacy variables were considered, the most parsimonious set of predictors of REB for all the teachers included: (a) KNOW, (Rsp2 =.2116); (b) IA, (Rsp2 =.0916); and (c) SKILL, (Rsp2 =.0205). For the urban teachers, the most parsimonious set of predictors included: (a) IA (Rsp2 =.2559); (b) SKILL (Rsp2.0926); and (c) environmental responsibility (Rsp2 =.0219). For the rural teachers, the most parsimonious set of predictors included: (a) KNOW (Rsp2 =.1872); (b) IA (Rsp2 =.0816); and (c) KISSU (Rsp2 =.0318). (3) When the environmental literacy variables as well as demographic and experience variables were considered, the most parsimonious set of predictors for all the teachers included: (a) KNOW, (Rsp2 =.2834); (b) IA, (Rsp2

  17. 生物恐怖袭击的救援策略%Rescue strategy against bioterrorism attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常留栓; 李蓉; 张婷婷; 赵艳梅

    2015-01-01

    随着国际恐怖主义势力的抬头和生物科学技术的快速发展,生物恐怖袭击因其低廉的成本、巨大的破坏力、特殊的战斗性能等多种独特的优点逐渐成为恐怖分子实施恐吓或袭击的重要手段。当前,我国所面临的生物恐怖威胁非常不容乐观,防范和处置生物恐怖袭击事件仍是我国反恐工作中不可忽视的内容。防范和应对生物恐怖袭击,需整合卫生行政部门、疾病预防控制中心(CDC)、部队、医院、消防、交通等多个部门的力量,组建应急救援工作队。一旦发生疑似生物恐怖事件,应根据事件性质立即设立临时现场指挥部,并调配应急救援工作队,负责生物恐怖事件的现场处置。加强生物安全与反生物恐怖的基础和应用研究,针对未来可能遇到的生物恐怖袭击,强化统筹谋划,建立一支拉得出、打得赢的应急反应队伍,提高生物恐怖袭击突发事件处置能力,有效保护公众的生命和财产安全,仍是我国面临的重大问题。%Bioterrorism attack has been gradually becoming an important threat in the world and in China asa well. To prevent and dispose bioterrorist attack, an emergency rescue team that integrates multiple departments including administrative department of public health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), army, hospital, fire department, traffic department, etc. should be established now. Once suspected bioterrorist incidents occurr a temporary headquarter at the scene should be set up and emergency rescue teams should be mobilized immediately. It is necessary to strengthen biosafety and conduct basic and applied counter-bioterrorist research , develop an overall project, establish an emergency response team so as to protect the life and property of the public effectively.

  18. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray...

  19. Analysis of Responses From Hydraulic Testing of the Lower Carbonate Aquifer at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhark, E. W.; Ruskauff, G.

    2005-12-01

    act as both (east-west) flow barriers, by juxtaposing permeable and non-permeable formations or otherwise breaking the feature connection, and (north-south) high-permeability conduits. At the local well (tens-of-meters) scale, the response data appear controlled by the local flow geometry within fault blocks. In general, the log-log diagnostics indicate a primary (linear) fracture-flow dominated system, which at intermediate times is fed by the secondary block conductivity (bilinear), until the volume of influence becomes sufficiently large that the flow system is effectively radial. The results are pertinent to basin- and regional-scale flow and transport, and also to hydraulic development of the LCA.

  20. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Nagawicka Lake, a Calcareous Lake in Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Horwatich, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    Nagawicka Lake is a 986-acre, usually mesotrophic, calcareous lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over potential water-quality degradation of the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2002 to 2006 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake; quantify sources of phosphorus, including those associated with urban development; and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lake. All major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake. The Bark River, near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water contributed 74, 8, 12, and 6 percent of the inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake primarily through the Bark River outlet (88 percent) or by evaporation (11 percent). The water quality of Nagawicka Lake has improved dramatically since 1980 as a result of decreasing the historical loading of phosphorus to the lake. Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,000 pounds in monitoring year (MY) 2003 and 6,700 pounds in MY 2004. The largest source of phosphorus entering the lake was the Bark River, which delivered about 56 percent of the total phosphorus input, compared with about 74 percent of the total water input. The next largest contributions were from the urbanized near-lake drainage area, which disproportionately accounted for 37 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 5 percent of the total water input. Simulations with water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lakes Modeling Suite (WiLMS) indicated the response of Nagawicka Lake to 10 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included historical (1970s) and current (base) years (MY 2003-04) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six scenarios with percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from

  1. Allegheny County Housing and Community Environment Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Residential housing inspections and inspections in response to complaints for community environment problems, such as open vacant structures, vacant lots with...

  2. Enfrentando el bioterrorismo: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y preventivos de la viruela Confronting bioterrorism: epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco-Paredes

    2003-08-01

    Organization has dramatically switched to the preservation of the remaining virus after the September 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. along with the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the U.S. The risk of intentional release of Variola virus constitutes a minimal, yet possible risk. A smallpox epidemic could have a devastating impact due to its elevated morbidity and mortality that would inflict in non-immune human population, in addition to the ensuing panic and social unrest. Therefore, the development of national preparedness and response plans along with the availability of smallpox vaccine to be used in the post-exposure phase represent a fundamental part of the preventive efforts to cope with bioterrorism. Reestablishing a preventive vaccination program was recently recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP. However, the vaccine currently available has historically been associated with serious adverse reactions, even death. Thus, this recommendation has not been universally accepted. To counter an epidemic of smallpox, medical personnel in the frontline need to be prepared with updated smallpox infor mation to identify, diagnose, isolate, and treat cases if a bioterrorist attack should occur. Herein we present an in-depth review for health care personnel with relevant epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive information on smallpox.

  3. Developing a Marketing Mind-Set: Training and Mentoring for County Extension Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Christopher T.; Elizer, Amy Hastings; Hastings, Shirley; Barry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing the county Extension program is a critical responsibility of the entire county staff. This article describes a unique peer-to-peer training and mentoring program developed to assist county Extension staff in improving marketing skills and successfully developing and implementing a county Extension marketing plan. Data demonstrating…

  4. Social Media and Its Dual Use in Biopreparedness: Communication and Visualization Tools in an Animal Bioterrorism Incident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.; Landgren, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty......-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive...... communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized...

  5. Somerset County Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  6. Allegheny County TIF Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) outline parcels for Allegheny County, PA. TIF closing books contain all necessary documentation related to a TIF in order to close on...

  7. Allegheny County TIF Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) outline parcels for Allegheny County, PA. TIF closing books contain all necessary documentation related to a TIF in order to close on...

  8. Allegheny County Property Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Real Property parcel characteristics for Allegheny County, PA. Includes information pertaining to land, values, sales, abatements, and building characteristics (if...

  9. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary...

  10. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  11. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  12. Allegheny County Depression Medication

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These Census Tract-level datasets described here provide de-identified diagnosis data for customers of three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway...

  13. Allegheny County Diabetes Hospitalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data includes the number of people hospitalized with diabetes between 2013-2015, by age group, for Allegheny County Zip Codes.

  14. Allegheny County Plumbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All master plumbers must be registered with the Allegheny County Health Department. Only Registered Master Plumbers who possess a current plumbing license or...

  15. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  16. Westmoreland County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Westmoreland County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  17. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  18. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  19. Beaver County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Beaver County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  20. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  1. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  2. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  3. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  4. Allegheny County Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the Allegheny County boundary. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  5. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  6. Allegheny County Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...

  7. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  8. Allegheny County Homicides

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The dataset has location information on homicides that occurred in Allegheny County from 2002-2014. Age group, gender, and race and year of death have been...

  9. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  10. Allegheny County Property Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Webmap of Allegheny municipalities and parcel data. Zoom for a clickable parcel map with owner name, property photograph, and link to the County Real Estate website...

  11. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  12. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  13. Allegheny County Anxiety Medication

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These Census Tract-level datasets described here provide de-identified diagnosis data for customers of three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway...

  14. Butler County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Butler County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  15. Allegheny County Hypertension Hospitalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data provides hypertension prevalence data for each Zip Code in Allegheny County. The information was produced by Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment...

  16. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  17. Harmonization of European Laboratory Response networks by implementing CWA 15793: Use of a gap analysis and an "insider" exercise as tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundqvist, B.; Allard Bengtsson, U.; Wisselink, H.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rotterdam, van B.; Kampert, E.; Bereczky, S.; Olsson, N.G.J.; Szekely Björndal, A.; Zini, S.; Allix, S.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory response networks (LRNs) have been established for security reasons in several countries including the Netherlands, France, and Sweden. LRNs function in these countries as a preparedness measure for a coordinated diagnostic response capability in case of a bioterrorism incident or other b

  18. Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area

  19. Effectiveness of E-learning Compared to Classroom Learning in the Diagnostic Approach to Bioterrorism and Chemical Terrorism for Emergency Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Emergency physicians play an important role in the immediate diagnosis of bioterrorism activities. The present study was conducted with the purpose of comparing the effectiveness of e-learning and classroom learning in approach to bioterrorism and chemical terrorism for emergency physicians. Methods: This was a semi-empirical study, which was conducted via testing knowledge before and after the educational intervention in the field of bioterrorism and chemical terrorism on the emergency physicians in Tehran. The external validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by two academic experts in order to determine the ability to detect bioterrorist and chemical terrorist diseases. In this study, education was done in both virtual and classroom forms. The education regarded 6 bioterrorist diseases in group A (anthrax, plague, viral hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, smallpox, and 5 chemical terrorist diseases (nerve gas, mustard, lewisite, phosgene, chlorine. Results: 160 doctors participated in this study. 96 people (60% were men and 64 people (40% were women. The average age of the participants was 36.2±5.5 years. In e-learning method, the pre-test scores average was (30.6%, while the post-test scores average was (81.6% (p=0.001. In classroom learning method, the pre-test scores average was (41.9%, while the post-test scores average was (72.9%, which the pre-test and post-test scores average differences in both cases are significant (p<0.001. In e-learning method, the difference was (51%, and in the classroom method it was (31%, which these two represent a 20% difference between methods. From statistical point of view, this difference indicates that the e-learning method being more effective (p=0.02. Conclusions: Based on the study results, it seems that in comparison to the classroom learning, e-learning method is more effective in helping emergency physicians to diagnose bioterrorism or chemical terrorism factors. Keywords: E

  20. Broward County Florida Reef Track Thermographic Data Sept 2000 - Oct 2002, (NODC Accession 0000829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Broward County Florida has responsibility for the resource management of coral reefs in marine waters adjacent to Broward County. The Department of Planning and...

  1. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  2. VT Boundaries - county polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  3. Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Beatrice; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco M; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-25

    A bibliometric analysis of the Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus archival literature was conducted to determine whether negative consequences of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned. Indicators of the health of the field, such as number of papers published per year, number of researchers authoring papers, and influx rate of new authors, indicated an overall stimulus to the field after 2002. As measured by interorganizational coauthorships, both B. anthracis and Ebola virus research networks expanded after 2002 in terms of the number of organizations and the degree of collaboration. Coauthorship between US and non US scientists also grew for Ebola virus but contracted for the subset of B. anthracis research that did not involve possession of viable, virulent bacteria. Some non-US institutions were dropped, and collaborations with others intensified. Contrary to expectations, research did not become centralized around a few gatekeeper institutions. Two negative effects were detected. There was an increased turnover rate of authors in the select agent community that was not observed in the control organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) research community. However, the most striking effect observed was not associated with individual authors or institutions; it was a loss of efficiency, with an approximate 2- to 5-fold increase in the cost of doing select agent research as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded.

  4. Improving the Land Administrative Responsibility of County-level Government and Protecting Cultivated Land in Real Earnest%完善县级政府土地行政责任切实保护耕地资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春华; 鲁楼楼

    2014-01-01

    The county-level government, as one of important parts of national land administration, has the responsibilities of the land resource sustainable use, maintaining both the order of land market and land rights and interests. This paper argues that the reasons behind the performance of responsibility lie in the fact that:over-reliance on the land ifnance, low degree of openness of land information, fuzzy land administrative responsibility, unsound supervision system, lack of a reasonable measure for assesment of the implementation of responsibility, accountability system shortcomings, and ofifcial standard thought. This paper expresses some opinions on the above-mentioned problems:improving the ifscal and taxation systems at the county level, and supervision mechanism of land administrative responsibility, as well as the system of evaluation of land administrative responsibility; working out and implementing the land information disclosure system; fostering a sense of responsibility and establishing a common responsibility mechanism.%县级政府是我国土地行政管理的重要层级,承担着土地资源可持续利用责任、维护土地市场秩序责任以及维护土地权益责任。县级政府履行责任过程中在土地利用总体规划编制和执行、耕地保护责任、维护土地市场秩序责任及土地权益保障责任等方面存在问题。其原因在于:对土地财政过分依赖;土地信息公开程度低;土地行政责任模糊;监督体制不健全;责任落实评估缺乏合理的衡量标准;责任追究制度环境存在缺陷;“官本位”影响责任履行。政策建议:完善县级财税体制;制定和落实土地信息公开制度;完善土地行政责任的监督机制;明晰责任,完善土地行政责任评估及追究制度;树立责任意识,建立共同责任机制。

  5. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  6. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County. These are not clipped to the Allgeheny County boundary. If viewing this...

  7. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  8. Allegheny County Block Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset overlays a grid on the County to assist in locating a parcel. The grid squares are 3,500 by 4,500 square feet. The data was derived from original...

  9. Sheridan County Recreation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Elaine

    A pilot project investigating the feasibility of year-round recreational programs in rural counties of populations of less than 10,000 is described in this report. (Sheridan County, Kansas, was chosen as the project site.) Part I, the introductory section, briefly defines recreation and its relation to human needs. Part II provides a geographic…

  10. Allegheny County Block Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset overlays a grid on the County to assist in locating a parcel. The grid squares are 3,500 by 4,500 square feet. The data was derived from original...

  11. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  12. LANDSLIDES IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zarojanu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the county of Suceava, the landslides are a real and permanent problem. This paper presents the observations of landslides over the last 30 years in Suceava County, especially their morphology, theirs causes and the landslide stopping measures. It presents also several details regarding the lanslides from the town of Suceava, of Frasin and the village of Brodina.

  13. Hancock County Awards Gala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Gene Goldman (left), deputy director of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, accepts an Award of Excellence from Jack Zink, executive director of the Hancock County Port and Harbor Commission, during the 2008 Annual Hancock County Awards Gala. The Award of Excellence was presented to recognize Stennis Space Center's contribution to NASA's 50 years of excellence in space exploration.

  14. Operational Art and the Incident Command System: Public Health’s Bridge in Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    from botulinum toxins), Francisella tularensis (Tularemia), and Filoviruses and Arenaviruses like Ebola virus and Lassa virus (Viral Hemorrhagic fevers...an extremely fragile virus , but anthrax spores can “shelter in place” indefinitely). Virulence (lethality) refers to the agent’s ability to produce

  15. Testing the Effectiveness of the North Shore - LIJ Health System’s Bioterrorism Response Program to Identified Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    queue, active or completed calls between the hours of 2/14/2007 1:35:17 AM and 2/14/2007 1:35:17 PM Line Chart: 25 26 Pie ...Abdominal Pain Syncope (Fainting) Nausea Headache Skin Lesion Vomiting Coughing Fever Difficulty Breathing Diarrhea...2/14/2007 7:54:00 AM Skin Lesion 1413139 From NShore 2/14/2007 7:58:00 AM Abdominal Pain 1080081 From NShore 30 2/14

  16. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications...

  17. Methods and procedures for the collection and disposal of bioterrorism agents at border ports%国境口岸生物恐怖剂标本采集和处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琳; 车志军; 孙福军; 王飞; 刘国传

    2011-01-01

    本文建立了国境口岸生物恐怖剂标本采集和处理的规范程序和方法,对于提高国境口岸生物恐怖防控能力建设,有效防止生物恐怖有害因子入境,保障口岸安全具有重要意义.%This paper establishes standards, procedures, and methods of collecting and disposing of bioterrorism agents at border ports. The capacity for bioterrorism prevention and control should be enhanced at border ports, potential bioterrorism agents should be prevented from entering the country, and port security should be ensured.

  18. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  19. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  20. Enhanced pharmacy training for counter-terrorism and disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitstead, John A; Burton, Deborah C

    2006-01-01

    State and federal authorities in the USA have identified pharmacists as important in terrorism detection activities. However few pharmacists are trained for disaster response planning, or providing services at disaster sites. A distance training programme was created by the College of Pharmacy at the University of Kentucky, Chandler Medical Center (UKCMC) in collaboration with an academic Medical Center, urban and rural community pharmacists, experts in pharmacy and infectious disease, and two state pharmacy associations. There was a substantial improvement in bioterrorism training knowledge as judged by pre- and post-test results. During two years of training, a total of 142 licensed pharmacists received certification (approximately 4.7% of all those in Kentucky). In addition, a network of bioterrorism-trained pharmacists was created for the state.

  1. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  2. 国境口岸生物恐怖特征及医学现场关键应对要点的分析%Analysis of bioterrorism characteristics and key measures at medical site of frontier ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车志军; 陆琳; 孙福军; 王飞; 杨秀娟; 刘国传

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨分析国境口岸生物恐怖特征及医学现场关键应对要点.方法 结合《国际卫生条例(2005)》和卫生检疫工作实践,对国境口岸生物恐怖特征及医学现场关键应对要点进行分析和探讨.结果 我国面对国际生物恐怖活动的威胁依然存在,国境卫生检疫机构作为第一道防线,应提高认识,从人员防护、技术能力建设、生物战剂样品采集与制备、现场监测、现场排查以及现场处置等方面制定应对措施.结论 国境口岸卫生检疫机构应进一步加强生物恐怖医学应对能力建设,切实加强并提高针对生物恐怖活动的防备和应急能力.%Objective To analyze bioterrorism response characteristics and key elements of medical field at frontier . Ports. Methods International Health Regulation (2005) was combined with the quarantine practice, and the measures of response to biological terrorism was discussed in frontier health quarantine agencies. Results The threaten of biological terrorism emergency still existed. In order to response to emergency, we must build personnel protection, technical capacity, biological warfare agents and preparation of sample collection, field monitoring, field investigation and on-site disposal. Conclusion It is very significant to enhance the supervision and control of the biological terrorism emergency.

  3. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  4. [On-site detection of bioterrorism-relevant agents : Rapid detection methods for viruses, bacteria and toxins - capabilities and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Richter, Martin; Schrick, Livia; Lasch, Peter; Keeren, Kathrin; Polleichtner, Angela; Lemmer, Karin; Nitsche, Andreas; Grunow, Roland; Herzog, Christian; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schaade, Lars

    2016-12-01

    In Europe, besides the threat of terrorist attacks involving conventional methods such as explosive devices and automatic weapons, there is also a potential threat of terrorist groups using non-conventional material like biological agents in the scope of future attacks. Consequently, rapid and reliable detection systems for biological agents are being developed and tested continuously to inform crisis management. For environmental detection, a broad spectrum of different laboratory-based techniques has been developed for relevant biological agents. However for environmental samples, fast and reliable on-site detection methods are desired by first responders for rapid assessment.Based on different functional principles, generic, immunological and nucleic-acid-based on-site detection methods can be distinguished. Those should be facile, fast, sensitive, and specific. However, commercially available kits usually have limited sensitivity and often have not been validated independently. Furthermore in this context, the multitude of relevant biological agents that potentially have to be considered present in complex environmental matrices poses a serious challenge for reliable detection. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the specific scope of applications and the limitations of different analytical systems is necessary to evaluate the results obtained purposefully.The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the analytical principles, benefits and limitations of prevailing on-site environmental detection systems for bioterrorism-relevant viruses, bacteria and toxins. Despite promising developments the informative value of currently available on-site tests is still limited. Thus, expert laboratories have to conduct confirmatory testing.

  5. 生物恐怖:威胁和解决%Bioterrorism: from Threats to Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Steffen

    2002-01-01

    @@ Robert Steffen, Scientist, WHO Project Improving public health preparedness on diseases associated with biological warfare; Co-chair, Swiss B Committee: University of Zurich, Switzerland. The goal of any emergency preparedness and response planning is to keep it an emergency and to avert a disaster.

  6. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project. Biosecur. Bioterror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, C.; Tevell Aberg, A.; Skarin, H.; Anniballi, F.; Medici, De D.; Bano, L.; Koene, M.G.J.; Löfström, Ch.; Hansen, T.; Hedeland, M.; Fach, P.

    2013-01-01

    Botulism disease in both humans and animals is a worldwide concern. Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species are the most potent biological substances known and are responsible for flaccid paralysis leading to a high mortality rate. Clostridium botulinum

  7. SURVEY, SOLANO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Solano County California, hydrographic survey data collected by Harned Surveying and Engineering (HSE). Data collection period January 1, 2011 through March 1, 2011.

  8. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  9. Allegheny County Sheriff Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...

  10. Allegheny County Cemetery Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Outlines of public and private cemeteries greater than one acre in size. Areas were delineated following a generalized line along the outside edge of the area....

  11. Durham County Demographic Profile

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — (a) Includes persons reporting only one race.(b) Hispanics may be of any race, so also are included in applicable race categories. D: Suppressed to avoid disclosure...

  12. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  13. County Political Boundaries (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD 2015). The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract...

  14. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography...

  15. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  16. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  17. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  18. Breast Cancer Screening Interventions in Selected Counties Across US Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Shamly; Martin, Michelle Y; Levine, Robert S.; Pisu, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the types of, and the populations targeted by interventions implemented to increase breast cancer screening rates in counties with large African American populations across different US regions. Methods A brief questionnaire was administered by e-mail to county representatives from 33 states from October 2008 through March 2009. Responses were obtained from 33% of 203 targeted counties. Results Most counties (>80%) reported interventions for African American women and for women with low income. Women were exposed to different kinds of interventions depending on where they lived. Most counties in the Northeast (93%), Southwest (82%) and Midwest (100%) implemented interventions that provided free or low cost mammograms. Counties in the Southeast (83%) were more likely to report education interventions. Counties from the Southwest reported using a variety of interventions to encourage breast cancer screening. Conclusion In this selected group of counties, different types of interventions were used to increase breast cancer screening in minority and disadvantaged women. Interventions implemented were similar to those shown in the literature to be effective in increasing screening rates in specific populations. Future research should examine the use of screening interventions in a larger sample of US counties. PMID:20820899

  19. Distributed micro-releases of bioterror pathogens : threat characterizations and epidemiology from uncertain patient observables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Michael M. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Marzouk, Youssef M.; Adams, Brian M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Ray, Jaideep; Najm, Habib N.

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist attacks using an aerosolized pathogen preparation have gained credibility as a national security concern since the anthrax attacks of 2001. The ability to characterize the parameters of such attacks, i.e., to estimate the number of people infected, the time of infection, the average dose received, and the rate of disease spread in contemporary American society (for contagious diseases), is important when planning a medical response. For non-contagious diseases, we address the characterization problem by formulating a Bayesian inverse problem predicated on a short time-series of diagnosed patients exhibiting symptoms. To keep the approach relevant for response planning, we limit ourselves to 3.5 days of data. In computational tests performed for anthrax, we usually find these observation windows sufficient, especially if the outbreak model employed in the inverse problem is accurate. For contagious diseases, we formulated a Bayesian inversion technique to infer both pathogenic transmissibility and the social network from outbreak observations, ensuring that the two determinants of spreading are identified separately. We tested this technique on data collected from a 1967 smallpox epidemic in Abakaliki, Nigeria. We inferred, probabilistically, different transmissibilities in the structured Abakaliki population, the social network, and the chain of transmission. Finally, we developed an individual-based epidemic model to realistically simulate the spread of a rare (or eradicated) disease in a modern society. This model incorporates the mixing patterns observed in an (American) urban setting and accepts, as model input, pathogenic transmissibilities estimated from historical outbreaks that may have occurred in socio-economic environments with little resemblance to contemporary society. Techniques were also developed to simulate disease spread on static and sampled network reductions of the dynamic social networks originally in the individual-based model

  20. Technologies and equipments of the individual decontamination for medicinal rescue against bioterrorism attack%反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消技术与装备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇平; 贾德胜

    2012-01-01

    This paper made a discussion an the realistic threats of bioterrorism attack in the world and China,the principles and the basic methods of mass decontamination of individuals during a bioterrorism attack incident,the re-search developments at home and abroad and the existing problems in our nation on technology and equipment of de-contamination against bioterrorism attack, in order to provide the references for further improving the preparedness of emergency rescue and carrying out the research on technology and equipment of individual decontamination against bioterrorism attack.%本文探讨了生物恐怖袭击在世界和我国威胁的现实性、反生物恐怖袭击大量人员洗消的原则和基本方法、反生物恐怖袭击洗消技术和装备的研究进展以及我国在反生物恐怖袭击洗消技术和装备存在的问题,为进一步做好反生物恐怖袭击应急救援准备工作和开展生防人员洗消技术装备研究提供参考.

  1. Bioterrorism: processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoile, Rebecca; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2007-09-01

    In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and non-porous items were contaminated with viable [corrected] spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered post decontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h.

  2. 美国生物防御对策研究与国家战略储备药物分析%U.S. bioterrorism countermeasures and strategic national stockpile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇玮祎; 余云舟; 孙志伟; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    To address the increasingly severe bio-terrorism threats, the United States government issued a series of regulations and research plans. In this article, we discussed American national biological defense strategies and their derivative plans based on the core of Project BioShield, including Department of Health and Human Service ( DHHS)/Biomedical Advanced R&D Authority(BARDA) biological terrorist response plan and budget plan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pathogens based top priority chemical, biological, rediological and nuclear (CBRN) threat countermeasures scheme and other important pathogenic organisms defense plans. Atter that, we also discussed the trend of research and development of the Strategical National Stockpile.%美国政府为应对日趋严峻的生物恐怖威胁,出台了一系列针对生化袭击的法规和研究计划.本文研究了以生物盾牌计划为核心的美国国家生物防御应对策略及其衍生计划,包括卫生与公众服务部( DHHS)/生物医学高级研究发展局(BARDA)生物恐怖应对计划及预算方案、以疾控中心(CDC)病原体清单为基础的顶级核化生威胁对策方案及其他重要病原体生物防御治疗研究计划等.分析了目前以上述研究为依托纳入国家战略储备体系的药物及研发趋势.

  3. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  4. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  5. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  6. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  7. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  8. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  9. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  10. Allegheny County Mortgage Foreclosure Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data includes filings related to mortgage foreclosure in Allegheny County. The foreclosure process enables a lender to take possession of a property due to an...

  11. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  12. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  13. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  14. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  15. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  16. Allegheny County Property Sale Transactions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2012 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...

  17. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  18. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  19. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  20. Allegheny County Employee Salaries 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Employee salaries are a regular Right to Know request the County receives. Here is the disclaimer language that is included with the dataset from the Open Records...

  1. TERRAIN, KENT COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Kent AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Providence county AOI directly north. Ground Control is collected...

  2. TERRAIN, PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  3. Allegheny County Fast Food Establishments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Allegheny County Health Department has generated this list of fast food restaurants by exporting all chain restaurants without an alcohol permit from the...

  4. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  5. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  6. Grant County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city...

  7. Allegheny County Addressing Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the road centerlines in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  8. Allegheny County Summer Food Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set shows the Summer Food Sites located within Allegheny County for children (18 years and younger) for breakfast and lunch during summer recess. OPEN...

  9. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  10. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  11. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  12. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  13. Counties Without a Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Uses a budgeting technique to determine if free-market incentives or forces would provide an economic base sufficient to support medical professionals who might practice in the approximately 140 U.S. counties that lack a physician (located mainly in a narrow band from west Texas north through South Dakota). (AH)

  14. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.; Bando, A.; Bassett, G.; Rosen, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, J.; Meenan, C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Comparison of quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for evaluating dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis endospores at a bioterrorism hoax crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Taryn; Hoile, Rebecca; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2012-06-10

    Since the anthrax mail attacks of 2001, law enforcement agencies have processed thousands of suspicious mail incidents globally, many of which are hoax bioterrorism threats. Bio-insecticide preparations containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores have been involved in several such threats in Australia, leading to the requirement for rapid and sensitive detection techniques for this organism, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe the development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Bt crystal toxin gene cry1, and evaluation of the method's effectiveness during a hoax bioterrorism event in 2009. When combined with moist wipe sampling, the cry1 qPCR was a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting and quantifying Bt contamination, and mapping endospore dispersal within a mail sorting facility. Results from the cry1 qPCR were validated by viable counts of the same samples on Bacillus-selective agar (PEMBA), which revealed a similar pattern of contamination. Extensive and persistent contamination of the facility was detected, both within the affected mailroom, and extending into office areas up to 30m distant from the source event, emphasising the need for improved containment procedures for suspicious mail items, both during and post-event. The cry1 qPCR enables detection of both viable and non-viable Bt spores and cells, which is important for historical crime scenes or scenes subjected to decontamination. This work provides a new rapid method to add to the forensics toolbox for crime scenes suspected to be contaminated with biological agents.

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. If these germs were used to intentionally infect people, they would cause the most illness and death. Watch this video to learn how ...

  17. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip directly to site content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC ... V W X Y Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit ...

  18. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The ...

  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and ...

  20. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The ...

  1. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation ...

  2. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip directly to site content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC ... V W X Y Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit ...

  3. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness ...

  4. Bioterror Paper Gets Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erika; Check; 秦艳艳

    2005-01-01

    牛奶是大多数人每天必不可少的食品。如果有恐怖分子在牛奶中下毒,后果将不堪设想。美国国家科学院最近发表的一篇文章就提出了这一假设,这将成为潜伏在美国人生活中的新的恐怖危机。而这篇文章也招来了美国各界的激烈争议。

  5. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. If ... sec) Watch Specific Segments of the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Tularemia Note: ...

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1999. File Formats Help: ...

  8. Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tularemia Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Diagnosis & Evaluation Treatment & PEP Lab Testing Surveillance & Investigation Infection Control Other Resources Glanders ( Burkholderia mallei ) Lassa fever Marburg ...

  9. Biodefense and Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cause disease, spread, or resist medical treatment. Biological agents spread through the air, water, or in ... viruses, plague, or smallpox could be used as biological agents. Biodefense uses medical measures to protect people ...

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. ... Specific Segments of the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Tularemia Note: Parts of ...

  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Incidents Radiation Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & ...

  12. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. If these germs ... Watch Specific Segments of the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Tularemia Note: Parts ...

  13. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness ...

  15. Holocene Vegetation Succession and Response to Climate Change on the South Bank of the Heilongjiang-Amur River, Mohe County, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen samples from peat sediments on the south bank of the Heilongjiang River in northern Northeast China (NE China were analyzed to reconstruct the historical response of vegetation to climate change since 7800 cal yr BP. Vegetation was found to have experienced five successions from cold-temperate mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest to forest-steppe, steppe-woodland, steppe, and finally meadow-woodland. From 7800 to 7300 cal yr BP, the study area was warmer than present, and Betula, Larix, and Picea-dominated mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests thrived. Two cooling events at 7300 cal yr BP and 4500 cal yr BP led to a decrease in Betula and other broadleaved forests, whereas herbs of Poaceae expanded, leading to forest-steppe and then steppe-woodland environments. After 2500 cal yr BP, reduced temperatures and a decrease in evaporation rates are likely to have resulted in permafrost expansion and surface ponding, with meadow and isolated coniferous forests developing a resistance to the cold-wet environment. The Holocene warm period in NE China (7800–7300 cal yr BP could have resulted in a strengthening of precipitation in northernmost NE China and encouraged the development of broadleaved forests.

  16. Emergency department response to the deliberate release of biological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, J E

    2004-01-01

    Bioterrorism is the use of biological agents outside the arena of war. Its purpose is to disrupt civilian life. This article investigates the role of the emergency department in the event of an act of bioterrorism.

  17. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

  18. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  19. Crisis & commitment: 150 years of service by Los Angeles county public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Michael R; Tranquada, Robert E

    2007-04-01

    The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county's current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county's public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base.

  20. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    improvements have been identified in the Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project, and if they are done with the proposed best management practices, then phosphorus inputs to the lake may decrease by about 40 lb. Eutrophication models [Canfield and Bachman model (1981) and Carlson Trophic State Index equations (1977)] were used to predict how the water quality of Mercer Lake should respond to changes in phosphorus loading. A relatively linear response was found between phosphorus loading and phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations in the lake, with changes in phosphorus concentrations being slightly less (about 80 percent) and changes in chlorophyll a concentrations being slightly more (about 120 percent) than the changes in phosphorus loadings to the lake. Water clarity, indicated by Secchi depths, responded more to decreases in phosphorus loading than to increases in loading. Results from the eutrophication models indicated that the lake should have been negatively affected by the wastewater discharges. Prior to 1965, when there was no sewage treatment plant effluent and inputs from the septic systems and other untreated systems were thought to be high, the lake should have been eutrophic; near the surface, average phosphorus concentrations were almost 0.035 mg/L, chlorophyll a concentrations were about 7 μg/L, and Secchi depths were about 6 ft, which agreed with the shallower Secchi depths during this time estimated from the sediment-core analysis. The models indicated that between 1965 and 1995, when the lake retained some of the effluent from the new sewage treatment plant, water quality should have been between the conditions estimated prior to 1965 and what was expected during typical hydrologic conditions around MY 2008-09. The models also indicated that if the future Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project is conducted with the best management practices as proposed, the water quality in the lake could improve slightly from that measured during 2006-10. Because

  1. Castleward, County Down

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Fisher was a painter and engraver in Ireland, working after the Dutch and Italian landscape painting tradition. He is best known by engravings after his designs, of which a large number were produced during his career.[notes from Irish Paintings in the `National Gallery of Ireland?, 2001]The house depicted in the present painting is Castle Ward, located in County Down, Northern Ireland. The 18th century house is famed for its mixture of Classical and Gothic styles.

  2. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  3. Alba County - Rural Tourism Destination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Olimpia Moisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the main rural touristic resources available in Alba County and also the preferred tourist destinations, highlighting the role and the importance of the rural tourism and agro-tourism in the economy of Alba County and, not least, identifying the main direction for its development and promotion. In other words, the aim of this paper is to answer the question "Is it or not Alba County a rural tourist destination?"

  4. Johnson County Community College Master Plan, 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS.

    Following a message from the president of the college and a review of the college's mission, this master plan for Johnson County Community College presents a series of six challenges facing the college and the policy directions and responses which the college has prepared to deal with these challenges. Each response is followed by a series of…

  5. Progress on prevention and therapy against category A of bioterrorism agents in U.S.%美国针对A类生物恐怖剂的医学防护技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 张传本; 王磊; 王松俊

    2008-01-01

    "Anthrax incident"happened in U.S.demonstrates the reality of the threat of bioterrorism.It also stimulates scientists to study the prevention against bioterrorism.The CDC has defined Bacillus anthracis,Smallpox virus,Yersinia pestis,Clostridium botulinum toxin,Francisella tularensis and Hemorrhagic fevers virus as category A of bioterrorism agents,meaning they present the greatest potential threats for harming public health.In the review,progress on prevention and therapy against these agents studied in U.S.will be summarized.%美国"炭疽事件"充分说明了生物恐怖威胁的现实性,同时也刺激了美国科技界对生物恐怖防护技术的研究.此文就美国针对A类生物恐怖剂预防和治疗相关技术的研究进展作了综述.

  6. Allegheny County Beltway System Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Authoritative dataset of the beltway system in Allegheny County. The system was developed to help motorists navigate through Allegheny County on low-traffic roads....

  7. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  8. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  9. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  10. Proposed Construction of the Madera County Educational Center in the State Center Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    In this report, the California Postsecondary Education Commission responds to a request by the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges to review the need for and location of a new educational center, the Madera County Educational Center, north of Fresno within the State Center Community College District. The report contains nine…

  11. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  12. The Bridges of Taishun County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaJianhe

    2003-01-01

    The American film The Bridges of Madison County captured the imagination of many Chinese moviegoers with its bittersweet love story and scenes of rustic covered bridges. But the U.S. can't lay sole claim to such spectacular rural sights:China has its own county worldrenowned for unforgettable bridges.

  13. 2006 Fulton County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Fulton County. The Fulton County LiDAR Survey project area consists of approximately 690.5 square...

  14. Palm Beach County's Prime Time Initiative: Improving the Quality of After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    This report covers the third year of Chapin Hall's process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously, partly in response to increasing concern about…

  15. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance program…

  16. Public opinion concerning geothermal development in Lake County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollintine, L.; Weres, O.

    1976-03-01

    A random sample of 2500 of the registered voters of Lake County, California, were polled about their opinions regarding the prospect of the development of geothermal energy in Lake County. The results of a secondary analysis of their responses are presented. The main conclusions are: (1) A large majority of the respondents are in favor of geothermal development provided that it is suitably regulated to minimize negative environmental impacts. (2) The main determinants of the respondents' approval or disapproval of geothermal development are their expectations concerning the environmental impacts of geothermal development and the economic benefits of development for the county. Essentially all respondents who do not perceive negative environmental impacts support development, and the expectation of increased job opportunities and/or tax revenues is a nearly absolute prerequisite for support of development. (auth) (3) Pro- and anti-geothermal bias have strong effects upon the formation of opinions about leasing and the perception of environmental impacts. (4) Purely demographic characteristics of the respondents, such as employment status and years of residence in the county, have only limited effects upon their attitudes toward geothermal development except in the southern portion of the county, where longer term residents and those who live in the county for reasons of employment are more in favor of development.

  17. 生物恐怖应对的健康教育研究进展%Progress in Health Education on Bioterrorism Preparedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐韬; 侯培森; 胡俊峰

    2002-01-01

    @@ 美国“9·11”事件及邮件炭疽袭击事件发生以来,生物恐怖活动受到人们的高度重视。各国政府正在加紧采取措施,防范生物恐怖事件的发生。 生物恐怖(bioterrorism)是使用致病性微生物或毒素等作为恐怖袭击武器,通过一定的途径散布致病性细菌、病毒,造成烈性传染病的暴发、流行,导致人群失能和死亡,引发社会动荡。由于生物恐怖技术含量低、隐蔽性强、威胁性大,一旦发生,后果极为严重[1]。

  18. Do US metropolitan core counties have lower scope 1 and 2 CO2 emissions than less urbanized counties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayao, M. M.; Blackhurst, M. F.; Matthews, H. S.

    2014-10-01

    Recent sustainability research has focused on urban systems given their high share of environmental impacts and potential for centralized impact mitigation. Recent research emphasizes descriptive statistics from place-based case studies to argue for policy action. This limits the potential for general insights and decision support. Here, we implement generalized linear and multiple linear regression analyses to obtain more robust insights on the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the US We used consistently derived county-level scope 1 and scope 2 GHG inventories for our response variable while predictor variables included dummy-coded variables for county geographic type (central, outlying, and nonmetropolitan), median household income, population density, and climate indices (heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD)). We find that there is not enough statistical evidence indicating per capita scope 1 and 2 emissions differ by geographic type, ceteris paribus. These results are robust for different assumed electricity emissions factors. We do find statistically significant differences in per capita emissions by sector for different county types, with transportation and residential emissions highest in nonmetropolitan (rural) counties, transportation emissions lowest in central counties, and commercial sector emissions highest in central counties. These results indicate the importance of regional land use and transportation dynamics when planning local emissions mitigation measures.

  19. County and Parish Boundaries, Published in 2003, Cerro Gordo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  20. 2008 USGS South New Jersey County Project Lidar: Cumberland County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South New Jersey County Lidar Project is to provide LiDAR data for the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJ-DEP) for Cape May, Cumberland, and...

  1. Combining the benefits of decision science and financial analysis in public health management: a county-specific budgeting and planning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Peter J; Miller, Danny L; Amy, Brian W; Zuniga, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    State public health agencies are charged with providing and overseeing the management of basic public health services on a population-wide basis. These activities have a re-emphasized focus as a result of the events of September 11, 2001, the subsequent anthrax events, and the continuing importance placed on bioterrorism preparedness, West Nile virus, and emerging infectious diseases (eg, monkeypox, SARS). This has added to the tension that exists in budgeting and planning, given the diverse constituencies that are served in each state. State health agencies must be prepared to allocate finite resources in a more formal manner to be able to provide basic public health services on a routine basis, as well as during outbreaks. This article describes the use of an analytical approach to assist financial analysis that is used for budgeting and planning in a state health agency. The combined benefits of decision science and financial analysis are needed to adequately and appropriately plan and budget to meet the diverse needs of the populations within a state. Health and financial indicators are incorporated into a decision model, based on multicriteria decision theory, that has been employed to acquire information about counties and public health programs areas within a county, that reflect the impact of planning and budgeting efforts. This information can be used to allocate resources, to distribute funds for health care services, and to guide public health finance policy formulation and implementation.

  2. 2006 Volusia County, Florida Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  3. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  4. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  5. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  6. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  7. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  8. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  9. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  10. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  11. 2014 Mobile County, AL Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic was contracted to acquire high resolution topographic LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data located in Mobile County, Alabama. The intent was to collect...

  12. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  13. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  14. 2009 SCDNR Charleston County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoscience completed the original collection and classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Charleston County, South Carolina in the winter of 2006-2007. In...

  15. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  16. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  17. 2009 SCDNR Horry County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Horry County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  18. ORTHOIMAGERY, ERIE COUNTY, OHIO USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 OSIP digital orthophotography was collected during the months of March and April (leaf-off conditions). The MrSID Images covering each county at 1-foot...

  19. 2009 SCDRN Lidar: Florence County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Florence County, SC. Utilizing multi-return...

  20. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  1. Allegheny County Certified MWDBE Businesses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — According to the Federal Department of Transportation, Disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBE) are for-profit small business concerns where socially and...

  2. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  3. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  4. Horry County Beach Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horry County has coordinated with DHEC OCRM to fully inventory, analyze, and documenteach of the ten required elements for an approvable local comprehensive beach...

  5. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  6. ORTHOIMAGERY, LICKING COUNTY, OHIO USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 OSIP digital orthophotography was collected during the months of March and April (leaf-off conditions). The MrSID Images covering each county at 1-foot...

  7. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class 1...

  8. Uninsured Young Adults by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data file indicates the estimated number of uninsured individuals ages 19-25 in each U.S. county. These individuals may be eligible to join their parents health...

  9. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  10. 2009 SCDNR Berkeley County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Berkeley County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  11. ORTHOIMAGERY, CLAY COUNTY, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP is a program to acquire peak growing season ?leaf on? imagery, and deliver this imagery to USDA County Service Centers, in order to maintain the common land...

  12. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class...

  13. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  14. 2004 Harrison County, MS Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the topographic mapping of Harrison County, Mississippi during March of 2004. Products generated include lidar point clouds in .LAS...

  15. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  16. Best Manufacturing Practices. Report of Survey Conducted at Stafford County Public Schools, Stafford County, VA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    During the week of August 8, 1994, a Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) survey was conducted at the Stafford County Public Schools located in Stafford County, Virginia, considered one of the fastest growing counties in the state...

  17. 2006 Maryland Department of Natural Resources Lidar: Caroline, Kent and Queen Anne Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maryland Department of Natural Resources requested the collection of LIDAR data over Kent, Queen Anne and Caroline Counties, MD. In response, EarthData acquired the...

  18. Broward County Florida thermographic data collected at twelve locations along four eastward lines that cross three offshore reef Tracks during the time period July 2000 to the present using self-recording temperature gauges (NODC Accession 0000829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Broward County Florida has responsibility for the resource management of coral reefs in marine waters adjacent to Broward County. The Department of Planning and...

  19. An analysis of elder abuse rates in Milwaukee County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mary J; Lietzau, Lauren K; Doty, Megan M; Cieslik, Linda; Williams, Ramona; Meurer, Linda N

    2011-12-01

    The elder abuse and neglect burden in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, is substantial, with 3384 reports made from 2006 to 2009. Current prevalence estimates are determined from reported cases only and are likely underestimated. Provider awareness of victim and perpetrator characteristics is necessary to increase recognition and response. A cross-sectional analysis of elder abuse and neglect cases reported to the Milwaukee County Department on Aging (MCDA) from 2006 to 2009 was performed to provide a profile of the county's elder abuse burden by victim, perpetrator, and reporter characteristics. Annual reporting trends were identified using Poisson regression analysis. Fifty-eight percent of MCDA reports of abuse were substantiated after investigation. Victims in Milwaukee County tended to be older than 75 (64%), female (64%), and white (62%). Reporting rates to the MCDA were significantly lower in 2009 than 2006. Perpetrators were often adult children (48%) or a spouse (14%). Forty percent of life-threatening cases of self-neglect were due to unfulfilled medical needs. Most reports were made by medical professionals (23%), relatives of the victim (21%), and community agencies (18%). Only 13% of elder abuse victims were placed in nursing homes and assisted living centers; many received services to assist independent living. Although this study is limited to reported cases only, it provides a valuable profile of pertinent elder abuse characteristics in Milwaukee County. Characteristics of vulnerable elders, potential abusers, and investigation outcomes are described to inform clinical practice about this important social issue.

  20. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Alameda County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Brian, Dianne; Houdre, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. In Alameda County more than $20 million in damages were assessed. Debris flows occurred in rural portions of the county, but were only responsible for $400 thousand in damages.

  1. 国外反生物恐怖演习对我国的启示%What we can learn from the overseas bioterrorism response exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 郑涛

    2006-01-01

    目的 介绍国外重要反生物恐怖演习,分析演习所取得的经验教训,为我国的生物恐怖应对及开展反生物恐怖演习服务.方法 搜集整理相关网站及论著中关于反生物恐怖演习的介绍及报告,从这些演习中找到一些规律.结果 等一些发达国家非常重视反生物恐怖演习工作,通过演习可以发现存在的一些问题以得到改进.结论 我国有必要开展相应的反生物恐怖演习,在演习中需要重视及检验:领导层的决策,部门间的合作,新成立机构的作用,现存的一些机制需要改进的方面,国际合作,通讯交流,疾病预防控制措施,医疗机构的应对,疫苗及药品的储备等.

  2. County and Parish Boundaries, County_boundary, Published in 1998, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale as of 1998. It is described as 'County_boundary'. Data by this publisher are often...

  3. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  4. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  5. 2012 FEMA Lidar: Southern Virginia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  6. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Kershaw County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Kershaw County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Kershaw County, SC.

  7. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  8. 2012 FEMA Lidar: Middle Counties (VA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  9. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  10. State of Aging in Allegheny County Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — For more than three decades UCSUR has documented the status of older adults in the County along multiple life domains. Every decade we issue a comprehensive report...

  11. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  12. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Sumter County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Sumter County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Sumter County, SC.

  13. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  14. Allegheny County Parks Data Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size, shape, and amenities of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  15. Allegheny County Pennsylvania Senate District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania Senate district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  16. Allegheny County Weights and Measures Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Inspections conducted by the Allegheny County Bureau of Weights and Measures. The Bureau inspects weighing and timing devices such as gas pumps, laundromat timers,...

  17. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  18. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the location of bridges owned by Allegheny County as centroids. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  19. Allegheny County-Owned Roads Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  20. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the bridges owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  1. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  2. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  3. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Hampton County (SC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Hampton County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Hampton County, SC.

  4. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  5. Allegheny County Farmers Markets Locations (2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the locations of farmers markets in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  6. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  7. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  8. Elevation - LIDAR Survey - Roseau County, Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LIDAR Data for Roseau County Minnesota. This project consists of approximately 87 square miles of LIDAR mapping in Roseau County, Minnesota at two sites: area 1,...

  9. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  10. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (May 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  11. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  12. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  13. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  14. 77 FR 72968 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Placer County and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... County and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control...

  15. 76 FR 12280 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Kern County, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... County, and Ventura County; Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District...

  16. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  17. The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causseaux, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida, contains potable water throughout most of the county and is a potential source of water to augment the public supply that is presently imported from adjacent counties. The county accounts for 38 percent of the public supply consumption of ground water in the 11-county area of west-central Florida and 68 percent of this water is imported from two adjacent counties. The surficial aquifer has a saturated thickness of more than 30 feet throughout most of the county. Specific capacity per foot of screen for wells is less than 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in some parts of the county, but yield is sufficient in most of the county for many small uses with shallow-well pumps. Minimum potential yield varies from 5 gallons per minute in the northern part of the county to more than 30 gallons per minute in the south. Concentrations of iron are high enough in parts of the county to cause staining. Chloride concentrations are less than 100 milligrams per liter in most of the county and do not pose a problem for many uses. (USGS)

  18. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  19. Clinton County Child Care Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Elicker, James; Benner, Aprile; Hahn, Georgia; Hertzog, Jodie; Kensinger, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    The final report of a research study assessing current and future needs for child care in Clinton county. Counties with similar profiles may find the results relevant. The methods used also can serve as a model for other counties wishing to conduct their own assessments.

  20. Propaganda, Censorship, and Civic Education in Rural Missouri Schools during World War I: The Benton County Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William I.

    This study describes the patriotic public rituals, the propaganda materials, and the censorship activities that were part of the school experience in Missouri during World War I. It also examines the apparent responses of two rural Benton County communities to those rituals, materials and activities. Benton County is a rural area of central…

  1. When pestilence prevails...physician responsibilities in epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Samuel J; Wynia, Matthew K

    2004-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism, the emergence of the SARS epidemic, and a recent focus on professionalism among physicians, present a timely opportunity for a review of, and renewed commitment to, physician obligations to care for patients during epidemics. The professional obligation to care for contagious patients is part of a larger "duty to treat," which historically became accepted when 1) a risk of nosocomial infection was perceived, 2) an organized professional body existed to promote the duty, and 3) the public came to rely on the duty. Physicians' responses to epidemics from the Hippocratic era to the present suggests an evolving acceptance of the professional duty to treat contagious patients, reaching a long-held peak between 1847 and the 1950's. There has been some professional retrenchment against this duty to treat in the last 40 years but, we argue, conditions favoring acceptance of the duty are met today. A renewed embrace of physicians' duty to treat patients during epidemics, despite conditions of personal risk, might strengthen medicine's relationship with society, improve society's capacity to prepare for threats such as bioterrorism and new epidemics, and contribute to the development of a more robust and meaningful medical professionalism.

  2. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  3. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  4. Southern Nevada Library Services; Serving Lincoln County, Nye County, Esmeralda County through the Clark County Library District: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Phyllis I.

    An anecdotal review covers the first year of increased library service in Nye, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada, under the Southern Nevada Library Services project funded by the Library Services and Construction Act. Using information from questionnaires and site visits, the extent of library services in each community in the area is…

  5. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and

  6. Water resources of Langlade County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    Langlade County depends almost exclusively on ground water pumped from the glacial sand and gravel deposits for its water needs. Well yields of 10 to 20 gallons per minute can be obtained from these deposits throughout most of the county. Yields of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute are obtained for irrigation of crops from glacial outwash deposits in some areas of the county and particularly in the extensive 125-square-mile outwash plain in south-central Langlade County. Very low yields of less than 5 gallons per minute are obtainable for private domestic use from Precambrian crystalline rocks in areas of the county where overlying glacial material is thin. Glacial deposits are more than 400 feet thick in glacial moraine areas of east-central Langlade County; saturated thicknesses exceed 250 feet in the north-central part of the county.

  7. The Emergence of Organizational Fit: Applying Configuration Theory to the Snohomish County (WA) Emergency Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    improve its performance. Specifically, it uses configuration theory to examine the Snohomish County (WA) EOC’s response to the State Route 530 flooding ...by the Snohomish County (WA) EOC (SCEOC) to the State Route (SR) 530 flooding and mudslides incident. That incident, the deadliest mudslide in U.S...of nine interviews conducted with responders to the SR 530 flooding and mudslides incident. The next chapter describes the research method . 35

  8. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  9. Yolo County controlled landfill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D. [IEM, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Dahl, K.; Mansoub, A.; Moore, R. [Yolo County Department of Public Works, Davis, CA (United States); Pacey, J. [Emcon, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A new landfill management approach controlled landfilling is being demonstrated by the Yolo County, California Department of Public Works at the Yolo County Central Landfill (YCCL) near Davis. Overall objectives are to obtain earlier and greater methane energy recovery from landfilled waste and to reduce landfill greenhouse gas emissions to near-negligible levels. Methane generation and waste stabilization were accelerated by improving biological conditions within a test cell through carefully controlled additions of water and leachate. A control cell was operated in parallel. Landfill gas capture was maximized, with emissions reduced to minimal levels, by a combination of surface membrane containment, a permeable layer conducting gas to collection points, and operation at slight vacuum. Cells are highly instrumented to determine performance. To date, normalized methane recovery is the highest seen from such a large waste mass, anywhere - about ten times that from conventional landfall practice. The rationale and details of this project, and first three years' results, are summarized. (author)

  10. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  11. Windsor-Essex County air quality action plan report card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report card evaluates how the City of Windsor, Ontario and Essex County have performed in meeting the promises in their air quality action plan. An anti-smog action plan proposed in 1998 was finally established in 2000 to mitigate the region's very poor air quality. The first report card that graded the city's efforts in implementing the plan was based on the Air Quality Action Plan structure that outlines both emergency measures and long term air quality strategies. The City of Windsor got 18 Fs and 7 Ds. In this report card, many of the category assessments are the same as from previous years. It was noted that overall, an insignificant effort was made to abide by the promises contained in the air quality action plan, but several alternative actions were proposed to the Windsor Essex County Air Quality Committee (WECAQC) in the past year, mostly by the Citizens Environment Alliance. In this year's report card, the City and the County received 19 Fs , 7 Ds and 4 Cs. Smog in Windsor and Essex County is bad and getting worse due to poor land use planning, truck and car emissions, heavy industrialization and hot and sunny summers. It was suggested that the Government of Ontario is the main reason why air quality issues have not been adequately addressed. It is responsible for permit approvals, monitoring and enforcement. There has been no financial to the WECAQC. Also, the federal government has failed to address the issue of transboundary air pollution. The locally based reasons for failure are the fact that decisions are not being made that consider regional air quality impacts, and that local politicians agree too readily on widening existing roads, paving new ones and building more parking lots. Another reason for failure is the City and County have not set any limits on urban growth and have embraced urban sprawl and commercial and industrial developments. 2 tabs., 3 appendices.

  12. New England Bioterrorism Preparedness Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    may be difficult in civil defense) • Ventilation system protection – Passive air filtration › Upgrade filters (best ASHRAE filters > 95%) › Overhauling...only added reagent (no phenol, chloroform, or alcohol) – Lightweight, compact, enables archiving – On-site fixation: preserves DNA & kills pathogenic... refrigeration , infant formulas, dehydration treatments, and improvements in medical care © 2002, Kimberly M. Thompson, Sc.D. Hunnewell Building, Circa

  13. A Program Against Bacterial Bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld

    2012-01-01

    fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays...

  14. [Viral biosafety, biosecurity, and bioterrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, D

    2010-02-01

    Intentional release of infectious agents has always been considered as a possible weapon. Today this risk has expanded from use for wartime mass destruction to small-scale terrorist acts. Viruses, some of tropical origin, constitute a special biological hazard for several reasons: great infectious potential, adaptability to the host, difficulty for diagnosis in the hospital, and absence of specific treatment for the main agents involved. Handling of the dangerous biological agents requires special biocontainment laboratories equipped and classified according to increasing risk up to level 4. This article discusses the modalities of classification.

  15. Ebola virus: bioterrorism for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramodkumar Pyarelal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus (EBOV spreads by human to human transmission through contacts with body fluids from infected patients. Initial stages of EBOV are non-specific which makes the differential diagnosis broad. Here in this review article we focused on to show the details of EBOV, from its first case right up to the possible targets to cure this lethal disease. In this study we have shown the statistical survey, epidemiology, disease ontology, different genes coding for different proteins in EBOV and future aspects of it.

  16. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    organisms to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants (1)). In many ways, the 2001 episode in Hawaii can serve as an interesting...classified as an arbovirus . The A. aegypti mosquito is an urban mosquito that thrives in pools of standing water. Peak transmission is associated with...brochures and mosquito repellent from a tourist information site set up on the road to Hana. Three other roads into the area were closed because of high

  17. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    ... (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era...

  18. Employer Manpower Needs and Job Entry Requirements for Paralegals within Johnson County, Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Elaine L.

    In order to determine whether a paralegal program could be successfully implemented at Johnson County Community College, surveys were sent to 262 local attorneys (with a 24% response rate) and to 41 members of the Kansas City Association of Legal Assistants (71% response). Emphasis was placed on determining area employment needs and the…

  19. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1995-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2000-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1997 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 43 sites from 1995 through 1997 that constitute a continuation of the program. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data collected include laboratory determinations of nutrients and major ions in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN's), and total carbon in stream-sediment samples. The biological data include benthic-macroinvertebrate populations. The data are presented without interpretation. Chester County is undergoing urbanization as agricultural land is converted to residential developments, commercial areas, and industrial and corporate parks. The major goal of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream changes in response to urbanization.

  20. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    1999-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1994 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 1981 through 1994. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data include laboratory determinations of nutrients, major ions, and selected metals in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN?s), and total carbon in stream-bottom sediment samples. The biological data consists of benthic macroinvertebrate population analyses and diversity indices. Chester County is undergoing rapid urbanization as agricultural lands are converted to residential, commercial, and industrial areas. The purpose of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream habitat and chemical changes in response to this urbanization.

  1. VT County Forest Data 1966-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer contains Vermont forestry estimate data, by county, primarily obtained from the Vermont Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA),...

  2. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  3. Houses of Worship - Volusia County Churches (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County church locations were aggregated from several sources including Property Appraisal parcel data, Supervisor of Elections resources, Bell South Yellow...

  4. Examining the relationship between the food environment and adult diabetes prevalence by county economic and racial composition: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Leone, Lucia A

    2017-08-09

    Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, "Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?" If the answer was "yes" individuals were classified as having diabetes. Retail food outlets included grocery stores, supercenters, farmer's markets, full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Counties were categorized as "high-poverty" or "low-poverty". Counties were categorized as low ( 31.0%) percent minority residents. Multiple linear regression models estimated the association between retail food outlets and diabetes, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between retail food outlets and county racial composition. Regression models were conditioned on county economic composition. Data were analyzed in 2016. Density of retail foods outlets varied greatly by county economic and racial composition; counties with medium-minority populations had the least access to grocery stores and the highest access to fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Low poverty/low-minority population counties had the greatest access to farmer's markets and grocery stores. For low poverty/low-minority counties, grocery stores were associated with decreased of diabetes prevalence. Supercenters were associated with an increase in diabetes prevalence for high-poverty/low-minority counties. Only low poverty/medium-minority counties had a statistically significant relationship between farmer's markets and diabetes prevalence. Fast food restaurants were found to be positively associated with diabetes prevalence in all

  5. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice of Intent (NOI) to... http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply proposed study sites will also...

  6. 75 FR 25308 - Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI... Beloit, Rock County, Wisconsin to the interchange of Rockton Road and I-90 southeast of South...

  7. 75 FR 31463 - Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX AGENCY... statement, draft habitat conservation plan, and permit application; announcement of a public hearing... County, Texas, as a result of activities including, but not limited to: Public or private...

  8. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  9. Value distribution assessment of geothermal development in Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchman, C.W.; Nelson, H.G.; Eacret, K.

    1977-10-01

    A value distribution assessment is defined as the determination of the distribution of benefits and costs of a proposed or actual development, with the intent of comparing such a development with alternative plans. Included are not only the social and economic effects, but also people's perceptions of their roles and how they are affected by the proposed or actual development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: on morality and ethics; the vanishing community; case study of pre-development planning--Lake County; methodology for research; Lake County geothermal energy resource; decision making; Planning Commission hearing; communication examples; benefit tracing; response to issues raised by the report of the State Geothermal Task Force; and, conclusions and recommendations. (JGB)

  10. Revelation from the Healthhcare Reform in Shenmu County%神木"医改"启示录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭照江; 梁红娟; 马长永

    2011-01-01

    The healthcare reform in Shenmu county is a success of the reform policy of modern China, since the governers in Shenmu county regard healthcare career as the focus of social development.The healthcare reform in Shenmu county embodies the people oriented concept of local government, since the governors in Shenmu county regard healthcare career as the first step to promote residents' living quality.Value of the healthcare reform in Shemnu county lies in its public welfare and justice feature, since governors in Shenmu county regard healthcare career as a social welfare career.The healthcare reform in Shemnu county contributes a lot to the diversity of the exploration of healthcare reform in China, since governors in Shenmu county regard it as their responsibility to solve the common people's difficulties in getting medical service.The healthcare reform in Shemnu county is a successful choice in which the mass common people share the positive result of social development, since governors in Shenmu county regard healthcare career as of vital importance.The healthcare reform in Shemnu county is time - transcending and explorative, since governors in Shenmu county regard healthcare career as a process of continuous exploration, evolution, and perfection.%神木医改折射出改革发展的巨大成就,神木的执政者视医疗卫生为社会发展的"重中之重";神木医改体现了以人为本的执政理念,神木的执政者视医疗卫生为改善民生的首选项目:神木医改的价值在于突出公益和公平,神木的执政者视医疗卫生为社会公益事业;神木医改对增强医改探索的多样性有新贡献,神木的执政者视解除群众医疗卫生的后顾之忧为政府责任;神木医改是让广大群众分享发展成果的重要选项,神木的执政者视医疗卫生为"命根子"工程;神木医改具有超前性和探索性,神木的执政者视医疗卫生改革为不断探索和发展、完善的过程.

  11. Poor people on the move: county-to-county migration and the spatial concentration of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, M

    1998-05-01

    "Poverty rates in high-poverty and low-poverty rural [U.S.] counties, and, thus, the spatial concentration of poverty, are affected by poverty-specific differences in in-migration and out-migration patterns. These patterns are investigated using 1985-90 county-to-county migration data from the decennial census. Effects on poverty rates of four migration flows (in- and out-migration of poor, in- and out-migration of nonpoor) are quantified, and their impacts on spatial concentration of poverty are assessed. The effect of selected county characteristics on the migration of the poor and nonpoor in nonmetro counties [is] estimated."

  12. 76 FR 44302 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, (559...

  13. 76 FR 28415 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource ] Advisory Committee Coordinator, (559...

  14. Geothermal development issues: Recommendations to Deschutes County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhard, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses processes and issues related to geothermal development. It is intended to inform planners and interested individuals in Deschutes County about geothermal energy, and advise County officials as to steps that can be taken in anticipation of resource development. (ACR)

  15. Educational and Demographic Profile: Madera County

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Madera County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  16. Educational and Demographic Profile: Napa County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Napa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  17. Cheyenne-Laramie County Economic Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Chamber of Commerce John Etchepare Warren Livestock Co. Shirley Francis Laramie County Commissioner Nancy Gire Economic Development Planner, Cheyenne...Eagle Reeves & Company Investments Jeff Ketcham John Rogers Laramie County Commissioner Rogers, Wolf & Blythe Mike Lane Dean Run Lane & Associates...Dorn, Director of Planning Mountain Bell Memorial Hospital Fred Baggs, General Manager Joe Dougherty Fleiscli Oil Yellowstone Neighborhood

  18. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  19. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  20. Responses of EVI to Climate and Land-use Variation in Taips County from 2000 to 2008%太仆寺旗2000—2008年EVI对气候及土地利用变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英敏; 高琼; 兰玉芳; 金东艳; 徐霞

    2012-01-01

    The farming-pastoral zone in northern China has become one of the most vulnerable eco-regions due to the comprehensive effects of climate changes and human activities. As an inte- gral component of ecosystem, vegetation cover dynamics indicated by various vegetation indices from long time series remote sensing data could be used to reflect the ecological and environmental changes. The Grain for Green Project is widely put forward by converting farmland into forests and grasslands, the evaluation of which as a result has become the hot spot of ecosystem researches. Identifying the distinctive impacts of climatic factors and land use management disturbances could help to make more objective assessment of vegetation restoration and guiding the follow-up ecologi- cal constructions. This study used Taips County, a typical region in the farming-pastoral zone, as the study area. Based on the data of MODIS-EVI, monthly mean air temperature and precipitation obtained from the nearby 45 weather stations, the spatial-temporal patterns of vegetation cover from 2000 to 2008 were explored. The correlation coefficients between the annual maximal EVI over the whole region and the climatic variables of different months during the growing periods were calculated. Together with the land use data in 2000 and 2005, when northern China was ex- periencing fast land use shift, we further analyzed the correlation between EVI and climatic varia- bles for different land use types. And EVI changes caused by land use transitions were also stud- ied. The results indicated that from 2000 to 2008, the annual maximal EVI fluctuated with an in- creasing trend and the vegetation in middle-east of the region grew better than that in the south- west. The average EVI over the whole region of July had a negative correlation with the mean air temperature of June and July and a positive correlation with the total precipitation of the two months. The correlation coefficients were both higher than 0

  1. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Arthur [County of Fayette, Uniontown, PA (United States)

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  2. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Simulated Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Butternut Lake, Price and Ashland Counties, Wisconsin, with Special Emphasis on the Effects of Internal Phosphorus Loading in a Polymictic Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Butternut Lake is a 393-hectare, eutrophic to hypereutrophic lake in northcentral Wisconsin. After only minor improvements in water quality were observed following several actions taken to reduce the nutrient inputs to the lake, a detailed study was conducted from 2002 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey to better understand how the lake functions. The goals of this study were to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake, quantify external and internal sources of phosphorus, and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake. Since the early 1970s, the water quality of Butternut Lake has changed little in response to nutrient reductions from the watershed. The largest changes were in near-surface total phosphorus concentrations: August concentrations decreased from about 0.09 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to about 0.05 mg/L, but average summer concentrations decreased only from about 0.055-0.060 mg/L to about 0.045 mg/L. Since the early 1970s, only small changes were observed in chlorophyll a concentrations and water clarity (Secchi depths). All major water and phosphorus sources, including the internal release of phosphorus from the sediments (internal loading), were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake during monitoring years (MY) 2003 and 2004. During these years, Butternut Creek, Spiller Creek, direct precipitation, small tributaries and near-lake drainage area, and ground water contributed about 62, 20, 8, 7, and 3 percent of the inflow, respectively. The average annual load of phosphorus to the lake was 2,540 kilograms (kg), of which 1,590 kg came from external sources (63 percent) and 945 kg came from the sediments in the lake (37 percent). Of the total external sources, Butternut Creek, Spiller Creek, small tributaries and near-lake drainage area, septic systems, precipitation, and ground water contributed about

  3. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  4. Strathcona County energy exploration public consultation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, C. [Bearing Point Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-12-09

    A committee was established by the Strathcona County Council in response to resident concerns regarding oil and gas exploration in the region. Bearing Point Inc. was hired to report on the results of a workshop where residents voiced their opinion on how their land is used. Many people live in Strathcona for its beauty, solitude and recreational activities, and consider the oil and gas exploration as compromising their lifestyles. The workshop focused on the following six categories which reflected the citizen's views regarding oil and gas exploration: environment, health and safety; communication and planning; regulation and rights; economics; accountability; and, other. Residents expressed concerns regarding water supply, air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, soil contamination, land damage, wildlife disruption, asthma and other health conditions, pipeline safety, land use and reclamation, use of technology and environmental damage. They also expressed concerns regarding landowners rights and resources. The residents felt that regulations governing oil and gas exploration were inadequate and favoured the oil and gas industry. Other concerns were based on property devaluation and increase in the volume and use of heavy equipment to the road system. Residents proposed various approaches to address each of these concerns.

  5. 75 FR 79334 - Madera County Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Madera County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Madera County Resource Advisory Committee will be meeting... expenditure of Payments to States Madera County Title II funds. The Madera County Resource Advisory Committee...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.634 - FSA county office report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum § 1230.634 FSA county office report. The FSA county office will notify the FSA State office of the results of the referendum. Each FSA county office will transmit the results of the referendum in its county to the FSA State office. Such...

  7. County and Parish Boundaries, Published in 2009, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Chautauqua County/Elk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. Data by...

  8. County and Parish Boundaries, County Boundary Layer, Published in unknown, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown....

  9. County and Parish Boundaries, county boundary, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. County and Parish Boundaries, counties, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  11. County and Parish Boundaries, County Boundary, Published in 2013, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2013....

  12. County and Parish Boundaries, county mask, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  13. EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN GALATI COUNTY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on data collected as part of the COMOR Project, developed by The Scientific Society of Management from Romania, for the analysis of organizational culture in the Romanian business environment, we have initiated an exploration using Business Intelligence tools. The purpose of this analysis is to find relevant information about the organizational culture for Galati County, starting from the results obtained in this project, and, using data mining techniques, to investigate relationships and links between responses to different survey questions, in this "mine" data, gathered by the project team effort.

  14. Influence of Peer Pressure on Secondary School Students Drop out in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omollo, Atieno Evaline; Yambo, Onyango J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of peer pressure on secondary school students' drop out in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya. The statement of the problem showed that the sub-county had a dropout rate of 43 percent as compared to the neighboring sub counties like Uriri, Awendo, Nyatike, Kuria and Migori which had 25,…

  15. Bioassessment of Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at five stations on Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi were evaluated using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP)...

  16. DCS Hydrology Submission for Lincoln County, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The hydrology dataset for Lincoln County, Oregon includes proposed 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year discharges for Salmon River, Schooner Creek, Drift Creek, Siletz...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. Hydrologic Data Sites for Garfield County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the USGS (United States Geologic Survey), NWIS (National Water Inventory System) Hydrologic Data Sites for Garfield County, Utah. The scope and...

  3. Hydrologic Data Sites for Wayne County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the USGS (United States Geologic Survey), NWIS (National Water Inventory System) Hydrologic Data Sites for Wayne County, Utah. The scope and purpose...

  4. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. Floodplain Mapping Submission for Oregon County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for Oregon County, MO. The City of Thayer and the Missouri State Emergency Management...

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, BOONE COUNTY,WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP is a program to acquire peak growing season ?leaf on? imagery, and deliver this imagery to USDA County Service Centers, in order to maintain the common land...

  10. De Baca County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city streets in DeBaca...

  11. 2009 Bayfield County Lake Superior Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LIDAR survey presents digital elevation data sets of a bald earth surface model and 2ft interval contours covering Bayfield County, Wisconsin. The LIDAR data was...

  12. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  13. 2009 USGS New Jersey Lidar: Mercer County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High accuracy LiDAR data covering Mercer County New Jersey (228 sq miles). These datasets will be the initial acquisition to support general geospatial needs of the...

  14. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  15. 2005 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Sussex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were acquired in March 2005 using the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) platform in Sussex County, Delaware. Once acquired, the...

  16. 2005 Hancock and Jackson Counties, MS Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the topographic mapping of Hancock and Jackson Counties, Mississippi during 2005. Using a combination of laser rangefinding, GPS...

  17. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  18. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  19. Hotels and Motels - Volusia County Lodging (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Abstract: This file shows the physical location of known Hotel, Motel, and Bed and Breakfast establishments in Volusia County. This file will be checked at least...

  20. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...