WorldWideScience

Sample records for county baseline health

  1. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  2. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  3. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  4. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  5. Baseline groundwater quality from 34 wells in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Wayne County, Pennsylvania, is underlain by the Marcellus Shale, which currently (2014) is being developed elsewhere in Pennsylvania for natural gas. All residents of largely rural Wayne County rely on groundwater for water supply, primarily from bedrock aquifers (shales and sandstones). This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for Wayne County prior to development of the natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale. Selected wells completed in the Devonian-age Catskill Formation, undifferentiated; the Poplar Gap and Packerton Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided; and the Long Run and Walcksville Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided, were sampled.

  6. Baseline groundwater quality from 20 domestic wells in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 domestic wells during August and September 2012 and analyzed for 47 constituents and properties, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. This study, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for central and southern Sullivan County prior to drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale.

  7. Sheridan County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Sheridan County area of Wyoming, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  8. Clark County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Clark County area of Nevada, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  9. Missoula County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Missoula County area of Montana, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  10. Yellowstone County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Yellowstone County area of Montana, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  11. Attendance at Health Promotion Programs: Baseline Predictors and Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…

  12. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  13. VT County Health Data 1986-2000 - 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer contains Vermont Population and Health data describing public health (1986-2000), by county, extracted from various sources, such...

  14. Reaching remote health workers in Malawi: baseline assessment of a pilot mHealth intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Nancy Vollmer; Sullivan, Tara; Jumbe, Brian; Perry, Cary Peabody

    2012-01-01

    mHealth has great potential to change the landscape of health service delivery in less developed countries--expanding the reach of health information to frontline health workers in remote areas. Formative, process, and summative evaluation each play an important role in mHealth interventions. K4Health conducted a Health Information Needs Assessment in Malawi from July to September 2009 (formative evaluation) that found widespread use of cell phones among health workers offering new opportunities for knowledge exchange, especially in areas where access to health information is limited. K4Health subsequently designed an 18-month demonstration project (January 2010 to June 2011) to improve the exchange and use of family planning/reproductive health and HIV/AIDS knowledge among health workers, which included the introduction of a short message service (SMS) network. K4Health conducted a pretest of the mHealth intervention from June to October 2010. A baseline assessment was carried out in November 2010 before expanding the SMS network and included use of qualitative and quantitative measures and comparison groups (summative evaluation). Routinely collected statistics also guide the program (process evaluation). This article describes the approach and main findings of the SMS baseline study and contributes to a growing body of evidence measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of mHealth programs using a strong evaluation design.

  15. IODINE SALT CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: BASELINE HEALTH SURVEY 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Aryastami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (100 reduction program has been implemented since 1976. According to the National Economic Survey 2002, the average consumption of iodized salt was 6. 26 grams. The results of Iodine Salt Survey (SGY 2003 showed that the consumption of iodine salt at the household level was 73.2%, meanwhile, the baseline health survey (Riskesdas 2007 showed there was reduction of iodine salt consumption towards 60.2%. Methods: Type of study was secondary data analysis with cross-sectional design utilizing the Riskesdas 2007's data. Sample was selected purposively according to the previous SGY's survey based on the endemically criteria namely highly endemic, mediocre and non endemic. Results: The results of the analysis were there was discrepancy of iodine salt consumption among urban and rural areas as well as mother's education level. The iodine salt consumption was higher in the urban area (65.5% compare to the rural area (52.9%. The higher the education of mothers the better the iodine salt consumed. The usage of iodine salt in the households based on salt quick test was 60.2%, meanwhile, according to the salt titration it was only 23.4%. The results of Excretion Iodine Urine showed that the iodine intake among the school children (age of 6-12 years old was 12.8% and was still below the cut-off point prevalence, which is greater than 50%. The conclusion of this analysisis that there was evidence of iodine salt reduction consumed at the household level. Conversely, there was inclination of the percentage of iodine urine level among the school children in Indonesia in the year 2007. It is recommended that policy analysis need to be conducted due to the achievement of the Universal Salt iodization target, especially in the endemic areas to asses the existence of the IDO prevalence. Key words: Iodine salt at the households, Iodine salt consumption, urine iodine excretion

  16. Gender differences in old age mortality: roles of health behavior and baseline health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Erika; Fukaya, Taro

    2003-06-01

    This research aims to further current understanding of gender differences in old age mortality. In particular, it assesses the relative importance of health behavior and baseline health conditions in predicting the risk of dying, and how their effects differ between elderly men and women. Data for this research came from a prospective study of a national sample of 2,200 older adults in Japan from 1987 to 1999. Hazard rate models were employed to ascertain the interaction effects involving gender and health behavior (i.e., smoking and drinking) and baseline health status. Gender differences in old age mortality in the Japanese are quite pronounced throughout all of our models. In addition, interaction effects of gender and smoking, functional limitation, and cognitive impairment, indicate that females in Japan suffer more from these risk factors than do their male counterparts. Failure to adjust for population heterogeneity may lead to a significant underestimation of female advantage in survival. The inclusion of health behavior and health status measures only offsets a limited proportion of this gender differential. The increased mortality risk due to smoking, functional limitation, and cognitive impairment among elderly Japanese women suggests that narrowing of gender gap in mortality may be due to not only changes in the levels of these risk factors but also their differential effects on men and women.

  17. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  18. Carson-Washoe County Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Carson-Washoe County area of Nevada, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  19. Albany-Laramie Counties Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Albany-Laramie Counties area of Wyoming, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general…

  20. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-03-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicators for all districts in Malawi. Other stakeholders implementing health interventions could use these baseline indicators for planning purposes.

  1. Baseline health care for refugees in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondius, A J; van Willigen, L H

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are some 20,000 refugees from different parts of the world (e.g. Vietnam, Latin America). Most of them have experienced a form of organized violence. The somatic and psychosocial complaints of the refugees are comparable to those of Dutch war victims. They are mostly of an aspecific kind and making a diagnosis can be difficult because of the culturally different presentation of ill being. In order to help general practitioners in making a diagnosis the Refugee Health Centre (CGV) has made a classification of complaints according to whether or not they have a specific cause. It is clear from the literature that there are different opinions about the causes of the somatic complaints. As far as the psychic complaints are concerned it is remarkable that in our pilot study (n = 135) only 6% of the examined refugees suffer from a classical picture of the post-traumatic stress disorder; in a number of cases the picture is limited to some components only. Psychosocial complaints of refugees are subdivided and described. The philosophy of the CGV-treatment is to give assistance as much as possible in the refugee's neighbourhood; so that the clinician(s) will become part of the refugee's new social network. Another very important aspect of the assistance given is preventing medicalization of psychological problems. The basis of help is a recognition of the problems and complaints of the refugee. The structure of the Dutch health care, built up in 'lines', is very often very confusing for a refugee; this confusion can cause communication difficulties between refugee and clinician. To develop methods of treatment, definition and registration of complaints and problems can be a first step.

  2. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-01-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicator...

  3. The impact of changes in county public health expenditures on general health in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria S; Navab, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001-2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the 'poor or fair health' category to the 'good, very good or excellent health' category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the 'good, very good or excellent' categories of health status rather than the 'poor or fair' categories.

  4. The Hmong and Health Care in Merced County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Mochel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the linguistic and cultural barriersthe Hmong encounter when they attempt to access the healthcare delivery system in Merced County, California. Thetheoretical portion of the article discusses the concepts ofculture, culture change, and some psychological issues thatresult from culture contact. Western biomedicine is viewed asa cultural system. Following this theoretical section, thecultural and linguistic barriers confronted by the Hmong whenthey attempt the access health care in Merced are discussedas well as some successful programs in the development ofculturally sensitive health care. These include the SoutheastAsian Surgical Coordination Team and the Culture Broker Team.The last part of the article covers, in some detail, amultidisciplinary program in cross-cultural health which isbeing implemented by health workers in Merced County.

  5. Efficient baseline gathering and damage detection in guided wave structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, A. J.; Putkis, O.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring (SHM) has been proposed as a technique to allow permanently attached sensors to provide information about the state of a structure. Typical approaches rely on gathering information about the baseline state of the structure and using this data with subtraction to highlight changes to the system. This relies on the baseline data accurately representing the conditions that the system will experience. In reality this is difficult to ensure and may result in either large periods out of service or poor performance. In addition the size of the baseline set can become prohibitively large. This paper describes an alternative approach that produces an efficient continuously evolving baseline. The paper considers how damage detection performance can be characterized within this framework and presents a series of metrics to do this. The result is a new way of considering the baseline problem with practical applications to the long term inspection of structures.

  6. What determines health: a causal analysis using county level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, Andrew J; Wang, Zijun

    2013-10-01

    This article revisits the long-standing issue of the determinants of health outcomes. We make two contributions to the literature. First, we use a large and comprehensive US county level health data set that has only recently become available. This data set includes five measures of health outcomes and 24 health risk factors in the categories of health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment. Second, to distinguish causality from correlation, we implement an emerging data-driven method to study the causal factors of health outcomes. Among all included potential health risk factors, we identify adult smoking, obesity, motor vehicle crash death rate, the percent of children in poverty, and violent crime rate to be major causal factors of premature mortality. Adult smoking, preventable hospital stays, college or higher education, employment, children in poverty, and adequacy of social support determine health-related quality of life. Finally, the Chlamydia rate, community safety, and liquor store density are three important factors causally related to low birth weight. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Factors that influenced county system leaders to implement an evidence-based program: a baseline survey within a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown C Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the burgeoning number of well-validated interventions that have been shown in randomized trials to produce superior outcomes compared to usual services, it is estimated that only 10% of public systems deliver evidence-based mental health services. In California, for example, more than 15,000 children are placed in group homes or residential centers with some evidence of iatrogenic effects. The present study evaluates the willingness among county leaders of child public service systems to adopt a new evidence-based model, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, (MTFC, as a way to decrease the prevalence of out-of-home placements. Specifically, the study examines how county-level socio-demographic factors and child public service system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate influence their decision of whether or not to consider adopting MTFC. Methods Two levels were examined in this study: Stable and historical factors from 40 California counties gathered from public records including population size, number of entries into out-of-home care, financing of mental health services, and percent minority population; and system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate and readiness for change measured via a web-based survey. The number of days-to-consent was the primary outcome variable defined as the duration of time between being notified of the opportunity to implement MTFC and the actual signing of a consent form indicating interest in considering implementation. Survival analysis methods were used to assess the predictors of this time-to-event measure. The present study is part of a larger randomized trial comparing two methods of implementation where counties are randomized to one of three time cohorts and two implementation conditions. Results The number of entries into care was the primary predictor of days-to-consent. This variable was significantly correlated to county

  8. Assessing climate change and health vulnerability at the local level: Travis County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Natasha; Houghton, Adele; Luber, George

    2016-10-01

    We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health measures using 1999-2005 age-adjusted cardiovascular and combined diabetes and hypertension mortality rates to correspond with social-built environment indices. We mapped US Census block groups by linked age-adjusted mortality and a PCA-created social-built environment index. The goal was to measure flooding and excessive heat event vulnerability as proxies for population vulnerability to climate change for Travis County, Texas. This assessment identified communities where baseline poor health, social marginalisation and built environmental impediments intersected. Such assessments may assist targeted interventions and improve emergency preparedness in identified vulnerable communities, while fostering resilience through the focus of climate change adaptation policies at the local level. No claim to original US government works. Journal compilation © 2016 Overseas Development Institute.

  9. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  10. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Large Cities: A Global Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will have significant impacts on human health, and urban populations are expected to be highly sensitive. The health risks from climate change in cities are compounded by rapid urbanization, high population density, and climate-sensitive built environments. Local governments are positioned to protect populations from climate health risks, but it is unclear whether municipalities are producing climate-adaptive policies. In this article, we develop and apply systematic methods to assess the state of public health adaptation in 401 urban areas globally with more than 1 million people, creating the first global baseline for urban public health adaptation. We find that only 10% of the sampled urban areas report any public health adaptation initiatives. The initiatives identified most frequently address risks posed by extreme weather events and involve direct changes in management or behavior rather than capacity building, research, or long-term investments in infrastructure. Based on our characterization of the current urban health adaptation landscape, we identify several gaps: limited evidence of reporting of institutional adaptation at the municipal level in urban areas in the Global South; lack of information-based adaptation initiatives; limited focus on initiatives addressing infectious disease risks; and absence of monitoring, reporting, and evaluation.

  11. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

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    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  12. Baseline well inventory and groundwater-quality data from a potential shale gas resource area in parts of Lee and Chatham Counties, North Carolina, October 2011-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Gurley, Laura N.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Records were obtained for 305 wells and 1 spring in northwestern Lee and southeastern Chatham counties, North Carolina. Well depths ranged from 26 to 720 feet and yields ranged from 0.25 to 100 gallons per minute. A subset of 56 wells and 1 spring were sampled for baseline groundwaterquality constituents including the following: major ions; dissolved metals; nutrients; dissolved gases (including methane); volatile and semivolatile organic compounds; glycols; isotopes of strontium, radium, methane (if sufficient concentration), and water; and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon. Dissolved methane gas concentrations were low, ranging from less than 0.00007 (lowest reporting level) to 0.48 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate, boron, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, total dissolved solids, and measurements of pH exceeded federal and state drinking water standards in a few samples. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the secondary (aesthetic) drinking water standard in approximately 35 to 37 percent of the samples.

  13. Community health needs assessment in Wake County, North Carolina: partnership of public health, hospitals, academia, and other stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano-Sobsey, Edie; Ledford, Sue Lynn; Decosimo, Kasey; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and other health care agencies are required to conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) every 3 years to obtain information about the health needs and concerns of the population. In 2013, to avoid duplication of efforts and to achieve a more comprehensive CHNA, Wake County Human Services, WakeMed Health and Hospitals, Duke Raleigh Hospital, Rex Healthcare, Wake Health Services, United Way of the Greater Triangle, and the North Carolina Institute for Public Health partnered to conduct a joint assessment for Wake County. Information was collected from the community through opinion surveys and focus groups. To understand the social, economic, and health status of Wake County residents, statistics were also collected from state, county, and local sources. Analysis of all data sources allowed 9 areas of community concern to be identified. Five community forums were held simultaneously at locations in east, south, west, north, and central Wake County to inform residents about the main findings of the assessment and to prioritize the 9 areas of concern. The top 3 priority areas identified were poverty and unemployment, health care access and utilization, and mental health and substance use. Results may not be generalizable to counties in North Carolina that are more rural or to counties outside North Carolina. The success of this unique collaborative process provides further opportunity for the project partners and other organizations to coordinate action plans, pool resources, and jointly address the priorities of this assessment over the next 3 years.

  14. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  15. Non-Psychiatric Services Provided in a Mental Health Unit in a County Jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Diane S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines mental health service provision by social workers in a county jail through a retrospective review of 359 mentally ill jail inmates' health and mental health records. Of the non-psychiatric, mental health services provided beyond initial assessment, housing placement evaluations and follow-up sessions were the most frequent. Suggestions…

  16. 76 FR 60084 - Extension Request for Collection of Baseline Information for Green Jobs and Health Care Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation of ARRA-Funded Grants AGENCY: Employment and Training... to support the evaluation of the impact of the Green Jobs and Health Care American Recovery and.... Background This baseline information collection supports an evaluation of the impacts of the Green Jobs...

  17. Health of adults in Los Angeles County: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn S; Curtin, Lester R; Carroll, Margaret D; Li, Xianfen; Mohadjer, Leyla; Shih, Margaret; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2011-09-01

    Los Angeles County has the largest population of any county in the nation. Population-based estimates of health conditions for Los Angeles County are based primarily on telephone surveys, which are known to underestimate conditions of public health importance. This report presents the prevalence of selected health conditions for civilian noninstitutionalized adults aged 20 and over living in Los Angeles County households and group quarters, based on survey data using direct physical measurements. Combined data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, were used for this report. Sample weights were recalculated for participants examined in Los Angeles County using population totals provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, excluding the institutionalized population. Compared with the nation as a whole, adults in Los Angeles County had similar rates of health conditions even after age and age-race adjustment, with a few exceptions. A significantly smaller proportion of Los Angeles County adults were obese (age-adjusted rate, 23.8%) compared with the United States (31.0%); this difference held after age-race adjustment. The age-adjusted rate of diagnosed diabetes for men was higher in Los Angeles County (9.1%) than in the nation (7.3%); however, this difference did not hold after age-race adjustment. The rates of total diabetes adjusted for age and age-race were similar for men in Los Angeles County and the United States. The rates of selected health conditions in this report were similar for adults in Los Angeles County compared with adults in the United States, with the exception of obesity. The rates of obesity adjusted for age and age-race were lower among Los Angeles County adults compared with national rates. Health estimates based on direct physical measurements can be useful

  18. The physical health of people with schizophrenia in Asia: Baseline findings from a physical health check programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsai, S; Gray, R; Bressington, D

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Physical health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders are far more common in people with severe mental illness (SMI) than the general population. While there are a considerable number of studies that have examined the physical health and health behaviours of people with SMI in Western countries, there have been few studies that have done this in Asia. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Unhealthy body mass index (BMI) values were observed in 44% of Thai service users diagnosed with schizophrenia despite desirable levels of exercise and relatively good diets being reported by the majority of participants. Being prescribed two or more antipsychotics was significantly associated with greater body weight and a higher BMI than in people prescribed only one antipsychotic. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health professionals in Asia should be particularly aware of the additional risks of obesity that seem to be associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy when they are promoting the physical health of people with schizophrenia. Introduction People with schizophrenia have worse physical health than the general population, and studies in developed countries demonstrate that their health behaviours are often undesirable. However, as no similar studies have been conducted in Asian countries with emerging healthcare systems, the physical health promotion challenges in these settings is unknown. Aim To identify and explore relationships between cardiometabolic health risks, lifestyle and treatment characteristics in people with schizophrenia in Thailand. Method This cross-sectional study reports the baseline findings from a physical health check programme using the Thai version of the Health Improvement Profile. Results Despite desirable levels of exercise and relatively good diets being reported by most of the 105 service users, unhealthy body mass index values were observed in 44% of

  19. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  20. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  1. Assessing potential spatial accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong

    2013-05-20

    There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential spatial accessibility of health services in Donghai County. We also give some advice on how to alleviate the unequal spatial accessibility of health services in areas that are more remote and isolated. The shortest traffic times of from hospitals to villages are calculated with an O-D matrix of GIS extension model. This paper applies an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method to study the spatial accessibility of health services and to determine areas with physician shortages in Donghai County. The sensitivity of the E2SFCA for assessing variation in the spatial accessibility of health services is checked using different impedance coefficient valuesa. Geostatistical Analyst model and spatial analyst method is used to analyse the spatial pattern and the edge effect of potential spatial accessibility of health services. The results show that 69% of villages have access to lower potential spatial accessibility of health services than the average for Donghai County, and 79% of the village scores are lower than the average for Jiangsu Province. The potential spatial accessibility of health services diminishes greatly from the centre of the county to outlying areas. Using a smaller impedance coefficient leads to greater disparity among the villages. The spatial accessibility of health services is greater along highway in the county. Most of villages are in underserved health services areas. An unequal distribution of health service resources and the reimbursement policies of the

  2. Health promotion and partnerships: collaboration of a community health management center, county health bureau, and university nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Ling

    2002-06-01

    Effective partnerships were established between a community health management center, a county health bureau and a university nursing program. A health fair was undertaken to heighten public health awareness through the collaboration of these various agencies. In this research, formative, process, and summative evaluations were conducted to determine the benefits of partnerships. Elements evaluated included the planning process, health fair relevancy, integration of community resources, participants satisfaction and knowledge acquisition, and partnership satisfaction. The samples of this study included (1) 529 adult participants who completed the on-site evaluation questionnaires; (2) 1,090 child participants who returned gift-reward cards; (3) 114 partners who gave written feedback on their satisfaction; and (4) 57 third-year and 16 fourth-year undergraduate nursing student participants. Data was collected from the evidence report of the Department of Health, the project proposal, activity protocols, meeting records, the project final report, students term papers, and questionnaires. The chief administrator of the County Health Bureau was very impressed with the creative exhibits in the fair and, therefore, invited a coalition to continue further workshops. Seventeen educational exhibits, two dance programs and two drama programs related to health issues were demonstrated in the fair. Resources from community organizations were successfully integrated and allocated. Community participants expressed satisfaction with the fair and anticipated similar activities in the future. Participants revealed more than 80% accuracy in health knowledge quizzes. The senior nursing students highlighted their interaction with the community, community health nurses, and health volunteers. Community-based health promotion and nursing education can be successfully connected when various disciplines and sectors form effective partnerships.

  3. Mental Health Work in a County Jail: A Heuristic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, Carl B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the San Luis Obispo County Jail Treatment program, which included crisis management, psychiatric services, substance abuse counseling, Graduate Equivalency Diploma preparation, vocation counseling, and postrelease counseling and referral. Data from 73 offenders indicated the approach was effective in lowering the immediate recidivism…

  4. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  5. Assessing potential spatial accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai county

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential sp...

  6. Health Care Needs of a Hispanic Population in Dane, Dodge, and Jefferson Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; And Others

    In the summer of 1976, 133 permanent residents in the Hispano community in Wisconsin's Dane, Dodge and Jefferson counties were interviewed to determine their perceptions of their own and their families' health needs and of their unmet health needs. Respondents were primarily women since it was felt they were the best informed about the family's…

  7. [Prediction model of health workforce and beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ru; Liu, Jiawang

    2011-12-01

    To construct prediction model for health workforce and hospital beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression. We surveyed 16 counties in Hunan with stratified random sampling according to uniform questionnaires,and multiple linear regression analysis with 20 quotas selected by literature view was done. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on medical personnels in county hospitals included the counties' urban residents' income, crude death rate, medical beds, business occupancy, professional equipment value, the number of devices valued above 10 000 yuan, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, and utilization rate of hospital beds. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on county hospital beds included the the population of aged 65 and above in the counties, disposable income of urban residents, medical personnel of medical institutions in county area, business occupancy, the total value of professional equipment, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, utilization rate of hospital beds, and length of hospitalization. The prediction model shows good explanatory and fitting, and may be used for short- and mid-term forecasting.

  8. Baseline Evaluation of a Participatory Mobile Health Intervention for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert

    2016-01-01

    Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…

  9. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  10. Cardiovascular health promotion in schools of Delhi, India: A baseline evaluation of environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Most of the risk factors of CVDs develop early in childhood. Schools immensely influence the thinking pattern of students and can thus shape their behavior. However, no amount of knowledge and awareness can change health behaviours of students until they get support from enabling environment in the schools. The Ottawa charter has also emphasized on building healthy public policy and creating supportive environments for health promotion in schools. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in 10 schools in Delhi, India. School policies, environment, community participation and approach of school health agency were assessed by interviewing authorities, review of related documents and direct observation in schools. Results: It was found that none of the schools had any written health policy. Environment in most of the schools was not conducive for cardiovascular health promotion. Conclusion: The study highlights that the schools lack health policies and environment for cardiovascular health and also points out the approach of school health agency, focusing on medical check-ups and treatment of minor illnesses.

  11. Stakeholder analysis of the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Amit; Fekadu, Abebaw; Murhar, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra; Kathree, Tasneem; Ssebunya, Joshua; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge generated from evidence-based interventions in mental health systems research is seldom translated into policy and practice in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Stakeholder analysis is a potentially useful tool in health policy and systems research to improve understanding of policy stakeholders and increase the likelihood of knowledge translation into policy and practice. The aim of this study was to conduct stakeholder analyses in the five countries participating in the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME); evaluate a template used for cross-country comparison of stakeholder analyses; and assess the utility of stakeholder analysis for future use in mental health policy and systems research in LMIC. Using an adapted stakeholder analysis instrument, PRIME country teams in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda identified and characterised stakeholders in relation to the proposed action: scaling-up mental health services. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for stakeholder groups across countries, and a force field analysis was applied to the data. Stakeholder analysis of PRIME has identified policy makers (WHO, Ministries of Health, non-health sector Ministries and Parliament), donors (DFID UK, DFID country offices and other donor agencies), mental health specialists, the media (national and district) and universities as the most powerful, and most supportive actors for scaling up mental health care in the respective PRIME countries. Force field analysis provided a means of evaluating cross-country stakeholder power and positions, particularly for prioritising potential stakeholder engagement in the programme. Stakeholder analysis has been helpful as a research uptake management tool to identify targeted and acceptable strategies for stimulating the demand for research amongst knowledge users, including policymakers and practitioners. Implementing these strategies amongst stakeholders at a country level will

  12. Provision of essential health package in public hospitals: a case of Homabay County hospitals, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opon, Shadrack Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    Essential Health Packages (EHP) delivery is likely to strengthen service delivery. Healthcare utilization rate is 77% for the sick. 44% and 18% who don't seek care are hindered by cost and distance respectively. The overall child mortality rate in Kenya is 121/1000. In Homabay County, child mortality rate is 91/1000, and maternal mortality rate of 583/100000. The study looked into the provision of EHP in public hospitals in Homabay County. Cross-sectional research design was used. Two hospitals were conveniently due to their municipality location. The study targeted 213 Health workers and 350 patients. Stratified sampling and proportionate sampling was used among different health workers. Sample size was determined by Yamane Formula. The study sampled 138 health workers and 186 patients. Questionnaire and key interview guide were used to collect data. There are inadequate health workers based on 138 (100%) health workers. Insufficient drugs were reported by 138 (100%) health workers, and 120 (64.5%) patients. 115 (83.3%) health workers say ambulances are not operational. 26 (18.8%) health workers noted lack medical equipment, 138 (100%) are aware of patients referred elsewhere due to lack of medical equipment. 153 (82.3%) and 135 (72.6%) patients' health access is hindered by cost and distance respectively. 159 (85.5%) patients don't always find services needed. 159 (85.5%) patients affected by long waiting time. Low service provision/utilization rate in Homabay County results from lack of health workers, inadequate drugs, poor health infrastructure, and lack of access in terms of affordability, availability and distance.

  13. Value of training on motivation among health workers in Narok County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momanyi, George Osoro; Adoyo, Maureen Atieno; Mwangi, Eunice Muthoni; Mokua, Dennis Okari

    2016-01-01

    Training, as an additive human resources intervention is decisive to organizational performance. Employees require constant update of formal and informal knowledge alongside positive attitudes that have been defined as necessary in motivation leading to effectiveness in performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of training on motivation among health workers in Narok County, Kenya. A cross-sectional study utilizing a self administered questionnaire, targeting 237 health workers and 21 health managers was used. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 using descriptive statistics. Factor analysis was done on the training perception in relation to motivation. Majority of the respondents rated their motivation between 7 and 9 in the current health facility (35.4%), Sub-county (33.8%) and County (32.9%) with the median motivation level of 5. Majority of health workers 194 (81.9%) had received a form of training, of whom 191 (98.5%) indicated that on-job training was relevant to their tasks and that it motivated 192 (99.0%) of them to perform better due to coining skills to motivation. Training significantly predicted general motivation (p-value = 0.013), job satisfaction (p-value = .001), intrinsic job satisfaction (p-value = .001) and organisational commitment (p-value motivated health workforce in Narok County and recommended strengthening of current training initiatives by ensuring trainings are more regular and involvement of health workers in discussing their career development prospects.

  14. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  15. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesi, Ahmad; Nikpour, Fatemeh; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Ranjbar, Mansoor; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Haghdost, Aliakbar; Taghizadeh-Asl, Rahim; Sakeni, Mohammad; Safari, Reza; Saffari, Mehdi

    2011-10-27

    Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages) were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly.The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless, only one-third of them [33% (95% CI: 0.00 - 67.8)] had

  16. Public Health Offices, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Health Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  17. VT County Health Data 1986-2000 - 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer contains a variety of tabular Vermont Public Health data (1986-2000), obtained from the following sources: the Vermont Department...

  18. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  19. Baseline survey of health prophylaxis and management practices on Swiss dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P; Kohler, S; Reist, M; van den Borne, B; Menéndez González, S; Doherr, M

    2012-09-01

    Health prophylaxis management practices have acquired a major role in the success of dairy herd health programs, however, little is known about the scope and level of implementation on Swiss dairy farms. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a general overview of the most important preventive measures which are currently being used on these farms. In March 2011, an online survey with 75 questions was sent to 2'285 randomly selected Swiss dairy farmers. Response rate by question ranged from 35 to 53 %. Within this study, answers were compared between dairy farms with a tie-stall (n = 739) and farms with a free-stall (n = 458). Homeopathic treatments were used by 51 % of the dairy farmers and antibiotic dry cow treatments by 94 %. Farmers with a tie-stall tended to carry out more prophylactic treatments against external parasites, vaccinated their cows more frequently against Clostridium chauvoei and Moraxella bovis, and carried out claw trimming more frequently than dairy farmers with a free-stall. A higher proportion of dairy farmers with a free-stall had a written feeding plan, carried out regular feed analysis, wore an apron and rubber gloves during milking, and carried out post milking teat disinfection more frequently than dairy farmers with a tie-stall. The data collected in this survey could assist in improving future dairy health communication campaigns in Switzerland.

  20. Frontline staff motivation levels and health care quality in rural and urban primary health facilities: a baseline study in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward

    2016-12-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70 % of the estimated 26.9 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32.1 % of the national health sector workforce works. Doctor-patient ratio in a predominantly rural region is about 1:18,257 compared to 1:4,099 in an urban region. These rural-urban inequities significantly account for the inability of Ghana to attain the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) before the end of 2015. To ascertain whether or not rural-urban differences exist in health worker motivation levels and quality of health care in health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority in Ghana. This is a baseline quantitative study conducted in 2012 among 324 health workers in 64 accredited clinics located in 9 rural and 7 urban districts in Ghana. Ordered logistic regression was performed to determine the relationship between facility geographic location (rural/urban) and staff motivation levels, and quality health care standards. Quality health care and patient safety standards were averagely low in the sampled health facilities. Even though health workers in rural facilities were more de-motivated by poor availability of resources and drugs than their counterparts in urban facilities (p facilities. For Ghana to attain the newly formulated sustainable development goals on health, there is the need for health authorities to address the existing rural-urban imbalances in health worker motivation and quality health care standards in primary healthcare facilities. Future studies should compare staff motivation levels and quality standards in accredited and non-accredited health facilities since the current study was limited to health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority.

  1. Health Status and Cancer Screening in Hispanic Women: A Sample from Cumberland County, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Griffiths

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines self-reported breast and cervical cancer screening history among women aged 18 years and above in Cumberland County, NC. Cumberland County is a multi-ethnic, semi-urban, racially diverse community with a large Hispanic population. Cross-sectional, mixed methodology data collection took place in local Tiendas. The sample consists of women belonging to a variety of ethnic groups generally classified as “Hispanic.” The questionnaire and interview guide used in the study developed from the Center for Disease Control’s National Health Interview Survey, and measured breast examination, mammogram, Pap Smear, family cancer, and health insurance history, as well as self reported health status, socio-demographic, and cultural features of the respondents. We found that despite demographics from the 2010 Census showing a high incidence of breast and cervical cancers in the North Carolina Hispanic population, fewer Hispanic women in Cumberland County screened themselves for the presence of this cancer as compared to women at the national level. Education positively impacted both self rated health status as well as cancer screening behavior. Interview data suggested the lack of screening behavior in this population was due to a perceived lack of cultural sensitivity and a dearth of translators.

  2. The College Health and Wellness Study: baseline correlates of overweight among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Gross, Susan M; Browne, Dorothy C; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic in the United States, particularly among minority populations. This epidemic contributes to the development of chronic conditions that occur later in life such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, it is important to identify factors associated with the development of obesity during young adulthood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among students graduating from a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the Mid-Atlantic region. Participants were 392 predominantly African American seniors graduating in the spring of 2003. Data were collected using a self-administered paper and pencil questionnaire which focused on weight, weight management activities, individual and familial weight history, and health status indicators. Participants were on average 24 +/- 5 years of age and 69% female; over 90% identified as African American or Black. According to NIH guidelines, about 30% of males and 28% of females were considered overweight, 12% of males and 7% of females were considered obese, and 7% of males and females were considered extremely obese. Significant correlates of being more overweight were being married, having children, lower socio-economic status, weight-loss attempts, personal and family history of overweight, and poorer health status. These data suggest that among this sample, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is similar to other populations of young African American adults. Familial factors such as socio-economic status and family weight history were important correlates of overweight. Overweight is a significant problem in this population, and these data should be useful for developing weight loss interventions aimed at young adults.

  3. [Public health in Orhei County--realities and opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cărăuşu, Elena Mihaela; Stirbate, P; Indrei, L L

    2011-01-01

    Orhei District Hospital has 420 beds located in 17 wards. Providing beds in 2010 is 39.2 to 10 000 people compared with 47.7 in 2008, but it is still more than the regional average for the country- 32.6. Rotation bed, the lethality rate of hospitalization of people have not changed in the previous year. The average duration of treatment and average bed occupancy rose in 2010 compared with 2009, but the bed occupancy rate is still small--about 60%. Share divergence diagnostic is lower than the previous year--this is a good indicator of quality. Enough old equipment is still an issue for the District Hospital Orhei. Making an analysis of the distinctive features of health care evaluations, where resources are expressed by the cost and the results are expressed as effects on health, we conclude that it is necessary to change the conceptual aspects regarding health care financing. For redress the economic and financial situation, is proposed following strategy: 1. Reduced costs for hotel accommodation, by introducing "a day hospital". This system implies investigation and medical advice, and writing medication without the patient to remain hospitalized for a long time (for cases that do not require prolonged hospitalization) 2. Reducing costs the necessary material resources with, the introduction of electronic auction. 3. Introducing the concept of health management, need for hospital management, better management the four types of resources available (human resources, material resources, financial resources, time). 4. Increasing managerial capacity, through a competitive selection manager, will be combine short-term planning and the long-term strategy (more flexible) to raise the efficiency of medical care. In this respect spaces allocated section of Pulmonology, will be reassembled in geriatric beds, and the space available, will be outsourced of other persons (individuals or corporate person), under the law where they will earn additional income. It is noted that

  4. Delivery of maternal health care in Indigenous primary care services: baseline data for an ongoing quality improvement initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwedza Ru K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous populations have disproportionately high rates of adverse perinatal outcomes relative to other Australians. Poorer access to good quality maternal health care is a key driver of this disparity. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of delivery of maternity care and service gaps in primary care services in Australian Indigenous communities. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional baseline audit for a quality improvement intervention. Medical records of 535 women from 34 Indigenous community health centres in five regions (Top End of Northern Territory 13, Central Australia 2, Far West New South Wales 6, Western Australia 9, and North Queensland 4 were audited. The main outcome measures included: adherence to recommended protocols and procedures in the antenatal and postnatal periods including: clinical, laboratory and ultrasound investigations; screening for gestational diabetes and Group B Streptococcus; brief intervention/advice on health-related behaviours and risks; and follow up of identified health problems. Results The proportion of women presenting for their first antenatal visit in the first trimester ranged from 34% to 49% between regions; consequently, documentation of care early in pregnancy was poor. Overall, documentation of routine antenatal investigations and brief interventions/advice regarding health behaviours varied, and generally indicated that these services were underutilised. For example, 46% of known smokers received smoking cessation advice/counselling; 52% of all women received antenatal education and 51% had investigation for gestational diabetes. Overall, there was relatively good documentation of follow up of identified problems related to hypertension or diabetes, with over 70% of identified women being referred to a GP/Obstetrician. Conclusion Participating services had both strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of maternal

  5. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  6. Assessing health literacy in rural settings: a pilot study in rural areas of Cluj County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Oana M; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Sirlincan, Emanuela O; Baba, Catalin O; Chereches, Razvan M

    2013-12-01

    Health literacy improves knowledge and builds skills to help individuals make appropriate decisions regarding their health. Over the past 20 years, several studies have described associations between health literacy and health outcomes. With respect to Romania, evidence is scarce on the level of health literacy, as well as on its determinants. Thus, the objectives of this study were to briefly screen functional health literacy levels in a sample of rural inhabitants, to assess the relationship between health literacy and reported health status, as well as to explore health literacy determinants within this population. Data were collected between September-November 2010, in four villages in Cluj County, Romania, using a cross-sectional survey. The mean age of respondents in the sample was 56 years, with roughly half of respondents being retired. The brief screening of health literacy suggested inadequate to marginal levels within the sample. Significant associations were observed between health literacy score and education, and self-perceived health status, whereas the relationship between health literacy and gender, and the presence of a chronic disease was not statistically significant. Limited health literacy has been shown to be common in people who rated their health as poor, those who attended only middle school, and individuals lacking basic information about their body. In order to minimize the adverse effects of low health literacy on health and health outcomes, efforts should be invested in identifying and addressing the health needs of adults with low and marginal health literacy, especially in underserved areas such as rural and remote settings, where access to health-related information is limited.

  7. Motivations, concerns and preferences of personal genome sequencing research participants: Baseline findings from the HealthSeq project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Diaz, George A; Zinberg, Randi E; Ferryman, Kadija; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is increasingly offered to ostensibly healthy individuals. Understanding the motivations and concerns of research participants seeking out personal WGS and their preferences regarding return-of-results and data sharing will help optimize protocols for WES/WGS. Baseline interviews including both qualitative and quantitative components were conducted with research participants (n=35) in the HealthSeq project, a longitudinal cohort study of individuals receiving personal WGS results. Data sharing preferences were recorded during informed consent. In the qualitative interview component, the dominant motivations that emerged were obtaining personal disease risk information, satisfying curiosity, contributing to research, self-exploration and interest in ancestry, and the dominant concern was the potential psychological impact of the results. In the quantitative component, 57% endorsed concerns about privacy. Most wanted to receive all personal WGS results (94%) and their raw data (89%); a third (37%) consented to having their data shared to the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Early adopters of personal WGS in the HealthSeq project express a variety of health- and non-health-related motivations. Almost all want all available findings, while also expressing concerns about the psychological impact and privacy of their results.

  8. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  9. What predicts recovery orientation in county departments of mental health? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Mahoney, Christine B; Adams, Neal; Felton, Mistique; Pareja, Candy

    2010-09-01

    In this pilot study we examined the determinants of recovery orientation among employees and influential stakeholders in a sample of 12 county departments of mental health in California. A two-level hierarchical linear model with random intercepts was estimated. Analyses show that recovery orientation has a U-shaped relationship with the age of staff/influential stakeholders and is negatively related to the difference between the desired level of adhocracy and the current level of adhocracy. Recovery orientation is positively related to the education level of staff/influential stakeholders, satisfying transformational leadership outcomes, and larger mental health budgets per capita. Policy implications are discussed.

  10. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Blackburn, Justin; Manzella, Bryn; Welty, Elisabeth; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-11-01

    Several states have enacted legislation restricting undocumented immigrants' access to publicly funded health benefits not protected by federal law. Using electronic health records from 140,856 county health department visits, we assessed the monthly change in Latino patients' visits compared to non-Latinos 12 months before and after implementation of Alabama's immigration law. We used ICD-9 diagnosis codes to determine whether visits included services exempt under the law: immunizations, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and communicable diseases, and family planning. Differences between groups in the mean percent change were assessed with t-tests. Among children younger than 18 years, there were no significant differences by ethnicity. Visits among Latino adults decreased by 28% for communicable diseases, 25% for STIs, and 13% for family planning; this was significantly different from changes among non-Latino adults (p public's health.

  11. The University of Washington's Community-Oriented Public Health Practice program and Public Health-Seattle & King County partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Peter J; Hartfield, Karen; Nicola, Bud; Bogan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The Community-Oriented Public Health Practice (COPHP) program, a 2-year in-residence MPH degree program in the University of Washington School of Public Health, has partnered with Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) since 2002 to create a mutually beneficial set of programs to improve teaching and address community-based public health problems in a practice setting. The COPHP program uses a problem-based learning approach that puts students in small groups to work on public health problems. Both University of Washington-based and PHSKC-based faculty facilitate the classroom work. In the first year for students, COPHP, in concert with PHSKC, places students in practicum assignments at PHSKC; in the second year, students undertake a master's project (capstone) in a community or public health agency. The capstone project entails taking on a problem in a community-based agency to improve either the health of a population or the capacity of the agency to improve population health. Both the practicum and the capstone projects emphasize applying classroom learning in actual public health practice work for community-based organizations. This partnership brings PHSKC and COPHP together in every aspect of teaching. In essence, PHSKC acts as the "academic health department" for COPHP. There are detailed agreements and contracts that guide all aspects of the partnership. Both the practicum and capstone projects require written contracts. The arrangements for getting non-University of Washington faculty paid for teaching and advising also include formal contracts.

  12. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  13. Afternoon Napping and Cognition in Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2017-02-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P cognition than nonnappers (P cognition than short nappers (P = .03). In multiple regression analysis, moderate napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Stigma experienced by people using mental health services in San Diego County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkin, Andrew; Lale, Rachel; Sklar, Marisa; Center, Kimberly C; Gilmer, Todd; Fowler, Chris; Heller, Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how individuals struggling with severe mental illness experience stigma along multiple dimensions including their experiences of discrimination by others, their unwillingness to disclose information about their mental health, and their internalization or rejection of the negative and positive aspects of having mental health problems. This cross-sectional study employs descriptive analyses and linear regression to assess the relationship between demographics, mental health diagnoses and self-reported stigma among people receiving mental health services in a large and ethnically diverse county public mental health system (n = 1,237) in 2009. We used the King Stigma Scale to measure three factors related to stigma: discrimination, disclosure, and positive aspects of mental illness. Most people (89.7 %) reported experiencing some discrimination from having mental health problems. Regression analyses revealed that younger people in treatment experienced more stigma related to mental health problems. Women reported experiencing more stigma than men, but men were less likely to endorse the potentially positive aspects of facing mental health challenges than women. Although people with mood disorders reported more discomfort with disclosing mental illness than people with schizophrenia, they did not report experiencing more discrimination than people with schizophrenia. Study findings suggest that the multidimensional experiences of stigma differ as a function of age, gender, and diagnosis. Importantly, these findings should inform anti-stigma efforts by describing different potential treatment barriers due to experiences of stigma among people using mental health services, especially among younger people and women who may be more susceptible to stigma.

  15. Baseline demographic profile and general health influencing the post-radiotherapy health related quality-of-life in women with gynaecological malignancy treated with pelvic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer specific survival and quality-of-life (QOL assessment are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Baseline demographic profiles have significant effects on follow-up health related QOL (HRQOL and affect the outcome of treatments. Materials and Methods: Post-operative gynaecological cancer patients required adjuvant pelvic radiation enrolled longitudinal assessment study. Patients had completed the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire before the adjuvant radiotherapy and functional assessments of cancer therapy-general module at 6 th month′s follow-up period to assess the HRQOL. Baseline variables were race, age, body mass index (BMI, education, marital status, type of surgery, physical composite scores (PCS and mental composite scores (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis used to determine the influence of these variables on post-radiotherapy HRQOL domains. Results: Baseline PCS, MCS, age, education and marital status had positively correlation with post-radiotherapy HRQOL while higher BMI had a negative impact in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, education and MCS had a positive correlation while higher BMI had a negative correlation with HRQOL domains. Conclusion: Enhance our ability to detect demographic variables and modify those factors and develops new treatment aimed at improving all aspect of gynaecological cancer including good QOL.

  16. Use of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Novak, K.M.; Calef, C.E. (eds.)

    1979-04-01

    This document is an edited record of the conversation, dialogues, and topical discussions of the participants of a computer conference sponsored by the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period March 4-28, 1977. The main objective of the conference was to bring together a number of individual specialists from a wide and diverse range of both academic and professional disciplines to address the usage of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis. A secondary aim of the conference was to test the feasibility and viability of using a computer conference as a means of accomplishing our primary objective. A preface, a list of participants, and the transcript of the main conference and subsession proceedings are included. Also included are information provided by participants on the identification of intercensal county equivalent areas and additional reports and documents relevant to the conference topic. The overall aims and objectives of the conference were successfully accomplished; some of the problems encountered using the computer as a conference vehicle were noted; recommendations were made to continue both formal and informal lines of communication on the subject of county level data.

  17. Disparities in Health Information Access: Results of a County-Wide Survey and Implications for Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Megan S; Su, Dejun; Britigan, Denise H

    2016-01-01

    Health knowledge and behavior can be shaped by the extent to which individuals have access to reliable and understandable health information. Based on data from a population-based telephone survey of 1,503 respondents of ages 18 years and older living in Douglas County, Nebraska, in 2013, this study assesses disparities in health information access and their related covariates. The two most frequently reported sources of health information are the Internet and health professionals, followed by print media, peers, and broadcast media. Relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks are more likely to report health professionals as their primary source of health information (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61, p < .001) and less likely to report peers (OR = 0.39, p < .05). A comparison between Whites and Hispanics suggests that Hispanics are less likely to get their health information through the Internet (OR = 0.51, p < .05) and more likely to get it from broadcast media (OR = 4.27, p < .01). Relative to their counterparts, participants with no health insurance had significantly higher odds of reporting no source of health information (OR = 3.46, p < .05). Having no source of health information was also associated with an annual income below $25,000 (OR = 2.78, p < .05 compared to middle income range) and being born outside of the United States (OR = 5.00, p < .05). Access to health information is lowest among society's most vulnerable population groups. Knowledge of the specific outlets through which people are likely to obtain health information can help health program planners utilize the communication channels that are most relevant to the people they intend to reach.

  18. Baseline glycemic status and mortality in 241,499 Korean metropolitan subjects: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Se Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes and prediabetes subjects have increased risk for mortality. We analyzed the mortality risk due to all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in Korean subjects participating in a health-screening program according to baseline glycemic status and HbA1c levels. Among 241,499 participants of a health-screening program between 2005 and 2012, the risk of death from all causes, CVD, and cancer was calculated based on the baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) and HbA1c levels. Uncontrolled diabetes was defined as HbA1c≥7.0%. Vital status and confirmation of the cause of death were based on the analysis of death certificate records from the National Death Index. During 923,343.1 person-years of follow-up, 877 participants died. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.03) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), respectively. The HRs of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for mortality due to cancer were 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.48) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.45). However, glycemic status was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality due to CVD. The subjects with HbA1c higher than 6.5% showed more than 2-fold increased risk for all-cause mortality and the subjects with HbA1c lower than 5.2% showed increased HR (1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) compared with those with HbA1c of 5.5% in subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications. Mortality risk from all causes and cancer significantly increased in diabetes subjects regardless of the glucose control status. In subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications, both high and low HbA1c resulted in increased risk for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community mental health in two sectors: County Caroni and St. George East--an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, V

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the community mental health program in Trinidad in two sectors with differing sociological backgrounds is made. Results showed that both sectors had regular outpatient clinics, outpatient group psychotherapy, and mental health officers partly community based. County Caroni had a low admission rate to St. Ann's Hospital, an ongoing education programme, an outpatient club, and an Extended Care Centre with Day Care Centre. The predominant illnesses seen in County Caroni were Alcoholism in the males and Depression and Anxiety States in the females. In St. George East, there was a higher admission rate to St. Ann's Hospital. The education program was irregular. There was an Extended Care Centre in Tacarigua half of which was allocated to psychiatric patients and a Day Care Centre at the Tumpuna Rehabilitation Centre. The most frequent illnesses in St. George East were Schizophrenia and Alcoholism in the males, and Schizophrenia and Depression with equal frequency in the females. The results indicated that the specific needs of each sector were different--hence the need for different approaches. The difficulties of implementing the Community Mental Health programme are discussed.

  20. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk.

  1. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  2. Oral health status of children in Los Angeles County and in the United States, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Vargas, Clemencia M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Isman, Robert

    2017-04-01

    To ascertain and compare the oral health status and related sociodemographic risk indicators in children in Los Angeles (LA) County with children in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 were used to calculate prevalence estimates for children aged 2-13 years living in LA County and in the United States. Sociodemographic indicators were evaluated using multiple logistic regression modeling. Overall, children in LA County were more likely to experience dental caries than children in the United States in 1999-2004. In the primary dentition, nearly 40% of preschool children residing in LA County had dental caries compared to 28% of same-age children in the United States. Among children aged 6-13, 44% living in LA County had dental caries in the permanent dentition compared to 27% in the United States. Mexican American children in LA County had higher caries experience in permanent teeth (but not in primary teeth) than US Mexican American children. Among children aged 6-9 years, there was no difference in the prevalence of dental sealants in permanent teeth between those living in LA County and in the United States. However, among children aged 10-13 years, dental sealants were more than twice as prevalent in US children (40.8%) than in LA County children (17.5%). Among LA County children, the adjusted odds of having caries experience or untreated dental caries in permanent teeth were not higher among children from lower income families than in lower income children in the United States. Children residing in LA County had less favorable oral health than children in the United States in 1999-2004. The usual sociodemographic caries risk indicators identified among children in the United States were not consistently observed among children in LA County. Unlike in the wider United States, poverty was not a risk indicator for dental caries in older children in LA County. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published

  3. Pain, psychological distress and health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Fannie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate management of postoperative pain is common, and postoperative pain is a risk factor for prolonged pain. In addition to medical and technical factors, psychological factors may also influence the experience of postoperative pain. Methods Pain was measured postoperatively at 24, 48, and 72 hr in hospital and after 3 months at home in 140 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP. Patients answered questionnaires about anxiety and depression (HAD scale and health-related quality of life (SF-36 at baseline and 3 months after surgery. Results In the first 3 postoperative days, mild pain was reported by 45 patients (32%, moderate pain by 64 (45%, and severe pain by 31 (22% on one or more days. High postoperative pain scores were correlated with length of hospital stay and with high pain scores at home. Forty patients (29% reported moderate (n = 35 or severe (n = 5 pain after discharge from hospital. Patients who experienced anxiety and depression preoperatively had higher postoperative pain scores and remained anxious and depressed 3 months after surgery. The scores for the physical domains in the SF-36 were decreased, while the mental health scores were increased at 3 months. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with all domains of the SF-36. Conclusion There is a need for nurses to be aware of the psychological status of RP patients and its impact upon patients' experience of postoperative pain and recovery. The ability to identify patients with psychological distress and to target interventions is an important goal for future research.

  4. Service Receipt and Mental Disorders in Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Brimhall, Kim C; Lim, Caroline; Lecklitner, Greg; Olson, Adrienne

    2017-08-01

    Use of administrative data from child welfare (CW) and mental health systems in Los Angeles County provided a unique opportunity to more closely examine mental health needs of children dually served by these systems. This study examined the presence of mental disorders and correlates of receipt of mental health services by diagnostic classification in this population. Data were obtained for 3,191 children receiving services from Los Angeles County's Department of Children and Family Services and Department of Mental Health (DMH) between July 2011 and July 2012. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models examined the relationship between sociodemographic and CW-related characteristics and receipt of outpatient services by clinician-diagnosed mental disorder. Of the 3,191 referred children, 68% met criteria for one of the four diagnostic classifications. Mood disorders were the most common diagnosis (30%), followed by anxiety disorders (20%), behavior disorders (9%), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9%). Children with prior DMH involvement received more services regardless of diagnosis. Older children (ages ≥15) received more services than younger children, whereas younger children were more likely to receive family therapy. Race-ethnicity did not play a significant role in predicting service receipt. The unique mental health needs of CW-involved children were exemplified by the differences found in the percentages of children with diagnoses of mental disorders between this sample and children in the general population. Because of family and placement disruptions among CW-involved children, it is important that the provision of individual therapy is not overlooked in favor of family therapy.

  5. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  6. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  7. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program.

  8. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  9. Cross-Jurisdictional Sharing for Emergency Management-Related Public Health: Exploring the Experiences of Tribes and Counties in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen A. Wimsatt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Each American Indian tribe is unique in several ways, including in its relationships with local governments and risk for emergencies. Cross-jurisdictional sharing (CJS arrangements are encouraged between tribes and counties for emergency management-related population health, but researchers have not yet explored CJS experiences of tribes and counties for emergency management. This investigation used collaboration theory and a CJS spectrum framework to assess the scope and prevalence of tribe–county CJS arrangements for emergency management in California as well as preconditions to CJS. Mixed-methods survey results indicate that tribes and counties have varied CJS arrangements, but many are informal or customary. Preconditions to CJS include tribe–county agreement about having CJS, views of the CJS relationship, barriers to CJS, and jurisdictional strengths and weaknesses in developing CJS arrangements. Areas for public health intervention include funding programs that build tribal capacity in emergency management, reduce cross-jurisdictional disagreement, and promote ongoing tribe–county relationships as a precursor to formal CJS arrangements. Study strengths, limitations, and future directions are also discussed.

  10. Spatial variation of health risk for drinking groundwater in Mingshan County, Ya’an,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Ni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rural drinking water safety has become a growing concern in China. The present study aims to the core problems in rural drinking water safety in Mingshan County, Ya’an, China where groundwater is used as drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater quality and to assess the health risk of pollution in groundwater in Mingshan County, Ya’an, China. Over the 19-year period from 1991 to 2010, the total number of groundwater samples was 47.This study inspected source water quality, applied the health risk assessment model recommended by U.S.EPA, and calculated carcinogenic risk, non-carcinogenic risk and total risk of factors exceeding standards. Health risk thematic maps of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by single factor and their combination can be obtained with the method of inverse-distance weighting interpolation (IDW and the function of geo-statistical analysis in ArcGIS (Geographic Information System, GIS. The results showed, carcinogenic risk caused by chemicals in drinking groundwater is low, which is in the acceptable interval in risk management both at home and abroad for years. However, non-carcinogenic risk is high and number of sampling sites with risk values exceeding the standards amounted to 30, in which, non-carcinogenic risk of Cr (6+, nitrate, fluoride and Fe of number 43, 46, 74, 64, 67, 50 were the sources that cause total health risk high. This study revealed the risk level of drinking groundwater quality, orders of treatment on pollutants and provided a scientific basis for groundwater management in this area.

  11. Child health care utilisation in families with young or single mothers in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallby, Thomas; Modin, Bitte; Hjern, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Young age and lone parenthood are risk factors for impaired health among mothers and their children. Due to the higher risks of negative influences on physical and mental health, young and single mothers should be of special concern to the Child Health Services (CHS). In the present study, we investigated consumption patterns of child health care services among young and single mothers in Uppsala County, Sweden to study whether they are reached by the universal CHS program and if selective or indicative measures were administered in daily CHS practice. Register data on CHS contacts and socio-demographic indicators were collected for 10692 infants, born in 1998-2006. Results show small differences in contact pattern and immunization status, between children of young versus older, and single versus cohabiting mothers. However, both young (RR 0.64) and single (RR 0.80) mothers had significantly lower rates of participation in parental group. The CHS were consequently successful in implementing the universal preventive child health programme for all families, including families with young or single mothers. There was no indication, however, of an established selective preventive strategy aimed at these high risk families. Programs for strengthening the support provided to vulnerable families by the CHS are needed.

  12. Proposal: Documenting freshwater snail and trematode parasite diversity in the Wheeler Refuge Complex: baseline inventories and implications for animal health

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal has 3 main objectives: Objective 1: Create a baseline inventory of freshwater snails for the Wheeler Refuge Complex. Objective 2: Identify target areas...

  13. Effects of health education and stove improvement in preventing coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of health education and installation of improved stove in control of coal-burn-ing-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province.Methods Two towns (Shizi and Qibo) of Pingba County that had implemented the health education and

  14. Framing the Local Context and Estimating the Health Impact of CPPW Obesity Prevention Strategies in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda; Trogdon, Justin G; Ferencik, Rachel; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have described the range and health impacts of obesity prevention strategies in local communities supported by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program. To address this gap, we reviewed implemented strategies in Los Angeles County (LAC) for 3 program focus areas: physical activity-promotion, health marketing, and creation of healthy food environments. Local context and results from an impact simulation are presented. Information on population reach and program milestones was synthesized to describe historical and programmatic progress of the obesity prevention efforts during 2010-2012. To forecast health impacts, the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) was used to simulate population health outcomes, including projected changes in obesity burden and health behaviors 30 years into the future. LAC with more than 9.8 million residents. Low-income adults and youth who were the intended audiences of the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program in LAC. Implemented strategies for the 3 focus areas. Documentation of program reach and PRISM forecasting of obesity rates and health impacts. Implemented strategies in LAC ranged from best practices in healthy food procurement (estimated reach: 600 000 students, 300 000 meals per day) to completed shared-use agreements (10+ agreements across 5 school districts) to a series of strategically designed health marketing campaigns on healthy eating (>515 million impressions). On the basis of PRISM simulations, these highlighted program activities have the potential to reduce by 2040 the number of youth (-29 870) and adults (-94 136) with obesity, youth (-112 453) and adults (-855 855) below recommended levels of physical activity, and youth (-14 544) and adults (-28 835) who consumed excess junk food, as compared with baseline (2010-2011). Program context and PRISM-simulated health impacts showed modest but promising results in LAC, which may lead to further population health improvements in the

  15. 河北省成安县消除疟疾试点基线调查结果%Baseline survey results about pilot malaria eradication in Cheng' an County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚敏; 李雪红; 武书敏; 魏美丽; 刘一珉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解河北省成安县消除疟疾试点工作启动初期基础能力状况、疟疾发病情况、蚊媒种类、人群疟疾防治知识知晓率,为消除疟疾提供基线数据.方法 于2010年五、六月份按河北省消除疟疾试点基线调查方案开展调查.结果 全县各级医疗机构593家无专兼职疟疾防保人员,无专用显微镜检查设备,医务人员诊治能力低;无该地感染病例;媒介调查5户,仅捕获126只淡色库蚊,未见按蚊;居民知晓疟疾流行区、传播途径和预防方法的仅占2.86%、5.71%和6.19%.结论 该县今后消除疟疾工作需完善基础能力建设、加强人员培训,提高医务人员诊治和检测能力;加强输入性病例监测;广泛开展知识宣传,提高群众知晓率.%[Objective]To understand the initial basic capabilities, malaria incidence, mosquito species, malaria prevention and treatment knowledge level of Cheng' an County at the beginning of malaria eradication pilot work, and provide baseline data for the elimination of malaria. [Methods] The investigation was based on the "Pilot Baseline Survey Program for malaria elimination in Hebei Province". [Results] There were no part-time or fulltime malaria control personnel and no special microscope in 593 medical institutions at all levels. No local infections were detected. A total of 126 Culex pipiens pallens were captured in 5 investigated families, without anopheles. The percentage of knowing malaria endemic areas, transmission and prevention methods only occupied 2. 86% , 5.71% and 6.19%. [Conclusion] Elimination of malaria work needs to be improved on the basis of capacity-building, personnel training, the diagnosis and treatment of medical personnel and detection capabilities in this county in the future. It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of imported cases, to extensively carry out knowledge propaganda, and increase masses awareness.

  16. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-07

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health programme on microfinance clients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen

    2013-10-12

    Microfinance is the provision of financial services for the poor. Health program through microfinance has the potential to address several access barriers to health. We report the design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health program on the members of two microfinance organizations from Karnataka and Gujarat states of India. Villages identified for roll-out of health services with microfinance were pair-matched with microfinance only villages. A quantitative survey at inception and twelve months post health intervention compare the primary outcome (incidence of childhood diarrhea), and secondary outcome (place of last delivery, toilet at home, and out-of-pocket expenditure on treatment). At baseline, the intervention and comparison communities were similar except for out-of-pocket expenditure on health. Low reported use of toilet at home indicates the areas are heading towards a sanitation crisis. This should be an area of program priority for the microfinance organizations. While respondents primarily rely on their savings for meeting treatment expenditure, borrowing from friends, relatives, and money-lenders remains other important source of meeting treatment expenditure in the community. Programs need to prioritize steps to ensure awareness about national health insurance schemes, entitlement to increase service utilization, and developing additional health financing safety nets for financing outpatient care, that are responsible for majority of health-debt. Finally we discuss implications of such programs for national policy makers.

  18. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.

  19. Modelling of resource allocation to health care authorities in Stockholm county

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Paula; Varde, E; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    before. We also show the effect of using more current data sources by replacing existing census variables with data from annually updated registers. Since the aim is to use the resource allocation models for prospective budgeting we test and evaluate the predictive power of the models one to two years......Since the Stockholm County Council introduced a system of purchasers and providers there has been a quest for population-based resource allocation models to allocate monies to purchasers of health care. In contrast to models used in Britain, Swedish models have been based on individual level data....... This paper presents recent developments in the model used in Stockholm for all care except primary care, testing new statistical methods for compression and clustering of the matrices used and the effect of introducing diagnostic information in addition to the demographic and socio-economic information used...

  20. The Spatial Association Between Federally Qualified Health Centers and County-Level Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Spatial Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Romaguera, Raul A

    2017-08-16

    The number of categorical sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is declining in the United States. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) have the potential to supplement the needed sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of FQHC sites and determine if reported county-level nonviral STI morbidity were associated with having FQHC(s) using spatial regression techniques. We extracted map data from the Health Resources and Services Administration data warehouse on FQHCs (ie, geocoded health care service delivery [HCSD] sites) and extracted county-level data on the reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and, primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (2008-2012) from surveillance data. A 3-equation seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedure (with a spatial regression specification that controlled for county-level multiyear (2008-2012) demographic and socioeconomic factors) was used to determine the association between reported county-level STI morbidity and HCSD sites. Counties with HCSD sites had higher STI, poverty, unemployment, and violent crime rates than counties with no HCSD sites (P < 0.05). The number of HCSD sites was associated (P < 0.01) with increases in the temporally smoothed rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and P&S syphilis, but there was no significant association between the number of HCSD per 100,000 population and reported STI rates. There is a positive association between STI morbidity and the number of HCSD sites; however, this association does not exist when adjusting by population size. Further work may determine the extent to which HCSD sites can meet unmet needs for safety net STI services.

  1. Distribution of Industrial Farms in the United States and Socioeconomic, Health, and Environmental Characteristics of Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Rafael Harun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of producing food animals has changed in the United States over the past century, moving from traditional burns to enclosed structures resembling industrial buildings, where animals are raised in high stocking density (commonly known as “Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations,” CAFOs. The objective to maximize profit has resulted in poor farm management; raised issues of environmental pollution, public health, animal rights, and environmental justice, and had socio-economic impacts. Studies concerning the issues are limited to specific regions and types of CAFOs. In addition, studies on the spatial distribution and temporal changes of CAFO at a country scale are lacking. This study bridges some of the gaps by analyzing the spatial distribution of industrial farms in the United States in 2002 and 2007 and their relationship with vulnerable population and exploring the relationships among the concentrations of farms, socio-economic, health, and environmental characteristics of the counties. A range of spatial statistics tools were applied in this study. The study revealed variations in spatial distribution depending on the type of the CAFOs. The issue of environmental justice was found prevalent depending on the types of industrial farms. Each type of industrial farm was found to interact uniquely with the selected demographic, health, and environmental parameters.

  2. Assessment of School-Based Quasi-Experimental Nutrition and Food Safety Health Education for Primary School Students in Two Poverty-Stricken Counties of West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    Few studies on nutrition and food safety education intervention for students in remote areas of China were reported. The study aimed to assess the questionnaire used to measure the knowledge, attitude and behavior with respect to nutrition and food safety, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a quasi-experimental nutrition and food safety education intervention among primary school students in poverty-stricken counties of west China. Twelve primary schools in west China were randomly selected from Zhen'an of Shaanxi province and Huize of Yunnan province. Six geographically dispersed schools were assigned to the intervention group in a nonrandom way. Knowledge, attitude and behavior questionnaire was developed, assessed, and used for outcome measurement. Students were investigated at baseline and the end of the study respectively without follow-up. Students in intervention group received targeted nutrition and food safety lectures 0.5 hour per week for two semesters. Item response theory was applied for assessment of questionnaire, and a two-level difference-in-differences model was applied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. The Cronbach's alpha of the original questionnaire was 0.84. According to item response model, 22 knowledge items, 6 attitude items and 8 behavior items showed adequate discrimination parameter and were retained. 378 and 478 valid questionnaires were collected at baseline and the end point. Differences of demographic characteristics were statistically insignificant between the two groups. Two-level difference-in-differences models showed that health education improved 2.92 (95% CI: 2.06-3.78) and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.37-4.47) in knowledge and behavior scores respectively, but had no effect on attitude. The questionnaire met the psychometric standards and showed good internal consistence and discrimination power. The nutrition and food safety education was effective in improving the knowledge and behavior of primary school students in

  3. Assessment of School-Based Quasi-Experimental Nutrition and Food Safety Health Education for Primary School Students in Two Poverty-Stricken Counties of West China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available Few studies on nutrition and food safety education intervention for students in remote areas of China were reported. The study aimed to assess the questionnaire used to measure the knowledge, attitude and behavior with respect to nutrition and food safety, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a quasi-experimental nutrition and food safety education intervention among primary school students in poverty-stricken counties of west China.Twelve primary schools in west China were randomly selected from Zhen'an of Shaanxi province and Huize of Yunnan province. Six geographically dispersed schools were assigned to the intervention group in a nonrandom way. Knowledge, attitude and behavior questionnaire was developed, assessed, and used for outcome measurement. Students were investigated at baseline and the end of the study respectively without follow-up. Students in intervention group received targeted nutrition and food safety lectures 0.5 hour per week for two semesters. Item response theory was applied for assessment of questionnaire, and a two-level difference-in-differences model was applied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention.The Cronbach's alpha of the original questionnaire was 0.84. According to item response model, 22 knowledge items, 6 attitude items and 8 behavior items showed adequate discrimination parameter and were retained. 378 and 478 valid questionnaires were collected at baseline and the end point. Differences of demographic characteristics were statistically insignificant between the two groups. Two-level difference-in-differences models showed that health education improved 2.92 (95% CI: 2.06-3.78 and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.37-4.47 in knowledge and behavior scores respectively, but had no effect on attitude.The questionnaire met the psychometric standards and showed good internal consistence and discrimination power. The nutrition and food safety education was effective in improving the knowledge and behavior of primary school

  4. Effect of Baseline Nutritional Status on Long-term Multivitamin Use and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Secondary Analysis of the Physicians' Health Study II Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Gaziano, J Michael; Christen, William G; Bubes, Vadim; Kotler, Gregory; Glynn, Robert J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2017-06-01

    Long-term multivitamin use had no effect on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Physicians' Health Study II. Baseline nutritional status may have modified the lack of effect. To investigate effect modification by various baseline dietary factors on CVD risk in the Physicians' Health Study II. The Physicians' Health Study II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing multivitamin use (multivitamin [Centrum Silver] or placebo daily) among US male physicians. The Physicians' Health Study II included 14 641 male physicians 50 years or older, 13 316 of whom (91.0%) completed a baseline 116-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and were included in the analyses. This study examined effect modification by baseline intake of key foods, individual nutrients, dietary patterns (Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score), and dietary supplement use. The study began in 1997, with continued treatment and follow-up through June 1, 2011. Multivitamin or placebo daily. Major cardiovascular events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and CVD mortality. Secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction, total stroke, CVD mortality, and total mortality individually. In total, 13 316 male physicians (mean [SD] age at randomization, 64.0 [9.0] years in those receiving the active multivitamin and 64.0 [9.1] years in those receiving the placebo) were observed for a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.4 (2.3) years. There was no consistent evidence of effect modification by various foods, nutrients, dietary patterns, or baseline supplement use on the effect of multivitamin use on CVD end points. Statistically significant interaction effects were observed between multivitamin use and vitamin B6 intake on myocardial infarction, between multivitamin use and vitamin D intake on CVD mortality, and between multivitamin use and vitamin B12 intake on CVD mortality and total mortality. However, there were

  5. Allegheny County Plumbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All master plumbers must be registered with the Allegheny County Health Department. Only Registered Master Plumbers who possess a current plumbing license or...

  6. Allegheny County Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...

  7. Allegheny County Hypertension Hospitalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data provides hypertension prevalence data for each Zip Code in Allegheny County. The information was produced by Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment...

  8. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  9. Public health assessment for public health implications of radiation contamination at former clock factories located in Bristo (Hartford County), New Haven, (New Haven County), Thomaston (Litchfield County), and Waterbury (New Haven County), Connecticut, Region 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-29

    This public health assessment was developed (1) to evaluate the radiation data collected by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) at structures that once housed clock factories in four Connecticut municipalities, and (2) to determine whether a public health hazard exists at any of these sites from the contamination. Contamination was detected at levels that may pose a health risk to current occupants at the former Waterbury Clock Factory, the former Lux Clock Factory, and the former Benrus Clock Company buildings in Waterbury; the former Sessions Clock Company in Bristol; and the former Seth Thomas Clock Company in Thomaston. However, none of the radiation levels detected pose an immediate health problem. The Connecticut Department of Public Health recommends that individuals be disassociated from areas with radiation at levels exceeding 15 mRem/year.

  10. Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Mutale

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. RESULTS: Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58% and highest in Luangwa district (77%. Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively. Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02. Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04 and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service

  11. [Computer usage among primary health care physicians in the Vukovar-Srijem County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveković, Hrvoje

    2002-01-01

    A survey was carried out, aiming at identification of the current usage of computers among primary health care physicians of the Vukovar-Srijem County. The results indicated poor knowledge and practice concerning the computer usage among examinees: 58% of the responders are not aware of the possibilities of computer usage in a GP office and 82% have not had an opportunity to see the software specialised for usage at GP offices. The results obtained from this survey indicate that none of the examinees use computer during daily routine work at the GP office. Only 26% of the examinees have got a computer, and use it at home, mostly for text processing. The Internet is used actively by 8% of examinees. Lack of education and equipment have been identified as main obstacles in the process of introducing computers to GP offices. Positive attitude towards computer usage has been identified, representing an important stimulus towards a more active role of the health centres management in solving this problem.

  12. Fighting Back Against Childhood Obesity Through the Cape May County Children’s Health Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilou Rochford

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a fast-growing health issue affecting children and adolescents across the nation. Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE, along with agency and community partners, implemented a collaborative solution aimed at raising awareness, providing education, and effecting workable strategies for preventing obesity in children and families in the Cape May County, New Jersey, community. Because we regularly work with children and families, we knew that our clientele mirrored the national statistics on obesity, which state that 13% of children aged six to 11 years and 14% of adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the United States are overweight (1. These numbers represent a nearly three-fold increase for adolescents in the past two decades, the effects of which can be devastating both physically and emotionally. Adult health issues, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes, have increased dramatically in children (2. Further troubling statistics show that overweight adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming overweight or obese adults, the likelihood of which increases to 80% if at least one parent is overweight or obese (2. Overweight children suffer emotionally, too, facing social discrimination, poor self-esteem, and depression (3.

  13. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  14. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  15. Baseline Assessment of Campus-Wide General Health Status and Mental Health: Opportunity for Tailored Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Awareness Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…

  16. DDT, DDD, and DDE in soil of Xiangfen County, China: Residues, sources, spatial distribution, and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin; Pan, Li-Bo; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Tao, Shi-Yang; Zhao, Long; Qin, Xiao-Peng; Sun, Zai-Jin; Hou, Hong; Zhou, Yong-Zhang

    2016-11-01

    We collected and analyzed 128 surface soil samples from Xiangfen County for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). Total DDT concentrations (DDTs; sum of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT) ranged from ND to 427.81 ng g(-1) (dry weight, dw), with a mean of 40.26 ng g(-1) (dw). Among the three compounds, p,p'-DDD was the most dominant. The DDTs in Xiangfen County soils mainly originated from historical DDT use, but there were also new inputs likely related to dicofol use. The DDTs in Xiangfen County soils were mainly degraded under anaerobic conditions, and direct degradation to DDD was the main degradation route. Regions with relatively high concentrations of DDTs were mainly located in North and South Xiangfen County. In these regions, many soil samples contained p,p'-DDT as the predominant pollutant, suggestive of extensive new inputs of DDT. A health risk assessment revealed that there are no serious long-term health impacts of exposure to DDTs in soil, for adults or children.

  17. Self-rated health in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: baseline data from the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nielsen, Anni B S; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    , but the validity and the influence on other factors on SRH among cognitively impaired persons remain unknown. This study reports how patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) report SRH and which factors influence SRH. The study was based on baseline data from 321 home living patients with mild AD who...... participated in the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Analysis using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models revealed that good/excellent SRH among patients with mild AD were associated with longer education, lack of other chronic conditions, higher scores of quality of life (QOL), lower...

  18. Rat Models of Cardiometabolic Diseases: Baseline Clinical Chemistries, and Rationale for their Use in Examining Air Pollution Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first of a series of 8 papers examining susceptibility of various rodent cardiometabolic disease models to ozone induced health effects. Individuals with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVD) are shown to be more susceptible to adverse health effects o...

  19. A population in pain: report from the Olmsted County health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Emmeline A; Wollan, Peter C; Melton, L Joseph; Yawn, Barbara P

    2008-03-01

    Pain is poorly understood on a population level. This study provides updated estimates of the prevalence, location, severity, and impact of pain in a U.S. community and discusses current definitions of "chronic" pain. We mailed four-page surveys to a random sample of 5,897 adult residents of Olmsted County, MN. The survey asked about participant pain (location, duration, severity, and impact), as well as satisfaction with pain-related health care. Of the 3,575 responders (61%), 64.4% reported having chronic pain (>3 months' duration); 6.9% reported subacute pain (1-3 months); and 9.9% reported acute pain (<1 month). Body regions with the highest prevalence of pain were the head (31.9%), lower back (37.7%), and joints (59.5%). Chronic pain sufferers had more days per months with pain, more moderate or severe pain, and greater levels of interference with general activities and sleep than the people with acute and subacute pain. Almost two-thirds of those with chronic pain (63%) reported multiple pain locations. Several chronic pain sufferers gave fair or poor ratings for the quality of care (13.3% of those rating) or the effectiveness of treatment (28.1%) for pain. The prevalence of chronic pain is high, often in more than one location, and over 21% of chronic pain sufferers report dissatisfaction with current care.

  20. Disseminating a smoking cessation intervention to childhood and young adult cancer survivors: baseline characteristics and study design of the partnership for health-2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnership for Health-2 (PFH-2 is a web-based version of Partnership for Health, an evidence-based smoking cessation intervention for childhood cancer survivors. This paper describes the PFH-2 intervention and baseline data collection. Methods 374 childhood and young adult cancer survivors were recruited from five cancer centers and participated in the baseline assessment. At baseline, participants completed measures of their smoking behavior, self-efficacy and stage of change for quitting smoking as well as psychological and environmental factors that could impact their smoking behavior. Results At baseline, 93% of survivors smoked in the past seven days; however, 89% smoked a pack or less during this period. Forty-seven percent were nicotine dependent, and 55% had made at least one quit attempt in the previous year. Twenty-two percent of survivors were in contemplation for quitting smoking; of those 45% were somewhat or very confident that they could quit within six months. Sixty-three percent were in preparation for quitting smoking; however, they had relatively low levels of confidence that they could quit smoking in the next month. In multivariate analyses, stage of change, self-efficacy, social support for smoking cessation, smoking policy at work and home, fear of cancer recurrence, perceived vulnerability, depression, BMI, and contact with the healthcare system were associated with survivors' smoking behavior. Discussions/Conclusions A large proportion of the sample was nicotine dependent, yet motivated to quit. Individual- interpersonal- and environmental-level factors were associated with survivors' smoking behavior. Smoking is particularly dangerous for childhood and young adult cancer survivors. This population may benefit from a smoking cessation intervention designed to build self-efficacy and address other known predictors of smoking behavior.

  1. The North West Adelaide Health Study: detailed methods and baseline segmentation of a cohort for selected chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Janet F; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Wilson, David H; Phillips, Patrick J; Adams, Robert J; Cheek, Julianne; Price, Kay; Gill, Tiffany; Ruffin, Richard E

    2006-04-12

    The North West Adelaide Health Study is a population-based biomedical cohort study investigating the prevalence of a number of chronic conditions and health-related risk factors along a continuum. This methodology may assist with evidence-based decisions for health policy makers and planners, and inform health professionals who are involved in chronic disease prevention and management, by providing a better description of people at risk of developing or already diagnosed with selected chronic conditions for more accurate targeting groups for health gain and improved health outcomes. Longitudinal data will provide information on progression of chronic conditions and allow description of those who move forward and back along the continuum over time. Detailed methods are provided regarding the random recruitment and examination of a representative sample of participants (n = 4060), including the rationale for various processes and valuable lessons learnt. Self-reported and biomedical data were obtained on risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol) and chronic conditions (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes) to classify participants according to their status along a continuum. Segmenting this population sample along a continuum showed that 71.5% had at least one risk factor for developing asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or diabetes. Almost one-fifth (18.8%) had been previously diagnosed with at least one of these chronic conditions, and an additional 3.9% had at least one of these conditions but had not been diagnosed. This paper provides a novel opportunity to examine how a cohort study was born. It presents detailed methodology behind the selection, recruitment and examination of a cohort and how participants with selected chronic conditions can be segmented along a continuum that may assist with health promotion and health services planning.

  2. Distribution of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors by county type and health insurance status: results from the 2008 Ohio Family Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariisa, Mbabazi; Seiber, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have documented a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases in Appalachia, showing the area to be underserved by the health-care system. Nothing is known about how the health status of the Appalachian population compares with other rural or non-rural populations in the same state. We examined the associations among county type, health insurance category, and health outcomes in poorer adult Ohioans. We obtained data from the 2008 Ohio Family Health Survey, a complex landline- and cell phone-based survey of 50,944 noninstitutionalized households. We constructed bivariate analyses examining health status measures across various insurance categories and metropolitan, suburban, rural, and Appalachian counties in Ohio. Medicaid enrollees living in Appalachian and rural counties tended to be in poorer health and have a greater prevalence of smoking than non-Medicaid enrollees. Within rural and Appalachian regions, Medicaid enrollees were more likely than non-Medicaid enrollees to have lower self-rated health (54.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 44.1, 65.5 in rural regions and 52.1%, 95% CI 44.7, 59.5 in Appalachian regions). Appalachian and rural Medicaid enrollees were at an increased likelihood of having several chronic diseases compared with non-Medicaid enrollees. Our findings suggest that rural and Ohio Appalachian Medicaid enrollees were more likely to have hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and overall poorer health than non-Medicaid enrollees. These findings have important policy implications for health-care reform, highlighting regional disparities in provider coverage. These underserved regions would need an increase in the provider base to positively impact proposed Medicaid expansion programs.

  3. Baseline evidence-based practice use, knowledge, and attitudes of allied health professionals: a survey to inform staff training and organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Shelley A; Hinchliffe, Fiona; Hough, Judith; Chang, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamental to improving patient outcomes. Universal adoption of EBP into the allied health clinical setting has not yet occurred. The primary aim of this project was to capture baseline measurements of the level of EBP self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, knowledge and use at our health service prior to training and organisational changes to support EBP. All allied health staff (n=252) employed across the campus were invited to participate in an online survey consisting of a battery of validated and reliable survey tools. Professional background, knowledge and previous training in EBP and research processes were collected. One hundred eighty-two allied health staff completed the survey (response rate 72%). One-way ANOVAs were used to compare levels of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, knowledge and use, according to allied health discipline and experience with EBP and research processes. Mean scores for EBP attitudes (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) and knowledge were higher than for use. Professional group differences were noted in the post-hoc analysis of the significant EBP constructs. Regression analyses indicated that EBP course attendance as well as training in research design and analysis impacted positively on EBP construct scores. Despite positive attitudes about, a belief in and knowledge of EBP, self-reports of EBP processes do not indicate systematic application in the allied health workplace. The results of this research will inform a targeted intervention to foster ongoing training in EBP and research activity for allied health staff.

  4. The influence of baseline characteristics and disease stage on health-related quality of life in multiple myeloma: findings from six randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Don; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Regnault, Antoine; Meunier, Juliette; Liu, Kevin; van de Velde, Helgi

    2016-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional analysis evaluated the impact of baseline characteristics on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) at different stages of multiple myeloma (MM). The bortezomib clinical-trial programme evaluated HR-QoL early and consistently, producing a large multi-study dataset. Baseline data, captured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30), were pooled from six bortezomib randomized trials conducted in different disease-stage categories: 'New' (previously untreated; n = 753), 'Early' (1-3 prior therapies; n = 1569) and 'Late' (≥4 prior therapies; n = 239) disease. Mean EORTC global health scores were similar across the three stages. Unexpectedly, emotional, physical and role functioning were higher in the later stages, indicating better perceived health. Symptom scores, including pain, were largely similar or lower in the later versus earlier stages, signifying a lower symptom burden/better symptom control with more advanced disease. Notable variation in HR-QoL was observed by age and clinical parameters within and across stages. Multivariate modelling indicated that opioid use and performance status were key factors driving overall HR-QoL across stages. Using an age-restricted analysis, transplant eligibility had little impact on HR-QoL in New disease patients. Thus, changes in HR-QoL over the treatment course of MM are complex and impacted by baseline factors. A prospective observational international inception cohort study that captures key clinical, HR-QoL and demographic characteristics, along with safety and supportive care information, is needed. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Bond, Virginia; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Mlewa, Susan; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-08-01

    The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity

  6. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence.

  7. Maternal and Newborn Health in Karnataka State, India: The Community Level Interventions for Pre-Eclampsia (CLIP) Trial’s Baseline Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, Mrutynjaya B.; Vidler, Marianne; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Mallapur, Ashalata; Ramadurg, Umesh; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bannale, Shashidhar; Kavi, Avinash; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Lee, Tang; Li, Jing; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2017-01-01

    Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)–Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India. The prospective population-based survey was conducted in eight clusters in Belgaum and Bagalkot districts in Karnataka State from 2013–2014. Data collection was undertaken by adapting the Maternal and Newborn Health registry platform, developed by the Global Network for Women’s and Child Health Studies. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS and R. During the period of 2013–2014, prospective data was collected on 5,469 pregnant women with an average age of 23.2 (+/-3.3) years. Delivery outcomes were collected from 5,448 completed pregnancies. A majority of the women reported institutional deliveries (96.0%), largely attended by skilled birth attendants. The maternal mortality ratio of 103 (per 100,000 livebirths) was observed during this study, neonatal mortality ratio was 25 per 1,000 livebirths, and perinatal mortality ratio was 50 per 1,000 livebirths. Despite a high number of institutional deliveries, rates of stillbirth were 2.86%. Early enrollment and close follow-up and monitoring procedures established by the Maternal and Newborn Health registry allowed for negligible lost to follow-up. This population-level study provides regional rates of maternal and newborn

  8. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  9. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  10. [Decentralization and how to conduct it as a revolution or an evolution? County public health and management capacity building as a prerequisite for successful decentralization in the Republic of Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogorić, Selma; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Polasek, Ozren; Grozić-Zivolić, Sonja; Lang, Slobodan

    2010-12-01

    Based on the results of the first phase of the County Public Health Capacity Building Program named Health-Plan for It, implemented in the Republic of Croatia during the 2002-2008 period, this article analyzes the relationship between training of the county teams and their ability to develop health policy. Our hypothesis was that decentralized model of health planning and management would not occur just by changing legislation alone. Counties in Croatia needed educational support (learning-by-doing training) in order to improve public health practices at the county level. During the 2002-2005 period, the first 15 county teams (so-called first cycle counties) completed their training. The teams consisted of 12 to 15 members, representatives of political and executive component, technical component (public health professionals, representatives of health and social welfare institutions) and community members (non-government sector and media). Teams were trained in cohorts. Three counties passed together through the six-month process of modular training (four education modules, with four days of intensive training and "homework" between modules) at the time. The remaining 5 counties (second-cycle counties) completed the same kind of training in 2007-2008. The Public Health Performance Matrix (the Local Public Health Practice Performance Measures instrument developed by the US CDC Public Health Practice Program Office) was used as an evaluation instrument. Each county team had to fill it out at the beginning of education. Comparison of the Public Health Performance Matrices of first cycle counties (training in 2002-2005) with those of the second cycle counties (trained several years later) yielded no differences. Although training materials were publicly available (accessible through the Croatian Healthy Cities web pages) for years, the second cycle counties did not spontaneously (without training) increase their county-level capacities for participative health needs

  11. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose study to determine the baseline for environmental radiological health practices in Melaka state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Sahrone, Sallehudin; Wagiran, Husin

    2005-12-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured throughout Melaka, Malaysia, over a period of two years, with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. Results obtained are shown in tabular, graphic and cartographic form. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly over different soil types and for different underlying geological characteristics present in the study area. The values ranged from 54 +/- 5 to 378 +/- 38 nGy h(-1). The highest terrestrial gamma dose rates were measured over soil types of granitic origin and in areas with underlying geological characteristics of an acid intrusive (undifferentiated) type. An isodose map of terrestrial gamma dose rate in Melaka was drawn by using the GIS application 'Arc View'. This was based on data collected using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector survey meter. The measurements were taken at 542 locations. Three small 'hot spots' were found where the dose rates were more than 350 nGy h(-1). The mean dose rates in the main population areas in the mukims (parishes) of Bukit Katil, Sungai Udang, Batu Berendam, Bukit Baru and Bandar Melaka were 154 +/- 15, 161 +/- 16, 160 +/- 16, 175 +/- 18 and 176 +/- 18 nGy h(-1), respectively. The population-weighted mean dose rate throughout Melaka state is 172 +/- 17 nGy h(-1). This is lower than the geographical mean dose rate of 183 +/- 54 nGy h(-1). The lower value arises from the fact that most of the population lives in the central area of the state where the lithology is dominated by sedimentary rocks consisting of shale, mudstone, phyllite, slate, hornfels, sandstone and schist of Devonian origin which have lower associated dose rates. The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.21 mSv. This value is higher than the world average of 0.07 mSv.

  13. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project - a community-level, public health initiative to build community disaster resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-08-19

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest-posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  14. A culturally specific health coaching program targeting cardiovascular disease risk in South Asians: rationale, design, and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Anita; Flowers, Elena; Mathur, Avantika; Garcia, Donna Malhotra; Kotrys, Jeannette; Gandhi, Rupal; Molina, César; Mathur, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Health coaching is an effective strategy for improving cardiovascular disease risk factors. Coaching interventions have primarily been studied in Caucasians, and the effectiveness in other ethnic groups is not known. Further, adaptation of coaching to include culturally specific components has not been studied. Our aim is to describe a culturally specific coaching program targeted at reducing cardiovascular disease risk in South Asians. Participants initially underwent comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk screening, then received individualized risk assessment and behavioral recommendations. A health coach then contacted participants regularly for one year to provide encouragement with behavior change, troubleshoot challenges, and assess adherence. In the first five years of the program, 3,180 people underwent risk assessment, 3,132 were candidates for coaching, 2,726 indicated a desire to participate in coaching, 1,359 received coaching, and 1,051 completed coaching for at least one year. Culturally specific health coaching is an appealing and feasible intervention for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in South Asians, with very low attrition. Coaching strategies for risk reduction are proven to be effective, but further longitudinal research is needed to determine whether the impact of incorporating cultural specificity improves the effectiveness. This program utilizes non-medically trained personnel as coaches and is relatively inexpensive, with potential for great cost savings in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Integrated Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Suxian County, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daping Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess soil heavy metal contamination and the potential risk for local residents in Suxian county of Hunan Province, southern China. Soil, rice and vegetable samples from the areas near the mining industrial districts were sampled and analyzed. The results indicate that the anthropogenic mining activities have caused local agricultural soil contamination with As, Pb, Cu and Cd in the ranges of 8.47–341.33 mg/kg, 19.91–837.52 mg/kg, 8.41–148.73 mg/kg and 0.35–6.47 mg/kg, respectively. GIS-based mapping shows that soil heavy metal concentrations abruptly diminish with increasing distance from the polluting source. The concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Cd found in rice were in the ranges of 0.02–1.48 mg/kg, 0.66–5.78 mg/kg, 0.09–6.75 mg/kg, and up to 1.39 mg/kg, respectively. Most of these concentrations exceed their maximum permissible levels for contaminants in foods in China. Heavy metals accumulate to significantly different levels between leafy vegetables and non-leafy vegetables. Food consumption and soil ingestion exposure are the two routes that contribute to the average daily intake dose of heavy metals for local adults. Moreover, the total hazard indices of As, Pb and Cd are greater than or close to the safety threshold of 1. Long-term As, Pb and Cd exposure through the regular consumption of the soil, rice and vegetables in the investigated area poses potential health problems to residents in the vicinity of the mining industry.

  16. Exploring Barriers to Implementation of Smoking Policies:A Qualitative Study on Health Professionals from Three County-Level Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-FANG WANG; SHAO-JUN MA; CUI-ZHU MEI; XUE-FANG XU; CHUN-PING WANG; GONG-HUAN YANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was to identify factors limiting the implementation of smoking policies in county-level hospitals. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews (17 focus groups discussions and 6 one-to-one in depth interviews)involving 103 health professionals from three target county-level hospitals. A combination of purposive and convenience sampling was used to recruit subjects and gain a broad range of perspectives on issues emerging from ongoing data-analysis until data saturation occurred. The transcripts were analyzed for themes and key points. Results The main themes that emerged suggested that both smokers and non-smokers viewed smoking very negatively. However, it was clear that, underlying this acceptance of the health risks of smoking, there was a wide range of beliefs. Most of the health professionals pointed out that, as smoking was legal, addictive, and influenced by social norms, currently it was almost unrealistic to expect all smokers to give up smoking or not to smoke in the hospitals. Furthermore, they were concerned about the potentially detrimental effects of providing counseling advice to all smokers on the interpersonal relationship among colleagues or between doctors and patients. In addition, low level of employee participation influenced the sustainable implementation of smoking policies. Conclusions Simply being aware of the health risks about smoking did not necessarily result in successful implementation of the smoking policies. Application of comprehensive intervention strategies such as implementing smoking policies in public places at the county level, creating supportive environments, promoting community participation,and conducting health education, may be more effective.

  17. Social health assistance schemes: the case of Medical Financial Assistance for the rural poor in four counties of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic transition which took place in China over the last three decades, has led to a rapid marketization of the health care sector. Today inequity in health and poverty resulting from major illness has become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Medical Financial Assistance (MFA is a health assistance scheme that helps rural poor people cope with major illness and alleviate their financial burden from major illness, which will definitely play a significant role in the process of rebuilding Chinese new rural health system. It mainly provides assistance to cover medical expenditure for inpatient services or the treatment of major illnesses, with joint funding from the central and local government. The purpose of this paper is to review the design, funding, implementation and to explore the preliminary effects of four counties' MFA in Hubei and Sichuan province of China. Methods We used an analytical framework built around the main objective of any social assistance scheme. The framework contains six 'targeting' procedural 'steps' which may explain why a specific group does not receive the assistance it ought to receive. More specifically, we explored to what extent the targeting, a key component of social assistance programs, is successful, based on the qualitative and quantitative data collected from four representative counties in central and western China. Results In the study sites, the budget of MFA ranged from 0.8 million Yuan to 1.646 million Yuan in each county and the budget per eligible person ranged from 32.67 Yuan to 149.09 Yuan. The preliminary effects of MFA were quite modest because of the scarcity of funds dedicated to the scheme. The coverage rate of MFA ranged from 17.8% to 24.1% among the four counties. MFA in the four counties used several ways to ration a restricted budget and provided only limited assistance. Substantial problems remained in terms of eligibility and identification of the

  18. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose study to determine the baseline for environmental radiological health practices in Melaka state, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Sahrone, Sallehudin; Wagiran, Husin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johore Bahru, Johore, Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2005-12-15

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured throughout Melaka, Malaysia, over a period of two years, with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. Results obtained are shown in tabular, graphic and cartographic form. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly over different soil types and for different underlying geological characteristics present in the study area. The values ranged from 54 {+-} 5 to 378 {+-} 38 nGy h{sup -1}. The highest terrestrial gamma dose rates were measured over soil types of granitic origin and in areas with underlying geological characteristics of an acid intrusive (undifferentiated) type. An isodose map of terrestrial gamma dose rate in Melaka was drawn by using the GIS application 'Arc View'. This was based on data collected using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector survey meter. The measurements were taken at 542 locations. Three small 'hot spots' were found where the dose rates were more than 350 nGy h{sup -1}. The mean dose rates in the main population areas in the mukims (parishes) of Bukit Katil, Sungai Udang, Batu Berendam, Bukit Baru and Bandar Melaka were 154 {+-} 15, 161 {+-} 16, 160 {+-} 16, 175 {+-} 18 and 176 {+-} 18 nGy h{sup -1}, respectively. The population-weighted mean dose rate throughout Melaka state is 172 {+-} 17 nGy h{sup -1}. This is lower than the geographical mean dose rate of 183 {+-} 54 nGy h{sup -1}. The lower value arises from the fact that most of the population lives in the central area of the state where the lithology is dominated by sedimentary rocks consisting of shale, mudstone, phyllite, slate, hornfels, sandstone and schist of Devonian origin which have lower associated dose rates. The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.21 mSv. This value is higher than the world average of 0.07 mSv.

  19. State of spirituality-infused mental health services in Los Angeles County wellness and client-run centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Subica, Andrew M; Kim, Min Ah; Van Nguyen, Kevin; Lim, Caroline S; Mancuso, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Spiritual coping is associated with positive mental health outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness, yet spirituality-infused services are seldom offered in public sector mental health agencies. The Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health introduced a policy addressing spirituality in 2012. This study explored the breadth and degree to which spirituality-infused activities were being offered in 53 Los Angeles wellness and recovery centers after the policy was widely disseminated. More than 98 % of the centers offered options for spirituality-infused activities; one-third offered spirituality-focused groups. Los Angeles's progress may guide implementation of spirituality-infused services in other state or local public mental health systems.

  20. County Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...

  1. Ecosystem Health Assessment at County-Scale Using the Pressure-State-Response Framework on the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delin Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing ecosystem health is helpful to determine reasonable eco-environmental restoration and resource management strategies. Based on a pressure-state-response (PSR framework, a set of comprehensive indicators including natural, social and economic aspects was proposed and applied for assessing the ecosystem health of Yuanzhou County, Loess Plateau, Ningxia Province, China. The basic data used to calculate the values of the assessment indicators include Landsat TM image and socio-economic data, and remote sensing (RS and the geographic information system (GIS were used to process image data. The results showed that the ecosystem health conditions of most townships in Yuanzhou County were at the moderately healthy level, three townships were at the healthy level, and only two townships were at the unhelathy level; the areas (percentage at the unhealthy, moderately healthy and healthy levels were 443.91 km2 (12.66%, 2438.75 km2 (69.54% and 624.50 km2 (17.81%, respectively. The results could provide useful information for local residents and the government to take measures to improve the health conditions of their township ecosystem.

  2. Assessment of School-Based Quasi-Experimental Nutrition and Food Safety Health Education for Primary School Students in Two Poverty-Stricken Counties of West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies on nutrition and food safety education intervention for students in remote areas of China were reported. The study aimed to assess the questionnaire used to measure the knowledge, attitude and behavior with respect to nutrition and food safety, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a quasi-experimental nutrition and food safety education intervention among primary school students in poverty-stricken counties of west China. Methods Twelve primary schools in west China were randomly selected from Zhen’an of Shaanxi province and Huize of Yunnan province. Six geographically dispersed schools were assigned to the intervention group in a nonrandom way. Knowledge, attitude and behavior questionnaire was developed, assessed, and used for outcome measurement. Students were investigated at baseline and the end of the study respectively without follow-up. Students in intervention group received targeted nutrition and food safety lectures 0.5 hour per week for two semesters. Item response theory was applied for assessment of questionnaire, and a two-level difference-in-differences model was applied to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Results The Cronbach’s alpha of the original questionnaire was 0.84. According to item response model, 22 knowledge items, 6 attitude items and 8 behavior items showed adequate discrimination parameter and were retained. 378 and 478 valid questionnaires were collected at baseline and the end point. Differences of demographic characteristics were statistically insignificant between the two groups. Two-level difference-in-differences models showed that health education improved 2.92 (95% CI: 2.06–3.78) and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.37–4.47) in knowledge and behavior scores respectively, but had no effect on attitude. Conclusion The questionnaire met the psychometric standards and showed good internal consistence and discrimination power. The nutrition and food safety education was effective in improving the knowledge

  3. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study national baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Strauss, John; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-11-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors.

  4. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  5. Kardiovize Brno 2030, a prospective cardiovascular health study in Central Europe: Methods, baseline findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kunzová, Šárka; Homolka, Martin; Jaresova, Jana; Cífková, Renata; Sochor, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age. The study assessed traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors, including sociodemographic and smoking status, physical activity, diet, depression, stress, body fat, cardio-ankle vascular index, and intima media thickness, complemented by blood tests; biological samples were stored for future analyses. Results The study enrolled 2160 participants (54.8% women), with a mean age of 47 ± 11.3 years. They were mostly full-time employed (75.6%) and married (62.1%). Hyperlipidemia was highly prevalent (70.7% in men, and 67.1% in women, NS). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in men than in women (54.3% vs. 38.7% and 7.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively, P 2030 study will provide unique multidimensional and longitudinal cardiovascular health data from a region where epidemiological studies are scarce.

  6. Baseline of the sexual and reproductive health project for adolescents in Medellín: the qualitative component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gallo R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To approach the perception of adolescents and adults opinion makers on teenage pregnancy, sexual and reproductive health (s r h, use of birth control (b c and use of s r h services. Methodology: a descriptive study ethnographic with focused interviews and semi-structured guide. The convenience sample consisted of 80 young people (men and women between 14 and 19 years old and 6 adult women opinion makers. Eight focus groups were conducted with youth and six interviews. Results:in intergenerational encounters are explanatory reasons on teenage pregnancy in the city of Medellin The construction of the process of trust-distrust in the conquest and the adolescent partner life affects the use of b c, including the condom. The main barrier to adolescents’ access to s r h services is the lack of credibility in them. Conclusions: The break with the ideal of the adult world, the ideas they have about love, relationships, cultural precepts that designate the gender behavior and credibility they have about s r h services are fields of analysis that are directly linked to the issue of teenage pregnancy in the city of Medellin.

  7. Baseline determination in social, health, and genetic areas in communities affected by glyphosate aerial spraying on the northeastern Ecuadorian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Muñoz, María José; Maldonado, Adolfo; Valladares, Carolina; Cumbal, Nadia; Herrera, Catalina; Robles, Paulo; Sánchez, María Eugenia; López-Cortés, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Ecuadorian border has undergone aerial spraying with an herbicide mix that contains surfactants and adjuvants, executed by the Colombian Government. The purpose of this study was to diagnose social, health, and genetic aspects of the people affected by glyphosate. For this objective to be achieved, 144 people were interviewed, and 521 medical diagnoses and 182 peripheral blood samples were obtained. Genotyping of GSTP1 Ile105Val, GPX-1 Pro198Leu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were analyzed, using PCR-RFLP technique. The assessment of chromosomal aberrations was performed, obtaining 182 karyotypes. Malnutrition in children was 3%. Of the total population, 7.7% had children with malformations, and the percentage of abortions was 12.7%. Concerning genotyping, individuals with GSTP1 Val/Val obtained an odds ratio of 4.88 (p < 0.001), and Ile/Val individuals, together with Val/Val individuals, had an odds ratio of 2.6 (p < 0.05). In addition, GPX-1 Leu/Leu individuals presented an odds ratio (OR) of 8.5 (p < 0.05). Regarding karyotyping, the 182 individuals had normal karyotypes. In conclusion, the study population did not present significant chromosomal and DNA alterations. The most important social impact was fear. We recommend future prospective studies to assess the communities.

  8. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pfood stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.

  9. BASELINE SURVEY ON NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF UNDERFIVE CHILDREN AT POOR COMMUNITIES IN DKI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, AND BOGOR YEAR 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Anhari Achadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency among underfive children is related to their food intake and health status. The situation appeared worst after multiple crisis hit Indonesia in 1997/1998. To obtain factors affecting the nutritional status of children aged 1-5 years, a baseline study was conducted in DKI Jakarta, Bogor, and Tangerang in collaboration with UN-WFP. The sample size was 1337 underfive children consisting of 666 boys and 666 girls. The study showed that malnutrition among underfive children was still high which indicated the high prevalence ofunderweight and stunting, especially in Bogor District and Tangerang District. The micronutrient intake of vitamin A, iron, and zinc among underfive children were certainly below the Indonesian RDA. The level of poverty and the education of woman as well as husbands were two conditions that were obvious from all areas, mainly TangerangDistrict.

  10. The Well London program - a cluster randomized trial of community engagement for improving health behaviors and mental wellbeing: baseline survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Gemma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT. The baseline survey data are reported here. Methods The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs; ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. Results There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of

  11. Allegheny County Fast Food Establishments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Allegheny County Health Department has generated this list of fast food restaurants by exporting all chain restaurants without an alcohol permit from the...

  12. Public health assessment for Sandoval Zinc Company, Sandoval, Marion County, Illinois, Region 5: CERCLIS number ILD053980454. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-10

    The Sandoval Zinc site occupies about 13 acres southeast of Sandoval in Marion County, Illinois. It is an abandoned primary and secondary zinc smelter that was next to a coal mining operation. Smelting waste may have been transported off the site and used as fill in Sandoval and other nearby communities. Airborne emissions occurred during regular operations and accidental fires. Surface water runoff transported wastes from the site into adjacent ditches, creeks, ponds, and farm properties. Overall, the Sandoval Zinc site poses no apparent public health hazard to most of the population in Sandoval. The site may be a public health hazard to preschool children with excessive hand-to-mouth activity exposed to residential surface soils with high levels of lead. However, blood sample results from children in a day care near the site did not show elevated levels of lead.

  13. Socioeconomic factors and parity of access to robotic surgery in a county health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Leah Carey; Gray, Regan; Tatebe, Ken; Garcia, Fernando; Putty, Bradley

    2017-02-28

    Equal access to novel surgical technologies remains a policy concern as hospitals adopt robotic surgery with increasing prevalence. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic factors influence access to robotic surgery. All laparoscopic and robotic fundoplications and paraesophageal hernia repairs performed by a surgical group over 6 years at a county and two neighboring private hospitals were identified. Robotic use by hospital setting, age, gender, reported ethnicity, estimated income, insurance payer, and diagnosis were examined. Of 418 patients identified, 180 (43%) presented to the county hospital, where subjects were younger (51.1 versus 56.2 years, p robotic surgery offered in the county hospital was observed based on age, gender, reported ethnicity, estimated income, or insurance payer. Patients with higher income and private insurers were more likely to present to the private hospital setting where robotics is utilized more often. The presence of a paraesophageal hernia was a significant factor in determining robotic therapy in both settings.

  14. Protocol and baseline data from The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service evaluation study: a health services intervention study for diabetes care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most disabling chronic conditions worldwide, resulting in significant human, social and economic costs and placing huge demands on health care systems. The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of care for patients with type 2 diabetes who have been referred by their general practitioner to a specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Care is provided by a multidisciplinary, integrated team consisting of an endocrinologist, diabetes nurse educators, General Practitioner Clinical Fellows (general practitioners who have undertaken focussed post-graduate training in complex diabetes care), and allied health personnel (a dietitian, podiatrist and psychologist). Methods/Design Using a geographical control, this evaluation study tests the impact of this model of diabetes care provided by the service on patient outcomes compared to usual care provided at the specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Data collection at baseline, 6 and 12-months will compare the primary outcome (glycaemic control) and secondary outcomes (serum lipid profile, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking status, quality of life, diabetes self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness). Discussion This model of diabetes care combines the patient focus and holistic care valued by the primary care sector with the specialised knowledge and skills of hospital diabetes care. Our study will provide empirical evidence about the clinical effectiveness of this model of care. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000010392. PMID:20492731

  15. Protocol and baseline data from The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service evaluation study: a health services intervention study for diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Jackson, Claire L; Ware, Robert S; Russell, Anthony

    2010-05-24

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most disabling chronic conditions worldwide, resulting in significant human, social and economic costs and placing huge demands on health care systems. The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of care for patients with type 2 diabetes who have been referred by their general practitioner to a specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Care is provided by a multidisciplinary, integrated team consisting of an endocrinologist, diabetes nurse educators, General Practitioner Clinical Fellows (general practitioners who have undertaken focussed post-graduate training in complex diabetes care), and allied health personnel (a dietitian, podiatrist and psychologist). Using a geographical control, this evaluation study tests the impact of this model of diabetes care provided by the service on patient outcomes compared to usual care provided at the specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Data collection at baseline, 6 and 12-months will compare the primary outcome (glycaemic control) and secondary outcomes (serum lipid profile, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking status, quality of life, diabetes self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness). This model of diabetes care combines the patient focus and holistic care valued by the primary care sector with the specialised knowledge and skills of hospital diabetes care. Our study will provide empirical evidence about the clinical effectiveness of this model of care. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000010392.

  16. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: California and Los Angeles County, Estimation Methods and Analytic Considerations, 1999-2006 and 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer D; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Mohadjer, Leyla K; Dohrmann, Sylvia M; Van de Kerckhove, Wendy; Clark, Jason; Burt, Vicki L

    2017-05-01

    Background California is the most populated state and Los Angeles County is the most populated county in the United States. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample weights and variance units were developed for these places to obtain subnational estimates. Objective This report describes the California and Los Angeles County NHANES 1999-2006 and 2007-2014 samples, including the creation of the sample weights and variance units and descriptions of the resulting data files. Some analytic guidelines are provided. Results Eight years of NHANES data were combined for each data file to provide an adequate sample size and reduce disclosure risks. Because Los Angeles County has been a self-representing primary sampling unit, sample weights for Los Angeles County were relatively straightforward. However, a modelbased approach was used to create sample weights for California. The relatively large proportion of Mexican- American and other Hispanic persons in California, coupled with the different NHANES 1999-2014 sample design requirements for oversampling these groups within the small number of NHANES locations selected each cycle, led to a relatively large size of these groups in the California and Los Angeles County NHANES files. For example, 1,137 and 374 of the 3,353 Mexican-Americans persons in NHANES 2007-2014 were in the California and Los Angeles County samples, respectively. Conclusion The California and Los Angeles County NHANES 1999-2006 and 2007-2014 samples are available in the National Center for Health Statistics Research Data Center. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  17. Visual impairment at baseline is associated with future poor physical functioning among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Navasuja; Harlow, Sioban; Moroi, Sayoko; Musch, David; Peng, Qing; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. At baseline, distance and near vision were measured using a Titmus vision screener. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40. Physical functioning was measured up to 10 years later using performance-based measures, including a 40-foot timed walk, timed stair climb and forward reach. Women with impaired distance vision at baseline had 2.81 centimeters less forward reach distance (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.19, -1.42) and 4.26s longer stair climb time (95% CI: 2.73, 5.79) at follow-up than women without impaired distance vision. Women with impaired near vision also had less forward reach distance (2.26 centimeters, 95% CI: -3.30, -1.21) than those without impaired near vision. Among middle-aged women, visual impairment is a marker of poor physical functioning. Routine eye testing and vision correction may help improve physical functioning among midlife individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effectiveness of an intervention in increasing community health clinician provision of preventive care: a study protocol of a non-randomised, multiple-baseline trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwaine Kathleen M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary behavioural risks for the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries are tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity. Evidence, guidelines and policies support routine clinician delivery of care to prevent these risks within primary care settings. Despite the potential afforded by community health services for the delivery of such preventive care, the limited evidence available suggests it is provided at suboptimal levels. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic practice change intervention in increasing clinician's routine provision of preventive care across a network of community health services. Methods/Design A multiple baseline study will be conducted involving all 56 community health facilities in a single health district in New South Wales, Australia. The facilities will be allocated to one of three administratively-defined groups. A 12 month practice change intervention will be implemented in all facilities in each group to facilitate clinician risk assessment of eligible clients, and clinician provision of brief advice and referral to those identified as being 'at risk'. The intervention will be implemented in a non-random sequence across the three facility groups. Repeated, cross-sectional measurement of clinician provision of preventive care for four individual risks (smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity will occur continuously for all three facility groups for 54 months via telephone interviews. The interviews will be conducted with randomly selected clients who have visited a community health facility in the last two weeks. Data collection will commence 12 months prior to the implementation of the intervention in the first group, and continue for six months following the completion of the intervention in the last group. As a secondary source of data, telephone interviews will be undertaken

  19. Maternal and infant health indicators by county, census tract and year, 1999-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains values for Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (NCDMs) designated by the national Environmental Public Health Tracking Program derived...

  20. An Innovative Project Breaks Down Barriers to Oral Health Care for Vulnerable Young Children in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J; Illum, Jackie; Martinez, Ana; Pourat, Nadereh

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high rate of untreated tooth decay, many young children in California under six years of age have never been to a dentist. Numerous and complex barriers to access to oral health care for young children exist, and a multifaceted approach is required to improve receipt of preventive and treatment services that could improve the oral health of this population. This policy brief describes the UCLA-First 5 LA 21st Century Dental Homes Project, which was designed to improve oral health care for young children in 12 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinic sites with co-located dental and primary care services and its accessibility in their service areas throughout Los Angeles County. The project funded infrastructure and staffing, provided technical assistance to improve operations, trained clinical personnel to provide oral health care to young children, implemented a quality improvement learning collaborative, trained parents and child care providers in oral hygiene and healthy habits, and disseminated information to promote effective policies. Early data on the project indicated twofold increases in delivery of both diagnostics and treatment visits for young children, and a threefold increase in preventive services for young children during the program.

  1. The Role of Effective Factors in Preventive Behaviors of Brucellosis in Stockbreeder of Charaoymaq County: A Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Babaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Prevention and control of brucellosis is necessary to identify the influential factors. Therefore, this study has aimed to investigate the effective factors in preventive behaviors of brucellosis in ranchers of Charaoymaq County. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 ranchers participated who were selected via stratified random sampling from 5 health centers. To collect information, a questionnaire was used based on health belief model. The data analysis was performed, using SPSS 21, statistical tests of linear regression analysis, and correlation and description tests at a significance level of p < 05/0. Results: In this study, there was a significant correlation between education level and preventive behaviors and among the structures of health belief model. According to regression analysis of health belief model structures, the strongest predictors of behavior were tips to action, self-efficacy, and perceived susceptibility. Conclusion: Based on these results, using educational models can be effective in identifying factors influencing health behaviors. The findings of this study also showed that tips to action, self-efficacy, and perceived susceptibility are the most important predictors of behavior, and special attention must be paid to designing and implementing educational interventions on them.

  2. Baseline comparison of three health utility measures and the feeling thermometer among participants in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisch Dennis W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health utility (HU measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D, and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables. Methods ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT. Results The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P P P  Conclusions The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620

  3. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon; Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-12-01

    Using the 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals' mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults' immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  5. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  6. Spatiotemporal discordance in five common measures of rurality for US counties and applications for health disparities research in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Cohen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural populations face numerous barriers to health, including poorer health care infrastructure, access to care, and other sociodemographic factors largely associated with rurality. Multiple measures of rurality used in the biomedical and public health literature can help assess rural-urban health disparities and may impact the observed associations between rurality and health. Furthermore, understanding what makes a place truly rural versus urban may vary from region to region in the United States.Purpose: The objectives of this study are to compare and contrast five common measures of rurality and determine how well-correlated these measures are at the national, regional, and divisional level, as well as to assess patterns in the correlations between the prevalence of obesity in the population aged 60+ and each of the five measures of rurality at the regional and divisional level.Methods: Five measures of rurality were abstracted from the US Census and US Department of Agriculture (USDA to characterize US counties. Obesity data in the population aged 60+ were abstracted from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Spearman’s rank correlations were used to quantify the associations among the five rurality measurements at the national, regional, and divisional level, as defined by the US Census Bureau. Geographic information systems were used to visually illustrate temporal, spatial, and regional variability. Results: Overall, Spearman’s rank correlations among the five measures ranged from 0.521 (percent urban-Urban Influence Code to 0.917 (Rural-Urban Continuum Code-Urban Influence Code. Notable discrepancies existed in these associations by Census region and by division. The associations between measures of rurality and obesity in the 60+ population varied by rurality measure used and by region. Conclusion: This study is among the first to systematically assess the spatial, temporal, and regional differences

  7. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  8. Baseline Assessment of Health KAP in Health Promotion Demonstration Area%健康促进示范区居民健康知信行基线评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利伟; 阙晓敏; 叶金龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 为掌握松阳县健康促进综合示范区的基本情况,科学地评估与推进示范区工作.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法对松阳县社区居民进行入户问卷调查.结果 松阳县居民健康知识知晓率为70.69%,健康行为形成率为69.33%.41.25%的人自认为目前健康状况一般,13.00%的人近两周去医院看过病,26.00%的人经常阅读或收听健康信息,55.75%的人没有在维护或促进健康上有所花费,在有花费的177人当中,有77.97%的人购买了保健品.结论 社区基本形成了健康促进的支持环境,今后需加强社区居民健康教育的普及.%Objective To master the basic situation of health promotion in integrated demonstration area, and to assess and promote the work of demonstration area scientifically. Methods Multilevel stratified random sampling was applied in selecting residents of Songyang county, and home interviews were taken by using a questionnaire. Results The rate of health knowledge awareness was 70. 69% , and the rate of health behavior formation was 69. 33% . Of the subjects, 41. 25% thought they were health - mediocre, 13% went to hospital within two weeks, 26% often read or listened to health information and 55. 75% spent no money on health maintenance or health promotion. Of 177 residents who had spent for health, 77. 97% bought health products. Conclusion The environment of supporting health promotion was basically formed in community. Popularization of health education in residents still needs to be strengthened in future.

  9. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  10. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  12. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  13. Sex and Socioeconomic Differentials in Child Health in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from a Baseline Survey for Evaluating Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Victora, Cesar G.; Black, Robert E.; Bryce, Jennifer; Hoque, D.M.E.; Chowdhury, E.K.; Begum, N.; Akter, T.; Siddik, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a population-based sample survey of 2,289 children aged less than five years (under-five children) conducted in 2000 as a baseline for the Bangladesh component of the Multi-country Evaluation (MCE) of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy. Of interest were rates and differentials by sex and socioeconomic status for three aspects of child health in rural Bangladesh: morbidity and hospitalizations, including severity of illness; care-seeking for childhood illness; and home-care for illness. The survey was carried out among a population of about 380,000 in Matlab upazila (subdistrict). Generic MCE Household Survey tools were adapted, translated, and pretested. Trained interviewers conducted the survey in the study areas. In total, 2,289 under-five children were included in the survey. Results showed a very high prevalence of illness among Bangladeshi children, with over two-thirds reported to have had at least one illness during the two weeks preceding the survey. Most sick children in this population had multiple symptoms, suggesting that the use of the IMCI clinical guidelines will lead to improved quality of care. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of illness either by sex or by socioeconomic status. About one-third of the children with a reported illness did not receive any care outside the home. Of those for whom outside care was sought, 42% were taken to a village doctor. Only 8% were taken to an appropriate provider, i.e. a health facility, a hospital, a doctor, a paramedic, or a community-based health worker. Poorer children than less-poor children were less likely to be taken to an appropriate healthcare provider. The findings indicated that children with severe illness in the least poor households were three times more likely to seek care from a trained provider than children in the poorest households. Any evidence of gender inequities in child healthcare, either in terms

  14. Disparity in reimbursement for tuberculosis care among different health insurance schemes: evidence from three counties in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Pan; Shanquan Chen; Manli Chen; Pei Zhang; Qian Long; Li Xiang; Henry Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Background:Health inequity is an important issue all around the world.The Chinese basic medical security system comprises three major insurance schemes,namely the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI),the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI),and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS).Little research has been conducted to look into the disparity in payments among the health insurance schemes in China.In this study,we aimed to evaluate the disparity in reimbursements for tuberculosis (TB) care among the abovementioned health insurance schemes.Methods:This study uses a World Health Organization (WHO) framework to analyze the disparities and equity relating to the three dimensions of health insurance:population coverage,the range of services covered,and the extent to which costs are covered.Each of the health insurance scheme's policies were categorized and analyzed.An analysis of the claims database of all hospitalizations reimbursed from 2010 to 2012 in three counties of Yichang city (YC),which included 1506 discharges,was conducted to identify the differences in reimbursement rates and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses among the health insurance schemes.Results:Tuberculosis patients had various inpatient expenses depending on which scheme they were covered by (TB patients covered by the NCMS have less inpatient expenses than those who were covered by the URBMI,who have less inpatient expenses than those covered by the UEBMI).We found a significant horizontal inequity of healthcare utilization among the lower socioeconomic groups.In terms of financial inequity,TB patients who earned less paid more.The NCMS provides modest financial protection,based on income.Overall,TB patients from lower socioeconomic groups were the most vulnerable.Conclusion:There are large disparities in reimbursement for TB care among the three health insurance schemes and this,in turn,hampers TB control.Reducing the gap in health outcomes between the three health insurance

  15. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  16. The mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction of internally displaced persons living in Nakuru County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getanda, Elijah Mironga; Papadopoulos, Chris; Evans, Hala

    2015-08-06

    Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable people in the world today. Previous research highlights that conflict-induced forced displacement can cause problems with mental health and wellbeing. This study aimed to contribute to this body of knowledge by investigating the mental health, quality of life, and life satisfaction among IDPs living in Nakuru, Kenya. A questionnaire that included the General Health Questionnaire-12, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and a modified version of the WHO Quality of Life-BREF tool was used for data collection. The questionnaire also included an open-ended question inviting qualitative responses about their experience as an IDP. The questionnaire was distributed through a three-stage sampling approach across four refugee camps from four regions of the Nakuru County in Kenya. One hundred IDPs participated in this study. All participants scored substantially higher than the applied GHQ-12 threshold for caseness (mean GHQ-12 score = 28.7, SD = 3.6). Quality of life and life satisfaction scores were also very poor (M = 10.24, SD = 1.9; M = 6.82, SD = 1.5 respectively). The qualitative results reflected these findings with statements reflecting suicidal thoughts, unhappiness with the government, lack of support, and fear for themselves and their children. Significantly higher GHQ-12 scores were found among older IDPs (rho = .202, sig = .046), widowers compared to married IDPs (mean difference = -2.41, SE = .885, sig = .027), while lower scores were found among IDPs who reported having friends as a source of support (U = 834, sig = .045), while quality of life scores were higher among IDPs who reported receiving governmental support (U = 248, sig = .018). The findings revealed poor levels of mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction. Older, widowed IDPs and those who did not perceive support from friends or the government were found to be at the highest risk of poor health and wellbeing.

  17. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Life stress and suicidal ideation in Australian men – cross-sectional analysis of the Australian longitudinal study on male health baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death in Australian males aged 18 to 55. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours and thoughts are indicators of increased risk for future suicide. Suicidal behaviour is complex and multi-determined. Research supports the involvement of stressful life events in suicide and suicidal behaviour, however the evidence regarding suicidal thoughts is less developed. This study investigates stressful life events in relation to suicidal ideation in a large cohort of adult males recruited into Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. Methods Baseline data from a national cohort of 13, 884 males aged 18–55 years on suicidal behaviour, psychiatric disorder and life events was used. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted with current suicidal ideation as the outcome and 12 month life events, 12 month depression, anxiety and harmful/hazardous alcohol use, and socio-demographics as covariates. Further logistic regression models investigated the relative risk of life stress alone, depression/alcohol/anxiety alone and co-occurring life stress and depression/alcohol/anxiety. Results In multivariable models there was an independent contribution to suicidal ideation for six of 24 life events (ORs 1.27–1.95, 12 month depression (OR 4.49 harmful alcohol use (OR 1.38 and anxiety disorders (OR 1.27. Life events co-occurring with depression (OR 10.3 was higher risk than either alone (depression OR 6.6; life stress OR 2.6. There was a lesser effect for co-occurrence in the anxiety and harmful alcohol use models. Conclusion Life events appear to be related to suicidal ideation independent of depression, anxiety and harmful alcohol use in adult males, however if life events occur in the context of depression that risk is substantially increased.

  19. Using County-Level Public Health Data to Prioritize Medical Education Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Walton, II; Schootman, Mario; Asaro, Philip; Yan, Yan; Hagen, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education topics might be locally prioritized using public health data on health outcomes and risk factors unrelated to quality of care. Methods: The Missouri Information for Community Assessment (MICA) supplied preventable hospitalization rates (PHRs) for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, heart…

  20. Substance Abuse among Health-Care Professionals in Rutherford and Surrounding Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sherri Reid; Heritage, Jeannette G.

    Drug abuse is a serious problem in today's work force. It is found in every occupation, from the entry-level employee to the chief executive officer. Among health care professionals alcohol is the number-one substance abused, prescription drugs are second, and cocaine is third. Substance abuse among health-care professionals in Rutherford,…

  1. The practice of health care alliance in Huangzhong county, Qinghai province%青海省湟中县医疗联合体改革实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁豫; 朱炜明; 马慧芬; 金音子; 何莉; 岳大海; 孟庆跃

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of health care system within a county and serious capacity constraints of health-care services in township health centers are generally the most significant problems facing underdeveloped counties in western China. Under constraints of limited public financial resources, how to increase service capability of township health centers and improve service quality, continuity and convenience of health care system has become one of the most severe challenges in implementing China’s county health care system reform. This paper takes Huangzhong coun-ty, Qinghai province as a case study. It investigates how the locals use health care alliance to vertically integrate county health care resources during reform implementation, analyzes various aspects of reform measures and the corre-sponding structural characteristics such as the integration of administrative management, integration of human re-sources, dual diagnosis referral, interoperability of information systems, sharing of resources and test results, etc. , and provides similar China’s counties with a case study to be used for reference.%我国西部经济相对不发达的县级地区普遍面临着县域内医疗服务体系碎片化,乡镇卫生院医疗卫生服务能力严重不足的问题。在有限的公共财政资源约束下,如何提高乡镇卫生院服务能力,改善医疗服务体系的服务质量、连续性和便利性成为我国县级医疗卫生体系改革的现实挑战。本文以青海省湟中县为典型案例,调研当地通过医疗服务联合体纵向整合县域医疗资源的改革实践,分析其行政管理一体化、人力资源整合、双向转诊、信息系统互联互通以及资源与检查结果共享等方面的改革措施及相应结构特点,为我国类似地区改革提供参考案例。

  2. Public health assessment for Jennison Wright Corporation, Granite City, Madison County, Illinois, Region 5. CERCLIS Number ILD006282479; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Jennison-Wright Corporation (J-W) is a National Priorities List (NPL) site in Madison County, Illinois, in the northern section of granite City. The J-W facility engaged in wood treatment of railroad ties and wood blocks using creosote, pentachlorophenol, and zinc naphthanate. Soil contamination also exists off the site from runoff, disposal, and air deposition. Based on available information, the J-W site is considered a public health hazard because of the risk to human health resulting from past, present, and future exposure to soil contaminants. The reason for this conclusion is exposure to soil contaminants originating from on- and off-site areas, including dermal exposure in heavily contaminated enfenced off-site areas and the increase in cancer risk from exposure to these soil contaminants. Future concerns include contaminated groundwater migration and subsequent exposure through ingestion and inhalation of contaminants from the site. Substances of concern include creosote and coal tar and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, dioxins, and furans.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam's index, and Kim et al.'s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.'s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed.

  4. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.

  5. Combining the benefits of decision science and financial analysis in public health management: a county-specific budgeting and planning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Peter J; Miller, Danny L; Amy, Brian W; Zuniga, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    State public health agencies are charged with providing and overseeing the management of basic public health services on a population-wide basis. These activities have a re-emphasized focus as a result of the events of September 11, 2001, the subsequent anthrax events, and the continuing importance placed on bioterrorism preparedness, West Nile virus, and emerging infectious diseases (eg, monkeypox, SARS). This has added to the tension that exists in budgeting and planning, given the diverse constituencies that are served in each state. State health agencies must be prepared to allocate finite resources in a more formal manner to be able to provide basic public health services on a routine basis, as well as during outbreaks. This article describes the use of an analytical approach to assist financial analysis that is used for budgeting and planning in a state health agency. The combined benefits of decision science and financial analysis are needed to adequately and appropriately plan and budget to meet the diverse needs of the populations within a state. Health and financial indicators are incorporated into a decision model, based on multicriteria decision theory, that has been employed to acquire information about counties and public health programs areas within a county, that reflect the impact of planning and budgeting efforts. This information can be used to allocate resources, to distribute funds for health care services, and to guide public health finance policy formulation and implementation.

  6. Glycated Hemoglobin, Fasting Insulin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Males. Cross-Sectional Analyses of the Aragon Workers’ Health Study Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Gabriela; Civeira, Fernando; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Andres, Eva; Leon, Montserrat; Pocovi, Miguel; Ordovas, Jose; Guallar, Eliseo; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Casasnovas, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is currently used to diagnose diabetes mellitus, while insulin has been relegated to research. Both, however, may help understanding the metabolic syndrome and profiling patients. We examined the association of HbA1c and fasting insulin with clustering of metabolic syndrome criteria and insulin resistance as two essential characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Methods We used baseline data from 3200 non-diabetic male participants in the Aragon Workers' Health Study. We conducted analysis to estimate age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) across tertiles of HbA1c and insulin. Fasting glucose and Homeostatic model assessment - Insulin Resistance were used as reference. Here we report the uppermost-to-lowest tertile ORs (95%CI). Results Mean age (SD) was 48.5 (8.8) years and 23% of participants had metabolic syndrome. The ORs for metabolic syndrome criteria tended to be higher across HbA1c than across glucose, except for high blood pressure. Insulin was associated with the criteria more strongly than HbA1c and similarly to Homeostatic model assessment - Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). For metabolic syndrome, the OR of HbA1c was 2.68, of insulin, 11.36, of glucose, 7.03, and of HOMA-IR, 14.40. For the clustering of 2 or more non-glycemic criteria, the OR of HbA1c was 2.10, of insulin, 8.94, of glucose, 1.73, and of HOMA-IR, 7.83. All ORs were statistically significant. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves for metabolic syndrome were 0.670 (across HbA1c values) and 0.770 (across insulin values), and, for insulin resistance, 0.647 (HbA1c) and 0.995 (insulin). Among non-metabolic syndrome patients, a small insulin elevation identified risk factor clustering. Conclusions HbA1c and specially insulin levels were associated with metabolic syndrome criteria, their clustering, and insulin resistance. Insulin could provide early information in subjects prone to develop metabolic syndrome. PMID:26241903

  7. Anatomy of a public health agency turnaround: the case of the general health district in Mahoning County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Stefanak, Matthew; Dessens, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A turnaround describes an organization's ability to recover from successive periods of decline. Current and projected declines in US economic conditions continue to place local public health departments at risk of fiscal exigency. This examination focused on turnaround methodologies used by a local public health department to reverse successive periods of operational and financial declines. Illustrations are provided on the value added by implementing financial ratio and trend analysis in addition to using evidence-based private sector turnaround strategies of retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization. Evidence has shown how the financial analysis and strategies aided in identifying operational weakness and set in motion corrective measures. The Public Health Uniform Data System is introduced along with a list of standards offered for mainstreaming these and other routine stewardship practices to diagnose, predict, and prevent agency declines.

  8. Inequalities in socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Kavanagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. No single study has provided comprehensive, population-level information about the magnitude of such differences among adult men using a well-validated instrument to measure disability. Methods We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men – an Australian longitudinal study of male health. Ten to Men used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design to recruit a national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 from 15,988 males. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old participants with data available on age and disability (n = 13,569. We compared the demographic, socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities using chi squared tests for proportions and t tests for continuous variables. Linear regression adjusted for age was used to assess the association between disability status and health and wellbeing, which were measured using the SF-12 mental and physical health component scores and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Results Men with disabilities were older and more likely to be born in Australia, speak English at home, be Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and were less likely to be married or de facto, or to live in urban areas. They were less likely to have completed secondary school, be employed and live in affordable housing, and were more likely to live on low incomes, in more socio-economically disadvantaged areas, and in rental accommodation and to experience shortages of money. Among employed men, those with disabilities were less likely to be in high skilled jobs, worked less hours on average, and were more likely to report that they would prefer to work more. Men with disabilities had lower levels of social

  9. Economic impact of ambulatory care formulary restrictions at a large county health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Alexandra; Price, Venessa; Robinson, Natasha; Tomecko, G William; Sedam, Brian

    2013-07-15

    Study results documenting substantial cost savings achieved by an outpatient indigent-care pharmacy program through formulary modifications and optimized purchasing practices are presented. Wholesale purchasing data were retrospectively evaluated to compare drug expenditures before and after a large Florida hospital's adoption of a tiered formulary system for three ambulatory care facilities serving mostly uninsured patients. The outcomes assessed included the average cost per prescription and total medication purchases before and after implementation of the tiered formulary, which was phased in over several months and accompanied by intensive educational programs targeting physicians and pharmacy staff. Other outcomes included cost avoidance resulting from an increased emphasis on patient assistance program (PAP) enrollment and the use of "bulk replacement" arrangements for prescription replenishment. During a designated nine-month postimplementation period, the average cost per prescription declined by 4.7% (from $19.86 to $18.92) relative to the baseline value. Six-month spending decreases of 36-58% from prior-year levels were achieved in 7 of the 10 most-purchased drug classes, with an overall 25% decline in medication purchases. Cost avoidance due to more aggressive use of PAPs and bulk replacement programs also yielded substantial program savings. Formulary streamlining and other cost-control initiatives at an outpatient pharmacy program were associated with a decrease in the average cost per prescription of $0.94 over a nine-month period. The primary endpoint showed a potential annualized savings of approximately $1 million.

  10. Self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds in a Swedish County--A comparative study between 2004 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlvin, Anna; Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg; Bågesund, Mats; Ordell, Sven

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Swedish dental professionals have collected clinical epidemiological data from the dental records. To supplement the epidemiology, Ostergötland County Council decided to examine patient perceptions of oral health: self-rated knowledge, self-perceived oral health, and opinions about oral health. The aim was to compare self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds to determine differences between genders, various municipalities and between 2004 and 2011. This study analysed the responses from two cross-sectional surveys of the entire population of 19-year-olds in Ostergötland County, Sweden, performed in 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,413 (53%) (50% men, 50% women) 19-year-olds who responded to the questionnaire in 2004 and the 3,803 (67%) (50% men, 50% women) in 2011, most 19-year-olds (88.1% [2004] and 87.5 % [2011]) reported satisfaction with their oral health. Around half of the respondents rated their knowledge on periodontitis as low. Boys rated their knowledge about avoiding periodontitis higher than girls (p toothpaste (7.5% in 2004 and 9.3% in 2011), especially the boys (10.3% in 2004 and 10.5% in 2011). Girls reported both a higher social impact and greater concern about aesthetics related to their oral health. They also reported headache (27.5%) nearly twice as often as boys (14.2%) (p > 0.001). Responses between the municipalities did not differ, with the exception of items regarding periodontitis. Thus, this study found indications that perceptions of oral health and knowledge in Ostergötland County complied with Swedish Dental Act. The study also found patient perceptions of oral health among 19-year-olds to be good.

  11. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  12. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    OpenAIRE

    Panter, J; Griffin, S.; Jones, A; MacKett, R; Ogilvie, D

    2011-01-01

    Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK.

  13. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Uninsured Young Adults by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data file indicates the estimated number of uninsured individuals ages 19-25 in each U.S. county. These individuals may be eligible to join their parents health...

  15. Work-Family Conflict and Self-Rated Health: the Role of Gender and Educational Level. Baseline Data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra

    2016-06-01

    This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.

  16. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  17. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  18. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015 SDG Collaborators†, GBD; Gyawali, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases...... and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed......, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve...

  19. Clinical audit of foot problems in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated at Counties Manukau District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbeth Nicola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At diagnosis, 16% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients may have foot joint involvement, increasing to 90% as disease duration increases. This can lead to joint instability, difficulties in walking and limitation in functional ability that restricts activities of daily living. The podiatrist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team approach to the management of foot problems. The aim of this study was to undertake a clinical audit of foot problems in patients with RA treated at Counties Manukau District Health Board. Methods Patients with RA were identified through rheumatological clinics run within CMDHB. 100 patients were eligible for inclusion. Specific foot outcome tools were used to evaluate pain, disability and function. Observation on foot lesions were noted and previous history of foot assessment, footwear/insoles and foot surgery were evaluated. Results The median age of the cohort was 60 (IQR: 51–64 years old with median disease duration of 15 (IQR: 7.3–25 years. Over 85% presented with foot lesions that included corns and callus over the forefoot region and lesser toe deformities. Moderate to high disability was noted. High levels of forefoot structural damage were observed. 76% had not seen a podiatrist and 77% reported no previous formal foot assessment. 40% had been seen at the orthotic centre for specialised footwear and insoles. 27% of RA patients reported previous foot surgery. A large proportion of patients wore inappropriate footwear. Conclusion This clinical audit suggests that the majority of RA patients suffer from foot problems. Future recommendations include the provision of a podiatrist within the current CMDHB multidisciplinary rheumatology team to ensure better services for RA patients with foot problems.

  20. Public Health Offices, Public Health Agencies - county, name, address, contact info, email, website, Published in 2007, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Health Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Public Health Agencies -...

  1. Accounting and Analysis on Public Health Expenditures in County-Level Maternal and Child Health Care Centers%县级妇幼保健院公共卫生费用核算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽丽; 刘国祥; 黄卫东; 高熹; 刘加卓

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Through accounting and analyzing public health expenditures of county-level maternal and child health care centers(MCHCC), to provide government scientific references for making the maternal and child health policies. Methods:The functional approach of health care accounting methods is used to account the public health expenditures. Results: The connotation and scale of public health services of county-level MCHCC are defined, and the items and contents of public health services are presented; the public health expenditures of county-level MCHCC were calculated and analyzed. Conclusion:The government financial input on public health care should be clear and enough; the government should implement the compensation mechanism to eliminate the phenomenon that MCHCC “put more emphasis on medical treatment than prevention disease” .%目的:通过核算与分析县级妇幼保健院公共卫生费用,为政府制定妇幼卫生政策提供科学依据。方法:采用卫生费用核算方法中的功能法进行公共卫生费用核算。结果:界定了县级妇幼保健院公共卫生服务项目内涵和外延,并确定了其分类及内容;进行了县级妇幼保健院公共卫生费用核算及分析。结论:政府在公共卫生服务方面的拨款应该做到用途清晰且足额拨付;政府应该尽快完善补偿机制,彻底根除妇幼保健院“重治轻防”的现象。

  2. Assessment of Maternal Health Care——Facts and Figures from the 2003 Baseline Survey of UNFPA/China RH/FP Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoWeiming; LiBohua

    2005-01-01

    According to the Program of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development at Cairo in 1994, reproductive healthcare in the context of primary health care should include education and services for prenatal care, safe delivery and post-natal care, especially breastfeeding and infant and women's health care.

  3. The topography of poverty in the United States: a spatial analysis using county-level data from the Community Health Status Indicators project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B

    2007-10-01

    Socioeconomic and health-related data at the county level are now available through the Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) database. These data are useful for assessing the health of communities and regions. Users of the CHSI data can access online reports and an online mapping application for visualizing patterns in various community-related measures. It also is possible to download these data to conduct local analyses. This paper describes a spatial analysis of poverty in the United States at the county level for 2000. Spatial statistical techniques in a geographic information system were used to quantify significant spatial patterns, such as concentrated poverty rates and spatial outliers. The analysis revealed significant and stark patterns of poverty. A distinctive north-south demarcation of low versus high poverty concentrations was found, along with isolated pockets of high and low poverty within areas in which the predominant poverty rates were opposite. This pattern can be described as following a continental poverty divide. These insights can be useful in explicating the underlying processes involved in forming such spatial patterns that result in concentrated wealth and poverty. The spatial analytic techniques are broadly applicable to socioeconomic and health-related data and can provide important information about the spatial structure of datasets, which is important for choosing appropriate analysis methods.

  4. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation and public health importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Parvaneh Farajifard; Elnaz Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate as a descriptive and cross sectional study on epidemiology, the laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestation ofCutaneousLeishmaniasis(CL) inShushtar County.Methods:The investigation was carried out on referrals from different districts of ShushtarCounty and was diagnosed based on their ulcer clinical manifestations withCL using laboratory method.This study was actively developed over the period of2008 to2010.Surface of a clean slide was pressed on to the scraped part of the lesions and moved along to produce a smear on the slide.The slides were fixed with methanol, stained with standardGiemsa, and examined carefully under high magnification for an hour or more to look for amastigotes by a trained person.Two smears were prepared and examined from each patient and data were collected using different correlative patients characteristics to analyze information.The essential records including residential area, type and location of lesion, age, sex, the number of ulcers, season, and the history of traveling to endemic areas for this disease were carefully gathered. Results:Parasites presumed to beLeishmania major (L. major) based on the existence of a large vacuole in the cytoplasm.Totally206 patients were referred to the central laboratory and their manifestation lesions were clinically examined.Of these,64 cases(31.1%) were female and142 cases(68.9%) were male.The findings documented that the rate of incidence ofCL was in fall61 cases(29/6%) and winter80 cases(38/8%), which is one of the most important characteristics of zoonoticCL.Sixty-eight cases(33%) had ulcers on hands,63 cases(30.6%) on feet and30 cases (14.6%) on hands and feet.A total of120 patients(58.3%) had only one ulcer.But70 cases(34%) had2 ulcers.The highest incidence was found among patients with two age groups of20-29 years old(43.2%) and10-19 years old(18%).The most cases resided in rural areas with164 cases(79.6%). Conclusions:Analyzing of the composed results revealed

  5. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries : a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Stephen S; Allen, Kate; Bhutta, Zulficiar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W; Goldberg, Ellen M; Hay, Simon I; Holmberg, Mollie; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J; Larson, Heidi J; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countri...

  6. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  7. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  8. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  9. 天门市健康促进基线调查结果分析%Analysis of baseline survey results of health promotion in Tianmen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义华; 乔正花

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the health status of residents and health promotion resources in Tianmen City,and to provide evidence for health education and health promotion.Methods:We randomly sampled to determine the objects of investigation,and took field observation and personal questionnaire for investigation,and the survey data were analyzed by SPSS software.Results:Tianmen residents’ health literacy level was low;the major health risk factors were smoking,drinking,unreasonable diet and nutrition and lack of exercise.The aging of the population,the increasing of morbidity of chronic diseases,the increasing of morbidity of traditional infectious diseases were the main factors affecting the health of residents.Conclusion:In view of the main health risk factors,we should innovate the form of health education.For the elderly,we carry out personalized health education,popularize the knowledge of chronic disease prevention and control.For the students,we focused on promoting the development of their good health habits.We should make reasonable allocation of health resources,mobilize departments to work together to build a health promotion and health education social network,to create a good environment for health promotion.%目的:调查,分析天门市居民健康状况和健康促进资源,为开展健康教育和健康促进工作提供依据。方法:随机抽样确定调查对象,采取现场观察、个人问卷方式进行调查,利用SPSS软件对调查数据进行分析。结果:天门市居民健康素养水平偏低,主要健康危险因素是吸烟、饮酒、饮食和营养方式不合理、缺乏锻炼等。人口老龄化、慢性病发病率增高、传统传染病抬头是影响居民健康状况的主要因素。结论:针对居民主要健康危险因素,创新健康教育形式,对老年人群进行个性化的健康教育,普及慢性病防治知识,对学生重点促进其良好卫生行

  10. Self-reported use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits to purchase soda in a public health center population: Los Angeles County, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel; Gase, Lauren; Butler, Rebecca; Smith, Lisa; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To better inform local program planning for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used self-reported data from a public health center population to examine the prevalence of benefits used to purchase soda. We performed statistical analyses, including multivariable regression modeling, using data from a local health and nutrition examination survey. The survey response rate was 69% (n=1,503). More than one-third of survey participants reported receiving, or living in a household where someone receives, nutrition assistance benefits. When asked, 33% (n=170) reported using these benefits to purchase soda "sometimes" and 18% (n=91) reported "often" or "always," suggesting that the use of program benefits to purchase soda was not uncommon in this subpopulation. These findings have meaningful policy and planning implications, as they contribute to ongoing dialogue about strategies for optimizing nutrition among SNAP recipients.

  11. Public health assessment for Adams County Quincy landfills 2 and 3, Quincy, Adams County, Illinois, Region 5. Cerclis No. ILD980607055. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-28

    Since the completion of remedial activities at the site, the Quincy landfill 2 and 3 site poses no apparent public health hazard. No one is currently exposed to contamination at the site. Any past exposure would not have been at levels of health concern. Based on current conditions, IDPH recommends that the Quincy Landfill 2 and 3 participating respondents group: Encourage the homeowner 1/2 mile west of the site to connect to Mill Creek Public Water supply and to seal the private well to eliminate possible exposure to site-related contaminants in groundwater; provide groundwater containment and treatment if groundwater cleanup levels are not met and maintained; continue proper maintenance of the leachate collection system and tank; maintain the landfill cap, particularly to address any erosion that occurs; and maintain a 6-foot-high security fence around the perimeter of the site to prevent trespassing.

  12. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GBD 2015 SDG Collaborators; Gyawali, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    , Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990...... as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators...... and indices. Findings In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8–61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2–86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4–24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r2...

  13. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  14. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  15. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Providing Free Public Transit Passes to Students in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Applying a Health Lens to Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Gase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of increased focus by public health to engage and work with non-health sector partners to improve the health of the general as well as special populations, only a paucity of studies have described and disseminated emerging lessons and promising practices that can be used to undertake this work. This article describes the process used to conduct a Health Impact Assessment of a proposal to provide free public transportation passes to students in Los Angeles County. This illustrative case example describes opportunities and challenges encountered in working with an array of cross-sector partners and highlights four important lessons learned: (1 the benefits and challenges associated with broad conceptualization of public issues; (2 the need for more comprehensive, longitudinal data systems and dynamic simulation models to inform decision-making; (3 the importance of having a comprehensive policy assessment strategy that considers health impacts as well as costs and feasibility; and (4 the need for additional efforts to delineate the interconnectivity between health and other agency priorities. As public health advances cross-sector work in the community, further development of these priorities will help advance meaningful collaboration among all partners.

  16. CDC BioSense: Tarrant County, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Tarrant County Public Health (TCPH) and Biosense collaboration is an effort to visualize TCPH health data collected by Biosense using Google Fusion Table...

  17. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  18. A Study to Establish Baseline Data on the Retiree Population’s Perceptions of Access and Health Care Delivered through Outpatient Services at Ireland Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    common household products, there are many ideas and principles that are used in marketing consumer products that can be applied to primary health care...Design & Analysis, Chicago: Free Press, 1955. Kotler , Phillip., Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975...to recapture ’the retiree population around IACH, Ft. Knox, KY. and to implement a marketing strategy which would attempt to recapture a portion of

  19. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  20. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports. PMID:25153472

  1. Evaluation on health education of iodine deficiency disorders prevention in Baofeng county%宝丰县碘缺乏病健康教育效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛国永; 张功员

    2012-01-01

    目的 对河南省宝丰县碘缺乏病(IDD)健康教育干预前的基线调查和干预措施实施1年的效果评价,评估IDD健康教育措施的效果.方法 采用分层随机化的方法选择干预组和对照组,进行干预前、后的比较分析.结果 干预组小学生IDD防治知识知晓率由干预前的62.56%提高到干预后的95.78%,家庭主妇从61.17%提高到93.17%;碘盐覆盖率从91.00%提高到99.67%;居民户合格碘盐食用率由88.17%提高到97.67%;小学生尿碘值小于50μg/L和小于100μg/L的比例由8.7%和16.8%下降到0和1.8%.小学生甲状腺肿大率由4.83%下降到4.00%.对照组上述指标干预前后比较均无统计学意义.干预后干预组与对照组比较小学生甲状腺肿大率无统计学意义,其它均有统计学意义.结论 健康教育干预可有效提高小学生和家庭主妇的IDD防治知识知晓率.同时使居民户碘盐覆盖率和合格碘盐食用率均明显上升.使小学生尿碘值小于50μg/L和小于100 μg/L的比例明显下降.%Objective Through the basic survey before interference and the evaluation of effect of the interfering measures within one year of health education about Iodine Deficiency Disorders( IDD) in Baofeng county of Henan province, evaluating the effect of health education measures. Methods To choose intervention group and contrast group in the stratified randomization method, to analyze and compare the results before and after intervention. Results After health education, the rate of knowledge on IDD by the baseline survey rising from 62. 56% to 93. 17% in primary school students, from 61. 17% to 93. 17% in the housewives; The coverage rate of iodized salt rising from 91. 00% to 99. 67% ; The intake rate of qualified iodized salt of the residents rising from 88. 17% to 97. 67%; The rate of urinary iodine under 50 μg/L and under 100 μg/L of the primary students were falling down from 8. 7% and 16. 8% to 0% and 1. 8

  2. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  3. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  4. Community Engagement in Health-Related Research: A Case Study of a Community-Linked Research Infrastructure, Jefferson County, Arkansas, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M Kathryn; Felix, Holly C; Olson, Mary; Cottoms, Naomi; Bachelder, Ashley; Smith, Johnny; Ford, Tanesha; Dawson, Leah C; Greene, Paul G

    2015-07-23

    Underrepresentation of racial minorities in research contributes to health inequities. Important factors contributing to low levels of research participation include limited access to health care and research opportunities, lack of perceived relevance, power differences, participant burden, and absence of trust. We describe an enhanced model of community engagement in which we developed a community-linked research infrastructure to involve minorities in research both as participants and as partners engaged in issue selection, study design, and implementation. We implemented this effort in Jefferson County, Arkansas, which has a predominantly black population, bears a disproportionate burden of chronic disease, and has death rates above state and national averages. Building on existing community-academic partnerships, we engaged new partners and adapted a successful community health worker model to connect community residents to services and relevant research. We formed a community advisory board, a research collaborative, a health registry, and a resource directory. Newly formed community-academic partnerships resulted in many joint grant submissions and new projects. Community health workers contacted 2,665 black and 913 white community residents from December 2011 through April 2013. Eighty-five percent of blacks and 88% of whites were willing to be re-contacted about research of potential interest. Implementation challenges were addressed by balancing the needs of science with community needs and priorities. Our experience indicates investments in community-linked research infrastructure can be fruitful and should be considered by academic health centers when assessing institutional research infrastructure needs.

  5. Sooner rather than later. Oklahoma County hospitals and health agencies take immediate action on the uninsured problem by collaborating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2007-04-23

    In reality TV, contestants are constantly forming an alliance--with mixed results. In Oklahoma County, it seemed like a good idea for physicians, hospitals and other leaders to come together to provide care for the uninsured. And it has been. Evan Collins, left, whose organization is part of that alliance, says: "We hope if this model works well, we can export it to other communities to replicate the same thing.

  6. Public health assessment for Danville H and L Number 1 Danville City Dump, Danville, Vermilion County, Illinois, Region 5: CERCLIS Number ILD980680052. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-17

    The inactive H and L No. 1 Municipal Landfill Response Action Site is south of Danville between the Vermilion River and Interstate 74 in Vermilion County, Illinois. The landfill operated from the 1940s to 1974, accepting domestic and industrial waste from the area. The site has a history of problems with leachate flows, seeps, and persistent odors. Before remedial activities, leachate would flow through the cover soil, predominantly along the northeastern part of the landfill. A leachate collection system was constructed in January 1992 and is currently in operation. The investigation and cleanup of contaminated soils and sediments on two adjacent residential properties are pending. Site-related contaminants currently pose no apparent public health hazard because human exposure to contaminated media is not occurring at levels of health concern.

  7. Decentralization of the provision of health services to people living with HIV/AIDS in rural China: the case of three counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yurong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is based on a large-scale household survey and in-depth interviews of key informants that was conducted in villages in three counties of two provinces in China. We assess the new decentralized service provision system for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural populations in China. Since 2003, new social assistance schemes, and, more importantly, decentralization of routine treatment and care to community health stations, were progressively implemented in rural areas most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Though some problems remain, such as persistent discrimination towards infected patients and the lack of sufficient training of medical staff, the new decentralized pattern of service provision has lowered barriers to health access and alleviated economic pressure on affected households.

  8. 林业碳汇项目基准线和监测方法学及应用分析——以贵州省贞丰县林业碳汇项目为例%Forestry Carbon Sequestration Project Baseline and Monitoring Methodology and Application Analysis—Take Guizhou Province Zhenfeng County Forestry Carbon Sequestration Projects as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓芬; 王晓鸣; 王旭; 王灏; 吴乔明

    2012-01-01

    Climate change to global social economic development has brought a significant impact,forestry carbon sequestration in the adaptation and mitigation of climate change,promote the sustainable development of the three aspects of the increasingly important role all over the world have been recognized.Forestry carbon sequestration project implementation is difficult to accurately grasp the forestry carbon sequestration projects design rules,standard system,focus on the baseline discriminant,carbon accounting,monitoring methodologies and tools.This paper introduced a system of international CDM afforestation and Reforestation(CDM A/R) project methodology and domestic carbon sequestration afforestation project methodology,the standard system of the latest achievements,and to the Guizhou province Zhenfeng county forestry carbon sequestration project as an example,analysis of the baseline and monitoring methodology in the development of forestry carbon sequestration projects application design.%气候变化给全球社会经济发展带来了重大影响,林业碳汇在适应和减缓气候变化、促进可持续发展三方面的重要作用日益被世界各国所认可。林业碳汇项目实施的难点在于准确掌握林业碳汇项目设计的规则、标准体系,重点在于基准线判别、碳汇计量、监测的方法学和工具。本文系统介绍了国际清洁发展机制造林再造林(CDM A/R)项目方法学和国内碳汇造林项目方法学、标准体系等最新成果,并以贵州省贞丰县林业碳汇项目为例,分析了基准线和监测方法学在林业碳汇项目开发设计中的实际应用。

  9. Health and exercise-related medical issues among 1,212 ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Hoffman

    Full Text Available Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1% and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%, but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%, coronary artery disease (0.7%, seizure disorders (0.7%, diabetes (0.7%, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection (0.2%. In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6% reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days, but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each. The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5% involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001 and less experienced (p<0.01 than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01 among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving

  10. Vulnerability-Based Spatial Sampling Stratification for the National Children’s Study, Worcester County, Massachusetts: Capturing Health-Relevant Environmental and Sociodemographic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena; Aupont, Onesky; Wang, Yangyang; Raj, Ann; Zimmerman, Paula; Goble, Robert; Taylor, Octavia; Churchill, Linda; Lemay, Celeste; McLaughlin, Thomas; Felice, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Children’s Study is the most ambitious study ever attempted in the United States to assess how environmental factors impact child health and development. It aims to follow 100,000 children from gestation until 21 years of age. Success requires breaking new interdisciplinary ground, starting with how to select the sample of > 1,000 children in each of 105 study sites; no standardized protocol exists for stratification of the target population by factoring in the diverse environments it inhabits. Worcester County, Massachusetts, like other sites, stratifies according to local conditions and local knowledge, subject to probability sampling rules. Objectives We answer the following questions: How do we divide Worcester County into viable strata that represent its health-relevant environmental and sociodemographic heterogeneity, subject to sampling rules? What potential does our approach have to inform stratification at other sites? Results We developed a multivariable, vulnerability-based method for spatial sampling consisting of two descriptive indices: a hazards/stressors exposure index (comprising three proxy variables), and an adaptive capacity/sociodemographic character index (five variables). Multivariable, health-relevant stratification at the start of the study may improve detection power for environment–child health associations down the line. Eighteen strata capture countywide heterogeneity in the indices and have optimal relative homogeneity within each. They achieve comparable expected birth counts and conform to local concepts of space. Conclusion The approach offers moderate to high potential to inform other sites, limited by intersite differences in data availability, geodemographics, and technical capacity. Energetic community engagement from the start promotes local stratification coherence, plus vital researcher–community trust and co-ownership for sustainability. PMID:20211802

  11. Baseline immunity to diphtheria and immunologic response after booster vaccination with reduced diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine in Thai health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiboonchutikul, Surasak; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sangsajja, Chariya; Thientong, Varaporn; Likanonsakul, Sirirat; Srisopha, Somkid; Termvises, Patamavadee; Rujitip, Jitlada; Loiusirirotchanakul, Suda; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study to evaluate immune status against diphtheria and immunologic response after tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster vaccination was conducted in 250 Thai health care workers (HCWs). A protective antibody was found in 89.2% of the HCWs (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.3%-91.5%) before receipt of the Td booster vaccination, compared with 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1%-99.3%) after receipt of the first dose of booster (P diphtheria increased from 0.39 IU/mL (95% CI, 0.35-0.44 IU/mL) before the Td booster vaccination to 1.20 IU/mL (95% CI, 1.12-1.29 IU/mL) after the vaccination (P vaccination should be considered for Thai HCWs to maintain immunity against diphtheria, which still circulates in Thailand.

  12. Survivors of war in the Northern Kosovo (II): baseline clinical and functional assessment and lasting effects on the health of a vulnerable population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This study documents torture and injury experience and investigates emotional well-being of victims of massive violence identified during a household survey in Mitrovicë district in Kosovo. Their physical health indicators such as body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength and standing balance were also measured. A further aim is to suggest approaches for developing and monitoring rehabilitation programmes. Methods A detailed assessment was carried out on 63 male and 62 female victims. Interviews and physical examination provided information about traumatic exposure, injuries, and intensity and frequency of pain. Emotional well-being was assessed using the "WHO-5 Well-Being" score. Height, weight, handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. Results Around 50% of victims had experienced at least two types of torture methods and reported at least two injury locations; 70% had moderate or severe pain and 92% reported constant or periodic pain within the previous two weeks. Only 10% of the victims were in paid employment. Nearly 90% of victims had experienced at least four types of emotional disturbances within the previous two weeks, and many had low scores for emotional well-being. This was found to be associated with severe pain, higher exposure to violence and human rights violations and with a low educational level, unemployment and the absence of political or social involvement. Over two thirds of victims were overweight or obese. They showed marked decline in handgrip strength and only 19 victims managed to maintain standing balance. Those who were employed or had a higher education level, who did not take anti-depressant or anxiety drugs and had better emotional well-being or no pain complaints showed better handgrip strength and standing balance. Conclusions The victims reported a high prevalence of severe pain and emotional disturbance. They showed high BMI and a reduced level of physical fitness. Education, employment

  13. Survivors of war in the Northern Kosovo (II: baseline clinical and functional assessment and lasting effects on the health of a vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rexhaj Berina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documents torture and injury experience and investigates emotional well-being of victims of massive violence identified during a household survey in Mitrovicë district in Kosovo. Their physical health indicators such as body mass index (BMI, handgrip strength and standing balance were also measured. A further aim is to suggest approaches for developing and monitoring rehabilitation programmes. Methods A detailed assessment was carried out on 63 male and 62 female victims. Interviews and physical examination provided information about traumatic exposure, injuries, and intensity and frequency of pain. Emotional well-being was assessed using the "WHO-5 Well-Being" score. Height, weight, handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. Results Around 50% of victims had experienced at least two types of torture methods and reported at least two injury locations; 70% had moderate or severe pain and 92% reported constant or periodic pain within the previous two weeks. Only 10% of the victims were in paid employment. Nearly 90% of victims had experienced at least four types of emotional disturbances within the previous two weeks, and many had low scores for emotional well-being. This was found to be associated with severe pain, higher exposure to violence and human rights violations and with a low educational level, unemployment and the absence of political or social involvement. Over two thirds of victims were overweight or obese. They showed marked decline in handgrip strength and only 19 victims managed to maintain standing balance. Those who were employed or had a higher education level, who did not take anti-depressant or anxiety drugs and had better emotional well-being or no pain complaints showed better handgrip strength and standing balance. Conclusions The victims reported a high prevalence of severe pain and emotional disturbance. They showed high BMI and a reduced level of physical fitness

  14. The effectiveness of medical assistant health coaching for low-income patients with uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia: protocol for a randomized controlled trial and baseline characteristics of the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard-Grace, Rachel; DeVore, Denise; Chen, Ellen H; Hessler, Danielle; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Thom, David H

    2013-02-23

    Many patients with chronic disease do not reach goals for management of their conditions. Self-management support provided by medical assistant health coaches within the clinical setting may help to improve clinical outcomes, but most studies to date lack statistical power or methodological rigor. Barriers to large scale implementation of the medical assistant coach model include lack of clinician buy-in and the absence of a business model that will make medical assistant health coaching sustainable. This study will add to the evidence base by determining the effectiveness of health coaching by medical assistants on clinical outcomes and patient self-management, by assessing the impact of health coaching on the clinician experience, and by examining the costs and potential savings of health coaching. This randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of clinic-based medical assistant health coaches to improve clinical outcomes and self-management skills among low-income patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. A total of 441 patients from two San Francisco primary care clinics have been enrolled and randomized to receive a health coach (n = 224) or usual care (n = 217). Patients participating in the health coaching group will receive coaching for 12 months from medical assistants trained as health coaches. The primary outcome is a change in hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, or LDL cholesterol among patients with uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, respectively. Self-management behaviors, perceptions of the health care team and clinician, BMI, and chronic disease self-efficacy will be measured at baseline and after 12 months. Clinician experience is being assessed through surveys and qualitative interviews. Cost and utilization data will be analyzed through cost-predictive models. Medical assistants are an untapped resource to provide self-management support for patients with uncontrolled

  15. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men.

  16. Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaun Reeder

    2007-01-01

    @@ Background There is worldwide concern about the potentially damaging effects of chemicals in the environment on the health of humans, animals, agriculture and ecosystems. Economic and population growth are increasing rapidly, exacerbating such problems as land degradation and pollution from uncontrolled urbanisation, industrialisation,intensive agricultural practices and over-exploitation of aquifers.

  17. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  18. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  19. Sibling number and prevalence of allergic disorders in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa Masashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an inverse relationship between number of siblings and likelihood of allergic disorders has been shown in many epidemiological studies, the biological mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been identified. There is no epidemiological research regarding the sibling effect on allergic disorders in Japanese adults. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between number of siblings and prevalence of allergic disorders among adult women in Japan. Methods Subjects were 1745 pregnant women. This study was based on questionnaire data. The definitions of wheeze and asthma were based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas those of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis were based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, household income, and education. Results The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 10.4%, 5.5%, 13.0%, and 25.9%, respectively. A significant inverse exposure-response relationship was observed between the number of older siblings and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not wheeze, asthma, or eczema (P for trend = 0.03; however, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for having 2 or more older siblings was not significant although the adjusted OR for having 1 older sibling was statistically significant (adjusted OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.56-0.91]. Number of total siblings and number of younger siblings were not related to wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions This study found a significant inverse relationship between the number of older siblings and the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis among pregnant Japanese women. Our findings are likely to support the intrauterine programming

  20. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  1. Genetic analysis of invasive Aedes albopictus populations in Los Angeles County, California and its potential public health impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daibin Zhong

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an anthropophilic aggressive daytime-biting nuisance and an efficient vector of certain arboviruses and filarial nematodes. Over the last 30 years, this species has spread rapidly through human travel and commerce from its native tropical forests of Asia to every continent except Antarctica. In 2011, a population of Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus was discovered in Los Angeles (LA County, California. To determine the probable origin of this invasive species, the genetic structure of the population was compared against 11 populations from the United States and abroad, as well as preserved specimens from a 2001 introduction into California using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 gene. A total of 66 haplotypes were detected among samples and were divided into three main groups. Aedes albopictus collected in 2001 and 2011 from LA County were genetically related and similar to those from Asia but distinct from those collected in the eastern and southeastern United States. In view of the high genetic similarities between the 2001 and 2011 LA samples, it is possible that the 2011 population represents in part the descendants of the 2001 introduction. There remains an imperative need for improved surveillance and control strategies for this species.

  2. Genetic analysis of invasive Aedes albopictus populations in Los Angeles County, California and its potential public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Lo, Eugenia; Hu, Renjie; Metzger, Marco E; Cummings, Robert; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Fujioka, Kenn K; Sorvillo, Teresa E; Kluh, Susanne; Healy, Sean P; Fredregill, Chris; Kramer, Vicki L; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an anthropophilic aggressive daytime-biting nuisance and an efficient vector of certain arboviruses and filarial nematodes. Over the last 30 years, this species has spread rapidly through human travel and commerce from its native tropical forests of Asia to every continent except Antarctica. In 2011, a population of Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) was discovered in Los Angeles (LA) County, California. To determine the probable origin of this invasive species, the genetic structure of the population was compared against 11 populations from the United States and abroad, as well as preserved specimens from a 2001 introduction into California using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene. A total of 66 haplotypes were detected among samples and were divided into three main groups. Aedes albopictus collected in 2001 and 2011 from LA County were genetically related and similar to those from Asia but distinct from those collected in the eastern and southeastern United States. In view of the high genetic similarities between the 2001 and 2011 LA samples, it is possible that the 2011 population represents in part the descendants of the 2001 introduction. There remains an imperative need for improved surveillance and control strategies for this species.

  3. Evaluation of Health Service Quality in Counties with the Health XI Project in Gansu Province: Taking the Gaolan County for Example%甘肃省卫XI项目县卫生服务质量评价研究:以皋兰县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宣辰; 杨敬宇

    2011-01-01

    探讨在甘肃省卫XI项目县如何推行卫生服务质量评价工作,以改善和提高卫生服务能力,为卫XI项目活动的更好实施提供理论支持和实践经验.研究了皋兰县卫生服务质量评价工作的实际情况,总结了在项目县推行卫生服务质量评价的具体步骤,并提出了对评价指标实行编码化管理,对于最后评价结果的规范化输出和进行不同评价主体间的结果比对有重要意义.%To discuss the implement Jhe health care quality evaluation in counties with the Health XI Project in Cansu Province, to improve and enhance the capacity of health services, and to provide theoretical support and practical experience for the Health XI Project activities. Health services quality evaluation is a necessary means of the quality management and the basic precondition of health services. The paper investigeted the actual situation of health care quality evaluation in one of project counties, Gaolan in Cansu Province, and summarized the implementation steps of quality assessment. On the basis of the actual situation, the index of evaluation was proposed to code management, which was the standardization of the evaluation results for the final output. And also, the standardization results can combine with the results of quantitative assessment and subjects with different evaluation results should be compared.

  4. 78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... management systems. This project aims to improve collaboration between ASPR and the local health departments... care, public health, and emergency management systems. One of the overarching goals of both the National Health Security Strategy (2009) and the ASPR Strategic Plan 2011-2015 is to build community...

  5. The 2007 los angeles mommy and baby study: a multilevel, population-based study of maternal and infant health in los angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin M; Wakeel, Fathima; Herman, Dena; Higgins, Chandra; Shi, Lu; Chow, Jessica; Sun, Stacy; Lu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In order to comprehensively examine the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the University of California, Los Angeles, joined efforts to design and implement the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study. This paper aims to present the conceptual frameworks underlying the study's development, highlight the successful collaboration between a research institution and local health department, describe the distinguishing characteristics of its methodology, and discuss the study's implications for research, programs, and policies. Methods. The LAMB study utilized a multilevel, multistage cluster design with a mixed-mode methodology for data collection. Two samples were ultimately produced: the multilevel sample (n = 4,518) and the augmented final sample (n = 6,264). Results. The LAMB study allowed us to collect multilevel data on the risks and resources associated with racial-ethnic disparities in adverse obstetric outcomes. Both samples were more likely to be Hispanic, aged 20-34 years, completed at least 12 years of schooling, and spoke English. Conclusions. The LAMB study represents the successful collaboration between an academic institution and local health department and is a theoretically based research database and surveillance system that informs effective programmatic and policy interventions to improve outcomes among LAC's varied demographic groups.

  6. Health assessment for TRW Proposed National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Minerva, Stark County, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD004179339. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-31

    The TRW site is a Proposed National Priorities List (NPL) site located about one mile northeast of downtown Minerva, Stark County, Ohio. Previous disposal practices by the former TRW plant (currently owned by PCC Airfoils, Inc.) introduced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into on-site and off-site soils and ground water. Off-site residential wells were contaminated with elevated levels of VOCs, especially vinyl chloride. In 1985, contaminated soils and sediments from the former disposal areas were excavated and disposed of in an on-site secure landfill (cell). In addition, in 1986 a Consent Order between TRW and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency was signed, in which TRW agreed to implement an on-site and off-site ground water 'pump and treat' operation to intercept the VOC contaminant plumes. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time.

  7. Understanding land use, livelihoods, and health transitions among Tibetan nomads: a case from Gangga Township, Dingri County, Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Yong; Li, Zhuoqing; Tashi, Nyima; Sharma, Rita; Fang, Jing

    2008-06-01

    Tibetan nomads in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China have experienced profound transitions in recent decades with important implications for land use, livelihoods, and health development. The change from being traditional nomads to agropastoralists engaged in permanent agriculture, a sedentary village life (known as "sedentarization"), has been associated with a remarkable change in diet and lifestyle, decline in spatial mobility, increase in food production, and emerging infectious and noncommunicable diseases. The overarching response of the government has been to emphasize infrastructure and technological solutions. The local adaptation strategies of Tibetan nomads through maintaining balanced mobile herding, reindeer husbandry, as well as off-farm labor and trade could address both the cause of environmental degradation and improve the well-being of local people. Drawing on transdisciplinary, preliminary field work in Gangga Township of Dingri County in the foothills of Mt. Everest, we identify pertinent linkages between land use and health, and spatial and temporal mismatch of livelihoods and health care services, in the transition to sedentary village life. We suggest emerging imperatives in Ecohealth to help restore Tibetan livelihoods in transition to a sedentary lifestyle.

  8. Allegheny County Restaurant/Food Facility Inspection Violations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Facilities located within Allegheny County that produce, distribute and sell food products are subject to mandatory, routine inspection by one of the health...

  9. 保定市山区县中小学学生健康状况调查%Investigation on health condition of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊爱; 赵宝军

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the health condition of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City,provide scientific basis for making health education materials.[Methods] Two counties were selected from 8 mountain area counties of Baoding City by stratified sampling,and all primary and middle school students in both two counties received the health examination according to unified standard.The data were analyzed,and results between two counties were compared.[Results]The top five influencing factor for health condition of primary and middle school students was poor eyesight,dental caries,antiadoncus,obesity and eye diseases.The detection rate of poor eyesight in middle school students of Yixian County was significantly higher than that of Shunping County (P < 0.05),and there was no significant difference in other results between two counties (P > 0.05).The detection rate of poor eyesight was the highest,and the detection rate in primary schools and middle schools of Shunping County was 33.70% and 56.13% respectively,while that in primary schools and middle schools of Yixian County was 58.31% and 65% respectively.The dental caries presented the second highest detection rate,the detection rate in primary schools of Shunping County was 26.08%,while that in junior middle school and senior middle school was 15.72% and 13.84% respectively.[Conclusion] The health conditions of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City are similar.%目的 全面了解和掌握保定市山区县中小学学生健康状况,为有针对性地制定健康教育教材的科学依据.方法 对保定市辖区内的8个山区县按照分层随抽样方法进行抽样,选择2个县对县城内的所有中小学学生按照统一检查标准进行健康检查,2县检查结果进行对比分析,数据进行统计处理.结果 视力不良、龋齿、扁桃体肿大、肥胖、眼疾是排在前5位的影响中小学

  10. Crises and Resilience at the Frontline—Public Health Facility Managers under Devolution in a Sub-County on the Kenyan Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikuri, Mary; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Okoth, Philip; Molyneux, Sassy

    2015-01-01

    Background Public primary health care (PHC) facilities are for many individuals the first point of contact with the formal health care system. These facilities are managed by professional nurses or clinical officers who are recognised to play a key role in implementing health sector reforms and facilitating initiatives aimed at strengthening community involvement. Little in-depth research exists about the dimensions and challenges of these managers’ jobs, or on the impact of decentralisation on their roles and responsibilities. In this paper, we describe the roles and responsibilities of PHC managers–or ‘in-charges’ in Kenya, and their challenges and coping strategies, under accelerated devolution. Methods The data presented in this paper is part of a wider set of activities aimed at understanding governance changes under devolution in Kenya, under the umbrella of a ‘learning site’. A learning site is a long term process of collaboration between health managers and researchers deciding together on key health system questions and interventions. Data were collected through seven formal in depth interviews and observations at four PHC facilities as well as eight in depth interviews and informal interactions with sub-county managers from June 2013 to July 2014. Drawing on the Aragon framework of organisation capacity we discuss the multiple accountabilities, daily routines, challenges and coping strategies among PHC facility managers. Results PHC in-charges perform complex and diverse roles in a difficult environment with relatively little formal preparation. Their key concerns are lack of job clarity and preparedness, the difficulty of balancing multidirectional accountability responsibilities amidst significant resource shortages, and remuneration anxieties. We show that day-to-day management in an environment of resource constraints and uncertainty requires PHC in-charges who are resilient, reflective, and continuously able to learn and adapt. We

  11. Crises and Resilience at the Frontline-Public Health Facility Managers under Devolution in a Sub-County on the Kenyan Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nyikuri

    Full Text Available Public primary health care (PHC facilities are for many individuals the first point of contact with the formal health care system. These facilities are managed by professional nurses or clinical officers who are recognised to play a key role in implementing health sector reforms and facilitating initiatives aimed at strengthening community involvement. Little in-depth research exists about the dimensions and challenges of these managers' jobs, or on the impact of decentralisation on their roles and responsibilities. In this paper, we describe the roles and responsibilities of PHC managers-or 'in-charges' in Kenya, and their challenges and coping strategies, under accelerated devolution.The data presented in this paper is part of a wider set of activities aimed at understanding governance changes under devolution in Kenya, under the umbrella of a 'learning site'. A learning site is a long term process of collaboration between health managers and researchers deciding together on key health system questions and interventions. Data were collected through seven formal in depth interviews and observations at four PHC facilities as well as eight in depth interviews and informal interactions with sub-county managers from June 2013 to July 2014. Drawing on the Aragon framework of organisation capacity we discuss the multiple accountabilities, daily routines, challenges and coping strategies among PHC facility managers.PHC in-charges perform complex and diverse roles in a difficult environment with relatively little formal preparation. Their key concerns are lack of job clarity and preparedness, the difficulty of balancing multidirectional accountability responsibilities amidst significant resource shortages, and remuneration anxieties. We show that day-to-day management in an environment of resource constraints and uncertainty requires PHC in-charges who are resilient, reflective, and continuously able to learn and adapt. We highlight the importance of

  12. Public Health Offices, Prince George's County Health Department Nutrition Sites, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Health Offices dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. It is...

  13. Self-reported general health, physical distress, mental distress, and activity limitation by US county, 1995-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Dwyer-Lindgren (Laura); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Metrics based on self-reports of health status have been proposed for tracking population health and making comparisons among different populations. While these metrics have been used in the US to explore disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position, less is

  14. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  15. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  17. Newcomers health in Brantford and the counties of Brant, Haldimand and Norfolk: perspectives of newcomers and service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Bharati

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian government's plan to support a balanced distribution of immigrants throughout the nation has contributed to newcomers' dispersion to small town communities and rural areas. However, very little work has examined the health experiences of immigrants settling in smaller urban and rural regions. Even less literature exists on the perspectives of service providers working with newcomers in Canada's urban-rural communities. This paper focuses on a part of a larger Community-based study on 'Newcomer Settlement and Integration in Education, Training, Employment, Health and Social Support' in Brantford--a middle-sized urban/rural region in Ontario, Canada--and discusses the findings in the health domain. Data were generated from 212 service providers and 237 newcomers using both qualitative and quantitative research tools. Newcomers identified several barriers in accessing mental and/or physical health services including lack of culturally appropriate services and discrimination. The striking differences between newcomers' and service providers' responses to the survey questionnaires bring to light cultural variations between the newcomers' and the service providers' perceptions of 'health'. The findings reinforce the need for including newcomers in developing more inclusive and culturally-appropriate health services and programs.

  18. 县级城市医疗卫生事业建设中的问题研究%The Study on Medical and Health Problems in the Construction of County-level Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓

    2011-01-01

    在城市化进程加快的今天,县级城市既有城市的特点,又有农村的特征。医疗卫生是公共事业的重要组成部分,县级城市的医疗卫生事业发展水平对于我国医疗卫生事业的整体发展而言关系重大。从医疗卫生服务体系上来说,县级城市既有向城市专科医疗方向发展的特点,又具有巩固与发展三级医疗卫生网络的特点。因而对于县级城市医疗卫生事业发展的研究具有深远意义。%With accelerating urbanization process nowadays,County-level cities have combine the characteristics of the city and rural areas.Health care is an important part of public utilities,and the level of health care development on county-level cities means a lot to the overall situation of China's development in medical and health care.In terms of medical and health service system,the county-level cities are in the direction of the existing division of labor to urban development,and possess characteristics of the consolidation and development of three-tier health care network.Thus it is of meaningful importance to study the development of medical and health care in county-level cities.

  19. Environmental pollution: An enormous and invisible burden on health systems in low- and middle-income counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Fuller, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background. Environmental pollution has become the leading risk factor for death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization and others calculate that exposures to polluted air - indoor and outdoor, water and soil resulted in 8.4 million deaths in LMICs in 2012. By comparison, HIV/AIDS causes 1.5 million deaths per year, and malaria and tuberculosis Less than 1 million each. The diseases caused by pollution include the traditional scourges of pneumonia and diarrhea, but increasingly they also include chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as such as heart disease, stroke and cancer. Method. We review the diseases caused by pollution and the multiple economic and human burdens that these diseases impose on health systems in countries with already limited resources. Results. We find that diseases caused by pollution increase health care costs, especially for high-cost NCDs. They impose an unnecessary load on health care delivery systems by increasing hospital staffing needs and thus diverting resources from essential prevention programmes such as childhood immunizations, infection control and maternal and child health. They undermine the development of poor countries by reducing the health, intelligence and economic productivity of entire generations. Pollution is highly preventable and pollution prevention is highly cost-effective. Yet despite their high economic and human costs and amenability to prevention, the diseases caused by pollution have not received the attention that they deserve in policy planning or in the international development agenda. Conclusion. Pollution is not inevitable. It is a problem that can be solved in our lifetime. Given the great impact of pollution on health and health care resources and the high cost-benefit ratio of pollution prevention, efforts to mitigate pollution should become a key strategic priority for international funders and for governments of LMICs. Recommendation. Assisting LMICs to

  20. Implementation and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Teleretinal Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program in the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Lauren P; Vasquez, Carolina; Martinez, Carlos; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Mangione, Carol M

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age in the United States. In the Los Angeles County safety net, a nonvertically integrated system serving underinsured and uninsured patients, the prevalence of DR is approximately 50%, and owing to limited specialty care resources, the average wait times for screening for DR have been 8 months or more. To determine whether a primary care-based teleretinal DR screening (TDRS) program reduces wait times for screening and improves timeliness of needed care in the Los Angeles County safety net. Quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest evaluation of exposure to primary care-based TDRS at 5 of 15 Los Angeles County Department of Health Services safety net clinics from September 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, with a subgroup analysis of random samples of 600 patients before and after the intervention (1200 total). Primary care clinic-based teleretinal screening for DR. Annual rates of screening for DR before and after implementation of the TDRS program across the 5 clinics, time to screening for DR in a random sample of patients from these clinics, and a description of the larger framework of program implementation. Among the 21 222 patients who underwent the screening (12 790 female, 8084 male, and 348 other gender or not specified; mean [SD] age, 57.4 [9.6] years), the median time to screening for DR decreased from 158 days (interquartile range, 68-324 days) before the intervention to 17 days (interquartile range, 8-50 days) after initiation of the program (P < .001). Overall annual screening rates for DR increased from 5942 of 14 633 patients (40.6%) before implementation to 7470 of 13 133 patients (56.9%) after initiation of the program at all 15 targeted clinics (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9; P = .002). Of the 21 222 patients who were screened, 14 595 (68.8%) did not require referral to an eye care professional, 4160 (19.6%) were referred for treatment or monitoring

  1. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  2. 遵义市24所县级公立医院卫生人力资源现状分析%Status analysis on health human resources in 24 county level hospitals in Zunyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵锐; 方鹏骞; 孙杨

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To learn status of health human resources in county level public hospitals in west region and give evidence based reference for rational allocation health staff in county level public hospital. Methods: Typical case analysis was used to analyze health human resources in 24 county level hospitals in Zunyi from 2007 to 2009. Results: Human resources of county level hospitals in west regions is far less than the average of the whole country and human resources planning is poor and the allocation is fairly irrationality. The gaps within the region is relative large. Conclusions: Scientifically allocate county level hospital human resources, faithfully solve personnel quota and highlight on human resources training and sustainable development.%目的:了解西部地区县级公立医院的卫生人力资源现状,为今后合理地配置县级公立医院人员提供科学依据.方法:通过典型案例分析对遵义市24家县级综合医院2007年到2009年连续三年的卫生人力资源进行调查.结果:西部地区县级公立医院人力资源数量远少于全国平均水平,人力规划较落后,配置略显不合理,区域内差异较大.结论:及建议科学配置县级公立医院的人才队伍,切实解决人员编制问题,注重人才培养及可持续发展.

  3. mHealth Series: mHealth project in Zhao County, rural China – Description of objectives, field site and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Helena van Velthoven

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We set up a collaboration between researchers in China and the UK that aimed to explore the use of mHealth in China. This is the first paper in a series of papers on a large mHealth project part of this collaboration. This paper included the aims and objectives of the mHealth project, our field site, and the detailed methods of two studies.

  4. Maryland environmental public health tracking outreach with Spanish-speaking persons living in Baltimore city or county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggio, John T; Mitchell, Clifford S; Fierro-Luperini, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The 2000 Pew reports became the impetus for the National Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program, but there was no mention that Spanish-speaking persons are at increased risk of exposure to environmental hazards. To undertake successful EPHT outreach on Spanish-speaking persons (Hispanics), it is necessary to better understand their environmental health profile and barriers to health care access. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey questions were administered orally in Spanish to Spanish-speaking study participants. Volunteers were tested at a non-for-profit social service and referral agency in Baltimore. To control for acculturation, only Spanish-speaking persons who had lived in the United States for less than 10 years were selected. Responses to 40 BRFSS survey questions asked during the assessment and completion of 3 intervention activities. This study provides new information about Spanish-speaking persons, most of whom (85.3%) would not have been included in the landline administration of the BRFSS survey. Although 29.9% of the participants reported indoor pesticide use and another 9.2% reported outdoor pesticide use, lifetime (3.5%) and current (1.2%) asthma prevalence was significantly lower than asthma prevalence reported by Maryland Hispanics and all Maryland residents. There were significantly lower cholesterol screening (21.5%) and a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes (12.5%) in Spanish-speaking participants than in Maryland Hispanics and all Maryland residents. Among study participants, only 7.8% had health insurance and 39.9% reported that they could not see a doctor. Of the 3 outreach efforts completed, the most promising one involved asking Spanish-English-speaking health care professionals to distribute Spanish comic books about pesticides exposures and health outcomes in community settings where Spanish-only speakers and children were found. The effectiveness of passive and community-based EPHT

  5. Health assessment for E. H. Schilling Landfill, Ironton, Lawrence County, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD980509847. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-02

    The E.H. Schilling Landfill site is listed on the National Priorities List. The five-acre site was a landfill, licensed to accept only nonhazardous dry industrial waste, from 1971 until 1980 when it was closed. The environmental contamination on-site consists of polychlorinated biphenyls, vinyl toluene, cumene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, including fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, in soil. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ground water, soil, sediment, surface water, and air.

  6. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  7. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  8. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  9. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  10. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  11. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  12. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  13. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  14. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  15. Study of Peer-led Intervention on Reproductive Health Education and AIDS Prevention in Joint Venture Factories in Kunshan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ming SUN; Jian-fang ZHOU; Feng-ming YAN; Qin YIN; Jing-shu MAO; Cai-ying HUANG; Bo TAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To disseminate the knowledge of contraception and STD/AIDS prevention to unmarried young adults.Methods A peer-led 8-month intervention on reproductive health promotion and STD/AIDS prevention was conducted in joint venture factories in Kunshan Countythrough existing family planning service network. A quasi-experimental design was used.Results The contraception, STD/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes improved significantly, and the use of condom also increased significantly in experimental group after the intervention. No such changes occurred in control group.Conclusion This study demonstrates that the peer-led education is an effective approach of expanding reproductive health and AIDS prevention services to unmarried young adults in the joint venture factories.

  16. Lack of Measles Transmission to Susceptible Contacts from a Health Care Worker with Probable Secondary Vaccine Failure - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson; Klein, Ron; Popescu, Saskia; Rose, Karen; Kretschmer, Melissa; Carrigan, Alice; Trembath, Felicia; Koski, Lia; Zabel, Karen; Ostdiek, Scott; Rowell-Kinnard, Paula; Munoz, Esther; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Sylvester, Tammy

    2015-08-07

    On January 23, 2015, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected measles case in a nurse, a woman aged 48 years. On January 11, the nurse had contact with a patient with laboratory-confirmed measles associated with the Disneyland theme park-related outbreak in California. On January 21, she developed a fever (103°F [39.4°C]), on January 23 she experienced cough and coryza, and on January 24, she developed a rash. The patient was instructed to isolate herself at home. On January 26, serum, a nasopharyngeal swab, and a urine specimen were collected. The following day, measles infection was diagnosed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing of the nasopharyngeal swab and urine specimen and by detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of her symptoms and laboratory results, the patient was considered to be infectious.

  17. Design on the performance evaluation framework of district and county health system in Shanghai%上海区县卫生系统绩效评价概念框架设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建琳; 江力波; 彭颖; 王剑萍; 张勘

    2014-01-01

    本研究参照国际多个国家和组织的卫生服务系统绩效评估框架,结合上海区县卫生系统的特点,提出上海区县卫生系统绩效评价概念框架.其绩效框架包含2个一级评估目标和7个二级评估维度:在长期目标中,“健康状况”、“满意度”和“疾病风险保护”是区县卫生系统绩效的长期效果评估维度;在中期目标中,“可及性”、“成本”、“效率”和“质量”,是区县卫生系统绩效的中期效果评估维度.本研究旨在评价区县卫生系统改善健康能力的整体绩效.其三级指标有待进一步研究确立.%Shanghai district and county health system performance evaluation conceptual frameworkwas proposed based on health services system performance assessment frameworks raised by some countries and international organizations,and combined with Shanghai district and county health system characteristics.This framework contains two first grade indices and seven second grade indices:In the long term goals,'health','satisfaction' and 'disease risk protection' are the county's longterm effects of health system performance assessment dimensions; in the medium-term goals,the'accessibility','cost',' efficiency' and 'quality' are the county' s medium-term effects of health system performance assessment dimensions.This study aimed to evaluate Shanghai county health system's overall performance.Further study is needed in constructing its third grade indices.

  18. mHealth Series: Measuring maternal newborn and child health coverage by text messaging - a county-level model for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Li; van Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Wang, Wei; Liu, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Li, Ye; Car, Josip

    2013-12-01

    Effective interventions in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH), if achieving high level of population coverage, could prevent most of deaths in children under five years of age. High-quality measurements of MNCH coverage are essential for tracking progress and making evidence-based decisions. MNCH coverage data are mainly collected through fieldworkers' interview with preselected households in standard programs of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) in most low- and middle-income countries. Household surveys will continue to be the major data source for MNCH coverage in the foreseeable future. However, face-to-face data collection broadly used in household surveys is labor-intensive, time-consuming and expensive. Mobile phones are drawing more and more interest in medical research with the rapid increase in usage and text messaging could be an innovative way of data collection, that is, we could collect DHS data through mHealth method. We refer to it as "mDHS". We propose in this paper a conceptual model for measuring MNCH coverage by text messaging in China. In developing this model, we considered resource constraints, sample representativeness, sample size and survey bias. The components of the model are text messaging platform, routine health information system, health facilities, communities and households. Measuring MNCH interventions coverage by text messaging could be advantageous in many ways and establish a much larger evidence-base for MNCH health policies in China. Before mDHS could indeed be launched, research priorities would include a systematic assessment of routine health information systems and exploring feasibility to collect name lists, mobile phone numbers and general demographic and socio-economic data; qualitative interviews with health workers and caregivers; assessment of data validity of all indicators to be collected by text messaging; and exploring approaches to increase participation

  19. Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: a preliminary case study of Nangabo sub-county, central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galabuzi, Charles; Agea, Jacob Godfrey; Fungo, Bernard L; Kamoga, Regina M N

    2009-10-15

    This study was conducted in Nangabo sub-county of Wakiso district. The purpose was to document the common Traditional Medicine (TM) practices; assess the local people's preferences for TM versus western medicine (WM) and lastly to determine the awareness about the importance of TM by local people. Data were collected using semi-structured administered face-to-face with respondents. A total of 120 interviewed. Six focused group discussions (FGDs) were held to validate the questionnaire responses. Data were analyzed descriptively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings indicated that most (43%) respondents derive their livelihoods from traditional medicine practices. Three forms of TM were reported-herbalism (67%), spiritual counseling (23%) and bone setting (10%). Although the majority (81%) of respondents were quite aware of the importance of TM in the sustenance of health care system, majority (55%) of them shunned TM in preference to WM, largely because of the belief that TM is evil-founded and devilish in nature. Only 45% of the respondents preferred TM to WM. The main reasons given for visiting TM practioners rather than western medical practitioners were that TM is sometimes more effective than WM and that in many instances it has very minimal side effects on the human body. There is, however, a need for Ugandan government to legitimize the practice of TM since it contributes a lot to health care needs in areas where western medicine is insufficiently provided. In addition, there is a need for further research into the efficacy and safety of traditional medicines if it is to be adequately integrated into western medicine.

  20. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up till now, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. Although mainly arable and/or mixed arable/pastoral farmers, Ameru of central Kenya are known to have a rich history of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Their collective and accumulative ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK is likely to be just as rich and worth documenting. The aim of the study was to document and analyse the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the Ameru. Methods Non-alienating, dialogic, participatory action research (PAR and participatory rural appraisal (PRA approaches involving 21 women and men aged between 50 and 79 years old were utilized. A combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to select 21 key respondents. The methods comprised a set of triangulation approach needed in EVK for non-experimental validation of ethnoknowledge of the Ameru. Results A total of 48 plant species distributed in 26 families were documented with details of diseases/ill-health conditions, parts of plants used and form of preparation and administration methods applied to different animal groups. Of these families, Fabaceae had the highest number of species (16.67%, followed by Solanaceae (12.5%, Asteraceae and Euphorbiacea (each comprising 8.33%, Lamiaceae (6.25%, Apocynaceae and Boraginaceae (each comprising 4.17%, while the rest of the 19 families, each was represented by a single plant species. About 30 livestock diseases/ill-health conditions were described, each treated by at least one of the 48 plant species. Most prevalent diseases/ill-health conditions included: - anaplasmosis, diarrhea, East Coast fever, pneumonia, helminthiasis, general weakness and skin diseases involving wounds caused by ectoparasites. Conclusion The study showed that there was a rich knowledge and ethnopractices for traditional animal healthcare amongst the Ameru. This study therefore provides some groundwork for elucidating the efficacy of

  1. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  2. Public health assessment for Re-Solve, Incorporated, Dartmouth, Bristol County, Massachusetts, Region 1: CERCLIS number MAD980520621. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-05-25

    The Re-Solve National Priorities List (NPL) site is a 6-acre area situated in the town of Dartmouth, Massachusetts. During the years 1956-1980 the Re-Solve Company distilled industrial solvents on-site. Waste materials from this process were disposed of by burning solvents in four on-site lagoons and spreading waste oils in various portions of the site. Elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in soils throughout the site in 1981, and it was added to the NPL in December 1982. This site is characterized as a past and present public health hazard primarily due to the likely past and present exposure to PCBs through the consumption of PCB contaminated fish and eels from area water bodies. Based upon results of fish sampling that detected PCBs in area eel, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health issued and updated an advisory in 1986 and 1994 recommending that people not eat the fish and eel caught in these affected waters. The potentially exposed population; therefore, include area fishers who may be consuming contaminated fish or eel.

  3. FY2015 VHA Enrollees by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the number of Veteran enrollees by state/county for fiscal year 2015....

  4. Accounting and Analysis on Public Health Expenditures in County-Level Centers for Disease Control%县级疾病控制机构公共卫生费用核算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高熹; 刘国祥; 张歆; 吕丽丽; 刘加卓

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过核算与分析县级疾病控制机构公共卫生费用,为政府制定和完善公共卫生政策提供科学依据。方法:采用卫生费用核算方法中的功能法进行公共卫生费用核算。结果:界定了县级疾病控制机构公共卫生服务项目内涵和外延,并确定了其分类及内容;进行了县级疾病控制机构公共卫生费用核算及分析。结论:完善财政补偿机制,增加财政投入;合理调整财政投入结构,确保基本公共卫生服务的提供质量;加强政府监管,调整县级疾病控制机构的工作重点。%Objective: Through accounting and analyzing public health expenditures of county-level centers for disease control (CDC), to provide government scientific references for making and implementing public health policies. Methods: The functional approach of health care accounting methods is used to account the public health expenditures. Results: The connotation and scale of public health care activities of county-level CDC are defined, and the items and contents of public health services are presented; the public health expenditures of county-level CDC were calculated and analyzed. Conclusion: The compensation mechanism should be perfected, and the financial investment in public health needs to be raised;the structure of financial input ought to be rationally adjusted so as to guarantee the basic public health services quality, and government supervision needs to be strengthened to adjust the key projects of county-level CDC.

  5. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline technology will enable them to track and manage costs, discover errors and waste, and consolidate and improve existing technology.

  6. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  7. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  8. Survey of human resources for public health workers at the povertystricken minority county, Guizhou Province%贵州省少数民族贫困县公共卫生队伍现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健; 武飚; 吴园园

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解贵州省少数民族贫困县公共卫生队伍现状.方法 2010年8月选取贵州省黔东南苗族侗族自治州三穗县对县级公共卫生人员(疾病预防控制中心、妇幼保健院人员)及乡级公共卫生人员(10个乡镇卫生院防保组人员)共83人进行问卷调查.结果 乡级公共卫生人员21人.平均每千人口乡级公共卫生人员0.08人;乡级公共卫生人员缺编率为84.4%;乡级公共卫生人员执业助理医师占61.9%,执业医师占9.5%,注册护士占28.6%;中专医学学历占66.6%,大专占33.4%;无预防医学专业教育背景;职称均为初级;各乡镇乡级公共卫生人员人口分布的洛伦兹曲线离绝对公平线较远;职称晋升困难;工资待遇、住房条件低(差)于同龄同学历县级公共卫生人员.结论 乡级公共卫生人员严重短缺,结构不合理,业务素质较低,分布公平性较差;工作与生活条件待改善.%OBJECTIVE To describe the current situation of human resources for public health workers at the poverty-stricken minority county, Guizhou Province. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 83 public health workers at the county center for disease control and prevention, maternal and child health hospital, and 10 township health centers of Sansui county, Qiandongnan autonomous prefecture of Miao and Dong minorities, Guizhou province in August 2010. RESULTS A total of 21 public health workers were reported at township health centers. The results also showed an average of 0.08 person of public health workers at township health centers per 1 000 population. The percentage of job vacancies at township health centers was 84.4%. About 61.9% of the respondents at township health centers worked as assistants of medical doctors, 9.5% as medical doctors, and 28.6% as registered nurses. 66.6% were graduated from the technical secondary medical school, 33.4% from the junior medical college. Respondents at

  9. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  10. 江西省永新县芦溪乡卫生院医疗卫生服务现状调查%A Status Survey on Luxi Township Health Center, Yongxin County of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小明; 李鸿浩; 周小军; 周天生; 洪凌燕; 易敬林; 阮世颖; 韩金祥; 李幼平; 李胜; 杨晓妍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of medical service and management in Luxi township health center (LxC) in Yongxin county of Jiangxi province, so as to provide baseline data about drug allocation, logistic key techniques research and products development for township health centers. Methods By means of questionnaire and focus interview, the LxC was investigated from the following aspects: general information, human resources, medicine list, basic device configuration, medical service and management, as well as service efficiency. Results a) Yongxin county including 13 village committees covers an area of 86 km2, with the population of 22 300 in 2009, and it pertains to a backward area with the annual per capita income of RMB 4 100 yuan; b) Among the total 28 staffs in LxC, 78.6% were health workers; the general practitioner (GP)/nurse ratio was about 1:0.58; the proportion of GP, nurses, medical technicians, other staffs was 54.55%, 31.82%, 9.09% and 4.54%, respectively; the proportion of bachelor degree, junior college graduation and secondary technical school graduation was 9.1%, 13.6%, and 77.3%, respectively; and the ratio of elementary, middle, and high professional title of health workers was 15:5:1; c) There were 625 species of drugs in LxC in 2009,and the hospital beds approved by government were 0.69 per thousand agricultural persons, which, however, were 1.15 in fact. The rate of 51 basic equipments shown in national regulation was actually 76.5%, and the readiness and utilization rate of existing 40 equipments was 92.5%; and d) In 2009, the outpatients were 12 150 person-time, with the average cost of RMB 29.39 yuan; the hospital discharge was 1 589 person-time, with the average stay of 12 days and the average cost of RMB 490.05 yuan; the vaccine inoculations were 5 053 person-time; among the total income, the medical service income accounted for 73.2%, while the drug income accounted for 53.7%; the personnel expenditure was 31.0% of the

  11. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  12. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  13. Evaluation of Impact of Life-planning Skills Training among Senior High School Students in Shangcai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan CHENG; Chao-hua LOU; Jian-hua YANG; Shuang-ling ZHAO; Er-sheng GAO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of sex and reproductive health education using lifeplanning skills training among senior high school students in a rural county.Methods The study was conducted in three senior high schools of Shangcai County with comparable socio-cultural, economic, and demographic characteristics, two as intervention sites and one as the control. A three-month life-planning skills training course was conducted among all grade one students in the intervention schools. The baseline survey was conducted prior to the intervention, once again three months after the intervention was initiated. Data were collected through questionnaires, FGDs and IDIs to evaluate the effect of the intervention program.Results After the intervention, the median score of reproductive health knowledge was higher in the intervention group (55.66) than that in control group (38.68).Students from the intervention group were also more comfortable with their developmental changes which were going through. In the end line survey, 92.70% of the students in the intervention group suggested that reproductive health education should be carried out among all middle school students in Shangcai County. Multivariate analysis also indicated that peers and family had a significant effect on students'sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors.Conclusion Sex and reproductive health education via provision of life-planning skills training can significantly increase students' sex and reproductive health knowledge and was welcomed by students, teachers and parents.

  14. County-level environmental quality and associations with individual - and county-level preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health is influenced by simultaneous exposure to stressors and amenities, but research usually considers single exposures. We constructed a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) using principal components analysis with data from five domains (air, water, land, buil...

  15. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  16. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  17. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  18. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  19. Allegheny County TIF Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) outline parcels for Allegheny County, PA. TIF closing books contain all necessary documentation related to a TIF in order to close on...

  20. Allegheny County TIF Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) outline parcels for Allegheny County, PA. TIF closing books contain all necessary documentation related to a TIF in order to close on...

  1. Allegheny County Property Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Real Property parcel characteristics for Allegheny County, PA. Includes information pertaining to land, values, sales, abatements, and building characteristics (if...

  2. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary...

  3. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  4. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  5. Allegheny County Depression Medication

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These Census Tract-level datasets described here provide de-identified diagnosis data for customers of three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway...

  6. Allegheny County Diabetes Hospitalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data includes the number of people hospitalized with diabetes between 2013-2015, by age group, for Allegheny County Zip Codes.

  7. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  8. Westmoreland County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Westmoreland County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  9. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  10. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  11. Beaver County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Beaver County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  12. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  13. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  14. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  15. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  16. Allegheny County Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the Allegheny County boundary. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  17. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  18. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  19. Allegheny County Homicides

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The dataset has location information on homicides that occurred in Allegheny County from 2002-2014. Age group, gender, and race and year of death have been...

  20. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  1. Allegheny County Property Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Webmap of Allegheny municipalities and parcel data. Zoom for a clickable parcel map with owner name, property photograph, and link to the County Real Estate website...

  2. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  3. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  4. Allegheny County Anxiety Medication

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These Census Tract-level datasets described here provide de-identified diagnosis data for customers of three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway...

  5. Butler County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Butler County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity, fatalities,...

  6. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  7. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  8. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.; Bando, A.; Bassett, G.; Rosen, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, J.; Meenan, C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  10. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  11. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  12. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  13. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  14. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  15. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  16. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  17. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  18. 安徽省对口援建新疆皮山县卫生人才培养调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of health personnel training during Anhui province aiding Xinjiang Pishan county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪长如; 王劲松; 麻冲

    2015-01-01

    目的:为新疆定向培养医疗卫生人才提供决策依据。方法通过文献法、关键知情人深度访谈法、问卷调查、观察法,了解皮山县卫生人才发展现状和需求,分析新疆民族学生的学情,以及安徽省援疆人才培养情况。结果皮山县卫生人才总量不足、增量不够,致力援疆项目民族学生的思想政治教育、国家通用语言能力、学业质量、文化心理适应能力等方面需要着力加强,安徽省援疆卫生人才培养采取了创新工作机制、创新人才培养模式等举措。结论解决皮山县卫生人才短缺问题,必须严格人才选拔标准、扩大定向培养规模,坚持立德树人、保证人才培养质量,以及采取激励措施、鼓励内地优秀毕业生到新疆就业。%Objective To provide decision support for the Xinjiang oriented training medical talents. Methods Through the literature method, key informant interviews method, questionnaires method, observation method, learned about health personnel situation and demand Pishan county, analyzed the situation of Xinjiang minority students in Anhui Province as well as the aiding-Xinjiang personnel training.Results Health talent in Pishan county was in short, its increment was not enough, the Intellectual Aid Project for Xinjiang Minority Students including the ideological and political education, national general language ability, academic quality, cultural and psychological adaptation ability need strengthening, Anhui Province health personnel training took the measures like innovating the mode of cultivating mechanism and talent initiatives.Conclusions In order to solve the problem of Pishan county health personnel shortages, we must tighten the standard of selecting talents, expand the scale of the oriented training, adhere to the morality education, ensure the quality of personnel training, and take incentive measures to encourage the mainland outstanding graduates to work in

  19. 县域突发公共卫生事件大众风险沟通现状研究%Research on Current Situation of County Public Health Emergencies Risk Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 张继彬; 陈国永; 张刚; 李杰; 钱玲; 毛群安

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the situation of the current work of and the related factors of the county public health emergencies risk communication, so as to offers scientific basis for making the public risk communication strategy, plan and guide at the county level. Methods: Adopt the qualitative research method in two counties, conduct depth interview for government spokesman, the focus group discussion of medical and health institutions and relevant administrative agency personnel, and the general public. Results: Although county public emergency responses have the basic knowledge and consciousness of risk communication, there are rarely risk communications content and items in the emergency response plan of the county government, let alone department's responsibility. The coordination mechanism of risk communication is ineffective, not make good use of media resource. In addition to the mass media, the people would believe the oral notice from government and village officers and cadres. Conclusion: There are lacks of substantive provisions and coordinate system of the county-level public emergency risk communication work plan. To deal with serious emergency incident, it is necessary for them to conduct the systematic training and exercises on risk communication. Common people expect the diversity of channels of risk communication, especially having the higher trust for interpersonal communication.%目的:了解我国县域开展突发公共卫生事件大众风险沟通的工作现状及相关因素,为制定县级大众风险沟通策略、计划和指南提供科学依据.方法:采用质化研究方法,在辽宁省海城市和安徽省寿县,深度访谈政府发言人,焦点小组座谈医疗卫生机构和有关行政机构人员,以及普通群众.结果:政府部门的应急预案中涉及风险沟通的内容很少,部门职责不明,协调机制不灵,媒体资源调动不充分.除了大众媒介外,基层百姓更相信政府干部的层层通知.结

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician provision of preventive care in a network of community-based mental health services: a study protocol of a non-randomized, multiple baseline trial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background People with a mental illness experience substantial disparities in health, including increased rates of morbidity and mortality caused by potentially preventable chronic diseases. One contributing factor to such disparity is a higher prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviors, such as smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of preventive care in reducing such risks, and gu...

  1. Occupational Health Costs of Enterprises with Occupational Benzene Hazard in Xianghe County, Langfang,Hebei%河北省廊坊市香河县苯职业危害企业职业卫生投入分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 任合彦; 徐萍

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To describe distributions of occupational health costs of enterprises with occupational benzene hazard in Xianghe County, Hebei Province, and to evaluate levels of occupational disease prevention and control. [ Methods ] A questionnaire survey on occupational health costs was conducted among 245 small and medium-sized enterprises with occupational benzene hazard in Xianghe County. Obtained results were used for statistical analysis. [ Results ] The per capita occupational health cost was RMB 758.7 yuan. The overall occupational health costs of 245 enterprises amounted to RMB 2.372 million yuan, accounting for 0.6% of their overall annual gross product. The distribution of occupational health costs and its proportion to gross product showed a positive skewness. Twenty-three enterprises invested zero in occupational health, accounting for 9.4% of all enterprises investigated. The costs of detection and evaluation of occupational hazardous factors, occupational health surveillance, and occupational health training accounted for 15.3%, 17.2%, and 15.1% of the total occupational health costs, respectively. [ Conclusion ] The enterprises with occupational benzene hazard in Xianghe County invest insufficient capital in occupational health, and their effort for prevention and control is generally on low levels. The limited funds for prevention and control are not invested in those sections with higher cost-effectiveness ratios. Moreover, their prevention and control strategies are not well-directed and fail to prioritize those important sections.%[目的]调查河北省廊坊市香河县苯职业危害企业职业卫生投入经费及分布状况,初步评估其职业病防治水平.[方法]对香河县245家苯职业危害中小企业职业卫生投入状况开展问卷调查,对调查结果进行统计分析.[结果]每位劳动者平均享有758.7元人民币职业卫生费用;245家企业职业卫生总经费共237.2万元人

  2. VT Boundaries - county polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  3. Capacity building for primary health care reform and its effectiveness in Feixi county, Anhui province%安徽省肥西县基层卫生服务能力提升改革及其成效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金音子; 何莉; 岳大海; 朱炜明; 张鲁豫; 马慧芬; 孟庆跃

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析安徽省肥西县基层卫生服务能力提升改革措施及成效,为深化基层医疗卫生服务体系改革提供参考。方法:采用关键知情人访谈、政策文件和档案资料分析以及机构问卷调查等方法收集资料,定性和定量研究结合,通过交叉分析和解释得出研究发现。结果:2010—2014年,肥西县从基层卫生人员能力、卫生服务体系网络建设、工作条件改善、机构管理制度建设四方面进行改革后,基层卫生人员能力提升、工作积极性增加、收入提高,基层卫生条件改善,纵向和横向医疗服务协作机制建立,县内就诊率和基层卫生服务利用提高。结论:肥西县“自下而上”的探索路径和“以点带面”的试点推行,不仅是基层卫生体系综合改革的核心内容,也有效撬动了其它方面的改革,触动了医疗卫生体系体制机制。%Objective:To analyze the implementation and effectiveness of primary health care reform in Feixi county, Anhui province. Methods: This paper uses data analysis of interviews with key insiders, policy documents and archives, as well as institutional questionnaire survey and other methods to collect information, and then it com-bines qualitative and quantitative research to arrive at research findings through cross-analysis and interpretation. Re-sults:From 2010 to 2014, the reform enhanced the capacity of primary health care in four main aspects, including capacity building of primary health care personnel, network construction of primary health care system, improvement of working conditions, and system construction of institutional management. Accordingly, the human capacity of pri-mary health care personnel was improved, their enthusiasm for work increased, their income was raised, the working conditions were improved, the cooperation mechanism for vertical and horizontal health care services was established, and the consultation rate

  4. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  5. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County. These are not clipped to the Allgeheny County boundary. If viewing this...

  6. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  7. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  8. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  9. Health-Related Conditions and Depression in Elderly Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Residents of a United States-Mexico Border County: Moderating Effects of Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Briones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of “high” levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA and non-Hispanic white (NHW residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life—conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.

  10. Young of the year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) as a bioindicator of estuarine health: Establishing a new baseline for persistent organic pollutants after Hurricane Sandy for selected estuaries in New Jersey and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Deshpande, Ashok D; Blazer, Vicki S; Dockum, Bruce W; Timmons, DeMond; Sharack, Beth L; Baker, Ronald J; Samson, Jennifer; Reilly, Timothy J

    2016-06-30

    Atlantic coastal bays of the US are essential habitat for young of year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Their residence in these estuaries during critical life stages, high lipid content, and piscivory make bluefish an ideal bioindicator species for evaluating estuarine health. Individual whole fish from four estuaries impacted by Hurricane Sandy were collected in August 2013, analyzed for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides and evaluated using health metrics. Concentrations in whole bluefish differed by estuary; however, concentrations for many POPs decreased or were similar to those observed prior to the hurricane. Prevalence of the ectoparasitic gill isopod (Lironeca ovalis) varied by estuary and no relationships between contaminants and lesions were observed. Bluefish should be considered for monitoring programs and, if sampled frequently, could be an effective bioindicator of incremental and episodic changes in contaminants within aquatic food webs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Young of the year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) as a bioindicator of estuarine health: Establishing a new baseline for persistent organic pollutants after Hurricane Sandy for selected estuaries in New Jersey and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly; Deshpande, Ashok D.; Blazer, Vicki; Bruce W Dockum,; DeMond Timmons,; Beth L. Sharack,; Baker, Ronald J.; Jennifer Samson,; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic coastal bays of the US are essential habitat for young of year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Their residence in these estuaries during critical life stages, high lipid content, and piscivory make bluefish an ideal bioindicator species for evaluating estuarine health. Individual whole fish from four estuaries impacted by Hurricane Sandy were collected in August 2013, analyzed for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides and evaluated using health metrics. Concentrations in whole bluefish differed by estuary; however, concentrations for many POPs decreased or were similar to those observed prior to the hurricane. Prevalence of the ectoparasitic gill isopod (Lironeca ovalis) varied by estuary and no relationships between contaminants and lesions were observed. Bluefish should be considered for monitoring programs and, if sampled frequently, could be an effective bioindicator of incremental and episodic changes in contaminants within aquatic food webs.

  12. Allegheny County Block Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset overlays a grid on the County to assist in locating a parcel. The grid squares are 3,500 by 4,500 square feet. The data was derived from original...

  13. Sheridan County Recreation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Elaine

    A pilot project investigating the feasibility of year-round recreational programs in rural counties of populations of less than 10,000 is described in this report. (Sheridan County, Kansas, was chosen as the project site.) Part I, the introductory section, briefly defines recreation and its relation to human needs. Part II provides a geographic…

  14. Allegheny County Block Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset overlays a grid on the County to assist in locating a parcel. The grid squares are 3,500 by 4,500 square feet. The data was derived from original...

  15. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  16. LANDSLIDES IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zarojanu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the county of Suceava, the landslides are a real and permanent problem. This paper presents the observations of landslides over the last 30 years in Suceava County, especially their morphology, theirs causes and the landslide stopping measures. It presents also several details regarding the lanslides from the town of Suceava, of Frasin and the village of Brodina.

  17. Hancock County Awards Gala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Gene Goldman (left), deputy director of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, accepts an Award of Excellence from Jack Zink, executive director of the Hancock County Port and Harbor Commission, during the 2008 Annual Hancock County Awards Gala. The Award of Excellence was presented to recognize Stennis Space Center's contribution to NASA's 50 years of excellence in space exploration.

  18. Post Auction Coverage Baseline 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — FINAL TELEVISION CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION RELATED TO INCENTIVE AUCTION REPACKING. NOTE: This file provides new baseline coverage and population data for all...

  19. Salud mental en médicos que realizan el servicio rural, urbano-marginal en salud en el Perú: Un estudio de línea base Mental health in physicians doing the rural and suburban health service in Peru: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Galán-Rodas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones poco favorables que el médico joven encara durante el Servicio Rural, Urbano Marginal en Salud (SERUMS pueden incrementar el riesgo de enfermedades mentales. El objetivo del estudio es establecer la línea base sobre niveles de depresión y uso problemático de alcohol en aquellos médicos que realizarán dicho servicio durante el periodo 2011-2012. Se aplicó como herramientas de tamizaje la escala del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos para depresión y el Test para la Identificación de Trastornos por Uso de Alcohol, a 493 médicos. Se encontró que 26% de las mujeres y 14,5% de los varones puntuaron en el rango de depresión; 22% de mujeres y 26% de varones lo hicieron para uso problemático de alcohol. 39% puntuó para cualquiera de ambas entidades. Los problemas de salud mental son comunes entre los médicos que se disponen a migrar para realizar el SERUMS, lo cual debe ser atendido para evitar mayores riesgos.The disadvantageous conditions in which young physicians have to do their rural and sub-urban health service (SERUMS may put them in a high risk for mental disorders. This study aims to establish the baseline levels of depression and alcohol use problems among those physicians scheduled to complete their SERUMS during the period 2011-2012. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT were administered as screening tests to 493 physicians. Depression scores were met by 26% females and 14.5% males, and alcohol use problem scores were met by 22% females and 26% males. Overall, 39% persons scored for either of both mental health entities. Mental health problems seem to be common among young physicians scheduled to migrate to their SERUMS. These problems must be addressed to avoid greater risks.

  20. Effect of provision of an integrated neonatal survival kit and early cognitive stimulation package by community health workers on developmental outcomes of infants in Kwale County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Lisa G; Bassani, Diego G; Nyaga, Lucy; Njagi, Isaac; Wanjiku, Catherine; Thiruchselvam, Thulasi; Macharia, William; Minhas, Ripudaman S; Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia; Lakhani, Amyn; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Armstrong, Robert; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-09-08

    Each year, more than 200 million children under the age of 5 years, almost all in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), fail to achieve their developmental potential. Risk factors for compromised development often coexist and include inadequate cognitive stimulation, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, infection and complications of being born low birthweight and/or premature. Moreover, many of these risk factors are closely associated with newborn morbidity and mortality. As compromised development has significant implications on human capital, inexpensive and scalable interventions are urgently needed to promote neurodevelopment and reduce risk factors for impaired development. This cluster randomized trial aims at evaluating the impact of volunteer community health workers delivering either an integrated neonatal survival kit, an early stimulation package, or a combination of both interventions, to pregnant women during their third trimester of pregnancy, compared to the current standard of care in Kwale County, Kenya. The neonatal survival kit comprises a clean delivery kit (sterile blade, cord clamp, clean plastic sheet, surgical gloves and hand soap), sunflower oil emollient, chlorhexidine, ThermoSpot(TM), Mylar infant sleeve, and a reusable instant heater. Community health workers are also equipped with a portable hand-held electric scale. The early cognitive stimulation package focuses on enhancing caregiver practices by teaching caregivers three key messages that comprise combining a gentle touch with making eye contact and talking to children, responsive feeding and caregiving, and singing. The primary outcome measure is child development at 12 months of age assessed with the Protocol for Child Monitoring (Infant and Toddler version). The main secondary outcome is newborn mortality. This study will provide evidence on effectiveness of delivering an innovative neonatal survival kit and/or early stimulation package to pregnant women in Kwale County

  1. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  2. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  3. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  4. 江苏省无锡市卫生系统单位控烟现状调查%Tobacco control baseline survey among health administration and public health departments in the urban are- as of Wuxi City of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪峰; 陈再芳; 陈健; 陆宏枫; 徐伟德; 罗健

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省无锡城区卫生系统单位的烟草流行和控烟状况,为实施盖茨中国控烟项目提供数据支持和科学依据.方法 以问卷方式对24家机关类单位和23家社区卫生服务机构的在岗员工分别进行全员调查.结果 总的吸烟率为16.25%,男、女吸烟率分别为45.08%和0.07%,二手烟暴露率为44.76%;吸烟员工在工作单位、在禁烟区域吸烟的分别占72.35%和58.94%,准备12个月以内(包括1个月内)戒烟的占36.31%;调查对象中认为医院、工作场所和本单位应室内禁烟的分别占98.14%、94.96%和94.14%,知晓本单位规定室内全面禁烟的占66.27%,希望本单位有更严格控烟规章的占87.15%.结论 47家目标单位员工的吸烟率,男、女性吸烟率和二手烟暴露率均低于全国总体水平,对烟草危害知识及单位室内禁烟规章的知晓率较低.%Objective To leam the prevalence of tobacco use and current tobacco control situation among health administrations in Wuxi' s urban areas, and to provide baseline information and scientific support for Wuxi' s Tobacco Free Cities-Gates China Tobacco Control program. Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted among all the staffs of 24 health administration departments and 23 community health service centers. Results The overall current smoking prevalence was 16. 25%. Current smoking prevalence among male and female staffs were 45. 08% and 0. 07% , respectively. 44. 76% of the staffs were exposed to second hand smoke. Among the smoking staffs, 72. 35% smoke in workplaces, and 58. 94% smoke in non-smoking areas. Only 36. 31% of the current smokers planed to quit smoking in 12 months. Among all the staffs, 98. 14% , 94. 96% and 94. 14% believed that hospitals, work sites and their own departments should ban smoking, respectively. In addition, 66. 27% of the staffs know the comprehensive tobacco control policy in their department, and 87. 15% of the staffs expected their department to

  5. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F -- Baseline human health risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants.

  6. Application of decision support systems in county urban planning: a proposal for Macaé county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALANTE, A. C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Macaé County is one of the greatest economy of the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the use of the information technology is possible to create a powerful tool for supporting the decision making processing for this County, aiding the process of improvement of life quality. For that one, intends to use a Decision Support System able to give different kind of information of County areas, like health and education. For the union of all information the datawarehouse technology will be used. For query implementation the technologies of OLAP and GIS are used together. Therefore, those technologies together make a powerful tool for aiding the decision making process of the Macaé County.

  7. Changes in Disparity in County-Level Diagnosed Diabetes Prevalence and Incidence in the United States, between 2004 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Edward W.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Barker, Lawrence E.; Geiss, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the United States experienced increasing prevalence and incidence of diabetes, accompanied by large disparities in county-level diabetes prevalence and incidence. However, whether these disparities are widening, narrowing, or staying the same has not been studied. We examined changes in disparity among U.S. counties in diagnosed diabetes prevalence and incidence between 2004 and 2012. Methods We used 2004 and 2012 county-level diabetes (type 1 and type 2) prevalence and incidence data, along with demographic, socio-economic, and risk factor data from various sources. To determine whether disparities widened or narrowed over the time period, we used a regression-based β-convergence approach, accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We calculated diabetes prevalence/incidence percentage point (ppt) changes between 2004 and 2012 and modeled these changes as a function of baseline diabetes prevalence/incidence in 2004. Covariates included county-level demographic and, socio-economic data, and known type 2 diabetes risk factors (obesity and leisure-time physical inactivity). Results For each county-level ppt increase in diabetes prevalence in 2004 there was an annual average increase of 0.02 ppt (p<0.001) in diabetes prevalence between 2004 and 2012, indicating a widening of disparities. However, after accounting for covariates, diabetes prevalence decreased by an annual average of 0.04 ppt (p<0.001). In contrast, changes in diabetes incidence decreased by an average of 0.04 ppt (unadjusted) and 0.09 ppt (adjusted) for each ppt increase in diabetes incidence in 2004, indicating a narrowing of county-level disparities. Conclusions County-level disparities in diagnosed diabetes prevalence in the United States widened between 2004 and 2012, while disparities in incidence narrowed. Accounting for demographic and, socio-economic characteristics and risk factors for type 2 diabetes narrowed the disparities, suggesting that these factors are

  8. The growth pattern of 0-1-year-old Danish children, when screened by public health nurses--the Copenhagen County Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Petersen, Janne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2005-01-01

    Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference.......Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference....

  9. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  10. Association of Fetal Heart Rate Baseline Change and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael; Stout, Molly J; López, Julia D; Colvin, Ryan; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-07-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of baseline change within normal range during labor and its prediction of neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort of singleton, nonanomalous, term neonates with continuous electronic fetal monitoring and normal baseline fetal heart rate throughout the last 2 hours of labor. We determined baseline in 10-minute segments using Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria. We evaluated baseline changes of ≥ 20 and ≥ 30 bpm for association with acidemia (umbilical cord arterial pH ≤ 7.10) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis of normal neonates, excluding those with acidemia, NICU admission, or 5-minute Apgar bpm; 272 (9.0%) had ≥ 30 bpm. Among normal neonates (n = 2,939), 1,221 (41.5%) had change ≥20 bpm. Acidemia was not associated with baseline change of any direction or magnitude. NICU admission was associated with decrease ≥ 20 bpm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19 - 7.21) or any direction ≥ 20 bpm (aOR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.46-11.29). For decrease ≥ 20 bpm, sensitivity and specificity were 40.0 and 81.7%; for any direction ≥ 20 bpm, 75.0 and 58.3%. Conclusion Changes of normal baseline are common in term labor and poorly predict morbidity, regardless of direction or magnitude. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  12. SURVEY, SOLANO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Solano County California, hydrographic survey data collected by Harned Surveying and Engineering (HSE). Data collection period January 1, 2011 through March 1, 2011.

  13. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  14. Allegheny County Sheriff Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...

  15. Allegheny County Cemetery Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Outlines of public and private cemeteries greater than one acre in size. Areas were delineated following a generalized line along the outside edge of the area....

  16. Durham County Demographic Profile

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — (a) Includes persons reporting only one race.(b) Hispanics may be of any race, so also are included in applicable race categories. D: Suppressed to avoid disclosure...

  17. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  18. County Political Boundaries (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD 2015). The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract...

  19. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography...

  20. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  1. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  2. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  3. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HARGHITA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Constantin AVORNICULUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste management problems in Harghita County (and other places in the country have a major negative impact on society and pose a direct threat to human health, and an adverse effect on quality of life. Considering the current practices, it is clear that the system of waste management in Romania and Harghita county needs to be improved to meet the requirements of new national and European regulations. In Harghita County there are 36 protected areas of national interest, four protected areas of local interest and 18 Natura 2000 sites, including 13 Sites of Community Importance (SCI and 5 Special Protection Areas (SPA. Strengthening a sustainable waste management system involves major changes to current practices. Implementing such changes can be successfully achieved only through the involvement of the whole society: population– as users, entrepreneurs, socio-economic institutions and public authorities.

  4. Baseline Estimates of Adherence to American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Board of Internal Medicine Choosing Wisely Initiative Among Patients With Cancer Enrolled With a Large Regional Commercial Health Insurer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Scott D; Fedorenko, Catherine; Chauhan, Rakesh; McGee, Richard; Lyman, Gary H; Kreizenbeck, Karma; Bansal, Aasthaa

    2015-07-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Choosing Wisely (CW) measures aim to reduce the use of interventions that lack evidence of benefit in cancer care. The study presented here characterized adherence to the 2012 ASCO/ABIM CW recommendations by linking health plan claims data with a regional cancer registry and sought to identify areas for research interventions to improve adherence. SEER records for patients diagnosed with cancer in Western Washington State between 2007 and 2014 were linked with enrollment and claims from a large regional commercial insurance plan. Using claims and SEER records, algorithms were developed to characterize adherence to each CW measure. In addition, we calculated differences in total reimbursements and procedure-specific reimbursements for patients receiving adherent and nonadherent care. A total of 22,359 unique individuals with cancer were linked with insurance enrollment records and met basic eligibility criteria. Overall adherence varied from 53% (breast surveillance) to 78% (breast staging). Within each measure, adherence varied substantially by stage at diagnosis and by cancer site in situations in which the CW measure affected multiple types of cancer. The difference in reimbursements between adherent and nonadherent populations across all five measures was approximately $29 million. Adherence to the ASCO/ABIM CW measures varies widely, as does the cost implication of nonadherence. A structured approach to evaluating adherence and cost impact is needed before developing programs aimed at improving adherence to the ASCO/ABIM CW measures. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control and Sodium Intake in Shandong Province, China: Baseline Results From Shandong–Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Results Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%–26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg–6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg–4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg–5,683 mg). Conclusion Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China. PMID:24854239

  6. 农村地区县妇幼保健院助产服务现状及优势分析%Analysis on current situation and advantages of midwifery service in maternal and child health care hospital at county level in rural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣; 金曦; 杜立燕; 胡文玲; 谷丽紧

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查农村地区不同类别助产机构产科服务提供情况及服务能力,对县妇幼保健院助产服务现状和优势进行分析.方法:在全国随机抽取44个地市全部助产服务机构2010年产科服务情况进行问卷调查,重点对农村地区(县和县级市)中不同类型助产机构进行分析.结果:农村助产服务机构中县妇幼保健院占6.5%,县妇幼保健院产科床位数占辖区产科总床位数的18.1%,分娩数量占辖区分娩量的42.9%,平均每个县妇幼保健院年分娩为1 259人,高于县级综合性医院和其他医疗机构.县妇幼保健院中能提供综合产科和综合新生儿科服务的比例最高分别为85.3%、61.9%,高于县级综合性医院83.1%、59.4%,并明显高于其他医疗机构32.4%、19.3%.结论:县妇幼保健院是农村地区助产服务的主要力量之一,与其他助产机构相比,县妇幼保健院在助产服务提供数量和能力方面都具有一定优势.应进一步加强对妇幼保健机构的规范化建设,以保证其职能的履行.%Objective:To investigate the obstetrical service providing status and service ability of different types of midwifery institutions in rural area,and analyze the current situation and advantages of midwifery service in county maternal and child health care hospitals.Methods:The whole midwifery institutions in 44 cities were randomly selected,the obstetrical service statuses of the midwifery institutions in 2010 were investigated by a questionnaire,different types of midwifery institutions in rural area (counties and county-level cities) were analyzed.Results:Among the midwifery service institutions in rural area,county maternal and child health care hospitals accounted for 6.5%,the number of beds in obstetrical departments of county maternal and child health care hospitals accounted for 18.1% of the total number of beds in obstetrical departments of county maternal and child health care hospitals

  7. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  8. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  9. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  10. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  11. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-27

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available.

  12. Research on Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in a County of Changzhi%长治市某县乡镇集中式饮用水源水质健康风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 赵海生; 张松柏; 田雄超

    2011-01-01

    文章采用美国环境保护署(U.S.EPA)提出的水质健康风险评价模型,对长治市某县6处乡镇集中式饮用水水源水质进行评价,探讨了水体中所含污染物对人体健康潜在影响。结果表明,该县6处饮用水水源所含污染物对人体健康潜在危害均高于国际辐射委员会(ICRP)推荐的最大可接受限值5.0×10-5 a-1;化学致癌物是该县饮用水中危害人体健康的主要风险来源,对人体健康危害的风险度排序为:Cr6+﹥As﹥Cd。水环境健康风险评价模型较传统的水质等级评价体系能够量化表征水体中各污染物对人体健康的潜在危害,有利于明确水体污染物治理的优先顺序,为水环境管理提供科学依据。%In this paper,the model of health risk assessment proposed by U.S.EPA(United States Environmental Protection Agency) is applied to drinking water supply source in a county of Changzhi city and health risk of the pollutant in the drinking water supply source is discussed.Results indicates that the total health risk values were higher than the maximum allowed level(5.0×10-5 a-1) recommended by ICRP(International Commission on Radiological Protection).The health risk caused by chemical carcinogen was significantly higher than those caused by non-carcinogen contaminations,and the ranking of risk values due to chemical carcinogen was Cr6+﹥As﹥Cd.Compared to the traditional water quality assessment system,the health risk assessment can quantificationally connect water pollution to human health,put single indicator to human health directly and define the priority of controlled pollutants,which provides the scientific support for environmental management.

  13. Status of village health personnel in poverty-stricken minority counties, Guizhou province%贵州省少数民族贫困县村医队伍现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健; 武飚; 李孔章

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the situation of village health personnel (VHP) in poverty-stricken minority counties.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 172 VHP at 77 village clinics in Puan minority county,Guizhou province in January 2010.Results The age of the VHP was from 22 to 68 years, with an average of 39 years.About 98.8% of respondents did not have any technical title;81.4% of the VHP were village doctors with occupational qualification and 18.6% were assistant doctor.For all VHP,86.7% completed technical secondary school or relevant certificate education;1.2% had junior college or above education,and 12.2% had no vocational education.There was an average of 0.48 village doctor or assistant doctor per 1 000 rural population, which was significantly lower than the average level of Guizhou province,the western areas of China,and China (P < 0.01 ) ,respectively.Respondents reported an average monthly income of 1 250 RMB yuan, which was lower than that of village teachers at the primary school.All respondents did not have any endowment insurances, but had new type of rural cooperative medical care system with their own payment.Lorenz curve of VHP distribution was close to absolute equity line.Conclusion VHP in Puan minority county was in a shortage with an older age structure and a lower technical qualification.VHP distribution showed a good equity among towns in the county.%目的 了解少数民族贫困县村医队伍现状.方法 2010年1月选取贵州省黔西南布依族苗族自治州普安县14个乡镇77个村卫生室所有在岗村医172人进行面对面访谈.结果 村医年龄22~68岁,平均年龄39岁;98.8%的村医无专业技术职称;执业资格以乡村医生资格证书为主,占81.4%,执业助理医师占18.6%;医学学历以中专或相当于中专水平(贵州省卫生厅授证)为主,占86.7%,大专及以上占1.2%,无任何医学学历占12.1%;平均每千农业人口乡村医生和卫生员0.48人,明显

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  15. 新疆额敏县1073例青少年口腔健康状况和行为调查%A survey of oral health status and behavior of 1073 adolescents in Emin County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿达来提·阿布力米提; 努尔古力·加尼木汗; 迪丽努尔·阿吉; 赵今; 热娜古孜·阿不都米吉提; 古丽努尔·阿吾提

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解青少年口腔健康状况和行为,为牙病防治工作和口腔健康教育规划提供信息依据.方法:参照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案,设计口腔健康调查表,对新疆塔城地区额敏县1073名汉族和哈萨克族学生进行口腔检查和卫生行为问卷调查,并进行统计学分析.结果:52.8%哈萨克族和63.6%汉族青少年养成每天2次刷牙习惯;33%哈萨克族、59.8%汉族青少年进行定期体检;40.6%哈萨克族和47.8%汉族就医时选择大型医院;了解口腔知识途径为各种媒体占43.6%;牙体缺损未充填率35.9%;因外伤、龋损、先天缺失导致牙列缺损的比例分别为0.65%、3.17%、3.45%;未进行牙列缺损修复者占6.5%;牙龈炎性色红、肿胀、增生检出率分别达22.1%、9.6%、2.1%;轻度牙石34.0%.结论:塔城地区额敏县青少年口腔健康状况不容乐观,哈萨克族学生口腔保健意识低于汉族学生,需全面加强口腔健康宣教和相关知识普及.%AIM: To investigate the oral health status and behavior of the adolescents in Emin County, Xin- jiang . METHODS: 1073 Han and Kazak nationality students aged 17 ~20 years were surveyed according to the third national oral health epidemiological survey method. The subjects received oral examination and were asked to answer a questionnaire concerning oral health behavior. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 statistics software. RESULTS: 52. 8% Kazak and 63.6% Han students brushed teeth twice daily. 33. 0% Kazak and 59. 8% Han had regular physical examination. 40. 6% Kazak and 47. 8% Han prefered to seek treatment in big hospitals. 43.6% adolescents had oral health knowledge. 35. 9% of dental defects were not filled. Dentition defect caused by trauma, caries and ectrogeny was 0.65% , 3. 17% and 3.45% respectively. 6.5% dentition defects were not restored. The detection rates of gum redness, swelling and

  16. The Current Situation Investigation of Health Behaviors of Pupils in Nayong County in Guizhou Province%贵州省纳雍县农村小学生卫生行为现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭浩冉; 罗虹

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解贵州农村小学生的卫生行为现状,为制定相对应的健康干预提供依据.方法:采取整群随机抽样的方法,随机抽取贵州省纳雍县3所农村小学3~6年级12个班中519名小学生,采取自行设计的问卷调查农村小学生的卫生现状.结果:3~6年级小学生卫生行为形成率中饭前便后洗手、不随地吐痰、勤剪指甲、早晚刷牙、每3月换一次牙刷、不喝生水、水果洗后再吃的形成率分别为47.76%、69.56%、43.93%、71.68%、44.12%、42.77%、69.36%;被调查学校中无一所开展健康教育课程或宣教.结论:纳雍县农村小学生的卫生行为形成率较低,老师、家长及电视是农村小学生健康知识的主要来源,故应大力加强健康教育,尤其是学校对于健康知识的宣教.%Objective: To understand current situation of health behaviors of pupils in Guizhou province, and so as to provide evidence for establishment of relevant health intervention measures. Methods : Cluster random sampling method was employed, and grade 3-6 pupils in three rural primary schools of Nayong county were randomly selected. Self designed questionnaire was carried out to study the heath situation of rural primary school students in Guizhou province. Results: There were 519 pupils in 12 classes of three rural primary schools under investigation. The formation rates of washing hands before and after meals, no spitting, shearing nails frequently, brushing teeth every morning and night, changing toothbrush every 3 months, not drinking raw water and eating washed fruits were 47. 76% , 69.56% , 43.93% , 71. 68% , 44.12% , 42.77% and 69. 36% respectively. All the studied primary schools did not develop health education. Conclusions: The formation rates of health behaviors of rural pupils in Nayong county are low, and their health knowledge almost comes from teachers, parents and television. Health education should be strengthened in rural primary

  17. Integrated satellite imaging and syndromic surveillance reveal health effects of smoke from wildfires in rural eastern North Carolina counties in the summer of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Wildfire smoke often impacts rural areas without air quality monitors, limiting assessment of health impacts. A 2008 wildfire in Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge produced massive quantities of smoke affecting eastern NC, a rural area with limited air quality moni...

  18. Hydrogeologic framework of LaSalle County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Bailey, Clinton R.

    2016-10-28

    Water-supply needs in LaSalle County in northern Illinois are met by surface water and groundwater. Water-supply needs are expected to increase to serve future residential and mining uses. Available information on water use, geology, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, and water quality provides a hydrogeologic framework for LaSalle County that can be used to help plan the future use of the water resources.The Illinois, Fox, and Vermilion Rivers are the primary surface-water bodies in LaSalle County. These and other surface-water bodies are used for wastewater disposal in the county. The Vermilion River is used as a drinking-water supply in the southern part of the county. Water from the Illinois and Fox Rivers also is used for the generation of electric power.Glacial drift aquifers capable of yielding sufficient water for public supply are expected to be present in the Illinois River Valley in the western part of the county, the Troy Bedrock Valley in the northwestern part of the county, and in the Ticona Bedrock Valley in the south-central part of the county. Glacial drift aquifers capable of yielding sufficient water for residential supply are present in most of the county, although well yield often needs to be improved by using large-diameter wells. Arsenic concentrations above health-based standards have been detected in some wells in this aquifer. These aquifers are a viable source for additional water supply in some areas, but would require further characterization prior to full development.Shallow bedrock deposits comprising the sandstone units of the Ancell Group, the Prairie du Chien Group, dolomite of the Galena and Platteville Groups, and Silurian-aged dolomite are utilized for water supply where these units are at or near the bedrock surface or where overlain by Pennsylvanian-aged deposits. The availability of water from the shallow bedrock deposits depends primarily on the geologic unit analyzed. All these deposits can yield sufficient water for

  19. Analysis of maternal death of maternal and child health project for 12 years in Jinyun county%母婴健康工程实施12年缙云县孕产妇死亡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋凤芳

    2013-01-01

    objective To analyze maternal death cases from 1995 to 2012 in Jinyun county , and to evaluate the results of maternal and infant health project implemented 12 years. Methods To col ect and analyze cases of maternal death in Jinyun county from 1995 to 2012 according to retrospective survey methods. Results The average maternal mortality rate was 29.23/10 mil ion, the mortality rate can be avoid was 29.39/10 mil ion before maternal and infant health project (1995-2000). The average maternal mortality rate was 23.39/10 mil ion, the mortality rate can be avoid was 17.54/10 mil ion after maternal and infant health project (2001-2012). There was statistical y significance in mortality rate (Χ2=9.245,P<0.05), and there was statistical y significance in mortality rate can be avoid (Χ2=14.684,P<0.05). Conclusion Maternal and child health project implement in Jinyun for 12 years, greatly reduce the mortality rate of maternal, improve the level of maternal and child health remarkable.%目的:对缙云县1995-2012年孕产妇死亡情况进行分析,以评价母婴健康工程实施12年成效。方法采用回顾性调查方法,收集缙云县1995-2012年死亡的孕产妇个案报告,并进行整理分析。结果缙云县1995-2012年孕产妇死亡情况可以分为2个阶段,母婴健康工程实施前(1995-2000),孕产妇平均死亡率为29.23/10万,可以避免的死亡率为29.23/10万;母婴健康工程实施后(2001-2012),孕产妇平均死亡率为23.39/10万,可以避免的死亡率为17.54/10万;项目实施前后孕产妇死亡率比较有统计学意义(Χ2=9.245,P<0.05),可以避免的死亡率比较差异有统计学意义(Χ2=14.684,P<0.05)。结论母婴健康工程在缙云县实施12年,成效显著,大大降低了本县孕产妇死亡率,提高了本地区妇幼保健水平。

  20. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  1. 探讨县级卫生信息化网络平台建设在医保监管工作中的应用%Effect of Construction of Health Information Network Platform for the Supervision of Health Care at the County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏杰; 李晓林; 姚付元

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨卫生信息化网络平台建设在沐川县医保监管工作中的应用。方法利用计算机网络技术(是通信技术与计算机技术相结合的产物)建设县级卫生信息化网络平台。结果极大地方便了群众的就医和医保报帐,实施完善了医保经办部门对医药机构和定点医院的监督管理,保障医保基金的安全和合理使用。结论通过应用与实施,得到了广大干群和社会的充分肯定,奠定了卫生信息化管理普及到乡镇卫生院、村卫生室的基础,实现了保障参保人权益、减轻参保人就医负担,健全医疗卫生机构内部管理机制、合理控制医保基金支出,增强医保经办部门管理服务能力、实现了医·患·保3方面共赢。%Objective To investigate the health information network platform construction application in muchuan county health supervision work.Methods Using computer network technology,is the combination of the communication technology and computer technology)[1]construction at the county level health information network platform. Results Bringing great masses of medical treatment and health care accounted for,the implementation of improved health care department charge of fixed-point hospital of medical institutions and fund a powerful supervision and management,ensure the social security safety and rational use of medical insurance fund.Conclusion Through the application and implementation of the broad masses and the ful af irmation of the society,laid the health information management popularization to the basics of township hospitals and vil age clinics,protect people's rights,lighten the burden of medical,and improve the medical and health institutions internal management mechanism, reasonable control medical insurance fund expenditure,strengthen the health care department charge management service ability,realize the win-win medical,develop,keep three aspects.

  2. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  3. Public health assessment for Matthiessen and Hegeler Zinc Company, La Salle, La Salle County, Illinois, Region 5. Cerclis No. IL0000064782. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Past smelting, mining, and rolling operations at Matthiessen and Hegeler Zinc Company (MHZ) have resulted in contamination of soils by organic chemicals and various metals. Slag piles, demolition debris, and past mining on the site have also created a variety of physical hazards that could be dangerous to trespassers. Soils in residential areas bordering the site also contain metals that can be linked to past site operations. Completed exposure pathway include: Past inhalation of airborne emissions from plant operations; Off the site, cadmium, lead, and arsenic are present in some soil at levels of potential health concern if exposure occurs for a long time. Based on these levels, the proximity of potentially sensitive populations, and the exposures that occurred in the past, the MHZ site is considered a public health hazard.

  4. 2013年清徐县农村环境卫生监测项目结果分析%Analysis of Results of Environmental Health Monitoring Projects in Rural Qingxu County in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊红

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To understand the status of environmental sanitation in rural areas of Qingxu County,the rural environmental health hazards and further grasp the dynamic factors of level,environmental and health conditions in rural areas,then give objective evaluations through the development of rural environmental health monitoring. Methods:According to "Shanxi Province Rural Environmental Sanitation Monitoring Technical Project" implementation. a total of 100 households were surveyed in 20 villages with 20 soil monitoring. Results:The rural household latrine popularization rate of sanitary toilet was 26. 18%. Ascaris eggs were not detected. The qualified rate of lead and cadmium were respec-tively 100%. Conclusion:The situation of the rural environmental hygiene is poor and the villagers ' environmental health consciousness is weak. It's time to strengthen the environmental health education and rural environmental sanita-tion infrastructure investment.%目的:了解清徐县农村环境卫生状况,掌握农村环境卫生健康危害因素水平及动态变化,客观评价农村环境卫生状况。方法:共调查20个村庄,农户100户,土壤监测20份,按照《山西省农村环境卫生监测项目技术方案》要求执行。结果:所调查的农村卫生厕所普及率为26.18%,土壤中蛔虫卵未检出,铅合格率100%,镉合格率100%。结论:农村环境卫生状况较差,村民环境卫生意识淡薄,应加强对环境卫生知识宣传和农村环境卫生基础设施建设的投入。

  5. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  6. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  7. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  8. Baseline survey of oral health of primary and secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is ... Sixteen percent of the pupils were found to have some degree of fluorosis of whom ... Conclusion: There is an upward trend in the caries prevalence when ...

  9. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  10. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  11. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  12. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  13. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  14. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  15. Allegheny County Mortgage Foreclosure Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data includes filings related to mortgage foreclosure in Allegheny County. The foreclosure process enables a lender to take possession of a property due to an...

  16. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  17. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  18. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  19. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  20. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  1. Allegheny County Property Sale Transactions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2012 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...

  2. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  3. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  4. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  5. Allegheny County Employee Salaries 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Employee salaries are a regular Right to Know request the County receives. Here is the disclaimer language that is included with the dataset from the Open Records...

  6. TERRAIN, KENT COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Kent AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Providence county AOI directly north. Ground Control is collected...

  7. TERRAIN, PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  8. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  9. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  10. Grant County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city...

  11. Allegheny County Addressing Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the road centerlines in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  12. Allegheny County Summer Food Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set shows the Summer Food Sites located within Allegheny County for children (18 years and younger) for breakfast and lunch during summer recess. OPEN...

  13. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  14. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  15. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  16. 广西基层妇幼保健院卫生技术人员流失情况分析%Analysis on the floating character of the health technical personnel of county's maternal and child health care hospitals in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆光紫; 黄高明; 任美璇

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析广西基层妇幼保健院卫生技术人员流失情况,为新医改进程中妇幼保健机构的建设和发展提供参考依据.方法:采用分层随机抽样方法对广西28家县级妇幼保健院进行调查.结果:5年中广西县级妇幼保健院进入与流失人员比为3.9∶1;总体上流失人员年龄、职业技能、学历和职称均比进入人员高(P<0.05);流失人员主要是流向其他医疗卫生机构,占89.9%;人员流失的首要原因是报酬和待遇低,其次是不能入编制,缺乏保障,以及专业发展受限,不能发挥个人能力和特长,感觉不受重视,没有发展前途也占一定比例.结论:广西基层妇幼保健院高层次、高素质卫生技术人员流失严重,应采取各种有效措施吸引人才、留住人才、激励人才,以提高基层妇幼保健院人才队伍建设水平.%Objective: To analyze the floating character of the health technical personnel of county's maternal and child health care hospitals in Guangxi, provide a reference for the construction and development of maternity and child care institutions in the course of new medical reform. Methods: A survey was taken in 28 county's maternal and child health care hospitals in Guangxi by the stratified random sampling. Results: The ratio of the inflow staffs and the outflow staffs was 3. 9: 1 in the past 5 years. In general, the age, vocational skills, education level and technical post level of the outflow staffs were higher than that of the inflow staffs (P < 0. 05) . 89. 9% of the outflow staffs decide to work in other medical institutes. The first cause of personnel loss of county's women and children's health hospitals was slender earning and bad welfare. The second cause came from non - institution personnel. Third, subject construction in hospital was backward, which limits fully develop of ability and expertise of the health technical personnel. Conclusion: The phenomenon of the outflow of the senior

  17. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  18. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  19. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  20. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... of the evolution in natural baseline properties in groundwater....

  1. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  2. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  3. Health assessment for Presque Isle National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980508865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-04

    An abandoned gas well on the Presque Isle peninsula in Lake Erie released black contaminated materials during the 1970s and early 1980s. The well has since been returned to service and is being monitored. There was concern for contaminants on the peninsula and concern that the many gas/oil wells on the mainland might release similar contaminants and affect the area's potable water supply. Analyses of material discharged by the well indicated many organic and inorganic contaminants. Specifically, ammonia, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, chloride, strontium, nickel, selenium, silver, titanium, zinc, benzene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Soils at the gas well were subjected to leachate tests (EP Toxicity Tests) that gave a qualitative indication that heavy metals occur in those materials. No definite link was established between the contaminants and gas/oil wells. Based on the available data, there currently is no known human contact with contaminants that were previously discharged from the gas well at Beach Number 7. Therefore, adverse impact on public health from these releases is considered to be unlikely. There are unresolved public health-related issues concerning groundwater at the beach, soils at the gas well, other gas wells on the peninsula, and mainland groundwater.

  4. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  5. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  6. The reversal of fortunes: trends in county mortality and cross-county mortality disparities in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ezzati

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Counties are the smallest unit for which mortality data are routinely available, allowing consistent and comparable long-term analysis of trends in health disparities. Average life expectancy has steadily increased in the United States but there is limited information on long-term mortality trends in the US counties This study aimed to investigate trends in county mortality and cross-county mortality disparities, including the contributions of specific diseases to county level mortality trends.We used mortality statistics (from the National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] and population (from the US Census to estimate sex-specific life expectancy for US counties for every year between 1961 and 1999. Data for analyses in subsequent years were not provided to us by the NCHS. We calculated different metrics of cross-county mortality disparity, and also grouped counties on the basis of whether their mortality changed favorably or unfavorably relative to the national average. We estimated the probability of death from specific diseases for counties with above- or below-average mortality performance. We simulated the effect of cross-county migration on each county's life expectancy using a time-based simulation model. Between 1961 and 1999, the standard deviation (SD of life expectancy across US counties was at its lowest in 1983, at 1.9 and 1.4 y for men and women, respectively. Cross-county life expectancy SD increased to 2.3 and 1.7 y in 1999. Between 1961 and 1983 no counties had a statistically significant increase in mortality; the major cause of mortality decline for both sexes was reduction in cardiovascular mortality. From 1983 to 1999, life expectancy declined significantly in 11 counties for men (by 1.3 y and in 180 counties for women (by 1.3 y; another 48 (men and 783 (women counties had nonsignificant life expectancy decline. Life expectancy decline in both sexes was caused by increased mortality from lung cancer, chronic obstructive

  7. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  8. Counties Without a Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Uses a budgeting technique to determine if free-market incentives or forces would provide an economic base sufficient to support medical professionals who might practice in the approximately 140 U.S. counties that lack a physician (located mainly in a narrow band from west Texas north through South Dakota). (AH)

  9. Crisis & commitment: 150 years of service by Los Angeles county public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Michael R; Tranquada, Robert E

    2007-04-01

    The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county's current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county's public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base.

  10. Status and Strategy of Maternal Health of Women in a Rural County of Western China%中国西部农村地区某县孕产期保健利用现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾缓; 王宏; 唐晓君; 龙敏; 林长坡; 雷迅; 曹冰; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the status of women's maternal health care use and its influencing factors in Western China. Methods 544 women have been investigated by questionnaire,44 health providers and 42 women have been interviewed to collect data. Results 70.6% participated in local New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme(NRCMS)in this area,only 32.9% got reimbursement,and 66.0% haven't got it because of family planning policy. The NRCMS was important for women in emergency or with severe complications. Reimbursement for migrants was too complicated. Most of the maternal health human resource was concentrated in County Hospital and Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. One quarter of health personnel in township hospital had education under secondary school level. Among total maternal health income from 2005 to 2008, fund from government occupied only 5.0%. One fifth of the women’ s total maternal cost accounted for more than 20% of their family income. 39. 8% of the women chose county hospital and 58.6% chose township health center for delivery,and service quality and transport were the main reasons. Geographic accessibility of some mountainous townships was hindered by transport problems. The social and cultural accessibility was impeded by Zuoyuezi’ phenomenon, boy priority and language island’. Conclusion NRCMS has increased maternal care use to some extent. Geographic accessibility has been improved except in remote area. Many social and cultural factors influenced maternal health care.%目的 了解西部农村地区某县妇女孕产期保健利用现状及影响因素.方法 对544名妇女进行问卷调查,对44名卫生服务管理者/供者以及42名妇女进行访谈.结果 70.6%的孕产妇参加了新型农村合作医疗(新农合),32.9%获得报销,未获报销的66.0%是因为超生.新农合缓解了具有产科危重症或并发症的孕产妇的经济负担.流动人口的报销手续复杂.卫生人力资源主要分布在

  11. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  12. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  13. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  14. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  15. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  16. Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1975-04-01

    This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  18. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  19. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoasa Ioan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to measure the levels of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb found in common vegetables (parsley, carrot, onion, lettuce, cucumber and green beans grown in contaminated mining areas compared with those grown in reference clear area and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the daily metal intake (DImetal and Target Hazard Quotients (THQ for normal daily consumption of these vegetables, for male and female gender. Results Compared with the reference in contaminated areas, soil and plant contents of all analyzed metals are higher, usually over normally content for Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Particularly, in soil, higher values than intervention threshold values (ITV were found for Cu and Pb and higher than maximum allowable limits (MAL for Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for parsley roots and leaves, carrot roots, cabbage, lettuce and cucumber. DImetal and THQ values for male and female were calculated for each vegetable and metal and for which oral reference doses exist. The combined THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are usually below the safe level of THQ Conclusion The results of this study regarding metal contents in soils, vegetables, DImetal and THQ suggest that the consumption of some vegetables (especially parsley, carrot and cabbage and less for lettuce, cucumber and green beans is not free of risks in these areas. The complex THQ parameter use in health risk assessment of heavy metals provides a better image than using only a simple parameter (contents of metals in soils and vegetables.

  20. 景东县2004-2013年肺结核防治的卫生经济学分析%Health economics analysis of treatment and control for tuberculosis in Jingdong County from 2004 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方源扬; 刘国强; 黄显聪; 王丹; 李亚斐

    2016-01-01

    目的:运用卫生经济学方法对景东县2004-2013年肺结核防治工作进行评价,为结核病防控的可持续发展提供科学依据。方法采用描述性流行病学方法对景东县2004-2013年结核病流行病学特征进行分析,按照《全国结核病防治规划(2001-2010年)终期评估实施方案》进行卫生经济学评价。结果全县共发现活动性肺结核病患者1610例,治疗成功1533例。肺结核发病人群分布以15~64岁人群为主,职业分布以农民最多;结核病控制项目实施后减少了肺结核死亡患者403例,避免感染肺结核人数9140人,避免新发患者914例;2004-2013年投入结核病防控的社会总成本为181.12万元,挽回失能调整生命年10326.5个,挽回的社会总价值达5849.07万元,成本效用比为175.39,效益成本比为32.29︰1。结论景东县结核病防控项目成效显著,取得了较好社会效益。%Objective This study was designed to analyze the epidemiological features of tuberculosis in Jingdong County from 2004 to 2013, and to assess the health economics effect of disease control and prevention. Methods A descriptive epidemiology method was used to analyze the features of tuberculosis in Jingdong County, 2004-2013. Health economics assessment was performed in accordance with the “Final evaluation protocol to National Guideline for Control and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 2001-2010” Results From 2004 to 2013, 1610 active tuberculosis patients were found, and 1 533 patients completed the treatment. The age distributions of active tuberculosis patients were 15-64 years old, and most of them were peasants. National Program of Tuberculosis Control and Prevention reduced 403 patients dead from tuberculosis, prevented 9140 people infecting from tuberculosis, and avoided 914 new cases. The total social cost of tuberculosis control and prevention is 1.8112 million RMB, retrieved 10 326.5 disability adjusted life year, and redeemed total social value

  1. The Santa Barbara County Health Care Services program: birth weight change concomitant with screening for and treatment of glucose-intolerance of pregnancy: a potential cost-effective intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic-Peterson, L; Bevier, W; Peterson, C M

    1997-04-01

    Macrosomic infants still suffer birth trauma in excess of the general population; thus, while debated, the medical and legal sequelae of macrosomia appear to be costly. The clinical role of maternal hyperglycemia below the threshold for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the etiology of macrosomia remains an area of controversy. Based on the hypothesis that increasing glucose levels result in an increasing prevalence of macrosomia, we designed a study to observe the impact on birth weight and on cost of a treatment program for glucose-intolerant pregnant women in The Santa Barbara County Health Care Services (SBCHCS). In 1985, 18% of 4364 births (85% Mexican-American in origin) in the SBCHCS were > 90th percentile birth weight. In 1986, we began a program to treat all glucose-intolerant pregnant women who had a positive glucose challenge test (GCT > 140 mg/dL after a 50-g oral glucose load), even if they had a negative glucose tolerance test. All glucose-tolerant pregnant women were placed on a 40% carbohydrate, 1800 kcal diet and taught to monitor their blood glucose. Insulin was begun if the fasting blood glucose was > 90 mg/dL and/or the 1-hour post meal was > 120 mg/dL. After introduction of the screening/ treatment program, the prevalence of macrosomia in 1992 was 7% and the cesarean section rate had dropped from 30 to 20%. The cost to SBCHC to educate and treat the additional glucose-intolerant women was $233,650. Assuming that there would have been an additional 398 macrosomic infants with some requiring cesarean delivery and intensive care, total potential savings could be estimated at $833,870 per year. Thus, treatment of glucose-intolerant pregnant women was associated with a decrease in macrosomia and may be cost-effective.

  2. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  3. Castleward, County Down

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Fisher was a painter and engraver in Ireland, working after the Dutch and Italian landscape painting tradition. He is best known by engravings after his designs, of which a large number were produced during his career.[notes from Irish Paintings in the `National Gallery of Ireland?, 2001]The house depicted in the present painting is Castle Ward, located in County Down, Northern Ireland. The 18th century house is famed for its mixture of Classical and Gothic styles.

  4. Mental Health Recovery in the Patient-Centered Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Marisa; Aarons, Gregory A; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Groessl, Erik J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the impact of transitioning clients from a mental health clinic to a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) on mental health recovery. We drew data from a large US County Behavioral Health Services administrative data set. We used propensity score analysis and multilevel modeling to assess the impact of the PCMH on mental health recovery by comparing PCMH participants (n = 215) to clients receiving service as usual (SAU; n = 22,394) from 2011 to 2013 in San Diego County, California. We repeatedly assessed mental health recovery over time (days since baseline assessment range = 0-1639; mean = 186) with the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) scale and Recovery Markers Questionnaire. For total IMR (log-likelihood ratio χ(2)[1] = 4696.97; P recovery over time were greater for PCMH than SAU participants. Increases on all other measures over time were similar for PCMH and SAU participants. Greater increases in mental health recovery over time can be expected when patients with severe mental illness are provided treatment through the PCMH. Evaluative efforts should be taken to inform more widespread adoption of the PCMH.

  5. Relation of fetal heart rate signals with unassignable baseline to poor neonatal state at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, A; Payne, S J; Moulden, M; Redman, C W G

    2012-07-01

    Electronic fetal heart rates (FHR) are used to monitor fetal health during labour. The paper records are visually assessed by clinicians, but automated alternatives are being developed. Interpretation, visual or computerised, depends on assigning a baseline to identify key features such as accelerations and decelerations. However, when the FHR is unstable the baseline may be unassignable, making conventional analysis unreliable. Such instability may reflect on fetal health. If true, these segments should not be discarded but quantified, for which we have developed a numerical method. In 7,568 labours, the association between unassignable baseline and umbilical arterial blood pH ≤ 7.05 at birth (evidence of poor health) was studied retrospectively. We found a consistent increase of the risk for acidaemia with longer intervals of unassignable baseline. This is detectable at the end of the first stage of labour, but stronger at the end of the second stage: in the last 30 min of labour, the odds ratios (with respect to baseline assignable throughout this period) increased from 1.99 (15 min unassignable) to 4.9 (30 min unassignable). Computerised analysis of the FHR becomes unreliable when the baseline cannot be assigned; however, this pattern is itself a pathological feature associated with acidaemia at birth.

  6. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  7. Lesotho - Health Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  8. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  9. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  10. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  11. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  12. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  13. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  14. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  15. Alba County - Rural Tourism Destination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Olimpia Moisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the main rural touristic resources available in Alba County and also the preferred tourist destinations, highlighting the role and the importance of the rural tourism and agro-tourism in the economy of Alba County and, not least, identifying the main direction for its development and promotion. In other words, the aim of this paper is to answer the question "Is it or not Alba County a rural tourist destination?"

  16. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  17. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, theta13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of theta23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomeno...

  18. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  19. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Homeless Families, Children, and Youth in Stanislaus County--Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, Ellen

    The homeless crisis in America is a complex issue with no "quick fixes." In Stanislaus County, California, it seems that there are many programs operating in isolation of one another. Approximately 5% of the county's population is homeless. Homeless persons have survival needs for food and clothing, hygiene, health care, affordable…

  1. 77 FR 67322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... authority to address disproportionate human health or environmental effects with practical, appropriate,...

  2. Allegheny County Beltway System Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Authoritative dataset of the beltway system in Allegheny County. The system was developed to help motorists navigate through Allegheny County on low-traffic roads....

  3. HealthStats_CNTYHEAL2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont Population and Health data describing public health (1986-2000), by county, extracted from various sources, such as; the Vermont...

  4. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  5. Cholera outbreak in Homa Bay County, Kenya, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane Njoki; Boru, Waqo Gufu; Hall, Casey Daniel; Gura, Zeinab; Oyugi, Elvis; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Semali, Innocent; Farhat, Ghada Nadim; Mattie Park, Meeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is among the re-emerging diseases in Kenya. Beginning in December 2014, a persistent outbreak occurred involving 29 out of the 47 countries. Homa Bay County in Western Kenya was among the first counties to report cholera cases from January to April 2015. This case study is based on an outbreak investigation conducted by FELTP residents in Homa Bay County in February 2015. It simulates an outbreak investigation including laboratory confirmation, active case finding, descriptive epidemiology and implementation of control measures. This case study is designed for the training of basic level field epidemiology trainees or any other health care workers working in public health-related fields. It can be administered in 2-3 hours. Used as adjunct training material, the case study provides the trainees with competencies in investigating an outbreak in preparation for the actual real-life experience of such outbreaks.

  6. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  7. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  8. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  9. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  10. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  11. Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, long-baseline neutrino experiments played a fundamental role in confirming neutrino flavor change and in measuring the neutrino mixing matrix with high precision. This role will be amplified with the next generation of experiments, which will begin probing the possibility of CP violation in the leptonic sector and possibly pin down the neutrino mass hierarchy. An account of the most recent results from the MINOS experiment is presented, along with the earlier measurement from the K2K experiment. The next generation projects, T2K and NOvA, are described and their current status, schedule and physics reach discussed. Finally, we report on future efforts, currently in the R&D stage, such as the LBNE and T2KK projects.

  12. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  13. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  14. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  15. Owning the program technical baseline for future space systems acquisition: program technical baseline tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Hant, James J.; Kizer, Justin R.; Min, Inki A.; Siedlak, Dennis J. L.; Yoh, James

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has recognized the needs for owning the program and technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success. This paper extends the previous work done by the authors [1-2] on the "Resilient Program Technical Baseline Framework for Future Space Systems" and "Portfolio Decision Support Tool (PDST)" to the development and implementation of the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) Tracking Tool (PTBTL) for the DOD acquisition life cycle. The paper describes the "simplified" PTB tracking model with a focus on the preaward phases and discusses how to implement this model in PDST.

  16. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Eight Americas: investigating mortality disparities across races, counties, and race-counties in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J L Murray

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gap between the highest and lowest life expectancies for race-county combinations in the United States is over 35 y. We divided the race-county combinations of the US population into eight distinct groups, referred to as the "eight Americas," to explore the causes of the disparities that can inform specific public health intervention policies and programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The eight Americas were defined based on race, location of the county of residence, population density, race-specific county-level per capita income, and cumulative homicide rate. Data sources for population and mortality figures were the Bureau of the Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. We estimated life expectancy, the risk of mortality from specific diseases, health insurance, and health-care utilization for the eight Americas. The life expectancy gap between the 3.4 million high-risk urban black males and the 5.6 million Asian females was 20.7 y in 2001. Within the sexes, the life expectancy gap between the best-off and the worst-off groups was 15.4 y for males (Asians versus high-risk urban blacks and 12.8 y for females (Asians versus low-income southern rural blacks. Mortality disparities among the eight Americas were largest for young (15-44 y and middle-aged (45-59 y adults, especially for men. The disparities were caused primarily by a number of chronic diseases and injuries with well-established risk factors. Between 1982 and 2001, the ordering of life expectancy among the eight Americas and the absolute difference between the advantaged and disadvantaged groups remained largely unchanged. Self-reported health plan coverage was lowest for western Native Americans and low-income southern rural blacks. Crude self-reported health-care utilization, however, was slightly higher for the more disadvantaged populations. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in mortality across the eight Americas, each consisting of millions or tens of millions of

  18. The Bridges of Taishun County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaJianhe

    2003-01-01

    The American film The Bridges of Madison County captured the imagination of many Chinese moviegoers with its bittersweet love story and scenes of rustic covered bridges. But the U.S. can't lay sole claim to such spectacular rural sights:China has its own county worldrenowned for unforgettable bridges.

  19. 2006 Fulton County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Fulton County. The Fulton County LiDAR Survey project area consists of approximately 690.5 square...

  20. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.