WorldWideScience

Sample records for country study evaluation

  1. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  2. Country of origin effect on luxury brands evaluation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kassouf Pizzinatto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the country of origin effect in luxury brands evaluation, theory that concerns the stereotype developed in the mind of consumers from a negative or positive image of the country where the product was manufactured, influencing product brand evaluation image. The methodological process was conducted with experiments, involving manipulation of variables thought printed advertisings, stimulus, as developed especially for the research, in three different situations: first the negative country of origin effect (with bad manufacture quality stereotyped image; second the positive country of origin effect (with good manufacture quality stereotyped image; e a third without any mention of the country of origin. Data were collected through printed questionnaires, answered by 330 people. Results indicated that luxury brand evaluation is not affected by positive country of origin stimulus, but it can influence positively the non luxury brands. The negative country of origin affects both, luxury and non luxury brands, however the effect is superior in non luxury brands. In the stimulus without mention regarding the country of origin, the brand luxury evaluation was not highly affected. However it improved the evaluation of non luxury brands, when compared with the negative country of origin stimulus.

  3. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  4. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  5. Country of origin effect on luxury brands evaluation: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Kassouf Pizzinatto; Nadia Kassouf Pizzinatto; Evandro Luiz Lopes; Antonio Carlos Giuliani

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the country of origin effect in luxury brands evaluation, theory that concerns the stereotype developed in the mind of consumers from a negative or positive image of the country where the product was manufactured, influencing product brand evaluation image. The methodological process was conducted with experiments, involving manipulation of variables thought printed advertisings, stimulus, as developed especially for the research, in three different situations: first t...

  6. Literature Education in Ten Countries: An Empirical Study. International Studies in Evaluation II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    It is the purpose of this volume to present some of the highlights of the literature survey inaugurated by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement which was undertaken in nine countries: Belgium, Chile, England, Finland, Iran, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United States. Information was sought concerning…

  7. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  8. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berg Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.

  9. China: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Appendix A). From the Plateau of Tibet other less elevated highlands, rugged east-west trending mountains and plateaus interrupted by deep depresions ...China: A Country Study Table 3. Continued Coavmtiomal Convmtioto y Pinyr to Form of Referenc Form of Ream to nn Turpan Pendi Turfan Depresion Sungari

  10. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  11. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. de; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary c

  12. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, W.L.; Boerma, W.G.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. De; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects

  13. An economic evaluation for prevention of diabetes mellitus in a developing country: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Li, Changping; Gong, Hui; Cui, Zhuang; Fan, Linlin; Yu, Wenhua; Zhang, Cui; Ma, Jun

    2013-08-07

    The serious consequences of diabetes mellitus, and the subsequent economic burden, call for urgent preventative action in developing countries. This study explores the clinical and economic outcomes of strategies that could potentially prevent diabetes based on Chinese circumstances. It aims to provide indicators for the long-term allocation of healthcare resources for authorities in developing countries. A representative sample of Chinese adults was used to create a simulated population of 20,000 people aged 25 years and above. The hybrid decision tree Markov model was developed to compare the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of four simulated diabetes prevention strategies with a control group, where no prevention applied. These preventive strategies were the following: (i) one-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with lifestyle interventions on diet, (ii) on exercise, (iii) on diet combined exercise (duo-intervention) respectively in those with IGT, and (iv) one-off screening alone. Independent age-specific models were simulated based on diverse incidences of diabetes, mortalities and health utilities. The reported outcomes were the following: the remaining survival years, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per diabetes or IGT subjects, societal costs per simulated subject and the comparisons between preventions and control over 40 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed based on variations of all assumptions, in addition to the performance and the compliance of screening. Compared with the control group, all simulated screening programmes prolonged life expectancy at the initiation ages of 25 and 40 years, postponed the onset of diabetes and increased QALYs at every initiation age. Along with an assumption of six years intervention, prevention programmes were associated with cost-saving compared with the control group, especially in the population aged 25 years. The savings were at least US$2017 per

  14. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  15. Determinants of Country-of-Origin Evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurhan-Canli, Zeynep; Maheswaran, Durairaj

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined the factors that influence and the psychological processes that underlie country-of-origin evaluations. Subjects received attribute information that was either condensed in a single product or dispersed across several products manufactured in a country with relatively unfavorable associations. When consumers use country of origin as a basis for judgment under low motivation, or when the processing goal is to evaluate the country of origin, they focus on the country-of...

  16. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  17. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  18. Methodological and Conceptual Issues Confronting a Cross-Country Delphi Study of Educational Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Although the Delphi is widely used, research on certain methodological issues is somewhat limited. After a brief introduction to the strengths, limitations, and methodological challenges of the technique, we share our experiences (as well as problems encountered) with an electronic Delphi of educational program evaluation (EPE) in the Asia-Pacific…

  19. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  20. Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar Rohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent

  1. Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  2. Venezuela, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    relations with all 17 western hemisphere nations including Cuba , and joined the Adean Common Market. Internally Caldera permitted communist and other...mounted from within the country and by communist supported ( Cuba ) small units conducting guerrilla activities with the intent of producing a military...1973), pp. 14-26. 25Blutstein, op.cit., pp. 39-41. 26Ibid. pp. 41-44. 27Philip B. Taylor, Jr., The Venezuelan Golpe de Estado of 1958: The Fall of

  3. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    the Shandong terr-itorv alreadyv in its possession. Beijing also recognized Tokyo’s authority oVer Southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In...stretching from Harbin in the northeast through the Beijing area and south to China’s largest city, the huge industrial metropoli- tan complex of...country. Nearly all counties and towns had one or more machine factories. Major machinery centers were Shanghai, Tianjin, Shen- yang, Beijing, Harbin

  4. Evaluating performance of a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) in a low-income country: a case study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ahmed, Aizaz

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends identifying a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) within the government to coordinate preventive interventions. As LRSAs in developing countries have rarely been evaluated, this case study describes the performance of the LRSA of Pakistan with respect to the World Bank criteria. The designated LRSA, the National Road Safety Secretariat, was put into operation in 2006 and worked for about two years with World Bank funding. The agency had a stand-alone structure headed by an experienced road safety specialist during the first year only and faced difficulty in recruiting other required experts. The LRSA drafted the first National Road Safety Plan, including strategic review of road safety and existing legislation, articulated multisectorial collaboration nationally and provincially, and collected traffic injury data in some districts. Its progress was halted by its dissolution because of funding problems. Currently, two agencies specialising in traffic enforcement and transport research respectively are fulfilling LRSA functions on an ad-hoc basis. Results suggest that sustainability and consistency of LRSAs in developing countries like Pakistan may only be ensured if they are legally protected, inter-ministerial, have permanent funding and are provided with the required expertise through international cooperation, so they can perform their required functions effectively.

  5. Usability Evaluation in a Digitally Emerging Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizano, Fulvio; Sandoval, Maria Marta; Bruun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Several emerging countries experience increasing software development activities. With the purpose of provide useful feedback on possible courses of action for increasing application of usability evaluation in such countries, this paper explores the status of usability evaluation in a digitally...... emerging country. Our aim is to identifying common characteristics or behavioral patterns that could be compared with digitally advanced countries. We used an online survey answered by 26 software development organizations, which gave a snapshot of the application of usability evaluation...... in these organizations. We found many similarities with advanced countries, several completely new obstacles more connected with software development matters and a relatively positive improvement in the lack of “usability culture”. These findings suggest good conditions to improve conduction of usability evaluations...

  6. A Two-Dimensional Approach to Evaluate the Scientific Production of Countries (Case Study: The Basic Sciences)

    CERN Document Server

    Nejati, Ammar; 10.1007/s11192-009-0103-1

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural and biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics and astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996-2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a "quantity-quality diagram", and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm (k-means), into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

  7. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  8. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  9. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a p

  10. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination plants for rural water supply in a developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, P S; Joshi, V A; Ansari, M H; Manivel, U

    2003-12-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day(-1)) and Sikkal (50 m3 day(-1)) in Ramanathpuram district, Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailed information on plant design and engineering, water quality, plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period of three years after commissioning of the two plants. Feed water was brackish, the TDS varied in the range of 6500-8500 mg L(-1) at Melasirupodhu and 5300-7100 mg L(-1) at Sikkal villages. The product water quality was observed to be gradually deteriorating as the salt rejection by the membranes decreased with time. The salt rejection was 97-99% at the time of commissioning of the plants, and came down to 89-90% at the end of 3 years of operation. Product water TDS soon after installation of the plants was excellent and within desirable limits of BIS. After three years of operation, few parameters exceeded the desirable limits, however, they were found to be within permissible limits of BIS. The analyses of the data showed that both plants were operated only at 30-36% of the design capacity. Plant shut-down due to inadequate and erratic power supply, and plant break-down and inherent delay in repairs due to lack of adequate infrastructure were found to be the major causes for the low utilization of the plants. Consequently the recurring cost of product water production enhanced to Rs. 25.0/m3 at Melasirupodhu and Rs. 17.5 m(-3) at Sikkal, as against the estimated cost of Rs. 15.0/m3 and Rs. 11.0/m3, respectively, as per the design. Over the years, the energy consumption for the product water output increased reflecting higher operational pressures needed with the aging of the membranes.

  11. Senegal country study; Evaluation des couts de reduction des emissions de gaz a effect de serre au Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sow, I.

    1998-10-01

    The first part of this study consists of an analysis of the socio-economic development in Senegal and of establishment of inventory and energy balance for greenhouse gases. Scenarios for emission from single economic sectors are discussed. (EG)

  12. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  13. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  14. Cross-country applicability of evaluation methods : a pilot study in Portugal and Germany. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 6.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço Cardoso, J.

    2014-01-01

    The traffic system and cultural dissimilarities are believed to contribute significantly to regional and country differences in road safety performance. Therefore, caution is required when transferring safety management and intervention tools from one region to another. This report deals with the

  15. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical suppor...

  16. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  17. Effect and Process Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Control Trial on Water Intake and Beverage Consumption in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Pinket

    Full Text Available Within the ToyBox-study, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention was developed to prevent overweight and obesity in European preschoolers, targeting four key behaviours related to early childhood obesity, including water consumption. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention (cluster randomized controlled trial on water intake and beverage consumption in European preschoolers and to investigate if the intervention effects differed by implementation score of kindergartens and parents/caregivers.A sample of 4964 preschoolers (4.7 ± 0.4 years; 51.5% boys from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain was included in the data analyses. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in socio-demographic data and a food-frequency questionnaire. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and for the six country-specific samples. Based on the process evaluation questionnaire of teachers and parents/caregivers, an implementation score was constructed. To assess differences in water intake and beverage consumption by implementation score in the total sample, multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed.Limited intervention effects on water intake from beverages and overall beverage consumption were found. However, important results were found on prepacked fruit juice consumption, with a larger decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, also a decline in plain milk consumption was found. Implementation scores were rather low in both kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Nevertheless, more favorable effects on beverage choices were found in preschoolers whose parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers had higher implementation scores compared to those with lower implementation scores.The ToyBox-intervention can provide the basis for the development of more tailor

  18. How Do Other Countries Evaluate Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James H.; Engel, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the primary role of teachers in affecting student achievement, U.S. policy makers and reformers have increasingly focused on monitoring and evaluating teacher effectiveness by emphasizing the links to student learning outcomes. Large-scale international assessments are frequently used as base examples to justify reform. But, relatively…

  19. Country-of-Origin Effects on Consumer Product Evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis intends to provide a better understanding of the influence of country of origin on consumers' product evaluations. The first chapter explains why consumers attach importance to the country of origin of products. Next to "made in …" labels, there are various ways in which products can be

  20. Country-of-origin effects on consumer product evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis intends to provide a better understanding of the influence of country of origin on consumers' product evaluations. The first chapter explains why consumers attach importance to the country of origin of products. Next to "made in …" labels, there are various ways in which

  1. Evaluating the Usefulness of Compulsory Licensing in Developing Countries: A Comparative Study of Thai and Brazilian Experiences Regarding Access to Aids Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennif, Samira

    2016-10-04

    While compulsory licensing (CL) is described in the TRIPS agreement as flexibility to protect public health by improving access to medicines in developing countries, a recent literature contends adversely that CL may harm public health. Therefore, this article intends to evaluate the usefulness of CL in the South through the prism of obligations and goals entrusted to patent holders (the effective and non-abusive exploitation of patents in order to achieve industrial and health developments) and in light of experiences in Thailand and Brazil regarding access to antiretroviral drugs. In this way, it shows that the obligations assigned to patent holders were better served by the recipients of CL and brought significant health and industrial benefits in the two high middle-income countries. In particular, CL allowed the scaling-up of free and universal access to antiretroviral drugs by assuring the financial sustainability of these public health programs endangered by monopolistic practices from patent holders.

  2. Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.T. Tu; H.J. Woerdenbag; S. Kane; A. Riewpaiboon; M. van Hulst; M.J. Postma

    2009-01-01

    Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appr

  3. Endline report – Liberia, BSC MFS II country evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotomo, S.; Peters, B.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Peabody, S.; Washington Gopeya, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Liberia, BSC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. T

  4. Statistical Evaluation of the EU Countries using Economic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Stanila, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the EU development area for the year 2012, using main statistical indicators. The cluster analysis and the Principal Component Analysis are the methods used to compare the 28 EU countries, the EU members, with each other and to determine the resemblances and the differences between them. The results show that the optimal solution is to create three clusters, allowing a suitable differentiation between the countries, while keeping the homogeneity among the countries it comprises.

  5. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  6. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  7. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  8. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  9. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  10. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    processes of change. Socioeconomic statistical information has been systematically published by Argentina’s Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos in...Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos Estima- 353 Argentina: A Country Study clones y proyecdones de poblaciion, 1950-2025. Buenos Aires: 1982...Aires: Institute Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, 1983. Argentina. Ministerio de Educaciön. Departamento de Estadis- tica. Estadisticas de la

  11. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    strengthen the cultural ties of the Singapore Chinese to China by establishing a cultural club, a debating society, Singapore’s first Chinese-language...break up ethnic en- claves and resettle kampong dwellers in Housing and Development Board apartment complexes had a great effect on the Malays. Evi- dence...for Communications and Information 201 Singapore: A Country Study ineffective in the 1980s. The major issues were economic, involv- ing debate over the

  12. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1972. Kundera , Milan . "The Czech Wager," New York Review of Books, 27, Nos. 21 and 22, January 21, 1981, 21-22. 369 Czechoslovakia.: A Country Study...1916, together with Eduard Bene§ and Milan Steffinik (a Slovak war hero), Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council. Masaryk in the United...Czechoslovakia’s aid only if French assistance came first. In 1935 Beneg succeeded Masaryk as president, and Prime Minister Milan Hod.a took over the Ministry

  13. Evaluating the (your country here) olympic medal count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    An Olympic Games is a measurable test of a nation´s sporting power. Medal counts are the object of intense scrutiny after every Olympiad. Most countries celebrate any medal with national glee, since 60% of competing countries will win none. In 2012, 10% of the competing countries won 75% of all medals. Despite this concentration among a few countries, more countries are winning more medals now than 20 years ago, thanks in part to athlete-support and -development programs arising around the globe. Small strong sporting countries like Norway are typified by fairly large variation in medal results from Olympiad to Olympiad and a high concentration of results in a few sports. These are important factors to consider when evaluating national performance and interpreting the medal count. Medal conversion, podium placements relative to top 8 placements, may provide a measure of the competitiveness of athlete-support programs in this international zero sum game where the cost of winning Olympic gold keeps rising whether measured in dollars or human capital. 

  14. An evaluation of the impact of green taxes in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Pedersen, A. B.

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the evaluations and studies of green taxes, that have been conducted in the Nordic countries and to discuss some of the methodological problems associated with these types of analyses......The purpose of this report is to summarise the evaluations and studies of green taxes, that have been conducted in the Nordic countries and to discuss some of the methodological problems associated with these types of analyses...

  15. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    left in Bas-Zaire. 69 I- ________________________ Zaire: A Country Study In the east, the appropriation of land for ranching and planta - tions in the...tests positive for the AIDS virus ) in Kinshasa for the general popula- tion in 1987 were 6 to 8 percent; among prostitutes the figure was as high as 30...56 Kenya 550-77 Chile 550-81 Korea, North 550-60 China 550-41 Korea, South 550-26 Colombia 550-58 Laos 550-33 Commonwealth Caribbean, 550-24 Lebanon

  16. Relevant Literary Space about Service Quality Evaluation: Countries where the Studies are Performed, Analytical Methods, Reliability Assessments, Hypothesis and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rave Jorge Iván

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the current thinking about service quality study, including five variables. We used the methodology of Systematic Literature Review in Engineering (RSLI (steps: identifying, describing, deepening and publishing. After the first selection of documents based on the delimitation map, the final quality control consisted in checking 257 documents (90.3% exceeded the inclusion criteria. According to the representativeness analysis, on the Relevant Literary Space, (ELR the top 50 were chosen, which represented 4.2% of the population (1,019 documents and consolidated 44.7% of the citations issued to the subject. China is the country with the largest presence in the ELR as well as Structural Equation Models; the Alpha Cronbach is the most used reliability index with a mean value of 0.87, being higher compared to the traditional acceptance value (0.7. In most accepted hypotheses there are proved relationships among variables/constructs: quality, satisfaction, perceived value, and behavioural intentions. It identifies six categories of future research, two of them are to expand the scope of research to other contexts and deepen relations between variables/constructs.

  17. Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Larsson, Benny; Klausen, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Six Danish male cross-country skiers were studied during the end-of-summer and winter seasons. Their maximal oxygen uptake was measured while running on a treadmill and using a ski ergometer incorporating the double-poling technique. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill running and double...

  18. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  19. The Evaluation Index System Establishment of the Food Security in Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Hui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the evaluation index system establishment of the food security in developing country. The developing country should consider the food production, consumption and storage, food trade and self-support rate, average food amount and the food of the poor, the quantity security of food and the quality security of food, the cost and benefit of food security, the relation between stationary security and dynamic stationary of the food, and establish the food securi...

  20. Testing feasibility and reliability of a set of quality indicators to evaluate the organization of palliative care across Europe: a pilot study in 25 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitha, Kathrin; Hasselaar, Jeroen; van Beek, Karen; Ahmed, Nisar; Jaspers, Birgit; Hendriks, Jan C M; Radbruch, Lukas; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    A well-organized palliative care service is a prerequisite for offering good palliative care. Reliable and feasible quality indicators are needed to monitor the quality of their organization. To test feasibility and reliability of a previously developed set of quality indicators in settings and services that provide palliative care across Europe. A total of 38 quality indicators, applicable in all types of settings, rated in a RAND Delphi process, and operationalized into 38 yes/no questions, were used. Descriptives statistics, factor and reliability analyses, analysis of variance, and chi-square analyses were used. Cross-sectional online survey. Questionnaires were sent to representatives of 217 palliative care settings in 25 countries. Included settings were hospices, inpatient dedicated palliative care beds, palliative care outpatient clinics, palliative care units, day care centers for palliative care, palliative care home support teams, inpatient palliative care support teams, care homes, and nursing homes. All invited 25 European Association of Palliative Care countries took part. In total, 107 out of 217 participants responded (57%). The quality indicators were reduced to four coherent sub-scales, being "equipment and continuity of care," "structured documentation of essential palliative care elements in the medical record," "training and appraisal of personnel," and "availability of controlled drugs." No significant differences in quality criteria between the different types of settings and services were identified. The set of quality indicators appeared to measure four reliable domains that assess the organization of different palliative care settings. It can be used as a starting point for quality improvement activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients’ smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. Methods This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. Results To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students’ training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative

  2. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients' smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants' attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students' training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative evaluation and the other about the summative

  3. Evaluation Model of the Entrepreneurial Character in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Madalin Munteanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of entrepreneurship development as a factor of sustainable growth at national and regional level frequently calls for the interest of theorists and practitioners on identifying and outlining the best conditions and economic essential prerequisites for supporting the entrepreneurial initiatives on the long term. In this context, the objective of the present research is to analyse and measure the entrepreneurial character of the European Union member countries in an integrated manner, by developing an innovative model for proposing specific action lines and objectively evaluating the entrepreneurship development in the investigated states. Our model is based on a synthesis variable of the entrepreneurial national character, which was developed by sequential application of principal component analysis, while the initial variables are from secondary sources with good conceptual representativeness. Depending on the objective relevance of the three model components (cultural, economic and administrative, and entrepreneurial education components, the achieved results confirm the importance of a favourable cultural and economic and administrative background for entrepreneurship development and they reiterate the inefficiency of isolated entrepreneurial education unless supported by good entrepreneurial culture or adequate economic and administrative infrastructure. The case of Romania, in relation with the European Union member countries, is presented in detail.

  4. Process evaluation of a mobile health intervention for people with diabetes in low income countries – the implementation of the TEXT4DSM study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmen, J. van; Pelt, M. van; Malombo, B.; Ku, G.M.; Kanda, D.; Heang, H.; Darras, C.; Kegels, G.; Schellevis, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence about mobile health (mHealth) approaches to manage diabetes shows modest effects on outcomes, but little is known about implementation variability. This is a process evaluation of an mHealth intervention to improve diabetes self-management through Short Message Service (SMS) p

  5. Process evaluation of a mobile health intervention for people with diabetes in low income countries – the implementation of the TEXT4DSM study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmen, J. van; Pelt, M. van; Malombo, B.; Ku, G.M.; Kanda, D.; Heang, H.; Darras, C.; Kegels, G.; Schellevis, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence about mobile health (mHealth) approaches to manage diabetes shows modest effects on outcomes, but little is known about implementation variability. This is a process evaluation of an mHealth intervention to improve diabetes self-management through Short Message Service (SMS) p

  6. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was the Tijaniyah, a sect begun by Ahmad at Tijani in Morocco, which eventually penetrated Sudan in about 1810 via the western Sahel (see Glossary...rainfall in the usually productive regions of the Sahel (see Glossary) and southern Sudan added to the country’s economic problems. Refugees, both Sudanese...be irrigated for the first time. Heavy silting as well as serious problems of drainage and salinity occurred. As a result, by the late 1970s the

  7. Area Handbook Series: Libya, a Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    only true mountains, Tibesti Massif, rise in southern desert. Country has several saline lakes but no peren- nial watercourses. Less than 5 percent of...facilitate expanded Sanusi missionary activities in the Sahel and in sub-Saharan Africa. The Grand Sanusi’s son, Muhammad, succeeded him as the order’s...Groundwater was in short supply in the agricultural areas. In some locations it had been so excessively drawn upon that it had become brackish or saline

  8. Countries as Tourist Brands: Creation, Managing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božo Skoko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the phenomenon of nation branding and analyses the purpose, methods and effects of branding on the one hand, and evaluating nations as brands on the other. In doing so, the emphasis is laid on nations as tourist brands, especially the interdependence of the branding process and tourism development, that is, the role of tourist offer and promotion in the creation of a nation brand. In this context, the authors analyse four leading indices, that is, institutions that deal with evaluating and ranking nation brands – Simon Anholt’s Nation Brand Index, Country Brand Index from Future Brand, Brand Finance and Bloom Consulting in order to discover how certain nations become brands, and how this impacts their rating, that is, popularity. The authors conclude that tourist offer is only one of the segments that contribute to brand strength and that the nation brand is unsustainable in the long term if it is based only on the tourist industry without other positive economic indicators. Following current trends in tourism and tourism promotion, the authors particularly analyse the experiences from Asia, which in recent years has created the largest number of new brands in tourism and recorded continuous growth in the number of visits as well as continuous revenue growth. Croatia is considered a developing tourism brand, recognised at the European level, but still insufficiently on the global scale, whose key asset is for the most part its natural beauty.

  9. Intercultural Effectiveness Training in three Western immigrant countries : A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly

  10. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  11. Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad.

  12. INFLUENCE OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN ON FOREIGN PRODUCT EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ANASTASIEI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers form their expectations (usually regarding the quality based on the perceived image of a certain country. The original country of origin scale was developed in 1994 by Parameswaran and Pisharodi and had 40 items measuring general country attributes, general product attributes, and specific product attributes (automobile product category. This paper aims to highlight the role of the country of origin in shaping perceptions of the country and the manufactured products.The goal of the present research is to validate the COI scale for the Romanian market, in order to find out if it can be used as it was initially built by its authors or if it requires modifications. The research results led to the decision of keeping 37 items out of 40 and removing 3 items given that they were highly intercorrelated or insignificant.

  13. The Impact of Country-of-Origin, Ethnocentrism and Animosity on Product Evaluation: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Cristina LICSANDRU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to identify whether product country image influences consumption patterns and purchase decisions of Romanian consumers, as well as to identify stereotypes regarding foreign products. Furthermore, the study aims to provide clear evidence regarding Romanian consumers’ ethnocentric tendencies and the countries towards which they exhibit animosity feelings. Research Methodology/Approach: Quantitative data collection method applied on Romanian consumers, with a sample consisting of 150 respondents, living in Bucharest, answering a tested self-administered questionnaire based on the CETSCALE. Findings: The results of the research show that country of origin impacts product evaluation, with a significantly high difference between domestic products (Romania and those from three foreign countries (Russia, Hungary and South Korea. The results suggest that the level of consumer ethnocentrism is low among Romanians, but they do exhibit certain animosity tendencies towards Russia and Hungary with substantive demographic differences identified. Originality/value: The research is the first of its kind conducted among Romanians, adding knowledge to the country-of-origin topic, as well as regarding consumer ethnocentrism and animosity issues. Practical implications: This research is of interest to those looking to export to Romania. It provides clear insight regarding the Romanian consumers’ perceptions regarding foreign products, their ethnocentric tendencies and the potential animosity feelings that they are exhibiting. Furthermore, it offers an useful tool for market segmentation. Keywords: international business, consumer behaviour, country-of-origin, ethnocentrism, animosity.

  14. Methods of Evaluating Child Welfare in Indian Country: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen; Cross, Terry L.; John, Laura; Carter, Patricia; Pavkov, Thomas; Wang, Ching-Tung; Diaz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The poor quality and quantity of data collected in tribal communities today reflects a lack of true community participation and commitment. This is especially problematic for evaluation studies, in which the needs and desires of the community should be the central focus. This challenge can be met by emphasizing indigenous methods and voice. The…

  15. STEREOTYPES IN CONSUMERS’ PRODUCT EVALUATION BASED ON THE COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Denisa G. STOENESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concept of country-of-origin and its effects on consumers’ product evaluation process. Given the increasingly competition in the context of a global market, nowadays it has become a difficult task to create and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Consumers rely on many elements in evaluating a certain product, but country-of-origin remains a powerful variable in terms of product image and perception. The purpose of this study is to examine both the advantages and risks involved in consumers’ evaluation process, linking the concept of country-of-origin with certain stereotypes created around it. The study is based on exploratory research, through the investigation of secondary data as a collection method. As results, research showed that a positive country image can compensate in terms of perception for a weak brand, suggesting that a predetermined opinion can substitute a quality searched for in buying a product. The article concludes with a discussion of directions and limits, as an impulsion for future investigation.

  16. STEREOTYPES IN CONSUMERS’ PRODUCT EVALUATION BASED ON THE COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Denisa G. STOENESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concept of country-of-origin and its effects on consumers’ product evaluation process. Given the increasingly competition in the context of a global market, nowadays it has become a difficult task to create and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. Consumers rely on many elements in evaluating a certain product, but country-of-origin remains a powerful variable in terms of product image and perception. The purpose of this study is to examine both the advantages and risks involved in consumers’ evaluation process, linking the concept of country-of-origin with certain stereotypes created around it. The study is based on exploratory research, through the investigation of secondary data as a collection method. As results, research showed that a positive country image can compensate in terms of perception for a weak brand, suggesting that a predetermined opinion can substitute a quality searched for in buying a product. The article concludes with a discussion of directions and limits, as an impulsion for future investigation.

  17. Penicillin allergy evaluation: experience from a drug allergy clinic in an Arabian Gulf Country, Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ahmad, Mona; Rodriguez Bouza, Tito; Arifhodzic, Nermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypersensitivity to penicillin has been studied worldwide, but data regarding patterns of sensitization in Arabian Gulf countries are scarce. Objective To describe the patterns of penicillin hypersensitivity during a 6-year study in Kuwait in terms of demographics, type of the culprit drug, in vivo and in vitro allergy testing. Methods One hundred and twenty-four patients referred to the drug allergy clinic for penicillin allergy were fully evaluated by skin prick and intradermal t...

  18. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Southeast Asian Studies, 1987. Villanueva , Honesto A. "The Independence Mission 1919: In- dependence Lies Ahead," Asian Studies [Manila], 9, No. 3...26, No. 5, May 1986, 501-17. Majul, Cesar Abid. "The Moros of the Philippines," Conflict, 8. Nos. 2-3, 1988, 169-84. Malajacan, Marcelino Q., Jr

  19. Comparing costing results in across country economic evaluations: the use of technology specific purchasing power parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, Sarah; Ludbrook, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The number of economic evaluations conducted on a multinational basis is increasing. Therefore, techniques are required to compare the results of such studies in a meaningful manner. This paper explores different approaches to comparing across country cost data applied to a European study of dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease. A price and volume index is created at the level of the individual health care technology and compared to an exchange rate conversion and published purchasing power parities (PPPs). Both exchange rate and PPP conversions when published rates are used fail to accurately reflect the true resource use of the applied health care example. These differences can be related to specific issues of input mix and price variation. Alternatively, the use of technology specific PPPs provided a more robust approach for international comparisons and also have the potential for use in multi-centre economic evaluations within the same country. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Area Handbook Series: Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    urea fertilizer, and in 1987 Iraq continued to import fertilizer as an emergency measure. Meanwhile, additional fertilizer plants were 151 Iraq: A...Study 1980 and 1985; 1985 production totaled almost 150,000 tons. Iraq also produced maize , millet, and oil seeds in smaller quantities. A number of

  1. Country-level governance of global health initiatives: an evaluation of immunization coordination mechanisms in five countries of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John

    2010-05-01

    In recent years there have been innovations in immunization financing and new technologies, and the scaling up of investment by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in the Asia region. The main mechanism for coordination of this global health initiative (GHI) investment is country-level 'Inter-Agency Coordination Committees' (ICCs). The aim of the evaluation was to determine the utility and future perspectives of stakeholders regarding the role of ICCs in improving immunization services in the Asian Region. A literature review, documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews (n = 65) were undertaken in five countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Indonesia), with senior level members of Ministries of Health and the GAVI partnership. The evaluation has identified that there have been significant changes recently in the strategic environment for immunization, including developments in new vaccines, increasing GAVI investment, trends towards health system integration and decentralization, and institutional development of the non-government sector. This evaluation found that ICCs are functioning well in relation to information sharing and GAVI application processes. However, they are performing less well in the areas of evaluation, strategic gap analysis and coordination of immunization technical co-operation. There are high levels of institutional and contextual complexity at country level that require a more focused global response by GAVI to the governance challenges of institutions and partners implementing GHIs at the country level. ICCs should be maintained and strengthened in the more pluralistic context of an 'immunization coordination system' that is represented by the wider health sector, regulatory authorities, and civil society and private sector interests. Managing through systems, rather than being over-reliant on committees, will broaden participation in implementation and, in doing so, expand the reach of immunization

  2. Area Handbook Series: Yugoslavia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Center Press, 1988. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and Prospects for Economic Re- form in Yugoslavia," Eastern European Politics and Societies, 2, Winter...1988, 94-114. 312 Bibliography Bukowski , Charles J., and Mark A. Cichock (eds.). Prospects for Change in Socialist Systems. New York: Praeger, 1987...67. Biberaj, Elez. "Yugoslavia: A Continuing Crisis?" Conflict Studies [London], 225, October 1989, 1-22. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and

  3. Area Handbook Series: Paraguay: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    University of New Mexico Press, 1978. Wilgus, A. Curtis. Historical Atlas of Latin America: Political, Geo- graphic, Economic, Cultural . New York...34 Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35, No. 3, April 1987, 601-27. Benftez, Luis G. Historia de la educacin paraguaya. Asunci6n: In- dustrial... cultural factors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the

  4. Extent and evaluation of protection in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kol (Jacob)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTariff protection and nontariff barriers are higher in developing countries than in industrial nations. The tendency of protection to decline with a higher level of development can be explained by the role of import taxes in government revenue, by export pessimism, and by differential tr

  5. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  6. 北京市郊野公园植物景观综合评价%The Synthetical Evaluation and Study on Plant Landscape of Country Parks in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼; 刘心茗; 董丽

    2014-01-01

    运用层次分析法(AHP)构建了以景观功能、生态功能、实用功能3方面作为评价准则的北京市郊野公园植物景观综合评价体系;利用构建的体系对北京市8个郊野公园的120处景观样方进行全面客观的评价.相关领域50人的评分结果显示,在准则层中,人们更重视植物景观为城市环境所带来的生态效益,其次是实用功能和景观功能.评价结果表明,北京市郊野公园建设水平处于Ⅱ、Ⅲ级.结合实地调研数据归纳出了郊野公园植物景观3大功能的实现手段,对郊野公园植物景观设计具有一定的指导意义.%A comprehensive assessment system was established to evaluate the plant landscape of country parks in Beijing using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).In this system,landscape function,ecological efficiency and utility function of parks were set as evaluation criteria.And,120 landscape samples from 8 country parks were comprehensively and objectively evaluated using this system.Fifty persons work in related fields were invited to score the criteria and parks.The scoring results indicated that people paid more attention to ecological efficiency of the plant landscape than landscape function and utility function in the criteria level.Besides,the evaluating results showed that the construction level of country parks in Beijing was at level Ⅱ and Ⅲ.Furthermore,combined with the field research,we summarized the means to achieve the three features of plant landscape of country parks,which may have a guiding significance for the plant landscape design of the country parks.

  7. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  8. Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2009-01-01

    Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing…

  9. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  10. Evaluating the Correlation between the Financial Sector Development and the Exports of Middle Eastern Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Eidan Torkzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the correlation between the exports of Middle Eastern countries and financial sector development, this study explains the relationship between the Institutional environment, Business environment, Financial stability, Financial Banking Services, Financial Non-banking Services, Financial markets and Financial access with the exports of Middle Eastern countries in 6 selected countries during the years 2008 to 2011. This research is applied based on the objective, has the library type based on the data collection and is among the correlative studies based on the method; it seeks to explain the relationship and calculate the amount of correlation and coefficients of each of the independent variables with the energy consumption by using the econometric models. Data and information needed for the research are collected based on the method of document library studies and the information related to the research variables are extracted by referring to the websites of International Association of Economics and UNCTAD Organization. First, the reliability or stability of variables used in various forms was determined by using the reliability determining tests such as the Dickey-Fuller unit root test. The accuracy test of classical assumptions was done for estimated functions and assurance of desired estimations accuracy and assurance of estimated relationship and long-term and balance coefficients of independent variables. Evaluation of stability (Durability or reliability of variables was done by EViews software and the statistics R2, F and Durbin-Watson were used in the analysis as the outputs of software. As the main result, it should be mentioned that the financial sector development has a significant and positive correlation with the exports of Middle Eastern countries.

  11. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  12. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  13. [Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan.

  14. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  15. The Effect of Product Country of Origin: An Empirical Study Using Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowsar, Ali Mohammad; Ishii, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This article extends cue utilization theory with the help of the idea of cue diagnosticity. Themain objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of country of origin (COO) effect asa high scope cue during consumer choice decision for personal computers. Two conjointanalyses were done on the data collected by a questionnaire survey of 65 respondents. Fromthe data we found that the influence of the cues, like-price, brand name, country of origin,product character and warranty, on the bra...

  16. Influenza in Thailand: a case study for middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, James Mark; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Kingnate, Darika; Fukuda, Keiji; Chaising, Arunee; Dowell, Scott F

    2004-11-25

    Recent studies in Hong Kong and Singapore suggest that the annual impact of influenza in these wealthy tropical cities may be substantial, but little is known about the burden in middle-income tropical countries. We reviewed the status of influenza surveillance, vaccination, research, and policy in Thailand as of January 2004. From 1993 to 2002, 64-91 cases of clinically diagnosed influenza were reported per 100,000 persons per year. Influenza viruses were isolated in 34% of 4305 specimens submitted to the national influenza laboratory. Vaccine distribution figures suggest that less than 1% of the population is immunized against influenza each year. In January 2004, Thailand reported its first documented outbreak of influenza A H5N1 infection in poultry and the country's first human cases of avian influenza. Thailand's growing economy, well-developed public health infrastructure, and effective national immunization program could enable the country to take more active steps towards influenza control.

  17. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  18. Friendly and Hostile Country Perceptions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Beytullah; Topçu, Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Peace education requires that students have a correct and academic perception regarding other countries. These perceptions of students, who acquire certain perceptions starting from primary school to university, need to be based on real facts and should not contain extravagance. This study aims to determine whether 3rd year Prospective Social…

  19. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  20. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  1. Evaluating preference weights for the Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mörk Ann-Christin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI is a preference-based outcome measure used in US clinical trials and cost-effectiveness studies for asthma. This study evaluated ASUI preference weights in Europe to determine whether the multi-attribute utility function, based on preferences from a US population, is generalizable across countries. Methods Data were collected from ninety asthma patients from Italy, France, and the United Kingdom using the Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the ASUI. Subjects rated their preferences for 10 asthma health states using a visual analogue scale (VAS and a standard gamble (SG interview. Results All multi-symptom states showed statistically significant differences (p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that the ASUI may be a complementary patient-reported outcome for clinical studies and may be useful for applications in cost-effectiveness studies comparing different asthma treatments.

  2. Quality of Life of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease in 15 Countries: Evaluating Country-Specific Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Silke; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Luyckx, Koen; Thomet, Corina; Budts, Werner; Enomoto, Junko; Sluman, Maayke A; Wang, Jou-Kou; Jackson, Jamie L; Khairy, Paul; Cook, Stephen C; Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Alday, Luis; Eriksen, Katrine; Dellborg, Mikael; Berghammer, Malin; Mattsson, Eva; Mackie, Andrew S; Menahem, Samuel; Caruana, Maryanne; Veldtman, Gruschen; Soufi, Alexandra; Romfh, Anitra W; White, Kamila; Callus, Edward; Kutty, Shelby; Fieuws, Steffen; Moons, Philip

    2016-05-17

    Measuring quality of life (QOL) is fundamental to understanding the impact of disease and treatment on patients' lives. This study aimed to explore QOL in an international sample of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), the association between patient characteristics and QOL, and international variation in QOL and its relationship to country-specific characteristics. We enrolled 4,028 adults with CHD from 15 countries. QOL was assessed using a linear analog scale (LAS) (0 to 100) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (5 to 35). Patient characteristics included sex, age, marital status, educational level, employment status, CHD complexity, and patient-reported New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. Country-specific characteristics included general happiness and 6 cultural dimensions. Linear mixed models were applied. Median QOL was 80 on the LAS and 27 on the SWLS. Older age, lack of employment, no marriage history, and worse NYHA functional class were associated with lower QOL (p Happiness scores and cultural dimensions were not associated with variation in QOL after adjustment for patient characteristics and explained only an additional 0.1% of the variance above and beyond patient characteristics (p = 0.56). This large-scale, international study found that overall QOL in adults with CHD was generally good. Variation in QOL was related to patient characteristics but not country-specific characteristics. Hence, patients at risk for poorer QOL can be identified using uniform criteria. General principles for designing interventions to improve QOL can be developed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  4. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  5. [Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James Francis; Chaloupka, Frank; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey; Borland, Ron; Hastings, Gerard; Cummings, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to coordinate tobacco control policies around the world that reduce tobacco consumption. The FCTC's recommended policies are likely to be effective in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, policy evaluation studies are needed to determine policy impact and potential synergies across policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC) is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  6. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context.

  7. Beyond resistance: exploring health managers' propensity for participatory evaluation in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Pernelle A; Champagne, François; Farand, Lambert

    2012-05-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the components of learning, working in groups, use of judgment and use of systematic methods. We interviewed 16 health managers to determine the meaning they ascribe to these four components in their practice in a developing country, Haïti. We found that learning was often informal and that all managers attached a negative meaning to the use of judgment. Working in groups was favored by all managers, while the health managers viewed the use of systematic methods differently than do evaluators. The administrative health managers generally ranked lower in propensity for PPE than did their clinical colleagues. Implications for the practice of evaluation are discussed in relation to the work styles exhibited by managers in everyday practice, the proactive repetition of actions, the control exercised by formal procedures, and the collective versus "solitary" image of one's environment of action. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  9. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  10. Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

  11. Identification and Evaluation of Oncoming Changes of Wood and Paper Industries of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Akbar Bahmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying and rating of oncoming challenges of the wood and paper industries of the country can create a delicate attitude for policy makers and investors of these valuable industries. This study by the aim of identification and evaluation of wood and paper industries challenges with scientific and authentic method of likert spectra scale was done is 2010. Present challenges of wood and paper industries were detected by literature review and consulting with experts and academician and a number of manufacturing unites of wood and paper industries and query was designed. Intended data and statistics obtained from experts of wood and paper industries were compared and analyzed by likert scale spectra. The results showed that of 24 examined challenges, shortage of raw material, lake of long, compressive and applied prospective, existence of great gap between the university and industrial units and wearied and aged machinery are among the most important. Finally the identified challenges were submitted to the authorities for helping the economy of the country as well as causing the prosperity and budding of these industries.

  12. The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína

    2014-04-01

    In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too.

  13. Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male height in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male height are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male height in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature.

  14. Asylum seekers alleging torture in their countries: Evaluation of a French center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Renaud; Lebossé, David; Barrios, Lucia; Rodat, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Over a 6-year period, 570 survivors gave consent to this study and were examined by forensic medical doctors in academic French hospital. They evaluated with the aim of cataloguing the physical evidence of torture. Sociological data, declared violence (single physical altercation, repeated physical violence less than one year or more than one year, incarceration not more than one week or more than 1 week), and method of violence (blows by blunt object, crushing, burns, electrical shocks, attempted drowning, smothering, incision, or gunshot) were studied. An association between victims' statements and physical evidence of torture was determined. 70% were male with an average age of 31.9 years and ages between 1 and 70 years old. Dagestan, Guinea-Conakry and Guinea-Bissau were the countries most represented among asylum seekers. Beatings were reported by 27.89%, confinement was reported by 40.22%, and repeated violence by 30.16% of refugees. The average time interval between the first assault and forensic evaluation was 53 months. Forms of torture reported included: blunt force trauma (82.51%) truncheon blows (27.50%), arm incision (30%), and burns (16.3%). Statistically, truncheon blows were experienced more often by males in confinement due to political conflict. The use of crushing methods and electrical shocks also were experienced more often by males during confinement. Victims who had received incision wounds were significantly younger. Gunshots were statistically associated with male survivors of political conflict. Men experienced drowning and electrical shocks while in confinement in the Balkans, Asia, and Russia. Electrical shocks were reported by males during confinement and in northern Caucasus countries. The association was significant between assertions of burns and the presence of cutaneous scars (p = 0.0105); similarly, assertions of incision wounds were significantly corroborated by evidence of scars (p = 0.0009). Asylum seekers assessed were

  15. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  16. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends...... negatively on the earnings of the spouse. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on this question, which has focused on a specific form of positive jointness. The presence of negative jointness is driven by family-based and means-tested transfer programs combined with tax systems that usually...... feature very little jointness. Second, we consider the labor supply distortion on secondary earners relative to primary earners implied by the current tax-transfer systems, and study the welfare effects of small reforms that change the relative taxation of spouses. By adopting a small-reform methodology...

  17. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends...... negatively on the earnings of the spouse. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on this question, which has focused on a specific form of positive jointness. The presence of negative jointness is driven by family-based and means-tested transfer programs combined with tax systems that usually...... feature very little jointness. Second, we consider the labour supply distortion on secondary earners relative to primary earners implied by the current tax-transfer systems, and study the welfare effects of small reforms that change the relative taxation of spouses. By adopting a small-reform methodology...

  18. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  19. Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper aims to bridge the gap in the current literature by critically evaluating the available published data on economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Methods We identified and reviewed the methodological quality of 32 economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Developing countries were defined according to the World Bank classification for low- and lower middle-income countries. We defined NCDs as the 12 categories listed in the 1993 World Bank report Investing in Health. English language literature was searched for the period January 1984 and January 2003 inclusive in Medline, Science Citation Index, HealthStar, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Embase using medical subheading terms and free text searches. We then assessed the quality of studies according to a set of pre-defined technical criteria. Results We found that the quality of studies was poor and resource allocation decisions made by local and global policy-makers on the basis of this evidence could be misleading. Furthermore we have identified some clear gaps in the literature, particularly around injuries and strategies for tackling the consequences of the emerging tobacco epidemic. Conclusion In the face of poor evidence the role of so-called generalised cost-effectiveness analyses has an important role to play in aiding public health decision-making at the global level. Further research is needed to investigates the causes of variation among cost, effects and cost-effectiveness data within and between

  20. The Country of Origin and Consumer Ethnocentrism Effects in the Evaluation of a Global Brand: the case of McDonald’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Iara Strehlau

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of country of origin and ethnocentrism on the image of a brand known internationally – the fast food company McDonald’s – and observe if there exist differences in the evaluation of brand image based on gender, age and socio-economic class. The work begins with a contextualization, followed by a review of the main concepts applied: evaluation of a global brand, consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin effect. A survey based on a non-probabilistic sample was carried out and 275 individuals from the city of Sao Paulo filled in a questionnaire comprised of questions aimed to measure socio-demographic data and three scales, each one to measure country of origin effect, consumer ethnocentrism and brand evaluation of McDonald’s. It was verified that, although the level of ethnocentrism does not interfere in brand image, the country of origin effect is useful to discriminate respondents in relation to the positiveness of their evaluation towards the brand McDonald’s: individuals that evaluate negatively the United States as a country, tend to evaluate negatively McDonald’s as well. Young consumers, women and individuals with higher income evaluated more positively the brand under study, as well as its country of origin. It was verified a positive and linear relationship between country of origin and brand image evaluations.

  1. 国外保护地生态旅游评价研究进展%Progress on the Study of Evaluation System for Ecotourism of Protected Area in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁小波; 丁玉娟; 郭迪

    2014-01-01

    Protected area is one of the most important places for ecotourism activities in the world .During recent years, with the in-depth study on ecotourism , the research on evaluation system for ecotourism is also increasing . After literature reviewing , this paper summarized these researches on evaluation system of ecotourism into 3 types, and namely 1 ) discussions on principles and criteria of evaluation system , 2 ) study on the main contents of evalua-tion system, 3) methods and indicator system for evaluation .In general, Studies on Evaluation System for Eco-tourism in Protected Area have five features which are all worthy to learn .These features includes , 1 ) more and more in-depth study; 2) integrated application of different approaches; 3) special attention to primary data collec-tion and usage; 4 ) local participation in evaluation; 5 ) the theory of sustainable development is fundamental guidance for ecotourism evaluation system study in protected areas .%保护地是世界生态旅游活动的主要场所,近年来,随着对生态研究的深入,国外有关保护地生态旅游评价的研究逐步增多。本文通过对相关文献的梳理,发现国外有关保护地生态旅游评价的研究可以概括为三方面:(1)保护地生态旅游评价原则与标准的探讨;(2)保护地生态旅游评价主体内容研究;(3)保护地生态旅游的评价方法与指标体系。综合来看,国外保护地生态旅游评价研究具有5方面显著特点值得国内学者学习和借鉴:(1)评价研究逐步深入;(2)多种方法综合应用;(3)强调一手资料的获取和使用;(4)重视社区在评价研究中的参与;(5)保护地生态旅游评价的根本指导思想为可持续发展理论。

  2. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  3. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  4. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  5. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  6. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  7. A systematic review of economic evaluations of interventions to tackle cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhrcke Marc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-and middle-income countries are facing both a mounting burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD as well as severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating some of the extensive strategies pursued in high-income countries. There is thus an urgency to identify and implement those interventions that help reap the biggest reductions of the CVD burden, given low resource levels. What are the interventions to combat CVDs that represent good "value for money" in low-and middle-income countries? This study reviews the evidence-base on economic evaluations of interventions located in those countries. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of journal articles published until 2009, based on a comprehensive key-word based search in generic and specialized electronic databases, accompanied by manual searches of expert databases. The search strategy consisted of freetext and MeSH terms related to economic evaluation and cardiovascular disease. Two independent reviewers verified fulfillment of inclusion criteria and extracted study characteristics. Results Thirty-three studies met the selection criteria. We find a growing research interest, in particular in most recent years, if from a very low baseline. Most interventions fall under the category primary prevention, as opposed to case management or secondary prevention. Across the spectrum of interventions, pharmaceutical strategies have been the predominant focus, and, taken at face value, these show significant positive economic evidence, specifically when compared to the counterfactual of no interventions. Only a few studies consider non-clinical interventions, at population level. Almost half of the studies have modelled the intervention effectiveness based on existing risk-factor information and effectiveness evidence from high-income countries. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness evidence on CVD interventions in developing countries is growing, but remains scarce

  8. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  9. Pilot Study on Harmonisation of Reactor Safety in WENRA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Most of the objectives, set for the Pilot Study, were met. It can be concluded that the methodology was adequate for its purpose. National requirements on selected safety issues have been systematically compared and the major gaps and differences have been identified. Convenient overviews have been provided of differences and similarities between the countries. Furthermore, the conclusions are based on a safety justification and are detailed enough to provide input to a further more detailed analysis on the national level. It was not possible, however, to provide fully verified conclusions about the implementation of the reference levels in the different countries. This has to do with the following constraints on the study: In line with the Terms of Reference, the comparison of formal requirements did not address the more detailed use of criteria and methods to verify compliance. The same requirement could be enforced differently in different regulatory systems, and hence lead to different implementation. The Pilot Study also assessed the implementation, but it was not possible to do this in sufficient detail to identify such differences. The implementation was assessed on the basis of current knowledge of the respective regulatory body, but it was not possible to provide the panels with evidence of the implementation. For these reasons, conclusions about implemented safety provisions in the different countries should be drawn with precaution. The introduction of the panel assessments greatly improved the quality and consistency of the comparison assessments. Uncertainties in the assessments are mainly connected with lack of time to make a detailed analysis in some cases. The reliability of the assessments seems to be sufficient for the objectives of the Pilot Study. The introduction of the IAEA safety standards in the study proved to be helpful and provided confidence in the scope and strictness of the reference levels. This Pilot Study has contributed to

  10. A Strategy for the Evaluation of Activities to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation strategy in which a set of process indicators is applied to programs to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries is presented. The four-stage strategy is illustrated for three interventions: (1) providing safe abortion services; (2) increasing knowledge of obstetric complications; and (3) improving medical care quality. (SLD)

  11. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC FACTORS ON SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Evseenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.

  12. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  13. Temperature Variability and Mortality: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G.; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D.; Bell, Michelle L.; Overcenco, Ala; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Saldiva, Paulo; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    G, Tong S. 2016. Temperature variability and mortality: a multi-country study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1554–1559; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP149 PMID:27258598

  14. A Methodological Approach to Evaluate Livestock Innovations on Small-Scale Farms in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón García-Martínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was deepening the knowledge of livestock innovations knowledge on small-scale farms in developing countries. First, we developed a methodology focused on identifying potential appropriate livestock innovations for smallholders and grouped them in innovation areas, defined as a set of well-organized practices with a business purpose. Finally, a process management program (PMP was evaluated according to the livestock innovation level and viability of the small-scale farms. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of PMP on the economic viability of the farm. Information from 1650 small-scale livestock farms in Mexico was collected and the innovations were grouped in five innovation areas: A1. Management, A2. Feeding, A3. Genetic, A4. Reproduction and A5. Animal Health. The resulting innovation level in the system was low at 45.7% and heterogeneous among areas. This study shows the usefulness of the methodology described and confirms that implementing a PMP allows improving the viability an additional 21%, due to a better integration of processes, resulting in more efficient management.

  15. Mania in the Nordic countries: patients and treatment in the acute phase of the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Knud; Porsdal, Vibeke; Aarre, Trond F

    2009-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics have a central role in pharmacotherapy. There are, however, substantial differences in how the treatment is realized in different countries. The aim of this paper was to compare the treatment of acute mania in the Nordic...... countries with other European countries during the first 12 weeks of the EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) study. Adult patients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated/changed oral medication...... status, functional status and pharmacological treatment. Psychiatric status at inclusion measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) were similar in the Nordic and European patient groups, which is surprising as 73% of the Nordic patients...

  16. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  17. Population and country: Actuality of Rudolf Kjellen's study

    OpenAIRE

    Stepić Milomir; Srećković Jelena

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine relation between population and country in the meaning of Sweden scientist Rudolf Kjellén. In the introduction population as an agent of power was determined. It is presented that it's necessary to use modern approach in a science of the country. The analysis of the case at Kjellén's biologistics conception at the country has been determined, too. Two sub-systems in relation to population agent at the country have been analyzed: demo-politics and socio-p...

  18. International Day for the Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity (IDEA): a study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168,000 primary care patients in 63 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkau, Beverley; Deanfield, John E.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bassan, Jean-Pierre; Fox, Keith A.A.; Smith, Sidney C.; Barter, Philip; Tan, Chee E.; Van Gaal, Luc; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Massien, Christine; Haffner, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Abdominal adiposity is a growing clinical and public health problem. It is not known whether it is similarly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in different regions around the world, and thus whether measuring waist circumference (WC) in addition to body mass index (BMI) is useful in primary care practice. Methods and Results Randomly chosen primary care physicians (PCPs) in 63 countries recruited consecutive patients aged 18 to 80 years, on two pre-specified half-days. WC and BMI were measured and the presence of CVD and diabetes recorded. Of the patients consulting the PCPs, 97% agreed to participate in this study. Overall, 24% of 69,409 men and 27% of 98,750 women were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). A further 40% and 30% of men and women, respectively, were overweight (BMI 25 to 30 kg/m2). In men and women, respectively, increased WC (>102/88cm, men/women) was recorded in 29% and 48%, CVD in 16% and 13%, and diabetes in 13% and 11%. There was a statistically significant graded increase in the frequency of CVD and diabetes with both BMI and WC, with a stronger relationship for WC than for BMI across regions, for both genders. This relationship between WC, CVD and particularly diabetes was seen even in lean patients (BMI <25 kg/m2). Conclusions Among men and women consulting PCPs, BMI and particularly WC were both strongly linked to CVD and especially to diabetes. Strategies to address this global problem are required to prevent an epidemic of these major causes of morbidity and mortality. PMID:17965405

  19. Priming adaptation pathways through adaptive co-management: Design and evaluation for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.A. Butler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mainstreaming climate change and future uncertainty into rural development planning in developing countries is a pressing challenge. By taking a complex systems approach to decision-making, the adaptation pathways construct provides useful principles. However, there are no examples of how to operationalise adaptation pathways in developing countries, or how to evaluate the process. This paper describes a 4 year governance experiment in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia, which applied adaptive co-management (ACM as a governance approach to ‘prime’ a transformation to adaptation pathways-based development planning. The project’s Theory of Change (ToC consisted of three causally-linked phases which mirrored the evolutionary stages of ACM: priming stakeholders, enabling policies and programs, and implementing adaptation. The first phase established a trans-disciplinary research team to act as facilitators and brokers, a multi-stakeholder planning process demonstrating adaptation pathways practice, and trialling of ‘no regrets’ adaptation strategies in case study sub-districts. A participatory evaluation method was designed to test the ToC’s assumptions and measure ACM outcomes. Stakeholder interviews at the project’s closure indicated that through ACM, stakeholders had been successfully primed: leaders emerged, trust, cross-scale social networks and knowledge integration grew, communities were empowered, and innovative adaptation strategies were developed and tested. However, there was limited evidence of institutional change to existing planning processes. This was attributed to the absence of policy windows due to ineffective and insufficient time for political engagement, and the fluid institutional environment caused by a national decentralisation policy. To enhance the priming of adaptation pathways into development planning under these conditions, three recommendations are made: (1 provide long term support for emergent

  20. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-11-06

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. © Speizer et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits

  1. Quality Evaluation of Zirconium Dioxide Frameworks Produced in Five Dental Laboratories from Different Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, Esther; Brägger, Urs; Scherrer, Susanne S; Keller, Andrea; Wittneben, Julia G; Hicklin, Stefan P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare quality as well as economic aspects of CAD/CAM high strength ceramic three-unit FDP frameworks ordered from dental laboratories located in emerging countries and Switzerland. The master casts of six cases were sent to five dental laboratories located in Thailand (Bangkok), China (Peking and Shenzhen), Turkey (Izmir), and Switzerland (Bern). Each laboratory was using a different CAD/CAM system. The clinical fit of the frameworks was qualitatively assessed, and the thickness of the framework material, the connector height, the width, and the diameter were evaluated using a measuring sensor. The analysis of the internal fit of the frameworks was performed by means of a replica technique, whereas the inner and outer surfaces of the frameworks were evaluated for traces of postprocessing and damage to the intaglio surface with light and electronic microscopes. Groups (dental laboratories and cases) were compared for statistically significant differences using Mann-Whitney U-tests after Bonferroni correction. An acceptable clinical fit was found at 97.9% of the margins produced in laboratory E, 87.5% in B, 93.7% in C, 79.2% in A, and 62.5% in D. The mean framework thicknesses were not statistically significantly different for the premolar regions; however, for the molar area 4/8 of the evaluated sites were statistically significantly different. Circumference, surface, and width of the connectors produced in the different laboratories were statistically significantly different but not the height. There were great differences in the designs for the pontic and connector regions, and some of the frameworks would not be recommended for clinical use. Traces of heavy postprocessing were found in frameworks from some of the laboratories. The prices per framework ranged from US$177 to US$896. By ordering laboratory work in developing countries, a considerable price reduction was obtained compared to the price level in Switzerland

  2. Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment: Evaluating Residential Development Sustainability in a Developing Country Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yigitcanlar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, improved quality of life, and diversified lifestyle options have collectively led to an escalation in housing demand in our cities, where residential areas, as the largest portion of urban land use type, play a critical role in the formation of sustainable cities. To date there has been limited research to ascertain residential development layouts that provide a more sustainable urban outcome. This paper aims to evaluate and compare sustainability levels of residential types by focusing on their layouts. The paper scrutinizes three different development types in a developing country context—i.e., subdivision, piecemeal, and master-planned developments. This study develops a “Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment” tool and applies it to compare their sustainability levels in Ipoh, Malaysia. The analysis finds that the master-planned development, amongst the investigated case studies, possesses the potential to produce higher levels of sustainability outcomes. The results reveal insights and evidence for policymakers, planners, development agencies and researchers; advocate further studies on neighborhood-level sustainability analysis, and; emphasize the need for collective efforts and an effective process in achieving neighborhood sustainability and sustainable city formation.

  3. Accidents and undetermined deaths: re-evaluation of nationwide samples from the Scandinavian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøllefsen, Ingvild Maria; Thiblin, Ingemar; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Hem, Erlend; Kastrup, Marianne; Nyberg, Ullakarin; Rogde, Sidsel; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Østevold, Gunvor; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2016-05-27

    National mortality statistics should be comparable between countries that use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases. Distinguishing between manners of death, especially suicides and accidents, is a challenge. Knowledge about accidents is important in prevention of both accidents and suicides. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of classifying deaths as accidents and undetermined manner of deaths in the three Scandinavian countries and to compare cross-national differences. The cause of death registers in Norway, Sweden and Denmark provided data from 2008 for samples of 600 deaths from each country, of which 200 were registered as suicides, 200 as accidents or undetermined manner of deaths and 200 as natural deaths. The information given to the eight experts was identical to the information used by the Cause of Death Register. This included death certificates, and if available external post-mortem examinations, forensic autopsy reports and police reports. In total, 69 % (Sweden and Norway) and 78 % (Denmark) of deaths registered in the official mortality statistics as accidents were confirmed by the experts. In the majority of the cases where disagreement was seen, the experts reclassified accidents to undetermined manner of death, in 26, 25 and 19 % of cases, respectively. Few cases were reclassified as suicides or natural deaths. Among the extracted accidents, the experts agreed least with the official mortality statistics concerning drowning and poisoning accidents. They also reported most uncertainty in these categories of accidents. In a second re-evaluation, where more information was made available, the Norwegian psychiatrist and forensic pathologist increased their agreement with the official mortality statistics from 76 to 87 %, and from 85 to 88 %, respectively, regarding the Norwegian and Swedish datasets. Among the extracted undetermined deaths in the Swedish dataset, the two experts

  4. An Evaluation of the Sale of Public Assets as Alternative Public Debt Reduction Strategy in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bilan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the recent crisis, many European countries have been confronted to high and unsustainable public debts, the issue of conceiving and implementing debt reduction strategies becoming one of great interest to both the scientific community and public policy-makers. Several options have been put forward, some of them (like fiscal consolidation explored in depth by researchers and already applied in many countries, while others have benefited of less, even minor attention. Thus, our paper aims to evaluate the sale of public (financial and non-financial assets as possible alternative for restoring public debt sustainability in European countries, contributes to existing literature by providing a more thorough analysis of a usually overlooked alternative. The paper is designed as a case study, mixing qualitative and quantitative evidence on the topics of interest with regard to the situation of 20 European countries, selected on criteria of data availability. The general conclusion is that the sale of public assets should, at least in the most indebted countries, be incorporated into public debt reduction strategies, but in addition to other measures (mainly fiscal consolidation ones and always on the basis of realistic and extensive cost-benefit analysis.

  5. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, Jessica K; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results.  None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions.  In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases.

  6. Evaluation of an international faculty development program for developing countries in Asia: the Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Sung, Minsun; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Seunghee; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2015-12-18

    The issue of collaboration in medical education is becoming prominent. Some faculty development programs have suggested an approach for promoting collaboration on a global level. However, non-English-speaking developing countries in Asia, especially in Southeast Asia, do not take advantage of them due to their unique context, such as language and culture. To address these issues, Seoul National University College of Medicine initiated a 6-week international faculty development program called the "Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators" for 16 fellows from five Asian countries (Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Vietnam). The aim of this study is to report the evaluation results of the outcome of the program and discuss better ways of collaborating with developing countries. Three levels of collaboration-intraorganizational, intranational, and international-were central initiatives of the program. Prior to setting up the program details, we first established four design principles, following which the contents, materials, and facilitators were determined to maintain consistency with the design principles. The evaluation of the program was done with Kirkpatrick's four-level model. Most of the evaluation data for level 1 were collected by two questionnaires, the post-module survey and the post-program survey. Portfolios and progress reports were mainly used to collect outcome data for levels 2 and 3, respectively. The reaction was generally positive throughout the program and there was a significant correlation between satisfaction and relevance to one's job or needs. Despite the fellows' propensity for overestimating themselves, both the evaluators and fellows reported that there was significant improvement in learning. Opinions on the impact or urgency of the topics were slightly different from country to country; however, the answers regarding feasibility were fairly similar. Moreover, we could observe from the post-program progress reports that the

  7. [Health economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccines in the developing countries: systematic reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaobin; Mao, Fanzhen; Zhou, Zi; Zhao, Qinjian; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma has brought huge burden on patients, especially in developing countries. Preventive vaccines could effectively reduce the incidence of cervical carcinoma. The high prices were one of the most difficult problem in introducing the vaccine in developing countries, so the cost-effectiveness and health financing of the vaccines should be carefully studied before incorporated into the national immunization program. Thus, researchers used mathematical models to predict the effects of HPV vaccines and to study the cost- effectiveness. In order to understand the current situation on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the developing countries, a systematic searching of literature from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, CNKI and Wangfang Data was performed, this study aims to conduct a systematic review from aspects of project source, first author, research areas, research perspectives, prevention strategies, vaccine characteristics, cost-effectiveness.

  8. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... for training purposes.Finally, some methodological thoughts based on our practical experiences will be presented and our future work will be briefly discussed....

  9. Culture and Economic Growth——Cross Country Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薇

    2015-01-01

    The folowing paper aims to analyze the relationship of cultural factors for economic growth, using Penn world table data and Hofstede's five dimension data from 96 countries and regions. We provide strong evidence that cultures (extremely uncertainty avoidance), together with human resource and capital stock, play an important part in a country's economic. While including standard neo-classical growth model variables such as investment rates and a substitute for human capital, the impact of cultural variables like power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence are investigated. In particular, we find that uncertainty avoidance is always robust to the gross economic growth across countries.

  10. Population and country: Actuality of Rudolf Kjellen's study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepić Milomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine relation between population and country in the meaning of Sweden scientist Rudolf Kjellén. In the introduction population as an agent of power was determined. It is presented that it's necessary to use modern approach in a science of the country. The analysis of the case at Kjellén's biologistics conception at the country has been determined, too. Two sub-systems in relation to population agent at the country have been analyzed: demo-politics and socio-politics. It has been referred on actuality at Kjellén's ideas as well as on certain deficiencies at his ideas. Conclusion at this paper has been dedicated to wide influences at Kjellén's ideas.

  11. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico: a country example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Heriberto Hermosillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. RESULTS: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. CONCLUSION: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes.

  12. Initial evaluation of clean development mechanism type projects in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This study assessed a range of existing energy sector development projects that also reduce greenhouse gas emission, such as micro-hydro plants, biogas digesters, solar photovoltaic panels, and energy efficient cooking stoves. The host countries examined were Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Peru, Kenya, and Nepal. The aim of this project was to inform international debate on the design of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and its implications for energy use, the environment and reduction of poverty to aid capacity building for the CDM in Developing Countries. (author)

  13. A Study on Logistics Cluster Competitiveness among Asia Main Countries using the Porter's Diamond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and discussions of logistics cluster competitiveness with a national approach are required to boost agglomeration effects and potentially create logistics efficiency and productivity. This study developed assessment criteria of logistics cluster competitiveness based on Porter's diamond model, calculated the weight of each criterion by the AHP method, and finally evaluated and discussed logistics cluster competitiveness among Asia main countries. The results indicate that there was a large difference in logistics cluster competitiveness among six countries. The logistics cluster competitiveness scores of Singapore (7.93, Japan (7.38, and Hong Kong (7.04 are observably different from those of China (5.40, Korea (5.08, and Malaysia (3.46. Singapore, with the highest competitiveness score, revealed its absolute advantage in logistics cluster indices. These research results intend to provide logistics policy makers with some strategic recommendations, and may serve as a baseline for further logistics cluster studies using Porter's diamond model.

  14. Economic evaluation of family planning interventions in low and middle income countries; A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fr

  15. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  16. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  17. Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Eduard J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Methods Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries and others intending to develop them (NG-countries. Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Results Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Conclusions Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them.

  18. Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eduard J; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Harling, Guy; Santas, Xenophon M; Mosure, Debra; Delay, Paul R

    2011-02-06

    Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries) and others intending to develop them (NG-countries). Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them.

  19. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  20. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  1. Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5 positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy

  2. The territorial cooperation policy of the EU with the countries of South East Europe: An interim evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotios Angelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the programming period 2007-2013 the Cohesion Policy of the EU was adopted and the policy of territorial cooperation with third countries was implemented. Within this framework, the EU co-finances (through the European Regional Development Fund, the pre-accession instrument and the instrument of European Neighbourhood Policy a series of cross-border, interregional and transnational cooperation programmes in Southeast Europe. The South East European countries are eligible for all these programmes, but the only programme that includes all countries in the region is the South East Europe Programme 2007-2013. The aim of this study is to conduct an interim evaluation of these programmes and present suggestions for the new programming period for the Cohesion Policy 2014-2020. Section 2 describes the EU policy of territorial cooperation with non-EU countries. Section 3 reviews the framework of EU policies and programmes fostering regional integration and territorial cohesion in Southeast Europe. Section 4 presents the area, aim, objectives and priority axes of the programme, while Section 5 offers an assessment of the implementation and effectiveness of the programme. Section 6 also includes some critical observations and policy proposals.

  3. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  4. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    given age cohort. Many poor, developing countries have a broad base and steadily taper - ing higher levels, which reflects a large number of births and...as running, gymnastics, volleyball , ice skating, and traditional Korean games. Group gym- nastic exercises are considered an art form as well as a form

  5. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    climate provides plentiful sunshine , moder- ated by the relatively high altitude of most areas of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from...spring water they called "the water of Yakan." To those who drank it, they promised restored health, eternal life, and the return of the ancestors and

  6. CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF BANK FINANCIAL DISTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jia-Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bank failures affect owners, employees, and customers, possibly causing large-scale economic distress. Thus, banks must evaluate operational risks and develop early warning systems. This study investigates bank failures in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the North America Free Trade Area (NAFTA, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the European Union, newly industrialized countries, the G20, and the G8. We use financial ratios to analyze and explore the appropriateness of prediction models. Results show that capital ratios, interest income compared to interest expenses, non-interest income compared to non-interest expenses, return on equity, and provisions for loan losses have significantly negative correlations with bank failure. However, loan ratios, non-performing loans, and fixed assets all have significantly positive correlations with bank failure. In addition, the accuracy of the logistic model for banks from NAFTA countries provides the best prediction accuracy regarding bank failure

  7. Evaluation of the performance of national health systems in 2004-2011: An analysis of 173 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daxin; Ahn, Haksoon; Lievens, Tomas; Zeng, Wu

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to improve health service delivery and achieve better health outcomes, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for improved efficiency of health care systems to better use the available funding. This study aims to examine the efficiency of national health systems using longitudinal country-level data. Data on health spending per capita, infant mortality rate (IMR), under 5 mortality rate (U5MR), and life expectancy (LE) were collected from or imputed for 173 countries from 2004 through 2011. Data envelopment analyses were used to evaluate the efficiency and regression models were constructed to examine the determinants of efficiency. The average efficiency of the national health system, when examined yearly, was 78.9%, indicating a potential saving of 21.1% of health spending per capita to achieve the same level of health status for children and the entire population, if all countries performed as well as their peers. Additionally, the efficiency of the national health system varied widely among countries. On average, Africa had the lowest efficiency of 67%, while West Pacific countries had the highest efficiency of 86%. National economic status, HIV/AIDS prevalence, health financing mechanisms and governance were found to be statistically associated with the efficiency of national health systems. Taking health financing as an example, a 1% point increase of social security expenses as a percentage of total health expenditure correlated to a 1.9% increase in national health system efficiency. The study underscores the need to enhance efficiency of national health systems to meet population health needs, and highlights the importance of health financing and governance in improving the efficiency of health systems, to ultimately improve health outcomes.

  8. Evaluation of the performance of national health systems in 2004-2011: An analysis of 173 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daxin; Ahn, Haksoon; Lievens, Tomas; Zeng, Wu

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to improve health service delivery and achieve better health outcomes, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for improved efficiency of health care systems to better use the available funding. This study aims to examine the efficiency of national health systems using longitudinal country-level data. Data on health spending per capita, infant mortality rate (IMR), under 5 mortality rate (U5MR), and life expectancy (LE) were collected from or imputed for 173 countries from 2004 through 2011. Data envelopment analyses were used to evaluate the efficiency and regression models were constructed to examine the determinants of efficiency. The average efficiency of the national health system, when examined yearly, was 78.9%, indicating a potential saving of 21.1% of health spending per capita to achieve the same level of health status for children and the entire population, if all countries performed as well as their peers. Additionally, the efficiency of the national health system varied widely among countries. On average, Africa had the lowest efficiency of 67%, while West Pacific countries had the highest efficiency of 86%. National economic status, HIV/AIDS prevalence, health financing mechanisms and governance were found to be statistically associated with the efficiency of national health systems. Taking health financing as an example, a 1% point increase of social security expenses as a percentage of total health expenditure correlated to a 1.9% increase in national health system efficiency. The study underscores the need to enhance efficiency of national health systems to meet population health needs, and highlights the importance of health financing and governance in improving the efficiency of health systems, to ultimately improve health outcomes. PMID:28282397

  9. Undercover careseekers: simulated clients in the study of health provider behavior in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J M; Quick, J D; Ross-Degnan, D; Kafle, K K

    1997-11-01

    The simulated client method (SCM) has been used for over 20 years to study health care provider behavior in a first-hand way while minimizing observation bias. In developing countries, it has proven useful in the study of physicians, drug retailers, and family planning services. In SCM, research assistants with fictitious case scenarios (or with stable conditions or a genuine interest in the services) visit providers and request their assistance. Providers are not aware that these clients are involved in research. Simulated clients later report on the events of their visit and these data are analyzed. This paper reviews 23 developing country studies of physician, drug retail, and family planning services in order to draw conclusions about (1) the advantages and limitations of the methods; (2) considerations for design and implementation of a simulated client study; (3) validity and reliability; and (4) ethical concerns. Examples are also drawn from industrialized countries, related methodologies, and non-health fields to illustrate the issues surrounding SCM. Based on this review, we conclude that the information gathered through the use of simulated clients is unique and valuable for managers, intervention planners and evaluators, social scientist, regulators, and others. Areas that need to be explored in future work with this method include: ways to ensure data validity and reliability; research on additional types of providers and health care needs; and adaptation of the technique for routine use.

  10. [Peer training for patients with diabetes mellitus 2. A quantitative and qualitative evaluation in the Basque Country and Andalusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet, Alina; Prieto Rodríguez, María Ángeles; Gamboa Moreno, Estibaliz; Ochoa de Retana Garcia, Lourdes; March Cerdà, Joan Carles

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate a peer training strategy for patients with type2 diabetes mellitus, developed in two training programmes in the Basque Country and Andalusia. Quantitative pre- and post-intervention and qualitative evaluation, developed between 2012 and 2014. The Basque Country and Andalusia. A total of 409 patients and trainer-patients, participating in self-management peer training programmes. Intentional sample of 44 patients for the qualitative study. Bivariate analysis and net gains for common variables used in questionnaires in the Basque Country and Andalusia: self-reported health, daily activities, physical activity, use of health services, and self-management. Content analysis of 8 focus groups with patients and trainer-patients, including: coding, categorisation, and triangulation of results. Peer training has a positive impact on physical activity, the use of health services, and self-management, with some gender differences. The peer-training strategy is considered positive, as it strengthens the patient-health provider relationship, generates group support and self-confidence, and improves the emotional management. Patients identify two areas of potential improvement: access and continuity of training strategies, and more support and recognition from health providers and institutions. The positive impact on health and quality of life that this patient peer-training provides, requires the collaboration of health professionals and institutions, which should improve the access, continuity and adaptation to patient needs and expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A Non Parametric Study of the Volatility of the Economy as a Country Risk Predictor

    CERN Document Server

    Costanzo, Sabatino; Dominguez, Ramses; Moreno, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to explain Venezuela's country spread behavior through the Neural Networks analysis of a monthly economic activity general index of economic indicators constructed by the Central Bank of Venezuela, a measure of the shocks affecting country risk of emerging markets and the U.S. short term interest rate. The use of non parametric methods allowed the finding of non linear relationship between these inputs and the country risk. The networks performance was evaluated using the method of excess predictability.

  12. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  13. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends......, it is possible to set out a simple analysis based on more realistic labour supply models than those considered in the existing literature. We present microsimulations showing that simple revenue-neutral reforms that lower the tax burden on secondary earners are associated with substantial welfare gains in most...

  14. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    This paper presents an evaluation of the tax-transfer treatment of married couples in 15 EU countries using the EUROMOD microsimulation model. First, we show that many tax-transfer schemes in Europe feature negative jointness defined as a situation where the tax rate on one person depends......, it is possible to set out a simple analysis based on more realistic labor supply models than those considered in the existing literature. We present microsimulations showing that simple revenue-neutral reforms that lower the tax burden on secondary earners are associated with substantial welfare gains in most...

  15. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Kyong; Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-03-05

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of Brazil's sustainability on the behavioral intentions of stakeholders toward the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions. In total, 427 questionnaires have been considered in the analysis. The results of a multiple regression analyses show that the dimensions of country image (affective, political, technical and sustainability) are reliable factors that have a positive influence on conations toward Brazil, with the affective dimension exerting the strongest influence. Further comparisons show that the sustainability dimension is more important in shaping the conations of female respondents and those with low familiarity with Brazil, whereas the political dimension is more relevant in shaping the conations of male respondents and those with high familiarity with Brazil. Finally, the sustainability dimension has a minor influence on individuals with higher levels of sustainable consumption.

  17. Area Handbook Series. Cote D’Lvoire; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). By the end of that year, it had reports...level to be defended. Coffee Cte d’Ivoire ranked third in world coffee production after Brazil and Colombia . Introduced as a cash crop during the...substantially higher salaries, Through- out the country, there were French mechanics, foremen, planta - tion’owners, storekeepers, clerical workers, and

  18. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  19. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  20. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  1. A comparison of model-based and design-based impact evaluations of interventions in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Klejnstrup, Ninja Ritter; Andersen, Ole Winckler

    We argue that non-experimental impact estimators will continue to be needed for evaluations of interventions in developing countries as social experiments, for various reasons, will never be the most preferred approach. In a survey of four studies that empirically compare the performance of exper......We argue that non-experimental impact estimators will continue to be needed for evaluations of interventions in developing countries as social experiments, for various reasons, will never be the most preferred approach. In a survey of four studies that empirically compare the performance...... of experimental and non-experimental impact estimates using data from development interventions, we show that the preferred non-experimental estimators are unbiased. We try to explain the reasons why the non-experimental estimators perform better in the context of development interventions than American job......-market interventions. We also use the survey as a source for suggestions for implementation and assessment of non-experimental impact evaluations. Our main suggestion is to be more careful and precise in the formulation of the statistical model for the assignment into the program and also to use the assignment...

  2. Tax burden in EU countries – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the overall tax burden and tax policy of European countries. The theoretical part of the paper explains the term of tax burden and summarizes its measuring possibilities. It especially deals with the tax quota as the most generally applied indicator but some alternative indicators, such as the tax freedom day or tax misery index, are also mentioned. The empirical part of the paper is aimed on the comparison of tax burden of “old” and “new” EU member states following mentioned indicators. Certain tax policy recommendations are formulated on the basis of performed comparison.

  3. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koyanagi

    Full Text Available Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China to 17.0% (Poland. After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78, arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46, and depression (OR 1.75-5.12 were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI for 1,2,3, and ≥ 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82, 2.55 (1.99-3.27, 3.22 (2.52-4.11, and 7.62 (5.88-9.87 respectively in the overall sample.Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies

  4. Dermatologic research in the Nordic countries 1989-2008--a bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersvik, Petter; Nylenna, Magne; Jemec, Gregor B E; Haraldstad, Anne-Marie

    2010-11-01

    Bibliometric methods, based on the count of articles published in scientific journals, are increasingly used to evaluate scientific productivity. Bibliometric studies may identify factors that promote or inhibit research performance. We set out to analyze dermatologic research activity in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway using bibliometric methods. We performed repetitive searches on Medline, using the PubMed interface, for the period 1989-2008. Dermatologic articles were defined as all articles in dermatologic journals plus articles in nondermatologic journals in which the address of first author included an institution of dermatology. Articles were allocated to the country of first author's address. The number of dermatologic articles from Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway was 1896 (214 per million inhabitants), 1502 (281), 1017 (196), and 249 (55), respectively. Dermatologic articles represented 1.4%, 2.3%, 1.6%, and 0.6% of each country's total number of Medline articles in English over the same period. Similar patterns were found in relation to gross domestic product, number of dermatologists, and number of medical schools. After 2000, the yearly number of dermatologic articles from Denmark increased and that from Finland decreased, whereas the numbers from Sweden and Norway remained relatively stable. Despite similarities in social and economic conditions in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway, there are great differences in dermatologic research activity in the four countries, with Denmark performing best and Norway poorest. Historical and cultural factors may partly explain these differences. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  6. Quality of life in adult patients with Familial Mediterranean fever living in Germany or Turkey compared to healthy subjects: a study evaluating the effect of disease severity and country of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Arnd; Kurucay, Mustafa; Kilic, Levent; Örnek, Ahmet; Şendur, Süleyman Nahit; Lainka, Elke; Henning, Bernhard Ferdinand

    2013-07-01

    We assessed quality of life (QOL) and disease activity in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) of Turkish ancestry living in Germany or Turkey and conducted a correlation with FMF disease activity. 40 FMF patients in Turkey (TR), 40 FMF patients in Germany (G) and 40 healthy controls in Germany (C) were included. QOL was evaluated with the short form of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). FMF disease activity was examined with the Pras score. Mean age was TR 30.5 ± 10.6, G 35.2 ± 10.2, C 34.6 ± 10.7. Of the 120 participants, 77 were female. FMF patients in TR and G had a significantly decreased QOL physical health domain compared to controls (TR 59.7 ± 18.8, G 60.4 ± 19.4, C 76.5 ± 14.6). Turkish FMF patients had a lower QOL environment domain compared to controls (TR 62.3 ± 17.5, G 69.7 ± 16.5, C 72.3 ± 13.5). In the other QOL domains, no significant differences were found. The differences in QOL were robust to a regression analysis. No significant correlation between QOL and FMF disease activity was found. German FMF patients had longer duration of disease, younger age at onset and longer delay from disease onset to colchicine treatment. A total of 5 of 40 German FMF patients were not taking colchicine (TR:0). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was lowest in TR with significant difference between TR and G as well as G and C (TR 13.2 ± 10.3, G 27.8 ± 19.4, C 16.3 ± 12.8 mm/h). C-reactive protein did not differ between TR and G. FMF has an important impact on QOL physical health domain. No correlation between FMF disease activity and the WHOQOL-BREF could be found.

  7. Dynamic Transmission Economic Evaluation of Infectious Disease Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Tom L; Devine, Angela; Yeung, Shunmay; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Lisa J; Lubell, Yoel

    2016-02-01

    Economic evaluation using dynamic transmission models is important for capturing the indirect effects of infectious disease interventions. We examine the use of these methods in low- and middle-income countries, where infectious diseases constitute a major burden. This review is comprised of two parts: (1) a summary of dynamic transmission economic evaluations across all disease areas published between 2011 and mid-2014 and (2) an in-depth review of mosquito-borne disease studies focusing on health economic methods and reporting. Studies were identified through a systematic search of the MEDLINE database and supplemented by reference list screening. Fifty-seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the all-disease review. The most common subject disease was HIV/AIDS, followed by malaria. A diverse range of modelling methods, outcome metrics and sensitivity analyses were used, indicating little standardisation. Seventeen studies were included in the mosquito-borne disease review. With notable exceptions, most studies did not employ economic evaluation methods beyond calculating a cost-effectiveness ratio or net benefit. Many did not adhere to health care economic evaluations reporting guidelines, particularly with respect to full model reporting and uncertainty analysis. We present a summary of the state-of-the-art and offer recommendations for improved implementation and reporting of health economic methods in this crossover discipline.

  8. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Country Image and the Study Abroad Destination Choice of Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on the issue of country image in destination choice. To examine the relationship between these two variables, the study tests whether mainland Chinese who favor a destination as their ideal first choice for study abroad have a significantly more positive view of that destination's country image than their…

  10. COUNTRY RISK EVALUATION IMPACT ON FDI FLOW. MEDIUM RUN EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA UNGUREANU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, Romanian economy suffered numerous changes, with direct impact in the socio-economic and political life. This affected also the investment environment, the degree of attractiveness for investors and the flow of FDIs. As the economic system has a global dimension, the need of evaluating different countries from a risk perspective (that will serve as starting point for investor’s decision has increased the role of rating agencies, especially in the economic crisis context. Therefore, by applying two econometric models, we will determine in which degree the risk rating (using the Euromoney index is influencing the FDI flow in Romania, having as evidence the period 1996-2012.

  11. Mexican Network for the evaluation of Solar Resources in the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, M.; Bonifaz, R.; Estevez, H.

    2014-12-01

    Information on Global Solar Radiation provides only the first approximation for the evaluation of solar energy that is necessary for locating potential exploitation sites. Depending on what technology is used, more specific components of the solar radiation (Direct. Diffuse, Global, inclined planes), as well as, certain physical characteristics of the atmosphere (atmospheric aerosol) are required for evaluating solar resources. In order to measure these radiation components in a large country such as Mexico, where there are many abrupt changes in topography and differences in climatic conditions even over small distances, it would be necessary to have a network with several hundred stations. In this situation, the use of models is a more viable solution that has been proven with a high degree of certainty, considering it is based on reliable control points for the adjustment. Here we present the network that was developed on a regional classification based on climatic elements, geology, land use, vegetation and albedo. Solar stations from different universities and research institutes in Mexico also form part of this network for the evaluation of the solar resources in Mexico and its components.

  12. A Simple Approach To Mass Movement Hazard Evaluation In Developing Countries: Example From NW Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallàs, R.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Guinau, M.; Falgàs, E.; Alemany, X.; Muñoz, A.

    Current trends in landslide hazard assessment involve a complex combination of methodologies. In spite of being the most vulnerable and in need of mitigation poli- cies, developing countries lack the general socioeconomic structures and technical facilities for such complex approaches to be implemented. The main difficulties com- monly encountered in those countries are the scarcity of previous topographic, geo- logical, geotechnical, historical and instrumental data, and the unavailability of aerial- photo coverages at suitable times and scales. In consequence, there is a strong need for developing simple methodologies of landslide hazard assessment and mitigation, which can be readily tested and implemented by developing countries themselves. To explore this line of research, we selected an area of about 20 square km severely hit by Hurricane Mitch, at the Departamento de Chinandega (NW Nicaragua). The abun- dant mass movements (mainly debris flows) produced during the Mitch rainfall event were investigated through aerial photographs at 1:60.000 scale (flight of December 1998), while much less conspicuous pre-Mich landslides were detected on 1:40.000 aerial photographs (1996 flight). We mapped over one hundred mass movements at 1:10.000 scale in the field, and recorded information concerning regolith composi- tion and thickness, mass movement dimensions and volumes, failure angle (around 22 degrees) and land use for each movement. We realised that, due to the extreme fragility of antropic structures found in the area, any mass movement is highly destructive whatever its magnitude. On the other hand, we found an almost complete lack of data concerning frequency of landsliding. Thus, the concepts of magnitude and frequency commonly used for hazard evaluation pur- poses were of little help in this case. With these considerations in mind, we found that hazard evaluation and zoning could be approached by combining two main concepts: (1) the observed degree of slope

  13. Lot quality survey: an appealing method for rapid evaluation of vaccine coverage in developing countries – experience in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Fehminaz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccine-preventable diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and in developing countries in particular. Information on coverage and reasons for non-vaccination is vital to enhance overall vaccination activities. Of the several survey techniques available for investigating vaccination coverage in a given setting, the Lot Quality Technique (LQT remains appealing and could be used in developing countries by local health personnel of district or rural health authorities to evaluate their performance in vaccination and many other health-related programs. This study aimed to evaluate vaccination coverage using LQT in a selected semi-urban setting in Turkey. Methods A LQT-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kecioren District on a representative sample of residents aged 12–23 months in order to evaluate coverage for routine childhood vaccines, to identify health units with coverage below 75%, and to investigate reasons for non-vaccination. Results Based on self-reports, coverage for BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT-3, oral polio-3, hepatitis-3, and measles vaccines ranged between 94–99%. Coverage for measles was below 75% in five lots. The relatively high educational and socioeconomic status of parents in the study group alone could not minimize the "considerable" risk of vaccine-preventable diseases in the District and dictates a continuity of efforts for improving vaccination rates, with special emphasis on measles. We believe that administrative methods should be backed up by household surveys to strengthen vaccination monitoring and that families should be trained and motivated to have their children fully vaccinated according to the recommended schedule and in a timely manner. Conclusion This study identified vaccine coverage for seven routine vaccines completed before the age of 24 months as well as the areas requiring special attention in vaccination services. The LQT, years after its

  14. Discrimination between cross-country and downhill skiers by pulmonary and local 31PNMR evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D; Reutenauer, H; Payen, J F; Favre-Juvin, A; Eterradossi, J; Lebas, J F; Rossi, A

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to correlate data on calf muscle metabolism using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with measurements of whole body maximal oxygen consumption and maximal power output, and to determine whether the combination of these data could be used to predict athletic ability. Experiments were performed in a 2.35 Tesla, 35 cm diameter electromagnet on the leg muscle of sedentary human subjects (N = 6) and groups of athletes trained for endurance (cross-country skiers, N = 7) or strength performance (downhill skiers, N = 5). The exercise protocol consisted of successive plantar flexions performed at graded fractions of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The results obtained from NMR investigation (changes in content of inorganic phosphate: Pi, phosphocreatine: PC and muscle ATP, and intracellular pH) were then compared with those of maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) and maximal power (MP). When the data on athletes were compared with those obtained on sedentary subjects, the curves illustrating the relationship between the imposed load and the Pi/PC ratio were significantly shifted toward high output power for a given Pi/PC value. It also appeared from this study that specific training in force development (downhill skiing) induced a slighter decrease in PC level than for endurance (cross-country skiers) despite improvement in physical performance. A slight but significant intracellular acidification was observed in the muscles of sedentary subjects and downhill skiers for contraction at, respectively, 50% and 80% of MVC, but not in the skeletal muscles of cross-country skiers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  16. Study on the PPE Model Based on RAGA to Classify the Country Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiangFu; LikunWang; JianyuLiu

    2004-01-01

    The authors improve the traditional genetic algorithm, and combine the new method named RAGA (Real coded based accelerating Genetic Algorithm) with PPE (Projection Pursuit Evaluation) model. The RAGA-PPE model can optimize several parameters at one time. Based on this method, the authors built up a new evaluating model. Through applying the new model to evaluate the country energy of Pingtan County, the authors gained the good results. Thus, the authors provide a new method and thought for readers who engage in researching country energy planing.

  17. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alejandra Rico-Uribe

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that social networks and loneliness have effects on health. The present study assesses the differential association that the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness have with health, and analyzes whether this association is different across different countries.A total of 10 800 adults were interviewed in Finland, Poland and Spain. Loneliness was assessed by means of the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Individuals' social networks were measured by asking about the number of members in the network, how often they had contacts with these members, and whether they had a close relationship. The differential association of loneliness and the components of the social network with health was assessed by means of hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for relevant covariates.In all three countries, loneliness was the variable most strongly correlated with health after controlling for depression, age, and other covariates. Loneliness contributed more strongly to health than any component of the social network. The relationship between loneliness and health was stronger in Finland (|β| = 0.25 than in Poland (|β| = 0.16 and Spain (|β| = 0.18. Frequency of contact was the only component of the social network that was moderately correlated with health.Loneliness has a stronger association with health than the components of the social network. This association is similar in three different European countries with different socio-economic and health characteristics and welfare systems. The importance of evaluating and screening feelings of loneliness in individuals with health problems should be taken into account. Further studies are needed in order to be able to confirm the associations found in the present study and infer causality.

  18. A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

  19. Evaluating the Combined Effect of Strategy, Brand and Country of Origin on Consumers’ Perceptions of Global Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Key words: brand, country of origin, local brands, global brands, consumer perception, self-identity, lock-in strategies, first mover advantage, resource based view. The aim of this research work is to evaluate and analyse the ways consumers perceive global products given the effects of strategy, brand and country of origin; on the basis of this analysis to develop recommendations on possible strategic improvements for the two companies chosen. Due to an intense situation on t...

  20. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  1. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  2. Per capita sugar consumption is associated with severe childhood asthma: an ecological study of 53 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Stewart, Alistair; Marshall, Roger; Jackson, Rod

    2011-03-01

    To examine the ecological association between population asthma symptom prevalence in six to seven year-old children and per capita sugar consumption seven years earlier (during the perinatal period). The asthma data (from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood [ISAAC] study) were collected between 1999 and 2004 from 53 countries, and per capita sugar consumption data (seven years before the asthma prevalence) were extracted from United Nations Food and Agriculture (UNFAO) food balance sheets. Linear regression and Spearman's rank coefficient were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and disease outcome. Per capita sugar consumption varied more than six fold-between countries. A log-linear relationship was found between severe asthma symptoms (%) and per capita added sugar consumption in kg/capita/year (exponentiated beta coefficient 1.020; 95% CI 1.005 to 1.034; P = 0.012). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was 0.34 (P= 0.015), which indicates moderate correlation. We have demonstrated an ecological association between sugar consumption during the perinatal period and subsequent risk of severe asthma symptoms in six and seven year-olds.

  3. Task shifting from physicians to nurses in primary care in 39 countries: a cross-country comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Claudia B; Aiken, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Primary care is in short supply in many countries. Task shifting from physicians to nurses is one strategy to improve access, but international research is scarce. We analysed the extent of task shifting in primary care and policy reforms in 39 countries. Cross-country comparative research, based on an international expert survey, plus literature scoping review. A total of 93 country experts participated, covering Europe, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (response rate: 85.3%). Experts were selected according to pre-defined criteria. Survey responses were triangulated with the literature and analysed using policy, thematic and descriptive methods to assess developments in country-specific contexts. Task shifting, where nurses take up advanced roles from physicians, was implemented in two-thirds of countries (N = 27, 69%), yet its extent varied. Three clusters emerged: 11 countries with extensive (Australia, Canada, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and USA), 16 countries with limited and 12 countries with no task shifting. The high number of policy, regulatory and educational reforms, such as on nurse prescribing, demonstrate an evolving trend internationally toward expanding nurses' scope-of-practice in primary care. Many countries have implemented task-shifting reforms to maximise workforce capacity. Reforms have focused on removing regulatory and to a lower extent, financial barriers, yet were often lengthy and controversial. Countries early on in the process are primarily reforming their education. From an international and particularly European Union perspective, developing standardised definitions, minimum educational and practice requirements would facilitate recognition procedures in increasingly connected labour markets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Why and how to monitor the cost and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HIV services in countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eduard J; Santas, Xenophon M; Delay, Paul R

    2008-07-01

    The number of people in the world living with HIV is increasing as HIV-related mortality has declined but the annual number of people newly infected with HIV has not. The international response to contain the HIV pandemic, meanwhile, has grown. Since 2006, an international commitment to scale up prevention, treatment, care and support services in middle and lower-income countries by 2010 has been part of the Universal Access programme, which itself plays an important part in achieving the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Apart from providing technical support, donor countries and agencies have substantially increased their funding to enable countries to scale up HIV services. Many countries have been developing their HIV monitoring and evaluation systems to generate the strategic information required to track their response and ensure the best use of the new funds. Financial information is an important aspect of the strategic information required for scaling up existing services as well as assessing the effect of new ones. It involves two components: tracking the money available and spent on HIV at all levels, through budget tracking, national health accounts and national AIDS spending assessments, and estimating the cost and efficiency of HIV services. The cost of service provision should be monitored over time, whereas evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of services are required periodically; both should be part of any country's HIV monitoring and evaluation system. This paper provides country examples of the complementary relationship between monitoring the cost of HIV services and evaluating their cost-effectiveness. It also summarizes global initiatives that enable countries to develop their own HIV monitoring and evaluation systems and to generate relevant, robust and up-to-date strategic information.

  5. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  6. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  7. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  8. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  9. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  10. Social science teachers on citizenship education: A comparative study of two post-communist countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with

  11. A pilot study on acoustic regulations for schools – Comparison between selected countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Guigou-Carter, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic regulations for schools exist in most countries in Europe, the main reasons being improving learning conditions for pupils and work conditions for teachers. As a pilot study, comparison between requirements in selected countries in Europe has been carried out. The findings show a diversi...

  12. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  13. Methodological variation in economic evaluations conducted in low- and middle-income countries: information for reference case development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santatiwongchai, Benjarin; Chantarastapornchit, Varit; Wilkinson, Thomas; Thiboonboon, Kittiphong; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Walker, Damian G; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    Information generated from economic evaluation is increasingly being used to inform health resource allocation decisions globally, including in low- and middle- income countries. However, a crucial consideration for users of the information at a policy level, e.g. funding agencies, is whether the studies are comparable, provide sufficient detail to inform policy decision making, and incorporate inputs from data sources that are reliable and relevant to the context. This review was conducted to inform a methodological standardisation workstream at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and assesses BMGF-funded cost-per-DALY economic evaluations in four programme areas (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and vaccines) in terms of variation in methodology, use of evidence, and quality of reporting. The findings suggest that there is room for improvement in the three areas of assessment, and support the case for the introduction of a standardised methodology or reference case by the BMGF. The findings are also instructive for all institutions that fund economic evaluations in LMICs and who have a desire to improve the ability of economic evaluations to inform resource allocation decisions.

  14. Methodological variation in economic evaluations conducted in low- and middle-income countries: information for reference case development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjarin Santatiwongchai

    Full Text Available Information generated from economic evaluation is increasingly being used to inform health resource allocation decisions globally, including in low- and middle- income countries. However, a crucial consideration for users of the information at a policy level, e.g. funding agencies, is whether the studies are comparable, provide sufficient detail to inform policy decision making, and incorporate inputs from data sources that are reliable and relevant to the context. This review was conducted to inform a methodological standardisation workstream at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF and assesses BMGF-funded cost-per-DALY economic evaluations in four programme areas (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and vaccines in terms of variation in methodology, use of evidence, and quality of reporting. The findings suggest that there is room for improvement in the three areas of assessment, and support the case for the introduction of a standardised methodology or reference case by the BMGF. The findings are also instructive for all institutions that fund economic evaluations in LMICs and who have a desire to improve the ability of economic evaluations to inform resource allocation decisions.

  15. Use of Multicriteria Risk Ranking of Zoonotic Diseases in a Developing Country: Case Study of Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, A M J; Muellner, P; Baljinnyam, Z; Vink, D; Wilson, N

    2016-03-01

    Many developing countries face significant health burdens associated with a high incidence of endemic zoonoses and difficulties in integrated control measures for both the human and animal populations. The objective of this study was to develop and apply a multicriteria ranking model for zoonoses in Mongolia, a country highly affected by zoonotic disease, to inform optimal resource allocation at the national level. Diseases were evaluated based on their impact on human health, livestock sector health and the wider society through affects on the economic value of livestock, as well as the feasibility of control in both the human and livestock population. Data on disease in Mongolia were collected from various government departments including the Mongolian State Central Laboratory, the Mongolian Department of Veterinary and Animal Breeding, the Mongolian Ministry of Health, Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases, the National Center for Zoonotic Disease and expert opinion from a workshop with a number of Mongolian Government officials and researchers. A combined score for both impact of the disease and feasibility of its control was calculated. Five zoonotic diseases were determined to be of high priority from this assessment (i.e. ovine brucellosis, echinococcosis (hydatids), rabies, anthrax and bovine brucellosis). The results supported some of the findings for high-priority diseases (namely brucellosis, rabies and anthrax) from a previous priority setting exercise carried out in Mongolia in 2011, but also identified and ranked additional animal diseases of public health importance. While the process of model development was largely Mongolian specific, the experience of developing and parameterizing this multicriteria ranking model could be replicated by other countries where zoonoses have substantive impacts on both animal and human health.

  16. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  17. Proportion of children meeting recommendations for 24-hour movement guidelines and associations with adiposity in a 12-country study

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Fogelholm, Mikael; Estelle V. Lambert; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Tremblay, Mark S; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background The Canadian 24-h movement guidelines were developed with the hope of improving health and future health outcomes in children and youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to the 3 recommendations most strongly associated with health outcomes in new 24-h movement guidelines and their relationship with adiposity (obesity and body mass index z-score) across countries participating in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE)...

  18. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  19. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  20. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  1. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit: Qualitative evaluation across four European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacFarlane, Anne

    2011-11-19

    Abstract Background Implementation researchers have attempted to overcome the research-practice gap in e-health by developing tools that summarize and synthesize research evidence of factors that impede or facilitate implementation of innovation in healthcare settings. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT) is an example of such a tool that was designed within the context of the United Kingdom National Health Service to promote implementation of e-health services. Its utility in international settings is unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the e-HIT in use across four countries--Finland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Data were generated using a combination of interview approaches (n = 22) to document e-HIT users\\' experiences of the tool to guide decision making about the selection of e-health pilot services and to monitor their progress over time. Results e-HIT users evaluated the tool positively in terms of its scope to organize and enhance their critical thinking about their implementation work and, importantly, to facilitate discussion between those involved in that work. It was easy to use in either its paper- or web-based format, and its visual elements were positively received. There were some minor criticisms of the e-HIT with some suggestions for content changes and comments about its design as a generic tool (rather than specific to sites and e-health services). However, overall, e-HIT users considered it to be a highly workable tool that they found useful, which they would use again, and which they would recommend to other e-health implementers. Conclusion The use of the e-HIT is feasible and acceptable in a range of international contexts by a range of professionals for a range of different e-health systems.

  2. The e-health implementation toolkit: qualitative evaluation across four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Anne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation researchers have attempted to overcome the research-practice gap in e-health by developing tools that summarize and synthesize research evidence of factors that impede or facilitate implementation of innovation in healthcare settings. The e-Health Implementation Toolkit (e-HIT is an example of such a tool that was designed within the context of the United Kingdom National Health Service to promote implementation of e-health services. Its utility in international settings is unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the e-HIT in use across four countries--Finland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Data were generated using a combination of interview approaches (n = 22 to document e-HIT users' experiences of the tool to guide decision making about the selection of e-health pilot services and to monitor their progress over time. Results e-HIT users evaluated the tool positively in terms of its scope to organize and enhance their critical thinking about their implementation work and, importantly, to facilitate discussion between those involved in that work. It was easy to use in either its paper- or web-based format, and its visual elements were positively received. There were some minor criticisms of the e-HIT with some suggestions for content changes and comments about its design as a generic tool (rather than specific to sites and e-health services. However, overall, e-HIT users considered it to be a highly workable tool that they found useful, which they would use again, and which they would recommend to other e-health implementers. Conclusion The use of the e-HIT is feasible and acceptable in a range of international contexts by a range of professionals for a range of different e-health systems.

  3. Evaluation of pharmacotherapy of obstructive airway diseases in the Montenegrin outpatient care: comparison with two Scandinavian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duborija-Kovacevic Natasha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is aimed at evaluating the pharmacotherapy of obstructive airway diseases (OAD in the Montenegrin outpatient care (MOC in 2010. Methods Data on the reimbursed drugs which were prescribed during the reference period were obtained from the National Database that was established within the Health Insurance Fund of Montenegro in 2004. We have applied the standard pharmacoepidemiologic methodology with the defined daily dose (DDD along with the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification of drugs. Clinical entities of OAD were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-Revision X. Results Prescribing and the subsequent use of drugs for OAD (ATC code R03 in 2010 was 18.18 DDD/1000inhabitants/day, much lower than in some developed countries. Fenoterol/ipratropium and salmeterol/fluticasone fixed combinations had the highest utilisation level, accounting for more than 50% of all OAD drugs. About 90% of OAD drugs were prescribed for COPD and asthma. Conclusions Obtained results indicate that there are still large differences in OAD drug utilisation in MOC when compared with developed countries, but also some improvement in pharmacological approach to the pharmacotherapy of OAD in comparison to the earlier period.

  4. Evaluation of regional project to strengthen national health research systems in four countries in West Africa: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2017-07-12

    Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks. The four areas are governance and management, capacities, funding, and dissemination/use of research findings. The project helped improve the countries' governance and management mechanisms without strengthening the entire NHRS. In the four countries, at least one policy, plan or research agenda was developed. One country put in place a national health research ethics committee, while all four countries could adopt a research information management system. The participatory approach and support from the West African Health Organisation and COHRED were all determining factors. The lessons learned from this project show that the fragile context of these countries requires long-term engagement and that support from a regional institution is needed to address existing challenges and successfully strengthen the entire NHRS.

  5. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  6. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    national et les concessions entre les différents aspects du développement durable qui doivent être abordés. Les secteurs de l'énergie et du transport sont couverts dans maintes études, et un certain degré d'attention est aussi porté au secteur de l'infrastructure et de l'approvisionnement en eau. La....... The energy and transportation sectors are covered in many studies, but some attention is also given to the infrastructure sector and water supply. Most existing development policies will not lead to a sustainable development pattern, since they insufficiently address climate change. However, good...... opportunities exist for integrated policies to achieve development goals while engaging with climate change. The energy and transportation sector studies identified many alternative national low-cost policies with much lower GHG emissions than the business-as-usual policy. Opportunities are identified...

  7. Distribution of country of origin in studies used in Cochrane Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inclusion in systematic reviews is one important component in judging the potential impact of clinical studies upon practice and hence the 'value for money' of spending for clinical research. This study aims to quantify the distribution of countries of origin of clinical studies used in Cochrane Reviews (CRs, and to link these data to the size of a country and to its spending on research. METHODS: Random sample of publications used for CRs published in Issue 1 2008 and of publications used in CRs in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Publications without original data were excluded. Likely countries of origin determined based on abstracts/full texts. CIA World Factbook (population data and OECD database (economic data were used. RESULTS: 1,000 random entries out of 140,005 references available in all specialities. In 876 (91.4% of 959 eligible studies, country of origin was determined. The USA was the leading contributor (36.0% of the studies, followed by UK (13.4%, Canada (5.3%, Australia and Sweden (3.7%. In the CAM sample, country of origin was determined in 458 (93.5% of 497 assessed studies. Again, the USA was the leading contributor (24.9%, with China also emerging as a significant contributor (24.7% in this field. For both samples, the contribution of smaller countries (especially Scandinavian countries, Greece, and Ireland became more noteworthy when considered in relation to population size and research spending. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the leading roles of both the USA and the UK in publishing clinical papers. The emerging role of China can be seen, particularly related to CAM studies. Taking into account size of population and economic power, countries like France, Germany, Italy, and Spain provide small contributions. In contrast, smaller countries like Australia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Sweden also play major roles.

  8. The influence of country of origin on engagement in self-care behaviours following heart surgery: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an individual's country of origin influenced performance of self-care behaviours after heart surgery. Patients are required to perform self-care behaviours following cardiovascular surgery. Usual care encompasses a patient education initiative that addresses self-care behaviour performance. Within Canada, current heart surgery patient education efforts have been designed and evaluated using homogenous samples that self-identify their country of origin as England, Ireland or Scotland. However, approximately 42·6% of Canadian cardiovascular surgical patients self-identify their country of origin as India or China. Thus, current cardiovascular surgery patient education initiatives may not be applicable to all patients undergoing heart surgery, which may result in decreased patient outcomes such as performance of self-care behaviours. This descriptive study. A convenience sample of 90 patients who underwent heart surgery at one of two university-affiliated teaching hospitals, representing individuals of diverse backgrounds. Point-biserial correlational analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between country of origin and performance of self-care behaviours. Findings indicate individuals who self-identified their country of origin as England or Ireland were associated with a higher score on the number of self-care behaviours performed (p study provides preliminary evidence to suggest country of origin influences the amount of self-care behaviours individuals will perform. Patient education initiatives should incorporate the values, beliefs, attitudes and customs reflective of an individual's country of origin to enhance the likelihood of producing desired outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of exposure to organophosphate, carbamate, phenoxy acid, and chlorophenol pesticides in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Martin S; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean for both household and agricultural purposes. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds can cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure of pregnant women residing in 10 Caribbean countries to the following commonly used classes of pesticides in the Caribbean: organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, phenoxy acids, and chlorophenols. Out of 438 urine samples collected, 15 samples were randomly selected from each Caribbean country giving a total of 150 samples. Samples were analyzed for the following metabolites: six OP dialkylphosphate metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)]; two carbamate metabolites [2-isopropoxyphenol (2-IPP) and carbofuranphenol]; one phenoxy acid 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); and five chlorophenols [2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)]. OP metabolites were consistently detected in ≥60% of the samples from Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, and Jamaica. Of the carbamate metabolites, 2-IPP was detected in seven of the 10 Caribbean countries with a detection frequency around 30%, whereas carbofuranphenol was detected in only one sample. The detection frequency for the phenoxy acid 2,4-D ranged from 20% in Grenada to a maximum of 67% in Belize. Evidence of exposure to chlorophenol pesticides was also established with 2,4-DCP by geometric means ranging from 0.52 μg L(-1) in St Lucia to a maximum of 1.68 μg L(-1) in Bermuda. Several extreme concentrations of 2,5-DCP were detected in four Caribbean countries-Belize (1100 μg L(-1)), Bermuda (870 μg L(-1)), Jamaica (1300 μg L(-1)), and St Kitts and Nevis (1400 μg L(-1

  10. [Bibliometrics study of the development trend of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of MEDLINE and EMBASE database, through bibliometrics, the quantitative research was conducted on the published literatures on the acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trial abroad. The situation of published articles in each continent, country and institution was analyzed statistically. It was found that the number of published articles was higher in Germany, America, England, Sweden, Austria, Japan, South Korea, etc. In Europe, the clinical trial of acupuncture and moxibustion was in the tendency of more country participants, wider distribution and larger amount of research. In North America, America was the main country for the study. In Asia, Japan and South Korea played the leading role. Of those countries, some institutions in Germany America, and South Korea were on the top of the list. In future, the above-mentioned countries and institutions should be monitored specifically so as to launch the active cooperation and strategic project.

  11. Solar Cell Fabrication Studies Pertinent to Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Joseph Henry

    That there is a need in the world today, and in the Third World in particular, for developing renewable energy sources is a proposition without question. Toward that end, the harnessing of solar energy has attracted much attention recently. In this thesis, we have addressed the question of Photovoltaics among the many approaches to the problem as being of poignant relevance in the Third World. Based on our studies, which involved the physics of solar cells, various solar cell configurations, the materials for their fabrication and their fabrication sequences, we arrived at the conclusion that silicon homojunction solar cells are best suited to the present needs and environment of, and suitable for development in the Third World, though Cadmium Sulphide-Cuprous Sulphide solar cell could be considered as a viable future candidate. Attendant with the adoption of photovoltaics as electric energy supply, is the problem of technology transfer and development. Towards that goal, we carried out in the laboratory, the fabrication of solar cells using very simple fabrication sequences and materials to demonstrate that tolerable efficiencies are achievable by their use. The view is also presented that for a thriving and viable solar cell industry in the Third World, the sine qua non is an integrated national policies involving all facets of solar cell manufacture and application, namely, material processing and fabrication, basic research, and development and socio -economic acceptance of solar cell appliances. To demonstrate how basic research could benefit solar cell fabrication, we undertook a number of experiments, such as varying our fabrication sequences and materials, finding their radiation tolerance, and carrying out Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) studies, in an attempt to understand some of the fabrication and environmental factors which limit solar cell performance. We thus found that subjecting wafers to preheat treatments does not improve solar cell

  12. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  13. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  14. Exploring substance use normalization among adolescents: a multilevel study in 35 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Kolobov, Tanya; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Walsh, Sophie D; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2013-11-01

    The substance use normalization thesis predicts that adolescent substance users are less likely to report substance use risk factors in high than in low prevalence countries. This study tests whether national population-level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis prevalence rates moderate the strength of the relationship between individual level social and behavioral risk factors and individual level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use. Data from 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (N = 68,045, age = 15) from 35 countries was analyzed using logistic Hierarchical Linear Modeling. As expected based on low cannabis prevalence rates in all countries studied, no evidence of normalization was found for recent cannabis use. Also in line with the normalization thesis, results show that for substance use that reaches above 40% in at least some of the countries studied (drunkenness, alcohol and cigarette use), adolescents who reported use are less likely to report social and behavioral risk factors in high prevalence countries than in low prevalence countries. However, support for the normalization thesis was only partial in that results show that in models where evidence for normalization was found, there are risk factors that predict substance use to an equal degree regardless of country level prevalence rates. The current research shows that the normalization thesis is a useful framework for understanding the contextual aspects of adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. The study has implications for drug prevention as it suggests that selective prevention efforts may be particularly useful in low prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors may usefully identify adolescents at most risk for developing drug use problems. This approach may be less useful in high prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors is less likely to satisfactorily identify those at risk for developing drug use problems.

  15. Construction Safety Assessment Framework for Developing Countries: A Case Study of Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanchana Priyadarshani; Gayani Karunasena; Sajani Jayasuriya

    2013-01-01

    ... management in developing countries. [...]the aim of this study is to develop a method for measuring safety management on construction sites by identifying factors that affect construction safety performance...

  16. Comparative study of disability-free life expectancy across six low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinda, Witness; Chen, He

    2017-04-01

    There is a knowledge gap about the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to compute and compare DFLE in six such countries, and examine sex differences in DFLE in each country. Based on data from the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health wave 1 survey, we used the Sullivan method to estimate DFLE among persons aged years 50 years and older. Disability was divided into moderate disability and severe disability during the calculation. Of the six countries, China had the highest DFLE and lowest expected average lifetime with disability. India had the lowest DFLE and highest life years with moderate and severe disability. In each country, women live longer than men, but with more disabilities in both absolute and proportional terms. The huge sex difference in Russia requires special attention. In addition, most of the life expectancy lived with disability was spent with severe disability, rather than moderate disability. The study has shed some light on the disparities across the six countries with regard to DFLE at old ages. The low percentage of DFLE in life expectancy in some countries, such as India, calls for effective policies on healthy aging. The "sex disability-survival paradox" in DFLE is supported by our results. To differentiate the severity of disability should be routine in calculating DFLE. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 637-644. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Incorporating Demand and Supply Constraints into Economic Evaluations in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Gomez, Gabriela B; Pitt, Catherine; Foster, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Global guidelines for new technologies are based on cost and efficacy data from a limited number of trial locations. Country-level decision makers need to consider whether cost-effectiveness analysis used to inform global guidelines are sufficient for their situation or whether to use models that adjust cost-effectiveness results taking into account setting-specific epidemiological and cost heterogeneity. However, demand and supply constraints will also impact cost-effectiveness by influencing the standard of care and the use and implementation of any new technology. These constraints may also vary substantially by setting. We present two case studies of economic evaluations of the introduction of new diagnostics for malaria and tuberculosis control. These case studies are used to analyse how the scope of economic evaluations of each technology expanded to account for and then address demand and supply constraints over time. We use these case studies to inform a conceptual framework that can be used to explore the characteristics of intervention complexity and the influence of demand and supply constraints. Finally, we describe a number of feasible steps that researchers who wish to apply our framework in cost-effectiveness analyses.

  18. Satisfaction with Knowledge and Competencies: A Multi-Country Study of Employers and Business Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study critically discusses findings from a research project involving four European countries. The project had two main aims. The first was to develop a systematic procedure for assessing the balance between knowledge and competencies acquired in higher, further and vocational education and the specific needs of the labor market. The second aim was to develop and test a set of meta-level quality indicators aimed at evaluating the linkages between education and employment. The project was designed to address the lack of employer input concerning the requirements of business graduates for successful workplace performance and the need for more specific industry-driven feedback to guide administrative heads at universities and personnel at quality assurance agencies in curriculum development and revision. Approach: The project was distinctive in that it combined different partners from higher education, vocational training, industry and quality assurance. Project partners designed and implemented an innovative approach, based on literature review, qualitative interviews and surveys in the four countries, in order to identify and confirm key knowledge and competency requirements. This study presents this step-by-step approach, as well as survey findings from a sample of 900 business graduates and employers. In addition, it introduces two Partial Least Squares (PLS path models for predicting satisfaction with work performance and satisfaction with business education. Results: Survey findings revealed that employers were not very confident regarding business graduates’ abilities in key knowledge areas and in key generic competencies. In subsequent analysis, these graduate abilities were tested and identified as important predictors of employers’ satisfaction with graduates’ work performance. Conclusion: The industry-driven approach introduced in this study can serve as a guide to assist different types of educational

  19. A decision chart for assessing and improving the transferability of economic evaluation results between countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, Robert; Feenstra, Talitha; Jager, Hans; Leidl, Reiner

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a user-friendly tool for managing the transfer of economic evaluation results. METHODS: Factors that may influence the transfer of health economic study results were systematically identified and the way they impact on transferability was investigated. A transferability decisio

  20. Barriers to Functional and Qualitative Technology Education In Developing Countries: Nigeria as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, David A.

    Science and Technology have been widely recognized as the most important potent tools for socio-economic development. This paper begins with a brief critical and evaluative review of the status of science and technology education in developing countries in Africa. The conceptual framework and the major features of a functional and qualitative…

  1. A systematic survey instrument translation process for multi-country, comparative health workforce studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squires, A.; Aiken, L.H.; Heede, K. Van den; Sermeus, W.; Bruyneel, L.; Lindqvist, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Stromseng, I.; Busse, R.; Brzostek, T.; Ensio, A.; Moreno-Casbas, M.; Rafferty, A.M.; Schubert, M.; Zikos, D.; Matthews, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the

  2. Cost and effectiveness evaluation of prophylactic HPV vaccine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termrungruanglert, Wichai; Havanond, Piyalamporn; Khemapech, Nipon; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Khorprasert, Chonlakiet; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries. In Thailand, cervical cancer has been the leading cancer in females, with an incidence of 24.7 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. We constructed a decision model to simulate the lifetime economic impact for women in the context of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevention. HPV-related diseases were of interest: cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and genital warts. The two strategies used were 1) current practice and 2) prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. We developed a Markov simulation model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of prophylactic HPV vaccine. Women transition through a model either healthy or developing HPV or its related diseases, or die from cervical cancer or from other causes according to transitional probabilities under the Thai health-care context. Costs from a provider perspective were obtained from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Compared with no prophylactic HPV vaccine, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 160,649.50 baht per quality-adjusted life-year. The mortality rate was reduced by 54.8%. The incidence of cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3, and genital warts was reduced by up to 55.1%. Compared with commonly accepted standard thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, the nationwide coverage of HPV vaccination in girls is likely to be cost-effective in Thailand. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gathering Time-Series Data for Evaluating Behavior-Change Campaigns in Developing Countries: Reactivity of Diaries and Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Inauen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gathering time-series data of behaviors and psychological variables is important to understand, guide, and evaluate behavior-change campaigns and other change processes. However, repeated measurement can affect the phenomena investigated, particularly frequent face-to-face interviews, which are often the only option in developing countries. This…

  4. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowles Heather R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity.

  5. Issues in evaluation of cognition in the elderly in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing regions of the world host the majority of elderly subjects who are at risk for dementia. Reliable epidemiological data from these countries is invaluable in tackling this global problem. Scarcity of such data in literature is largely attributable to problems that are unique to developing communities worldwide. Objective: To classify and describe the problems that interfere with the collection of reliable epidemiological data on cognitive impairment in the elderly in developing communities, and to suggest practical solutions for some of them. Methods: Inferring from the experiences of a large, ongoing, population-based study on the cognitive impairments in the elderly in South India and from the review of literature. Conclusion: A fatalistic attitude regarding aging in the communities, significant heterogeneity in educational abilities and activities of daily living, high illiteracy among rural subjects, and lack of an organized health care system and updated demographic figures are some of the major factors that contribute to technical, namely, methodology-related problems and practical, namely, subject-related problems in such epidemiological studies.

  6. Evaluation of vaccines against enteric infections: a clinical and public health research agenda for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, John

    2011-01-01

    Enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. Licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. The reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and certainly include financial and political constraints. Also important is the need for more cogent evidence on the performance of enteric vaccines in developing country populations. A partial inventory of research questions would include: (i) does the vaccine perform well in the most relevant settings? (ii) does the vaccine perform well in all epidemiologically relevant age groups? (iii) is there adequate evidence of vaccine safety once the vaccines have been deployed in developing countries? (iv) how effective is the vaccine when given in conjunction with non-vaccine cointerventions? (v) what is the level of vaccine protection against all relevant outcomes? and (vi) what is the expected population level of vaccine protection, including both direct and herd vaccine protective effects? Provision of evidence addressing these questions will help expand the use of enteric vaccines in developing countries. PMID:21893543

  7. Evaluation of vaccines against enteric infections: a clinical and public health research agenda for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, John

    2011-10-12

    Enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. Licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. The reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and certainly include financial and political constraints. Also important is the need for more cogent evidence on the performance of enteric vaccines in developing country populations. A partial inventory of research questions would include: (i) does the vaccine perform well in the most relevant settings? (ii) does the vaccine perform well in all epidemiologically relevant age groups? (iii) is there adequate evidence of vaccine safety once the vaccines have been deployed in developing countries? (iv) how effective is the vaccine when given in conjunction with non-vaccine cointerventions? (v) what is the level of vaccine protection against all relevant outcomes? and (vi) what is the expected population level of vaccine protection, including both direct and herd vaccine protective effects? Provision of evidence addressing these questions will help expand the use of enteric vaccines in developing countries.

  8. Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huppatz Clare

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic Filariasis (LF is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA. The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified as endemic had completed five MDA campaigns and post-MDA prevalence surveys to assess their progress. We review available programme data and discuss their implications for other LF elimination programs in developing countries. Methods Reported MDA coverage and results from initial surveys and post-MDA surveys of LF using the immunochromatographic test (ICT from these five Pacific Island countries (Tonga, Niue, Vanuatu, Samoa and Cook Islands were analysed to provide an understanding of their quality and programme progress towards LF elimination. Denominator data reported by each country programme for 2001 was compared to official sources to assess the accuracy of MDA coverage data. Results Initial survey results from these five countries revealed an ICT prevalence of between 2.7 and 8.6 percent in individuals tested prior to commencement of the programme. Country MDA coverage results varied depending on the source of denominator data. Of the five countries in this case study, three countries (Tonga, Niue and Vanuatu reached the target prevalence of Conclusion Accurate and representative baseline and post-campaign prevalence data is crucial for determining program effectiveness and the factors contributing to effectiveness. This is emphasised by the findings of this case study. While three of the five Pacific countries reported achieving the target prevalence of

  9. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brod Meryl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country. There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

  10. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  11. Stakeholders' Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta; Sicińska Ewa; Wit Liesbeth de; Ruprich Jiří; Řehůřková Irena; Brown Kerry A.; Timotijevic Lada; Sonne Anne-Mette; Haugaard Pernille; Guzzon Antonella; Garcia Noé Brito; Alevritou Eleni; Hermoso Maria; Sarmant Yuliya; Lähteenmäki Liisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify the main factors infl uencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants...

  12. Waste a necessary evil for economically impoverished communities in least developed countries (LCDc): a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available , waste harvesters, job creation, least developed countries, Lesotho 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Setting the scene Developing countries are faced with a multitude of inter-related social, economic and environmental problems and challenges... guideline by UNCHS (1995) and Whittington (1998) which is based on confidentiality, reliability, neutrality, accuracy, objectivity and honesty. The major source of the study was Ha Tsosane dumpsite in Maseru (where 36 harvesters wereinterviewed...

  13. The development and evaluation of a PDA-based method for public health surveillance data collection in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; de Courten, Maximilian; Pan, Elaine;

    2009-01-01

    EpiData and Epi Info are often used together by public health agencies around the world, particularly in developing countries, to meet their needs of low-cost public health data management; however, the current open source data management technology lacks a mobile component to meet the needs...... of mobile public health data collectors. The goal of this project is to explore the opportunity of filling this gap through developing and trial of a personal digital assistant (PDA) based data collection/entry system. It evaluated whether such a system could increase efficiency and reduce data...... transcription errors for public surveillance data collection in developing countries represented by Fiji....

  14. Evaluation of invalid vaccine doses in 31 countries of the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Pessler, Frank; Guzman, Carlos A; Krause, Gérard; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2015-02-11

    We examined (a) the fraction of and extent to which vaccinations were administered earlier than recommended (age-invalid) or with too short intervals between vaccine doses (interval-invalid) in countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) African Region and (b) individual- and community-level factors associated with invalid vaccinations using multilevel techniques. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years in 31 countries were used. Information about childhood vaccinations was based on vaccination records (n=134,442). Invalid vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis [DTP1, DTP3] and measles-containing vaccine (MCV)) were defined using the WHO criteria. The median percentages of invalid DTP1, DTP3 and MCV vaccinations across all countries were 12.1% (interquartile range, 9.4-15.2%), 5.7% (5.0-7.6%), and 15.5% (10.0-18.1%), respectively. Of the invalid DTP1 vaccinations, 7.4% and 5.5% were administered at child's age of less than one and two weeks, respectively. In 12 countries, the proportion of invalid DTP3 vaccinations administered with an interval of less than two weeks before the preceding dose varied between 30% and 50%. In 13 countries, the proportion of MCV doses administered at child's age of less than six months varied between 20% and 45%. Community-level variables explained part of the variation in invalid vaccinations. Invalid vaccinations are common in African countries. Timing of childhood vaccinations should be improved to ensure an optimal protection against vaccine-preventable infections and to avoid unnecessary wastage in these economically deprived countries.

  15. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  16. Cost for tuberculosis care in developed countries: which data for an economic evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieste, Leopoldo; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) seems to be eradicated in developed countries. However, current migration flows and increasing use of immunosuppressive and biologic drugs for rheumatic diseases are increasing the risk of latent TB and TB onset for citizens of developed countries. Because little is known about the economic burden of TB in developed countries, we set out to describe the order and dimension of the costs of TB care in developed countries. A review of the literature indicated that the cost for anti-TB therapy is about $2000 US per patient. Costs of drugs associated with standard therapy for active TB [2HRZE/4HR, i.e., 2 months of isoniazid (H), rifampin (R), pyrazinamide (Z), and ethambutol (E), followed by 4 months of HR] are about $600. Standard therapy for latent TB care costs about $80 for 9H and $256 for 4R, respectively. However, these data are very limited because of the horizon of analysis and because data are strongly localized. It can be concluded that in developed countries, available data on TB care costs are insufficient for detailed analysis of the economic burden of TB.

  17. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  18. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  19. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants...... was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths...

  20. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona KOSTELECKÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additionalinformation about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specificcharacteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  1. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...

  2. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey included...... 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and North America in 1997-98.The main outcome measures were physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of students being bullied varied enormously across countries....... The lowest prevalence was observed among girls in Sweden (6.3%, 95% CI: 5.2-7.4), the highest among boys in Lithuania (41.4%, 95% CI 39.4-43.5). The risk of high symptom load increased with increasing exposure to bullying in all countries. In pooled analyses, with sex stratified multilevel logistic models...

  3. Evaluation of T cell subsets by an immunocytochemical method compared to flow cytometry in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Böttiger, B; Christensen, L B;

    1997-01-01

    The authors tested an alternative method for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes enumeration, the immunoalkaline phosphatase method (IA), in three African countries and in Denmark. The IA determinations from 136 HIV antibody positive and 105 HIV antibody negative individuals were compared to the correspond......The authors tested an alternative method for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes enumeration, the immunoalkaline phosphatase method (IA), in three African countries and in Denmark. The IA determinations from 136 HIV antibody positive and 105 HIV antibody negative individuals were compared...... by the two methods are not interchangeable as IA compared to FC consistently gives higher percentage of CD4 T lymphocytes, and lower percentage of CD8 T lymphocytes. Mean differences between the two methods did not differ between the three African countries indicating that the IA method provides systematic...

  4. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Redondo Cornejo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez Pérez, María José; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W J; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-08-15

    The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. 10 European countries. 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY’S IMPACT UPON INFLATION RATE IN CENTRAL, EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Stoica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to estimate the inflationary effect of adoption of the Common Agricultural Policy in countries which joined the European Union in 2004, using two approaches. The first one supposes the comparison of consumer food prices before (May-December 2001-2003 and January – April 2002-2004 and after joining the European Union (May – December 2004 and January – April 2005, in all ten states. The second approach consist in the application of a multifactorial regression model for the period 2003-2010 in six countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The results of the study shows that, contrary to the usual perception, the influence of the agricultural products prices on the food price and, implicitly, on the consumer prices have been relatively low in all the analysed countries, in some countries being counterbalanced by the appreciation of the national currency and the elimination of import custom duties.

  6. Library services and user satisfaction in developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairaj, Muhammad Ijaz; Naseer, Mirza Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) is a recognised teaching hospital for cardiac care in the Punjab province of Pakistan. PIC has established a library to fulfil the research and information needs of health care professionals. This study aims to evaluate the satisfaction of users with the services of PIC library. A purposive sample of 15 health care professionals was selected. A semistructured interview technique based on an interview guide was used for collection of data. The data were qualitatively analysed using a thematic approach. Users of PIC library were satisfied with the library collection, organisation, reference and circulation services, staff attitudes, cooling and heating. They were concerned about library space, hours, furniture and environment, and suggested more availability of electronic library services, newer collections, better Internet access and comfortable furniture. The study proved useful to investigate users' satisfaction with the services of PIC library. It concludes that the PIC library should maintain and strengthen the services with which users are satisfied, and improve those about which they are concerned. The study will be useful to libraries in other developing countries for improvement in their services. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Evaluating the efficiency of nuclear energy policies: an empirical examination for 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Demir, Ender

    2017-06-24

    The decarbonization of the global economy is an urgent concern. As a potential solution, it can be important to understand the efficiency of nuclear energy policies. For this purpose, the paper analyzes whether there is a unit root in nuclear energy consumption in 26 countries and it uses the unit root tests with two endogenous (unknown) structural breaks. The paper finds that nuclear energy consumption is stationary around a level and the time trend in 25 of 26 countries and nuclear energy consumption contains a unit root only in France. The paper also discusses the potential implications of the findings.

  8. Planning and evaluating mental health services in low- and middle-income countries using theory of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Erica; De Silva, Mary J; Shidaye, Rahul; Petersen, Inge; Nakku, Juliet; Jordans, Mark J D; Fekadu, Abebaw; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    There is little practical guidance on how contextually relevant mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) can be developed in low-resource settings. To describe how theory of change (ToC) was used to plan the development and evaluation of MHCPs as part of the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). ToC development occurred in three stages: (a) development of a cross-country ToC by 15 PRIME consortium members; (b) development of country-specific ToCs in 13 workshops with a median of 15 (interquartile range 13-22) stakeholders per workshop; and (c) review and refinement of the cross-country ToC by 18 PRIME consortium members. One cross-country and five district ToCs were developed that outlined the steps required to improve outcomes for people with mental disorders in PRIME districts. ToC is a valuable participatory method that can be used to develop MHCPs and plan their evaluation. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  9. Comparative Institutional Diagnosis of Civil Service Systems: Summary of 17 Country Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The present work summarizes a set of reports which have had the aim of diagnosing the civil service systems of seventeen countries: Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.

  10. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.N.; Gbagbo, J.K.N.; Aneke, F.U.

    1997-04-01

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  11. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Peykari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes′ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were "effect," "woman," and "metabolic syndrome." Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEALTH STATUS BETWEEN COUNTRIES ALONG THE NEW SILK ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju’e Yan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using World Statistics Data from the year 2012, health status differences between countries along the “New Silk Road” were compared and analyzed. Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, as well as certain disease incidence rates were used. The study indicated that the 12 countries along the New Silk Road had longer life expectancy at birth. Females had longer life expectancy at birth than males, but life expectancy at age 60 was shorter than the global average, and healthy life expectancy at birth was also shorter. Maternal health status was generally good in each country. China, Russia, and 4 other countries had better children’s health status than India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Non-communicable diseases caused higher mortality than communicable diseases and accidental injuries. However, the age standardized mortality rates of communicable diseases in India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were still relatively high. Communicable diseases were also the leading cause of reduction in life expectancy. Tuberculosis had a more significant impact on health status. In conclusion, health status varies among the New Silk Road countries. Countries including China and Iran have relatively better health status, and non communicable diseases were the predominant risk factor impacting health. However, in countries such as India and Afghanistan, mortality caused by communicable diseases is still prominent. Under the current trend of globalization, New Silk Road countries are supposed to collaborate to expand their healthcare systems, and improve the health conditions for their people.

  13. Human Poverty: a practical and analytical study on Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Mohamed Ahmed, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The poverty problem is no longer a problem embodied in only one country, or bounded by a certain geographic area. It has become a problem with heavily international concerns. Poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that outreaches low or no incomes to the so called human poverty. Human poverty is one of the major obstacles to development particularly in the so called least developing countries (LDCs. In this paper, efforts were concentrating on defining the problem of human poverty, its measurement methods and the underlying causes of it in these countries. Empirically and by the use of OLS regression method and cross-sectional data from some poor countries (Human Development Report, 2005, three models tried to tackle the research problem. The first model was a combination of both low and medium income poor countries, the second was medium income and the third was low income poor countries. Among the results of this research is that variables of general expenditure on education and health and the growth rate in total domestic product are major causes of human poverty. Significantly, the results showed that there were very low growth rates levels in total domestic product, very low general expenditures on education and health which indicate serious symptoms of higher human poverty indices. Finally, the study recommends that governments might better concentrate on more expenditure on education and health as a main priority to eradicate all types of poverty particularly the human poverty.

  14. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  16. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  17. The Situation of Top Universities\\\\\\' Websites in the Islamic World Countries: a Webometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Goltaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With regards to important role of universities’ websites, this article aimed to study top universities of the Islamic countries using webometrics methods. Research data were extracted from AltaVista search engine and WEBOMETRICS website. In this study, top universities of the Islamic countries were ranked with some indexes such as number of links, web impact factor, world rank, size, visibility, rich files and scholar. Results showed that there was a significant relation between web impact factor with some indicators such as world rank, size, rich files and scholar, but there was not any significant relation between web impact factor and visibility of the website. Strong significant correlation between top universities of the Islamic world countries websites’ world rank and their ranks based on GDP was another result that we can mention in this study.

  18. Does the Country-of-Origin (COO) of food products influence consumer evaluations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssohoidis, G.

    2009-01-01

    toward measuring consumers' ethnocentric tendency as antecedent to the appearance of the COO effect and examining the level at which the latter is activated (product or attribute-specific). In this respect, consumer attitude (dis)similarities toward product types are analysed with exploratory......The present study attempts to assess the impact of the COO effect on the evaluation of specific food products by Greek consumers. This issue has been examined exhaustively in the international literature albeit there are very few studies concerning food products. A particular effort is geared...... and confirmatory factor analyses. Data were collected though personal interviews with a sample of 274 respondents, which compared two food products of Greek origin (ham and yellow cheese) to their counterparts from Italy and the Netherlands. Results indicate that respondents exhibit a marginally ethnocentric...

  19. Economic Burden of Bilateral Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Multi-Country Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alan F. Cruess; Gergana Zlateva; Xiao Xu; Gisele Soubrane; Daniel Pauleikhoff; Andrew Lotery; Jordi Mones; Ronald Buggage; Caroline Schaefer; Tyler Knight; Goss, Thomas F

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is limited previous research examining the healthcare costs of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD), which constrains our understanding of the economic impact of this condition. With aging populations, this leading cause of rapid vision loss in Western countries is expected to become a pressing health predicament, requiring decision makers to evaluate alternative treatment strategies for AMD. Objective: To document the economic burden of bilateral NV-AMD, th...

  20. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  1. Saving-Investment Relationship: Evaluation of The Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis in Terms of OECD Countries (1980-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Yalçınkaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth as regardless of productivity increase has to took placed with investments, the investments simply can be met by savings. At this point, it is required that identification the ratio of domestic savings to meet domestic investments or domestic investments of dependence on foreign savings. In this respect the study, in the frame Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis, it is aimed that on 28 OECD member countries which according to the saving-investment balance is grouped, the relationship between domestic savings and domestic investments investigation by using a new generation of panel data analysis methodology which cross-section dependence taking into account and data for the period 1980-2013. As a result of the study, it has been determined that the ratios of domestic savings to meet domestic investments namely the degree of capital mobility on defined country groups, according to the saving-investment balance of the country significantly is varied. At the same time, in the study it has been concluded that Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis is accepted in countries with saving surplus, conversely Feldstein-Horioka Paradox is relatively continued in countries with saving deficient. 

  2. Archives Educational Programs in Librarianship Schools : A Compression Study Between Algeria and Some Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheba Gheriamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the training of archivists in Algeria, specially of the origin and aims of archival studies programme in librarianship institute at the university of Algiers and comparing its experience with some Arabic contries like Egypt,Tunisia and Arabic Golf countries.

  3. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  4. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  5. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

  6. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  7. Country of Origin Labeling: Evaluating the Impacts on U.S. and World Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keithly G.; Somwaru, Agapi; Whitaker, James B.

    2009-01-01

    A provision of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 requires country of origin labeling (COOL) for certain agricultural commodities. To comply with the law, producers, processors, and retailers face additional production costs associated with labeling, separating, and tracking commodities. Using estimated costs provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), we simulate the impacts of mandatory COOL on U.S. and global agricultural markets usi...

  8. How is Family Centered Care Perceived by Healthcare Providers from Different Countries? An International Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Paraszczuk, Ann Marie; Çavuşoğlu, Hicran; Shields, Linda; Pars, Hatice; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) is a healthcare delivery model in which planning care for a child incorporates the entire family. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare how healthcare providers from three countries with varied cultural and healthcare systems perceive the concept FCC by measuring attitudes, and to psychometrically identify a measure that would reflect "family-centeredness." The Working with Families questionnaire, translated when appropriate, was used to capture participants' perceptions of caring for hospitalized children and their parents from pediatric healthcare providers in the United States, Australia and Turkey (n=476). The results indicated significantly more positive attitudes reported for working with children than parents for all countries and individual score differences across countries: the U.S. and Turkey child scores were significantly higher than Australia, whereas the U.S. and Australia parent scores were both significantly higher than Turkey. Perceptions of working with families were different for nurses from the three countries that call for a clearer understanding about perceptions in relation to delivery systems. Further analyses revealed FCS scores to be significantly different between nurses and physicians and significantly correlated with age, number of children and education. The results of this study add to our understanding of influences on practice from different countries and healthcare systems. The FCS score may be useful to determine baseline beliefs and ascertain effectiveness of interventions designed to improve FCC implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  10. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  11. Digital Library Evaluation, User Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Pomerantz, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    While a number of kinds of evaluation/research studies may be conducted during the design and development of a digital library (e.g., usability testing), this module is concerned with methods for evaluating the outcomes, impacts, or benefits of a digital library, including cost/benefit analyses. It also includes methods that are useful for general user studies (i.e., studies that intend to more fully understand people's interactions with digital libraries). While some methods covered here are...

  12. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Methodologies Between Resource-Limited and Resource-Rich Countries: A Case of Rotavirus Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboonboon, Kittiphong; Santatiwongchai, Benjarin; Chantarastapornchit, Varit; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2016-12-01

    For more than three decades, the number and influence of economic evaluations of healthcare interventions have been increasing and gaining attention from a policy level. However, concerns about the credibility of these studies exist, particularly in studies from low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). This analysis was performed to explore economic evaluations conducted in LMICs in terms of methodological variations, quality of reporting and evidence used for the analyses. These results were compared with those studies conducted in high-income countries (HICs). Rotavirus vaccine was selected as a case study, as it is one of the interventions that many studies in both settings have explored. The search to identify individual studies on rotavirus vaccines was performed in March 2014 using MEDLINE and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Only full economic evaluations, comparing cost and outcomes of at least two alternatives, were included for review. Selected criteria were applied to assess methodological variation, quality of reporting and quality of evidence used. Eighty-five studies were included, consisting of 45 studies in HICs and 40 studies in LMICs. Seventy-five percent of the studies in LMICs were published by researchers from HICs. Compared with studies in HICs, the LMIC studies showed less methodological variety. In terms of the quality of reporting, LMICs had a high adherence to technical criteria, but HICs ultimately proved to be better. The same trend applied for the quality of evidence used. Although the quality of economic evaluations in LMICs was not as high as those from HICs, it is of an acceptable level given several limitations that exist in these settings. However, the results of this study may not reflect the fact that LMICs have developed a better research capacity in the domain of health economics, given that most of the studies were in theory led by researchers from HICs. Putting more effort into fostering the

  13. Can Computers Increase Human Capital in Developing Countries? An Evaluation of Nepal’s One Laptop per Child Program

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative in Nepal’s primary and lower-secondary schools. This evaluation of the OLPC program in Nepal uses a pre-post test quasi-experimental design that consists of 26 program schools and 39 control schools that are spread across six different districts of the country. A low-cost laptop was provided to each student in grades two, three and six of the program schools at the beginning of the Nepali academic year (May 2...

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis screening in family planning centers: a review of cost/benefit evaluations in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Suchet, J; Sluzhinska, A; Serfaty, D

    1996-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a primary cause of acute or silent salpingitis leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The C. trachomatis epidemic, undiscovered in most cases, spreads, mostly in adolescents, during the years following the onset of sexual activity. As opposed to gonococcal infection which has greatly decreased, C. trachomatis cervical and urethral infection is common in young occidentals. More then 30 different studies covering 200-12,000 subjects screened in family planning centers, college women and men, students and military recruits in different parts of the USA, in Scandinavian countries and France, indicate a prevalence of 5-20% (mean 10%) in apparently healthy young females opinion being to do a total screening of women failure to use condoms and use of a contraceptive pill. Although the data clearly show that C. trachomatis screening is cost-effective, conducting of the diagnostic laboratory tests used in such screening programs should be carefully evaluated relative to cost, feasibility, specificity and sensitivity and should be adapted to the presumed prevalence in screened populations.

  15. Can cross country differences in return-to-work after chronic occupational back pain be explained? An exploratory analysis on disability policies in a six country cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Schellart, A J M; Cassidy, J D; Loisel, P; Veerman, T J; van der Beek, A J

    2009-12-01

    There are substantial differences in the number of disability benefits for occupational low back pain (LBP) among countries. There are also large cross country differences in disability policies. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) there are two principal policy approaches: countries which have an emphasis on a compensation policy approach or countries with an emphasis on an reintegration policy approach. The International Social Security Association initiated this study to explain differences in return-to-work (RTW) among claimants with long term sick leave due to LBP between countries with a special focus on the effect of different disability policies. A multinational cohort of 2,825 compensation claimants off work for 3-4 months due to LBP was recruited in Denmark, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Relevant predictors and interventions were measured at 3 months, one and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The main outcome measure was duration until sustainable RTW (i.e. working after 2 years). Multivariate analyses were conducted to explain differences in sustainable RTW between countries and to explore the effect of different disability policies. Medical and work interventions varied considerably between countries. Sustainable RTW ranged from 22% in the German cohort up to 62% in the Dutch cohort after 2 years of follow-up. Work interventions and job characteristics contributed most to these differences. Patient health, medical interventions and patient characteristics were less important. In addition, cross-country differences in eligibility criteria for entitlement to long-term and/or partial disability benefits contributed to the observed differences in sustainable RTW rates: less strict criteria are more effective. The model including various compensation policy variables explained 48% of the variance. Large cross-country differences in sustainable RTW after chronic LBP are mainly

  16. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  18. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  19. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  20. Analysis of Six Reviews on the Quality of Instruments for the Evaluation of Interprofessional Education in German-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Jan P; Kaap-Fröhlich, Sylvia; Mahler, Cornelia; Scherer, Theresa; Huber, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Background: More and more institutions worldwide and in German-speaking countries are developing and establishing interprofessional seminars in undergraduate education of health professions. In order to evaluate the different didactic approaches and different outcomes regarding the anticipated interprofessional competencies, it is necessary to apply appropriate instruments. Cross-cultural instruments are particularly helpful for international comparability. The Interprofessional Education working group of the German Medical Association (GMA) aims at identifying existing instruments for the evaluation of interprofessional education in order to make recommendations for German-speaking countries. Methods: Systematic literature research was performed on the websites of international interprofessional organisations (CAIPE, EIPEN, AIPEN), as well as in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Reviews focusing on quantitative instruments to evaluate competencies according to the modified Kirkpatrick competency levels were searched for. Psychometrics, language/country and setting, in which the instrument was applied, were recorded. Results: Six reviews out of 73 literature research hits were included. A large number of instruments were identified; however, their psychometrics and the applied setting were very heterogeneous. The instruments can mainly be assigned to Kirkpatrick levels 1, 2a & 2b. Most instruments have been developed in English but their psychometrics were not always reported rigorously. Only very few instruments are available in German. Conclusion: It is difficult to find appropriate instruments in German. Internationally, there are different approaches and objectives in the measurement and evaluation of interprofessional competencies. The question arises whether it makes sense to translate existing instruments or to go through the lengthy process of developing new ones. The evaluation of interprofessional seminars with quantitative instruments remains mainly on

  1. Analysis of Six Reviews on the Quality of Instruments for the Evaluation of Interprofessional Education in German-Speaking Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers, Jan P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: More and more institutions worldwide and in German-speaking countries are developing and establishing interprofessional seminars in undergraduate education of health professions. In order to evaluate the different didactic approaches and different outcomes regarding the anticipated interprofessional competencies, it is necessary to apply appropriate instruments. Cross-cultural instruments are particularly helpful for international comparability. The Interprofessional Education working group of the German Medical Association (GMA aims at identifying existing instruments for the evaluation of interprofessional education in order to make recommendations for German-speaking countries.Methods: Systematic literature research was performed on the websites of international interprofessional organisations (CAIPE, EIPEN, AIPEN, as well as in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Reviews focusing on quantitative instruments to evaluate competencies according to the modified Kirkpatrick competency levels were searched for. Psychometrics, language/country and setting, in which the instrument was applied, were recorded. Results: Six reviews out of 73 literature research hits were included. A large number of instruments were identified; however, their psychometrics and the applied setting were very heterogeneous. The instruments can mainly be assigned to Kirkpatrick levels 1, 2a & 2b. Most instruments have been developed in English but their psychometrics were not always reported rigorously. Only very few instruments are available in German.Conclusion: It is difficult to find appropriate instruments in German. Internationally, there are different approaches and objectives in the measurement and evaluation of interprofessional competencies. The question arises whether it makes sense to translate existing instruments or to go through the lengthy process of developing new ones. The evaluation of interprofessional seminars with quantitative instruments

  2. Opportunities, constraints and constrained opportunities - A study on mothers' working time patterns in 22 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Salin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze mothers’ working time patters across 22 European countries. The focu was on three questions: how much mothers prefer to work, how much they actually work, and to what degree their preferred and actual working times are (in)consistent with each other. The focus was on cross-national differences in mothers’ working time patterns, comparison of mothers’ working times to that of childless women and fathers, as well as on individual- and country-level factors t...

  3. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  4. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The labour force participation rate of married women varies considerably between the European countries. There may be several explanations for this evidence. In this study, the effect of the different income tax schemes on female labour force participation is investigated and compared. A common...... labour supply function is estimated on cross-section household samples for each of the countries Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and East and West Germany. Based on the estimated labour supply functions, we calculate for each of the countries the hypothetical part time and full time participation rates...... of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  5. Impact of oral cholera vaccines in cholera-endemic countries: A mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vittal; Burgess, Colleen; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2016-04-19

    Impact evaluation of vaccination programs is necessary for making decisions to introduce oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in cholera-endemic countries. We analyzed data to forecast the future global burden of cholera. We developed a mathematical model of cholera transmission in three countries as examples: Nigeria, Uganda, and Indonesia. After fitting the model, we evaluated the impact of OCVs delivered in four vaccination strategies varying by target age group and frequency of vaccination over the period of 2015-2030. Data suggest that the global annual incidence of cholera will increase from 3046238 in 2015 to 3787385 in 2030 with the highest burden in Asia and Africa where overall population size is large and the proportion of population with access to improved sanitation facilities is low. We estimate that OCV will reduce the cumulative incidence of cholera by half in Indonesia and >80% in Nigeria and Uganda when delivered to 1+ year olds every three years at a coverage rate of 50%, although cholera may persist through higher coverage rates (i.e., >90%). The proportion of person-to-person transmission compared to water-to-person transmission is positively correlated with higher vaccination impact in all three countries. Periodic OCV vaccination every three or five years can significantly reduce the global burden of cholera although cholera may persist even with high OCV coverage. Vaccination impact will likely vary depending on local epidemiological conditions including age distribution of cases and relative contribution of different transmission routes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a national evidence-based health care course via teleconference in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Cristiane Rufino; Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Torloni, Maria Regina; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib

    2013-08-01

    Continuing health education is essential but challenged. In 2006, the Brazilian Cochrane Center, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, launched a mass teaching initiative in evidence-based health care (EBH) for public-sector professionals via teleconferencing. This 152-hour, interactive EBH course has enrolled over 4500 professionals. This study aimed to assess the acquisition EBH knowledge and skills, as well as the attitudes and perceptions of a sample of students enrolled in the 2009 course via teleconferencing. This prospective cohort study analyzed three aspects of this 152-hour EBH course that recruited 1040 volunteer participants, all public health sector employees working in 131 different hospitals or health agencies. Pre- and post-course tests using a modified version of the Berlin questionnaire with 20 multiple-choice questions were used to examine knowledge acquisition in a sample of 297 students. Tests were completed upon registration and at course completion. The research projects submitted by 872 participants were evaluated to assess skill acquisition. Answers to an anonymous survey assessed the attitudes and perceptions of 914 participants. There was a significant increase in knowledge from baseline to course completion (mean scores 8.2 ± 3.3 versus 13.7 ± 3.0, P health professionals and was approved by the vast majority of students. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  8. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  9. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  10. Social Science Teachers on Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Two Post-Communist Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Jeliazkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with the everyday dilemmas of teaching in a field which is by definition controversial and loaded with diverse political meanings. The study involved teachers in the two countries using Q-methodology, a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Five distinct ways of dealing with these questions, five types of views were found in Bulgaria: Pragmatic Conservatives, Deliberative Liberals, Local Social Guardians, Personal Growth Facilitators, and Global Future Debaters. In Croatia, the types of views were: Patriotic Conservatives, Liberal Democracy Mentors, Reflective Humanists, and Personal Growth Coaches. The differences and similarities between the teachers’ views in both countries are compared. The study highlights the crucial role of teachers, of their beliefs and experiences in shaping national and European citizenship education policies. The implications of the study findings for citizenship education policy, curriculum development, and teacher training are briefly discussed.

  11. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  12. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  13. Do the Media set the Parliamentary Agenda? A Comparative Study in Seven Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vliegenthart, Rens; Walgrave, Stefaan; Baumgartner, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of work has examined the relationship between media and politics from an agenda-setting perspective: is attention for issues initiated by political elites with the media following suit, or is the reverse relation stronger? A long series of single-country studies has suggested a num...

  14. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  15. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  16. Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDRON STEPHANE; LAGAE KAAT

    2015-01-01

    Key findings of the JRC's research Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries for the Research Highlights series on behalf of the Evidence Group (EG) of the UK Council on Child Internet Safety

  17. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower…

  18. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  19. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  20. Trans fatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amaral, E.; Kestesloot, H.; Rimestad, A.; Thamm, M.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from fast

  1. The right to health : A multi-country study of law, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Ferguson, Rhonda; Markovic, Milan; Nnamuchi, Obi

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study engages with the fields of human rights law, health law, and public health. It analyses how the internationally guaranteed human ‘right to health’ is realized by States at a national level. It brings together scholars from more than ten different countries, with each of

  2. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  3. Trans fatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amaral, E.; Kestesloot, H.; Rimestad, A.; Thamm, M.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from

  4. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  5. Drivers of Socially Responsible Investing : A Case Study of Four Nordic Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Sievanen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we try to establish what determines the substantial differences in the Nordic countries' size and composition of socially responsible investing (SRI). We investigate if these differences between Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden can be associated with key characteristics in economi

  6. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient -0.039; 95% CI: -0.058, -0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.035, -0.003), GNI (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.055, -0.015), and both EI and GNI (-0.017; 95% CI: -0.033, -0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.

  7. Standardised pre-competitive screening of athletes in some European and African countries: the SMILE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanelli, Deodato; Deodato, Assanelli; Ermolao, Andrea; Andrea, Ermolao; Carre, François; François, Carré; Deligiannis, Asterios; Asterios, Deligiannis; Mellwig, Klaus; Mellwig, Klaus; Klaus, Mellwig; Tahmi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Tahmi; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Mario, Cesana Bruno; Levaggi, Rosella; Rosella, Levaggi; Aliverti, Paola; Paola, Aliverti; Sharma, Sanjay; Sanjay, Sharma

    2014-06-01

    Most of the available data on the cardiovascular screening of athletes come from Italy, with fewer records being available outside of Italy and for non-Caucasian populations. The goals of the SMILE project (Sport Medicine Intervention to save Lives through ECG) are to evaluate the usefulness of 12-lead ECGs for the detection of cardiac diseases in athletes from three European countries and one African country and to estimate how many second-level examinations are needed subsequent to the initial screening in order to classify athletes with abnormal characteristics. A digital network consisting of Sport Centres and second and third opinion centres was set up in Greece, Germany, France and Algeria. Standard digital data input was carried out through the application of 12-lead ECGs, Bethesda questionnaires and physical examinations. Two hundred ninety-three of the 6,634 consecutive athletes required further evaluation, mostly (88.4 %) as a consequence of abnormal ECGs. After careful evaluation, 237 were determined to be healthy or apparently healthy, while 56 athletes were found to have cardiac disorders and were thus disqualified from active participation in sports. There was a large difference in the prevalence of diseases detected in Europe as compared with Algeria (0.23 and 4.01 %, respectively). Our data confirmed the noteworthy value of 12-lead resting ECGs as compared with other first-level evaluations, especially in athletes with asymptomatic cardiac diseases. Its value seems to have been even higher in Algeria than in the European countries. The establishment of a digital network of Sport Centres for second/third opinions in conjunction with the use of standard digital data input seems to be a valuable means for increasing the effectiveness of screening.

  8. Neonatal death in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Global Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizán, José M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Pasha, Omrana; Esamai, Fabian; Patel, Archana; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Moore, Janet; Althabe, Fernando; Kodkany, Bhala S; Sami, Neelofar; Manasyan, Albert; Derman, Richard J; Liechty, Edward A; Hibberd, Patricia; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K Michael; Buekens, Pierre; Jobe, Alan H; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine population-based neonatal mortality rates in low and middle income countries and to examine gestational age, birth-weight and timing of death to assess the potentially preventable neonatal deaths. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in communities in five low-income countries (Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) and one mid-income country (Argentina). Over a two-year period, all pregnant women in the study communities were enrolled by trained study staff and their infants followed to 28 days of age. Results Between October 2009 and March 2011, 153,728 babies were delivered and followed through day 28. Neonatal death rates ranged from 41 per 1000 births in Pakistan to 8 per 1000 in Argentina. 54% of the neonatal deaths were >37 weeks and 46% weighed 2500 grams or more. Half the deaths occurred within 24 hours of delivery. Conclusions In our population-based low and middle income country registries, the majority of neonatal deaths occurred in babies >37 weeks gestation and almost half weighed at least 2500 grams. Most deaths occurred shortly after birth. With access to better medical care and hospitalization, especially in the intrapartum and early neonatal period, many of these neonatal deaths might be prevented. PMID:22644832

  9. Perspectives on the impact of varicella immunization on herpes zoster. A model-based evaluation from three European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Poletti

    Full Text Available The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV is being delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the boosting of Cell Mediated Immunity caused by the reduced varicella circulation. A multi-country model of VZV transmission and reactivation, is used to evaluate the possible impact of varicella vaccination on HZ epidemiology in Italy, Finland and the UK. Despite the large uncertainty surrounding HZ and vaccine-related parameters, surprisingly robust medium-term predictions are provided, indicating that an increase in HZ incidence is likely to occur in countries where the incidence rate is lower in absence of immunization, possibly due to a higher force of boosting (e.g. Finland, whereas increases in HZ incidence might be minor where the force of boosting is milder (e.g. the UK. Moreover, a convergence of HZ post vaccination incidence levels in the examined countries is predicted despite different initial degrees of success of immunization policies. Unlike previous model-based evaluations, our investigation shows that after varicella immunization an increase of HZ incidence is not a certain fact, rather depends on the presence or absence of factors promoting a strong boosting intensity and which might or not be heavily affected by changes in varicella circulation due to mass immunization. These findings might explain the opposed empirical evidences observed about the increases of HZ in sites where mass varicella vaccination is ongoing.

  10. An Investigation of Determinants Global Entrepreneurship: Multi-Country Panel Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznaldi Akbar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of governmental supports and policies; and financing for entrepreneurs in the context of global entrepreneurial activities. Our studies are based on the rich datasets of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database covering 108 countries from 2001 to 2014. In this study, we examine whether countries with more favorable policies and supports towards entrepreneurship and availability of financing for entrepreneurs would result in the higher country’s entrepreneurial activities. We use total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA, a percentage of 18 - 64 year old population who are either a nascent entrepreneur or an owner manager of a new business, as our dependent variable to represent country’s entrepreneurial activities. There are two main explanatory variables used in the study: governmental supports and financing for entrepreneurs. The governmental supports represents the extent to which public policies support entrepreneurship as a relevant economic issue, while financing for entrepreneurs indicates the availability of financial resources for small and medium enterprises (SMEs including grants and subsidies. We also include three control variables of basic school entrepreneurial education and training; physical and services infrastructure; and cultural and social norms to test the significance of these factors to the country’s entrepreneurial activities. This study adopts panel regression model augmented with control variables. We favor Random Effect model as opposed to Fixed Effect or Pooled OLS model as Hausman and Breusch–Pagan test suggest. Our results suggest that there is no evident that government supports have significant contribution to country’s entrepreneurial activities.  In other words, entrepreneurial activities are more flourished in a country that has not set entrepreneurship as relevant economic issues as it might be the case for many emerging countries. The availability of

  11. Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals.

  12. Prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country, along with its pattern, etiology and management. Data for the present study were collected from the Department of Dentistry, ESIC Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chennai in India. Materials and Methods The medical records of patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between May 2014 and November 2015 were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed for prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma. SPSS software version 16.0 was used for the data analysis. Results Maxillofacial fractures accounts for 93.3% of total injuries. The mean and standard deviation for the age of the patients were 35.0±11.8 years and with a minimum age of 5 years and maximum age of 75 years. Adults from 20 to 40 years age groups were more commonly involved, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. There was a statistically significantly higher proportion of males more commonly involved in accident and injuries (P <0.001). Conclusion The most common etiology of maxillofacial injury was road traffic accidents (RTA) followed by falls and assaults, the sports injuries seem to be very less. In RTA, motorized two-wheelers (MTW) were the most common cause of incidents. The majority of victims of RTA were young adult males between the ages of 20 to 40 years. The malar bone and maxilla were the most common sites of fracture, followed by the mandible. The right side of the zygomatic complex was the predominant side of MTW injury. The majority of the zygomatic complex fractures were treated by conservative management. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed for indicated fracture patients. PMID:27595083

  13. Poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries: a multi-national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Kupek, Emil

    2010-10-01

    The importance of reducing childhood undernutrition has been enshrined in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the relationship between alternative indicators of poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries within the context of a multi-national cohort study (Young Lives). Approximately 2000 children in each of four countries - Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam - had their heights measured and were weighed when they were aged between 6 and 17 months (survey one) and again between 4.5 and 5.5 years (survey two). The anthropometric outcomes of stunted, underweight and wasted were calculated using World Health Organization 2006 reference standards. Maximum-likelihood probit estimation was employed to model the relationship within each country and survey between alternative measures of living standards (principally a wealth index developed using principal components analysis) and each anthropometric outcome. An extensive set of covariates was incorporated into the models to remove as much individual heterogeneity as possible. The fully adjusted models revealed a negative and statistically significant coefficient on wealth for all outcomes in all countries, with the exception of the outcome of wasted in India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam (survey one) and the outcome of underweight in Vietnam (surveys one and two). In survey one, the partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of stunting, being underweight and wasting was to reduce them by between 1.4 and 5.1 percentage points, 1.0 and 6.4 percentage points, and 0.3 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, with each unit (10%) increase in wealth. The partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of anthropometric outcomes were larger in the survey two models. In both surveys, children residing in the lowest wealth quintile households had significantly increased probabilities of being stunted in all four study countries and of being underweight in

  14. Towards Measuring and Visualizing Sustainable National Power—A Case Study of China and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new perspective of national power—sustainable national power (SNP—emphasizing both the traditional comprehensive national power (CNP and social and environmental sustainability. We propose a measurement to quantify the SNP based on the measurement of comprehensive national power and a sustainable adjusted index. In addition, density-equalizing maps are adopted to visualize the sustainable national power of countries in order to gain a better understanding for its current state and future development from a cartographic perspective. China and its neighboring countries are selected as a case study area. The results show that China outperforms other countries in most of the CNP dimensions but performs poorly in various SNP-adjusted dimensions within the study area. The composite score shows that China is with the highest regional SNP, followed by Japan, Russia, South Korea and India. Furthermore, time series of cartograms reveal evidence showing power transitions among countries. In addition, the effectiveness of cartograms for cartographic communication is discussed.

  15. First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlands Robyn L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a range of Asian countries. Methods A Delphi consensus study was carried out with a panel of 28 Asian mental health clinicians drawn from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The panel was given a 211 item questionnaire about possible first aid actions and asked to rate whether they thought these should be included in guidelines. Panel members were invited to propose additional items. Results After three Delphi rounds, there were 128 items that were rated as "essential" or "important" by 80% or more of the panel members. These items covered: recognition of psychosis, encouraging and assisting the person to seek help, how to interact with the person, responding to acute psychosis, responding to aggression, and what to do if the person refuses to get professional help. Conclusion Despite the diversity of the countries involved, there was consensus on a core set of first aid items that were considered as suitable for assisting a psychotic person. Future work is needed to develop guidelines for specific countries.

  16. Cataract surgery rates in latin america: a four-year longitudinal study of 19 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansingh, Van C; Resnikoff, Serge; Tingley-Kelley, Kimberly; Nano, María E; Martens, Marion; Silva, Juan C; Duerksen, Rainald; Carter, Marissa J

    2010-03-01

    To collect cataract surgery rates data in 19 Latin American countries over a 4-year period as data published to date have been limited. Cataract surgery rates were obtained from National Society of Ophthalmology, National VISION 2020/Prevention of Blindness Committee and Ministry of Health representatives for each country for 2005 to 2008. Economic (gross national income per capita) and other data were collected from publicly available databases. Linear and power correlations between gross national incomes and cataract surgery rates were calculated. Over the study period, most countries increased their cataract surgery rates, with the largest increases observed for Venezuela (186%), Nicaragua (183%), Costa Rica (100%), Uruguay (97%), and Peru (88%). Mean cataract surgery rates for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 for the ensemble of countries were 1545, 1684, 1660, and 1822 per million population, respectively, with a growth over the study period of 17.9%, concurrent with an increase of 57 million (11.5%) in the population. A good correlation between cataract surgery rate and gross national income per capita was found (P < .001). Although progress is being made in the region, the cataract surgery rates represent only one parameter. When they are examined in the context of cataract surgical coverage it is clear that substantial proportions of bilaterally blind persons are still not receiving surgery.

  17. STUDY ON THE WORDS AND MUSICAL PATTERNS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Filiz ONAL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthems are poetic verses sung in a melodic harmony expressing a nation’s feelings, enthusiasm, hopes, joy of coexistence and determination to survive. Thanks to anthems, people reflect their national values, historical background of their countries, and their way of thinking. In this direction national anthems have a unifying power creating a common ground for individuals that sustain continuity and the sense of belonging to a country. This study deals with the national anthems of the Middle Eastern countries where major conflicts have taken place for years in terms of music and lyrics. The random method was used to form the sample group. The sample group is composed of the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Some basic musical elements of the national anthems of the countries involved in the study have been investigated (tone, tempo, meter signatures and rhythm patterns. It has been found that four of them are composed in major tones, while two of them are composed in minor tones. All of these anthems are in 4/4 meter with walking pace tempo. As for the rhythm patterns; 3 different patterns are used in one anthem, while 4 different patterns are used in two, 5 different patterns in one, and 6 different patterns in two. The words of these anthems as literary verses focus on many topics, mainly soldiers, flags, and homelands as well as political developments, national heroes...

  18. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk Among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    Radiation protection standards are based mainly on risk estimates from studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The validity of extrapolations from the relatively high-dose acute exposures in this population to the low-dose, protracted or fractionated environmental and occupational exposures...... effect was observed in most countries. This study provides the largest body of direct evidence to date on the effects of low-dose protracted exposures to external photon radiation....... of primary public health concern has long been the subject of controversy. A collaborative retrospective cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposures. The study included nearly 600,000 workers employed in 154 facilities in 15 countries. This paper...

  19. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

  20. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  1. Pregnancy related breast diseases in a developing African country: Initial Sonographic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike Temitayo; Obajimi, Gbolahan Oladele; Obajimi, Millicent Olubunmi

    2015-01-01

    Benign diseases are more common than malignant diseases in pregnant and lactating women. Fibroadenomas are the most commonly identified benign breast tumour in pregnant and lactating women. Pregnancy related breast cancer is defined as breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery. Its incidence is estimated at 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10 000 pregnancies. Several reproductive factors like age at menarche, age at menopause, age at full-term pregnancy, parity, age at any birth and spacing of pregnancies, breast feeding, characteristics of the menstrual cycle, infertility, spontaneous and induced abortions, characteristics of the menstrual cycle and infertility are some of the factors that have been incriminated as risk factors for breast cancer. We sought to describe the predominant breast pattern, sonographic array of pregnancy related breast diseases in women referred to the breast imaging unit in the department of Radiology at the University College Hospital, Ibadan south west Nigeria. Socio-demographic characteristics in these women were also evaluated. Archived images were reviewed and documented and data was analysed with SPSS version 17 and presented with descriptives. In this descriptive study, we retrospectively retrieved the sonomammographic records of 21 women (pregnant or lactating) referred to and imaged in the department of radiology, University college hospital Ibadan, between 2006 and 2013. Diagnostic breast sonograms performed by MO and ATS; Consultant radiologists with 7-10 years' experience utilized a 7-10 MHz transducer of the General electric GE Logiq P5 machine for the scans. Twenty-one women with ages between 22-42 years (Mean 31.4 ± 5.4 SD) pregnant or lactating were referred to the radiology department for sonomammographic evaluation. Majority of the women were in the 3rd decade. Referral was mainly (11) by family Physicians from the general outpatient clinic, 5 were self-referred, 2 from radiotherapy department, 2 from

  2. Innovation Systems and Knowledge-Intensive Enterpreneurship: a Country Case Study of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Richard; Wojnicka, Elçzbieta; Pander, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys the current state of affairs in Poland with regard to the development of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship (KIE), or new firm creation in industries considered to be science-based or to use research and development (R&D) intensively. We place KIE in Poland in the larger institutional context, outlining the key features of the country's National Innovation System, and then focus on KIE itself. Our findings are perhaps more optimistic than many previous studies of knowledg...

  3. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  4. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Strand, Bjørn Heine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on a...

  5. Outcomes in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Health, Capabilities and Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giulia; Lorgelly, Paula; Yamabhai, Inthira

    2016-02-01

    Public health programmes tend to be complex and may combine social strategies with aspects of empowerment, capacity building and knowledge across sectors. The nature of the programmes means that some effects are likely to occur outside the healthcare sector; this breadth impacts on the choice of health and non-health outcomes to measure and value in an economic evaluation. Employing conventional outcome measures in evaluations of public health has been questioned. There are concerns that such measures are too narrow, overlook important dimensions of programme effect and, thus, lead to such interventions being undervalued. This issue is of particular importance for low-income and middle-income countries, which face considerable budget constraints, yet deliver a large proportion of health activities within public health programmes. The need to develop outcome measures, which include broader measures of quality of life, has given impetus to the development of a variety of new, holistic approaches, including Sen's capability framework and measures of subjective wellbeing. Despite their promise, these approaches have not yet been widely applied, perhaps because they present significant methodological challenges. This paper outlines the methodological challenges for the identification and measurement of broader outcomes of public health interventions in economic evaluation in low-income and middle-income countries. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of Economic Evaluation Methods Across Low-income, Middle-income and High-income Countries: What are the Differences and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ulla Kou; Legood, Rosa; Pitt, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    There are marked differences in methods used for undertaking economic evaluations across low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. We outline the most apparent dissimilarities and reflect on their underlying reasons. We randomly sampled 50 studies from each of three country income groups from a comprehensive database of 2844 economic evaluations published between January 2012 and May 2014. Data were extracted on ten methodological areas: (i) availability of guidelines; (ii) research questions; (iii) perspective; (iv) cost data collection methods; (v) cost data analysis; (vi) outcome measures; (vii) modelling techniques; (viii) cost-effectiveness thresholds; (ix) uncertainty analysis; and (x) applicability. Comparisons were made across income groups and odds ratios calculated. Contextual heterogeneity rightly drives some of the differences identified. Other differences appear less warranted and may be attributed to variation in government health sector capacity, in health economics research capacity and in expectations of funders, journals and peer reviewers. By highlighting these differences, we seek to start a debate about the underlying reasons why they have occurred and to what extent the differences are conducive for methodological advancements. We suggest a number of specific areas in which researchers working in countries of differing environments could learn from one another.

  7. Evaluation of multiple measures of antiretroviral adherence in the Eastern European country of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz Chkhartishvili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little information on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in the Eastern European region. This prospective study evaluated multiple measures of adherence and their association with viral suppression among HIV patients in Georgia. Methods: A prospective cohort study enrolled 100 consecutive antiretroviral-naïve adult (age ≥18 years patients, who were followed for three months. Adherence was assessed by medication refill and three self-report measures (an AIDS Clinical Trial Group [ACTG] tool for four-day adherence, a visual analogue scale [VAS] and a rating task for 30-day adherence. The VAS represented a line anchored by 0 and 100% corresponding to the percentage of prescribed doses taken. The rating task asked patients to rate their ability to take all medications as prescribed, with responses categorized into six levels of adherence: very poor (0%, poor (20%, fair (40%, good (60%, very good (80% and excellent (100%. Patients with adherence of ≥95% by medication refill, ACTG and VAS, and ≥80% by rating task, were defined as adherent. Results: Of 100 patients enrolled, eight had missing data and were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 92 patients, the median age was 39 years, and 70% were men. Major modes of HIV acquisition were injection drug use (IDU; 47.3% and heterosexual contact (44.1%. The proportions of adherent patients were as follows: 68% by medication refill, 90% by ACTG questionnaire, 38% by VAS and 42% by rating task. On average, four months after commencing ART, 52 (56.5% patients had a viral load <400 copies/ml and 26 (28.3% patients had a viral load <50 copies/ml. Of 43 persons with a history of IDU, 22 (51.2% reached a viral load of <400 copies/ml. In multivariate analysis, only refill adherence was a statistically significant predictor of viral suppression of <400 copies/ml: the risk ratio was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1–2.8. Refill adherence, VAS and rating task were associated with viral

  8. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  9. Development of harmonised food and sample lists for total diet studies in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dofkova, Marcela; Nurmi, Tanja; Berg, Katharina; Reykdal, Ólafur; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Vasco, Elsa; Dias, Maria Graça; Blahova, Jitka; Rehurkova, Irena; Putkonen, Tiina; Ritvanen, Tiina; Lindtner, Oliver; Desnica, Natasa; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Oliveira, Luísa; Ruprich, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    A total diet study (TDS) is a public health tool for determination of population dietary exposure to chemicals across the entire diet. TDSs have been performed in several countries but the comparability of data produced is limited. Harmonisation of the TDS methodology is therefore desirable and the development of comparable TDS food lists is considered essential to achieve the consistency between countries. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility of a method for establishing harmonised TDS food and sample lists in five European countries with different consumption patterns (Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Iceland and Portugal). The food lists were intended to be applicable for exposure assessment of wide range of chemical substances in adults (18-64 years) and the elderly (65-74 years). Food consumption data from recent dietary surveys measured on individuals served as the basis for this work. Since the national data from these five countries were not comparable, all foods were linked to the EFSA FoodEx2 classification and description system. The selection of foods for TDS was based on the weight of food consumed and was carried out separately for each FoodEx2 level 1 food group. Individual food approach was respected as much as possible when the TDS samples were defined. TDS food lists developed with this approach represented 94.7-98.7% of the national total diet weights. The overall number of TDS samples varied from 128 in Finland to 246 in Germany. The suggested method was successfully implemented in all five countries. Mapping of data to the EFSA FoodEx2 coding system was recognised as a crucial step in harmonisation of the developed TDS food lists.

  10. Implementation of e-commerce in developing countries: impact and its limitations-Albanian Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genti Çela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred to as "e-Commerce" in developed countries has been proven as an indisputable potential to ameliorate the efficiency and productivity in different areas, therefore, its implementation is attracting significant attention in developing countries. Despite its opportunities established in developed countries, there were many doubts about the e-commerce implementation in developing countries. That reluctance is heightened by the limited number of studies on e-commerce and the lack of legislation. This paper aims to contribute on filling the research gap by highlighting the e-commerce implementation in Albania as a developing country, its importance, the level of trust, its benefits, its positive or negative impacts and its limitations. This study will be continuously and accordingly updated with new evidence based on research results, along with future developments of Albania’s economic, political, social and demographic environment. This is because different areas represent different infrastructure and different social and economic characteristics, different levels of trust on transactions, different attitudes towards institutions. We have also take into consideration that different communities have different attitudes toward the acceptance and developments of e-Commerce system. In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to e-commerce, concentrating specifically on Albanian case. Firstly we analyze the current situation of e-Commerce. Secondly we pay attention to the benefits and legal strategies for its implementation. The third step consists in presenting the relevant objectives. We believe and insist that the development of e-commerce in developing nations, - including Albania, has a positive perspective, if the government, companies and the public can better understand and implement e-Commerce.

  11. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  12. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as, notably, into the informal void of skill mismatches in the labor market. Still, for some specific voids, clusters do at least implicitly assume a bridging role. While the cluster policies examined do not explicitly target the institutional voids identified, cluster management can—in the course of time—align its service offering more closely with these voids. Bottom-up designed cluster policies can play an especially important role in such an evolution towards bridging institutional voids.

  14. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M. [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth - thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem. (author)

  15. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M., E-mail: nmbaya99@yahoo.co [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth-thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem.

  16. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  17. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run.

  18. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boso CM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Makafui Boso,1 Janet J Gross2,31School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, USA; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, GhanaAbstract: The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators’ perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3% of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses’ training colleges (P=0.007. The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.Keywords: nurse educators, critical thinking, perceptions, Ghana, developing countries

  19. Gender equality in the work of local research ethics committees in Europe: a study of practice in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, C J; Haafkens, J A; Söderström, M; Rásky, E; Maguire, P; Maschewsky-Schneider, U; Norstedt, M; Hahn, D; Reinerth, H; McKevitt, N

    2007-02-01

    Funding organisations and research ethics committees (RECs) should play a part in strengthening attention to gender equality in clinical research. In the research policy of European Union (EU), funding measures have been taken to realise this, but such measures are lacking in the EU policy regarding RECs. To explore how RECs in Austria, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands and Sweden deal with gender equality issues by asking two questions: (1) Do existing procedures promote representation of women and gender expertise in the committee? (2) How are sex and gender issues dealt with in protocol evaluation? Two RECs were selected from each country. Data were obtained through interviews with key informants and content analysis of relevant documents (regulations, guidelines and review tools in use in 2003). All countries have rules (mostly informal) to ensure the presence of women on RECs; gender expertise is not required. Drug study protocols are carefully evaluated, sometimes on a formal basis, as regards the inclusion of women of childbearing age. The reason for excluding either one of the sexes or including specific groups of women or making a gender-specific risk-benefit analysis are investigated by some RECs. Such measures are, however, neither defined in the regulations nor integrated in review tools. The RECs investigated in five European member states are found to pay limited attention to gender equality in their working methods and, in particular in protocol evaluation. Policy and regulations of EU are needed to strengthen attention to gender equality in the work of RECs.

  20. Industrial laser welding evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

    1974-01-01

    High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

  1. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2007-08-01

    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison.

  2. Adoption of the HPV vaccine: a case study of three emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro Martínez, Araceli; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Lemgruber, Alexandre; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García-Mochón, Leticia; Lessa, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has recently attracted considerable attention in emerging countries, due to its potential to reduce the impact of HPV-related diseases. This case study sheds new light about the variety of HTA arrangements, methods and processes involved in the adoption and use of HPV vaccines in a selected sample of central, eastern and southern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean, all of them emerging in the use of HTA. A multi-country case study was designed. Mixed methods, document review, semi-structured surveys and personal communication with experts, were used for data collection and triangulation. This study shows that common elements of good practice exist in the processes and methods used, with all countries arriving at the same appraisal recommendations. However, the influence of socio-politico-economic factors appears to be determinant on the final decisions and restrictions to access made. This case study intends to draw useful lessons for policymakers in emerging settings interested in the adoption of the HPV vaccine supported by evidence-informed processes, such as those offered by institutionalized HTA. Future studies are also recommended to elucidate the specific roles that social values and uncertainties play in vaccine decision-making across different societies.

  3. Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase

  4. Field evaluation of a coproantigen detection test for fascioliasis diagnosis and surveillance in human hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adela Valero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg, nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥ 400 epg, although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg. Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg. CONCLUSIONS: The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the

  5. Detecting and responding to a dengue outbreak: evaluation of existing strategies in country outbreak response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Julia; Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans.

  6. Trade Balances of the Asian Countries under Crisis: Forecast and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the financial crisis, we need to do some reform, such as to change the governmental and non-governmental structure, make sure the policy to be transparent, and remove restrictions, etc. All these measures can restore the confidence of foreign investors towards Korea. But to make balance of the trade surplus and keep foreign exchange reserve at a reasonable level, ensure foreign exchange and the security of financial department is one of the most urgent topics. Since the deep relationship of economy among countries in North-East Asia, financial crisis is not only the problem in Korea. It is already expended to the whole North-East Asia. This thesis shows the idea that we can forecast surplus in the trade balance scale, enlarge the trade balance of South Korea and activate export. It also shows that instead of the increase of export, the surplus is caused by the decrease of import. At this point of view, the number of surplus is not true. If the investment keeps decreasing like this, the foundation of Korean Economy will collapse.

  7. The dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: Design and study methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Pisoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international prospective cohort study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD care practices and HD patient outcomes. The DOPPS began in 1996, in the United States, and has since expanded to 21 countries, collecting detailed data from >75,000 HD patients, with >200 scientific publications, focused on describing HD practices associated with improved HD patient outcomes. The goal of DOPPS is to help HD patients "live better and live longer." Starting in 2012, the DOPPS was able to expand to all six of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The DOPPS study design consists of selecting HD facilities for study participation in each country to represent the different types of HD facilities and geographic regions within each GCC country. Within each study site, HD patients were randomly selected for detailed data collection to represent the HD practices within each participating HD facility. Altogether, 41 HD facilities have participated in the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study including 20 facilities from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates, four each from Kuwait and Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the study design and methods, data collection, study management, scientific investigator oversight and guidance, and study governance and support for the GCCDOPPS Phase 5 study.

  8. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD, or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1 To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2 To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3 To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35 with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7, India (33.2, Peru (39.4. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest

  9. Comparison of interventional cardiology in two European countries: a nationwide Internet based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, T; Gudnadottir, G S; Lagerqvist, B; Eyjolfsson, K; Nilsson, T; Thorgeirsson, G; Thorgeirsson, G; Andersen, K; James, S

    2013-09-30

    The practice of interventional cardiology differs between countries and regions. In this study we report the results of the first nation-wide long-term comparison of interventional cardiology in two countries using a common web-based registry. The Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) was used to prospectively and continuously collect background-, quality-, and outcome parameters for all coronary angiographies (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in Iceland and Sweden during one year. The rate of CA per million inhabitants was higher in Iceland than in Sweden. A higher proportion of patients had CA for stable angina in Iceland than in Sweden, while the opposite was true for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Left main stem stenosis was more commonly found in Iceland than in Sweden. The PCI rate was similar in the two countries as was the general success rate of PCI, achievement of complete revascularisation and the overall stent use. Drug eluting stents were more commonly used in Iceland (23% vs. 19%). The use of fractional flow reserve (0.2% vs. 10%) and the radial approach (0.6% vs. 33%) was more frequent in Sweden than in Iceland. Serious complications and death were very rare in both countries. By prospectively comparing interventional cardiology in two countries, using a common web based registry online, we have discovered important differences in technique and indications. A discovery such as this can lead to a change in clinical practice and inspire prospective multinational randomised registry trials in unselected, real world populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Eco-Innovation of OECD Countries with Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavi, Reza Kiani; Standing, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Government regulations require businesses to improve their processes and products/services in a green and sustainable manner. For being environmentally friendly, businesses should invest more on eco-innovation practices. Firms eco-innovate to promote eco-efficiency and sustainability. This paper evaluates the eco-innovation performance of…

  11. Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Katie A.

    2012-01-01

    Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

  12. PUBLIC SERVANT TEACHERS' EVALUATION DURING THE INTERNSHIP PERIOD WITHIN THE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY: TOWARDS THE EVALUATION OF THE TEACHING ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmele Totoricagüena Barandica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this communication is to present the experience developed in the Basque Country regarding to the evaluation of the public servants in their internship period during the academic year 2015-16. The aim of this work is also to contribute the obtained conclusions to the teachers practice evaluation corpus. In that direction, and for the formalisation of the evaluation, new tools and specific materials had been prepared. The intervention carried out by the inspection had been done first informing and then interacting with the participants involved. From the developed experience can be determined that the classroom observation, the autoevaluation and the exchange/contrast of the observed practices done between the inspection and the evaluated participant should be the key elements to monitor the teaching role.

  13. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  14. Prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus infection in various countries: a WHO Collaborative Study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soběslavský, O.

    1980-01-01

    A WHO collaborative study on viral hepatitis B in which 21 laboratories in 20 countries participated is described. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), its subtypes, and its antibody (anti-HBs) by age and sex and urban or rural residence in normal populations in different parts of the world. High-risk groups in the populations and patients with various diseases were also investigated. The results of the study confirmed that HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence rates were higher in African and Asian countries than in the Americas, Australia, and northern and central Europe. Some eastern and southern European countries, however, were also shown to have high HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence rates, comparable with those in Africa and Asia. In countries with low HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence, there seems to be a gradual build-up during late childhood or early adolescence, whereas in countries with high HBsAg and its antibody prevalence, they were frequently detected in preschool children. Although the trend was towards a higher frequency of HBsAg and anti-HBs in urban than in rural and in male than in female populations, the differences were in most cases not significant. On the other hand, a significantly higher prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus infection was seen in high-risk population groups than in normal populations. This was, however, clearly defined only in areas with low HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence in the normal population. The geographical distribution of HBsAg subtypes showed a higher prevalence of the ad subdeterminant over ay in central European countries, whereas in eastern and southern Europe the ay subtype predominated. In West Africa, ayw was the only variant found, whereas in East Africa ad occurred more frequently than ay. In Australia, both adw and ayw subtypes were detected, whereas in the Far East and South-east Asia only adw and adr were seen. PMID:6969134

  15. Pattern of hospitalized-stroke patients in ASEAN countries an ASNA stroke epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Misbach

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understanding the demographic characteristics, admission time, clinical pattern, risk factors, stroke type, length of stay, and discharge outcome of hospitalized acute stroke patients in ASEAN member countries, ASEAN   Neurological Association (ASNA formed a Standing Commiltee for Stroke in 1996 and this is the first ASNA Stroke Epidemiological Study using the same stroke protocol. This prospective hospital based study was conducted in seven ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam by participating neurologists from October 1996 to March 1997. Of the 3723 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients (2030 males and 1660 females from 44 participating hospitals in this study ie Brunei (n=53, Indonesia (n=2065, Malaysia (n=300,Philippines (n=545,Singapore (n=232, Thailand (n=244 and Vietnam (n=284, the mean age was 59.0 ± 13,8 years 16% of patients were younger than 45 years and 37% of patients were older than 65 years. There were no significant differences in age at onset among stroke subjects except in Vietnam (younger and Singapore (older. The sex distribution showed a slight higher prevalence of women in Singapore and in the age group > 64 years. The mean adrnission time was 41.5 ± 87.0 hours, 19% of patients were admitted within 3 hours, 29% within 6 hours and 66% more than 6 hours (delayed admission especially in Malaysia and Singapore (80% and 77% respectively. Motor disability was the most prevalent clinical feature in all countries and carotid bruit was the rarest (1%. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (68% in all countries, followed by TIA (35%, smoking, diabetes mellitus, ischnemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia. CT scan was performed on 76% of subjects. The diagnostic classification was non lacunar anterior circulation (32%, lacunar infarction (14%, hemorrhagic stroke (26%, SAH (4%. Mean length of stay was 11.4 ± 11.8 days. Most of the patients

  16. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Allender, Steven; Scarborough, Peter; West, Douglas

    2012-07-20

    Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban-rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents' occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was

  17. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  18. Communicating Ethical Arguments to Organic Consumers: A Study Across Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Naspetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Additional ethical claims were tested with mock organic egg labels in five EU countries. The attitudes towards the advertising labels were assessed by multiple copy testing measures. A total of 156 individual responses were analysed. The study confirms the difficulty of conducting advertising research in a multicultural framework, and shows that additional local/ regional claims can reinforce the appeal of organic products.

  19. Effects of Trade and Financial Liberalization on Financial Development (Case Study: MENA Countries)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Hosseininasab; Kazem Yavari; Vajihe Afzali Abarguee; Mahdi Basakha

    2012-01-01

    Financial sector is one of the most influential sectors in economic activities. Empirical and theoretical studies conducted in recent years have also confirmed the significant role of financial institutions in economic growth. Additionally, trade and financial liberalization policies have been particular concerned with strategic policies in developed and developing countries. According to dynamic panel data (DPD) and by means of generalized method of moments (GMM) during 1990 to 2008, this st...

  20. Comparison of sustainable forest management (SFM) trends at global and country levels: case study in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghanbari Sajad; Kiomars Sefidi

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) is an integral component of sustainable development.Iran is a Near East country with low forest cover.Iran uses 7 criteria and 65 indicators for regional and national monitoring of forest management.We evaluated the status of SFM in Iran,and a location imaging in its path towards SFM was provided by existing validation data and library references for the Criteria and Indicators (C&I) adopted in the Near East,We identify challenges and opportunities associated with SFM in Iran.Although the information to evaluate the trend of SFM in Iran was incomplete,we compiled some information on the basis of C&I.Comparison of some indicators with the values for the rest of the world revealed that the situation in Iran is very different.Although some indicators revealed a better situation in Iran,Iran lags the rest of the world in the implementation of SFM.Iran,like many countries,is trying hard to find ways to sustainably use its forests.Not all C&I for assessment of SFM in Iran have been determined or defined.However,a consistent and comprehensive framework of criteria and indicators to monitor progress towards SFM is being applied.Defining some C&I is still at an early stage.

  1. The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Lauque, S.; Frolich, L.; Vellas, B.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical

  2. The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Lauque, S.; Frolich, L.; Vellas, B.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical c

  3. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Raspopovic1, 1, 1, and 2

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DeLone and McLean’s updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for e-Learning evaluation are expanded by providing several systems for quantifying the given success metrics. The results presented in this paper are based on courses that were taught both online and traditionally in three different subject areas: graphic design, information technology, and management. Of particular interest were success metrics which can be determined using quantifiable data from the e-Learning system itself, in order to evaluate and find the relationship between students’ academic achievement, usage of learning materials, and students’ satisfaction. The results from different courses were used to illustrate the implementation and evaluation of these success metrics for both online and traditional students.

  4. The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

  5. Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of Origin Analysis across Black Sea:Studies on Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali R; za Apil

    2006-01-01

    ...) as the most important cue to assess the quality. This study analyses approaches toward foreign products, country of origin effect and the ethnocentric behavior of consumers of the selected countries. The study is a literature review of related studies in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey.

  6. Biographical notes on Ancel Keys and Salim Yusuf: origins and significance of the seven countries study and the INTERHEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ancel Keys and Salim Yusuf are both pioneers in preventive cardiology. Each overcame significant obstacles to demonstrate, through large international studies, how culture and environment influence cardiovascular disease. This paper will explore the origins and outcomes of their landmark studies: the Seven Countries Study, a prospective cohort model, and the INTERHEART Study, a case-control model. Each study advanced our understanding of the interplay between lifestyle, culture, and heart disease.

  7. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Hirsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good

  8. A pediatric echocardiographic Z-score nomogram for a developing country: Indian pediatric echocardiography study – The Z-score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhroo, Rajendra Kumar; Anantharaj, Avinash; Bisht, Devendra; Kishor, Kamal; Plakkal, Nishad; Aghoram, Rajeswari; Mondal, Nivedita; Pandey, Shashi K; Roy, Ramsagar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Almost all presently available pediatric echocardiography Z-score nomograms are based on Western data. They may not be a suitable reference standard for assessing the sizes of cardiac structures of children from developing countries. Objective: This study's objective was to collect normative data of 21 commonly measured cardiovascular structures using M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography in Indian children aged between 4 and 15 years and to derive Z-score nomograms for each. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at two centers in India - Ajmer, Rajasthan, and Mohali, Punjab. We studied a community-based sample involving healthy school going children. After excluding children with cardiovascular abnormalities on the screening echocardiogram, 746 children were included in the final analysis. Echocardiographic assessment was performed using a Philips iE33 system. Results and Analysis: For each parameter measured, seven models were evaluated to assess the relationship of that parameter with the body surface area and the one with the best fit was used to plot the Z-score chart for that parameter. Z score charts were thus derived. Conclusions: The Z-score nomograms derived by this study may be better alternatives to the Western nomograms for use in India and other developing countries for preprocedural decision making in the pediatric population. However, they will require validation in large-scale studies before they can become clinically applicable. PMID:28163426

  9. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  10. Self-regulation and the new challenges in journalism: Comparative study across European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Karmasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.

  11. Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.

  12. A Study of Public Health Awareness among the Elderly in an Industrially Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhana Zainuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The elderly in Industrially Developing Countries (IDC may encounter problems regarding health. This research is to determine the common diseases or ailments experienced by adults over the age of 40. Approach: A sample of 150 respondents was taken from three states in Malaysia, an IDC. Demographic profiles such as age, gender and race were obtained and questions regarding attentiveness and awareness of health were asked. Four hypotheses were tested. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results: The result showed 85.8% of respondents had one or more diseases. Among them, men and women had different diseases and different race had different disease. In addition, healthy lifestyle, good diet and weight management were determinants of health awareness. Conclusion: The results are very useful for health administrators to plan strategies to improve public health in Malaysia. The study can be replicated in other countries using the same method to derive similar benefits.

  13. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  14. Cultural-cognitive Dimension and Entrepreneurial Activity: A Cross-country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between independence, risk taking, creativity, and entrepreneurial activity at the country level, in the light of institutional economics, concretely using the cultural-cognitive dimension. The main findings demonstrate through a regression model that risk taking and creativity have a positive and significant influence on entrepreneurship. Data were obtained from the World Values Survey, for the period 2005-2008, from a sample size of 42 countries. The study advances the literature by providing new information on the effect of environmental factors on entrepreneurial activity. Also, the research contributes to the definition of educational policies that promote favorable attitudes to risk taking and creativity, thereby increasing the number of potential entrepreneurs.

  15. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries.

  16. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion.

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  18. A Giant Step for Developing Countries, Lessons Learned from Feasibility Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Youp [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Gon [Sanamyung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency, hereinafter 'IAEA') research, the booming trend of nuclear renaissance among developing countries have initiated to investigate economic feasibility studies regarding future electricity demand and supply for the introduction of nuclear power generation in massive volume. Although the ambitious dream of public servants in the third nations who desperately want to instill nuclear power generation capacity promising generation abundance in their homeland, it is not easy to calculate economic benefits and its related costs where lots of blurred areas could not defined in plain terminology. For this reason, IAEA urges the new entrant countries should prepare carefully and design cautiously not to deter large lump sum nuclear power plant construction project. Nuclear power generation in civil area can be seen as righteous peaceful usage of nuclear energy in appropriate manner, although the advanced technology, capital intensive characteristics would hinder for the developing countries to implement proper scheduled ambitious nuclear power projects in timely course. In particular, the complicated economic feasibility studies are major tasks for poverty struck sovereigns to fulfill their ambitions. Thus further detailed design might be requested in order to relieve international concerns on possible military usage. This article is exploring to gauge multiple aspects of peaceful usage of nuclear energy and its economic benefits which allow power huger nations to achieve sustainable development and make significant advancement.

  19. Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

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    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the main factors influencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants representing mainly scientific advisory bodies (n=24 and governmental organisations (n=19 participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6, industry (n=4 or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5. Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors influencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations from national bodies (Science area; scientific recommendations from international authorities and experiences of other countries, EU legislation, cultural factors (Wider context and political environment, national capacity to deal with the problem, national legislation, economics, stakeholder engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area. The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well as the point of view (who is expressing the opinion.

  20. Inadequate prenatal care and maternal country of birth: a retrospective study of southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Encarnación; Olvera-Porcel, M Carmen; de Dios Luna-Del Castillo, Juan; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2012-12-01

    To quantify the association between the maternal country of birth and inadequacy in the use of prenatal care, and to identify factors that might explain this association. A retrospective case series was carried out in a public hospital in southern Spain, including 6873 women who delivered between 2005 and 2007. The maternal country of birth was categorised into four regional groups: Spain, Maghreb (north-west Africa), Eastern Europe and Others (non-Spain), while the use of prenatal care was quantified according to a modified Kotelchuck index: APNCU-1M and APNCU 2M. The effect of country of birth on inadequate prenatal care was analysed using a multiple logistic regression model designed to accommodate factors such as age, parity, previous miscarriages, and pre-gestational and gestational risks. Likelihood ratio tests were performed to assess any interactions. A significant association was found between maternal country of birth and inadequate prenatal care regardless of the index used. Under APNCU 1-M the strength of association was strongest for Eastern European origin (odds ratio (OR) 6.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-7.32), followed by the Maghreb (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 4.69-6.64). These associations remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions were observed between age and parity, with the highest risk of inadequacy seen among the Eastern European childbearing women over 34 years of age having 1-2 previous children (OR: 7.63, 95% CI: 3.65-15.92). Prenatal health care initiatives would benefit from the study of a larger number of variables to address the differences between different groups of women. We recommend the widespread use of standardised indices for the study of prenatal care utilisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social roles and alcohol consumption: a study of 10 industrialised countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A; Gmel, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    The empirical evidence as regards the precise associations between alcohol use and social roles, and these associations across genders and cultures is heterogeneous. The literature tends to focus on two central but conflicting theories. The first - classic role theory - assumes that a higher number of social roles is associated with a more structured life and thus fewer opportunities to drink heavily. The second - the multiple burden hypothesis - posits that the increasing complexity of multiple social roles leads to higher stress levels, and thus to increased alcohol use. Survey data on 25-54-year olds in 10 western industrialised countries which participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS) project were used to test whether holding the three main social roles - partnership, parenthood, and paid labour - had a more protective or a more detrimental association with problematic alcohol use than holding fewer roles. Age and education were included as possible confounders, while the outcome variables were risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and heavy-volume drinking. For both men and women and in almost all countries, the study found that those who had all three roles were least likely to drink heavily or engage in RSOD, thus supporting the assumptions of classic role theory. It also found that the protective effect of multiple roles was more consistent for RSOD. There were a few countries where a two-role model gave a better fit. Results for Germany (RSOD), Switzerland, and the Unites States (heavy-volume drinking) indicate that the role of paid labour appears to be particularly relevant for risky alcohol use among women. Despite some variability in the association between paid labour and heavy drinking or RSOD among women, in almost all countries the greater the number of roles a person held, the lower their risk of this type of alcohol use was.

  2. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

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    Psaki Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and

  3. The Relative Impacts of Disease on Health Status and Capability Wellbeing: A Multi-Country Study.

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    Paul Mark Mitchell

    Full Text Available Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight differences in treatment priorities when outcomes are measured by capability as opposed to health status.The study was a cross-sectional four country survey (n = 6650 of eight population groups: seven disease groups with: arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, and heart disease and one health population 'comparator' group. Two simple self-complete questionnaires were used to measure health status (EQ-5D-5L and capability (ICECAP-A. Individuals were classified by illness severity using condition-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were used to estimate: (i the difference in health status and capability for those with conditions, relative to a healthy population; and (ii the impact of the severity of the condition on health status and capability within each disease group.5248 individuals were included in the analysis. Individuals with depression have the greatest mean reduction in both health (effect size, 1.26 and capability (1.22 compared to the healthy population. The effect sizes for capability for depression are much greater than for all other conditions, which is not the case for health. For example, the arthritis group effect size for health (1.24 is also high and similar to that of depression, whereas for the same arthritis group, the effect size for capability is much lower than that for depression (0.55. In terms of severity within disease groups, individuals categorised as 'mild' have similar capability levels to the healthy population (effect sizes <0.2, excluding depression but lower health status than the healthy population (≥0.4.Significant differences exist in the

  4. Methodological Issues to Consider When Collecting Data to Estimate Poverty Impact in Economic Evaluations in Low-income and Middle-income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sedona; Vassall, Anna; Foster, Nicola; Simms, Victoria; Ilboudo, Patrick; Kimaro, Godfather; Mudzengi, Don; Guinness, Lorna

    2016-02-01

    Out-of-pocket spending is increasingly recognized as an important barrier to accessing health care, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where a large portion of health expenditure comes from out-of-pocket payments. Emerging universal healthcare policies prioritize reduction of poverty impact such as catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Poverty impact is therefore increasingly evaluated alongside and within economic evaluations to estimate the impact of specific health interventions on poverty. However, data collection for these metrics can be challenging in intervention-based contexts in LMICs because of study design and practical limitations. Using a set of case studies, this letter identifies methodological challenges in collecting patient cost data in LMIC contexts. These components are presented in a framework to encourage researchers to consider the implications of differing approaches in data collection and to report their approach in a standardized and transparent way.

  5. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project: Methodology of a 34-Country Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Courtright, Paul; Aboe, Agatha; Adamu, Liknaw; Alemayehu, Wondu; Alemu, Menbere; Alexander, Neal D. E.; Kello, Amir Bedri; Bero, Berhanu; Brooker, Simon J.; Chu, Brian K.; Dejene, Michael; Emerson, Paul M.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Gadisa, Solomon; Gass, Katherine; Gebre, Teshome; Habtamu, Zelalem; Harvey, Erik; Haslam, Dominic; King, Jonathan D.; Mesurier, Richard Le; Lewallen, Susan; Lietman, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Chad; Mariotti, Silvio P.; Massey, Anna; Mathieu, Els; Mekasha, Addis; Millar, Tom; Mpyet, Caleb; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ogden, Stephanie; Pearce, Joseph; Sarah, Virginia; Sisay, Alemayehu; Smith, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Hugh R.; Thomson, Jo; West, Sheila K.; Willis, Rebecca; Bush, Simon; Haddad, Danny; Foster, Allen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map worldwide by conducting population-based surveys in an estimated 1238 suspected endemic districts of 34 countries. Methods: A series of national and sub-national projects owned, managed and staffed by ministries of health, conduct house-to-house cluster random sample surveys in evaluation units, which generally correspond to “health district” size: populations of 100,000–250,000 people. In each evaluation unit, we invite all residents aged 1 year and older from h households in each of c clusters to be examined for clinical signs of trachoma, where h is the number of households that can be seen by 1 team in 1 day, and the product h × c is calculated to facilitate recruitment of 1019 children aged 1–9 years. In addition to individual-level demographic and clinical data, household-level water, sanitation and hygiene data are entered into the purpose-built LINKS application on Android smartphones, transmitted to the Cloud, and cleaned, analyzed and ministry-of-health-approved via a secure web-based portal. The main outcome measures are the evaluation unit-level prevalence of follicular trachoma in children aged 1–9 years, prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in adults aged 15 + years, percentage of households using safe methods for disposal of human feces, and percentage of households with proximate access to water for personal hygiene purposes. Results: In the first year of fieldwork, 347 field teams commenced work in 21 projects in 7 countries. Conclusion: With an approach that is innovative in design and scale, we aim to complete baseline mapping of trachoma throughout the world in 2015. PMID:26158580

  6. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  7. Pharmacists remuneration models in iran and selected countries: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Keshavarz, Khosro; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Vazirian, Iman; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists are members of the healthcare teams that provide valuable services to society. Their incentive to deliver such services is influenced by remuneration methods. In this study, we aimed to review the remuneration models for pharmacists' services and the factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies in some selected countries, including France, Ireland, Canada and Turkey, and compared them to Iran. International data were collected by literature review on Google, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. In addition, domestic data were collected by contacting relevant organizations. There is no payment for pharmacists' cognitive services in Iran and in the countries investigated, except for some Canadian provinces. The dispensing fee system in Iran does not seem to be adequate, especially considering that most of the insurers do not cover these fees. The pricing method in Iran has resulted in a low price level, in comparison to the other countries, and this issue has dramatically affected the profitability of pharmacies in standard practice. It could be concluded that changing the current formulation for the dispensing fee to a more appropriate one, defining a remuneration system for non-owner pharmacists other than salary and implementing the new pricing method are necessary in order to improve the services provided by pharmacies.

  8. Supply Chain Integration in the Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: An Ethiopian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of information and communication technologies, supply chain integration has been considered a strategic tool for firms to improve their competitiveness. The supply chain integration within processes and between organizations has enhanced value creation. However, the fragmented nature of the business in developing country demonstrates a noticeable difficulty in terms of competitiveness and efficiency. Lack of a relevant literature on practical experience in supply chain integration in developing countries is one of the challenges. The purpose of this research is to identify the level of interorganizational and intraorganizational supply chain integration practices. It also analyzes the challenges faced in the manufacturing firms in developing countries. The methodology followed a thorough review of literature and semistructured interviews amongst the Ethiopian manufacturing industries. The preliminary findings of the study highlight that prevailing approach to supply chain integration is limited to ad hoc functional based boundaries within the firm. The SC integration enablers are also restricted to the traditional way of communications such as telephone, fax, and letters. Firms need to focus on those issues that require attention in pursuance of greater SC integration.

  9. Challenges and possibilities for attribution studies in developing countries: Ethiopian drought of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Sarah; Philip, Sjoukje; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Otto, Friederike; Haustein, Karsten; King, Andrew; Karoly, David; Zegeye, Abiy; Eshetu, Zewdu; Hailu, Beza; Hailemariam, Kinfe

    2017-04-01

    Few publicly available observational stations, irregular records and short time series are common obstacles to trend detection and event attribution in developing countries (and in general, data sparse regions). It is developing countries, however, that also feel the impact of extreme weather events most severely and are therefore most vulnerable to climate change. There is a clear need for objective studies that quantify the extremity of the events and investigate their cause, which can be used in raising risk awareness. Here we outline our multi-method approach, which can help to indicate whether event return times and the attribution are robust and give a fairer idea of uncertainties, using the drought of 2015 in Ethiopia as an example, and share the challenges and possibilities encountered. In a drought-free year, Ethiopia experiences two rain seasons, Belg from February to May, and Kiremt from June to mid-September. In 2015, both rain seasons failed in the north east of the country, leading to one of the lowest precipitation deficits there in at least 50 years. We discuss the steps involved in defining the event, selecting precipitation and soil moisture as indicators for drought and its impact, and selecting observational data and other sources that can be used in addition to station observations, like the CHIRPS and CenTrends datasets. Besides we show the importance of using different models that are validated well, as well as the chosen approach to trend detection and attribution to both global warming and El Nino.

  10. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress.

  11. An exploratory study of the cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care in seven European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Jamie; Playle, Rebecca; Durning, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the orthodontic treatment of 429 consecutive patients [172 male (40.1 per cent) and 257 female (59.9 per cent)] carried out by 10 orthodontic specialist practitioners in seven European countries [two in the Czech Republic (A and B), two in Germany (A and B), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, and Netherlands, and two in Slovenia (A and B)]. The median age of the patients at the start of treatment was 13.0 years (minimum 7.3 years maximum 50.3 years). The patients had a range of malocclusions and the majority (97 per cent) were treated with upper and lower fixed appliances. Real exchange rates were calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP) indicators to allow cross-border comparisons of costs. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) was used to measure the effectiveness of treatment and cost per ICON point reduction to compare cost-effectiveness of orthodontic treatment between practitioners in different European countries. The median cost per ICON point reduction for all the cases treated was €57.69. The median cost per ICON point reduction varied greatly between practitioners from €21.70 (Lithuania) to €116.62 (Slovenia A). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests showed the differences in cost-effectiveness between the practitioners to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The cost per ICON point reduction is a simple and effective method of comparing cost-effectiveness between orthodontic practitioners in different countries. PMID:18854553

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Kunst, Anton E; Bopp, Matthias; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Kovács, Katalin; Artnik, Barbara; Kalediene, Ramune; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-11-01

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5% at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  13. Electronic Commerce Adoption in the Arab Countries – An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that affect Electronic Commerce (EC adoption in the Arab countries. The five countries that are represented in this study include Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The purpose of this study is analyzing the crucial factors affecting EC adoption among the Arab consumers. The study examines the effect of risk perception, trust and consumer knowledge on their EC adoption. It also highlights consumer’s knowledge mediation in affecting their perception of risk and trust towards EC adoption. Upon filtration, three hundred samples were selected for data analysis in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses including statistical mediation technique were carried out to analyse the data. Results reveal knowledge as the most important factor that contributes to EC adoption and it mediates consumers’ perception of risk and trust in contributing to their EC adoption. The preliminary finding of this study was presented in the International Arab Conference of E-Technology held in Amman, Jordan from 14th to 16th October 2008. This paper presents the complete study and further data analysis with extended report and discussions.

  14. Social roles and alcohol consumption: a study of 10 industrialised countries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The empirical evidence as regards the precise association between alcohol use and social roles, and these associations across genders and cultures is heterogeneous. The literature tends to focus on two central but conflicting theories. The first - classic role theory - assumes that a higher number of social roles is associated with a more structured life and thus fewer opportunities to drink heavily. The second - the multiple burden hypothesis - posits that the increasing complexity of multiple social roles leads to higher stress levels, and thus to increased alcohol use. Survey data on 25- to 54-year olds in ten western industrialised countries which participate in the GenACIS project were used to test whether holding the three main social roles - partnership, parenthood, and paid labour - had a more protective or a more detrimental association with problematic alcohol use than holding fewer roles. Age and education were included as possible confounders, while the outcome variables were risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and heavy-volume drinking. For both genders and in almost all countries, the study found that those who had all three roles were least likely to drink heavily or engage in RSOD, thus supporting the assumptions of classic role theory. It also found that the protective effect of multiple roles was more consistent for RSOD. There were a few countries where a two-role model gave a better fit. Results for Germany (RSOD), Switzerland, and the US (heavy volume) indicate that the role of paid labour appears to be particularly relevant for risky alcohol use among women. Despite some variability in the association between paid labour and heavy drinking or RSOD among women, in almost all countries the greater the number of roles a person held, the lower their risk of this type of alcohol use was. PMID:19232807

  15. Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: a cross-national study in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkevi, Anna; Richardson, Clive; Florescu, Silvia; Kuzman, Marina; Stergar, Eva

    2007-01-05

    To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of data collection. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported substance use was measured by core items on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and any illegal drug use. Psychosocial correlates included scales of self-esteem, depression, anomie and antisocial behavior, and items pertaining to family, school and peers. Logistic regression analyses for each potential correlate adjusted for country, taking into account the clustered sample, showed statistically significant associations with each substance use variable separately, in almost every case. Particularly strong associations were found between smoking and going out most evenings and having many friends who smoke, while cannabis and illegal drugs were strongly correlated with having friends or older siblings who used these substances. The self-esteem scale score was not correlated with substance use. Anomie and antisocial behavior were more strongly associated than depression with substance use. In the case of depression, anomie and most of the other items examined, associations were stronger for girls than for boys. The present cross-national study identified correlates of legal and illegal substance use which extend outside specific countries, providing grounds to believe that they can be generalized. They provide evidence for the need to address both the use of the gateway drugs and deviant behavior in conjunction with environmental risk factors when designing and implementing preventive interventions in schools.

  16. Study on the demand of climate finance for developing countries based on submitted INDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 21st Conference of Party (COP21 held in Paris at the end of 2015 has opened a new era for the joint response dealing with climate change globally, and built up a new mode of global climate governance, that is, “all Parties submit INDC – global stocktake – enhance effort of actions – all Parties resubmit INDC – finally achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention.” With 160 INDC reports (covering 188 Parties that the UNFCCC Secretariat has currently received as research objects, this study classifies the mitigation targets of all Parties, and focuses on the systematic analysis of the financial demand, mitigation cost and priority investment areas for developing countries. The results are as follows: among 160 INDC reports, 122 reports clearly include the finance content; 64 reports propose specific amount of financial demand for the implementation of INDC; 31 reports pre-estimate domestic amount and financial demand for greenhouse gas mitigation in 2030, based on which they have calculated that the average mitigation cost for developing countries in 2030 would have reached up to US$22.3 per ton CO2; 28 Parties reclassify the financial demand for mitigation and adaptation areas, and reach the conclusion that the overall financial demand ratio for mitigation and adaptation is 1.4. Should the current mitigation commitments of the Parties from developed countries be used as benchmark, then in 2030 the total amount of financial demand for developing countries in response to climate change would have reached up to US$474 billion.

  17. You Cannot Go Home Again: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country after Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofi, Victoria; Thompson, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to describe the structure of the experience of individuals who returned home after studying abroad, became disillusioned with their home country, and returned to their sojourn country. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with participants. The emerging bipolar themes of conflict/peace, reality/idealization,…

  18. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  19. Should pharmacogenetics be incorporated in major depression treatment? Economic evaluation in high- and middle-income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2012-01-10

    The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates response to SSRIs and side-effect burden. The aim of this study is to quantify the cost-utility of incorporating 5-HTTLPR genotyping in drug treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously reported a theoretical model to simulate antidepressant treatment with citalopram or bupropion for 12 weeks. The drugs were alternatively selected according to an 'as usual' algorithm or based on response and tolerability predicted by 5-HTTLPR profile. Here we apply this model to conduct a cost-utility analysis in three European regions with high GDP (Euro A), middle GDP (Euro B) and middle-high GDP (Euro C). In addition we test a verification scenario in which citalopram+bupropion augmentation is administered to individuals with the least favorable 5-HTTLPR genotype. Treatment outcomes are remission and Quality Adjusted-Life Weeks (QALW). Cost data (international $, year 2009) are retrieved from the World Health Organization (WHO) and national official sources. In base-case scenario incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) values are $1147 (Euro A), $1185 (Euro B) and $1178 (Euro C). From cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC), the probability of having an ICER value below WHO recommended cost-utility threshold (3 GDP per capita=$1926) is >90% in high-income countries (Euro A). In middle- income regions, these probabilities are income countries (Euro B). This simulation using data from 27 European states suggests that choosing antidepressant treatment from the results of 5-HTTLPR might be a cost-effective solution in high income countries. Its feasibility in middle income countries needs further research.

  20. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althabe Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1 diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2 training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3 providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and

  1. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints...... of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  2. Examining Container Port Resources and Environments to Enhance Competitiveness: A Cross-Country Study from Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo CHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of container ports using a cross-country analysis with theoretical foundations. Tangible and intangible resources are discussed as determinants of container port competitiveness using the resource-based view and the institutional theory. This study analyzes the relationships among six variables: container port competitiveness, traffic volume, quality of infrastructure, linear shipping connectivity, operating efficiency, and institutional influence. This study retrieved country-level data on different indicators and countries from several trade and maritime databases. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is used to test various hypotheses and to evaluate the casual relationships among six variables. Additionally, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression is used to test the moderating effects of institutional influence.

  3. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... countries, a low proportion of patients with RA exercise. These data may alert rheumatologists to motivate their patients to increase physical activity levels Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/15...

  4. Assessing the Sustainability of Bioenergy Projects in Developing Countries: A Framework for Policy Evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amezaga, JM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available for practitioners and local decision-makers based on the fi ndings of the EuropeAid Cooperation Offi ce funded RE-Impact project Prepared in collaboration with: Centre for Land Use and Water Resources Research (CLUWRR), Newcastle University, UK Winrock... International India (WII) The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT) Joanneum Research (JR) Austria UNIQUE Forestry Consultants East Africa The Centre for Mountain Ecosystem Studies (CMES), China Council for Scientifi c and Industrial Research...

  5. The challenges of military medical education and training for physicians and nurses in the Nordic countries - an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Linda; Boffard, Kenneth; Lundberg, Lars; Rydmark, Martin; Karlgren, Klas

    2017-04-11

    Development and use of e-learning has not taken place to the same extent in military medicine in the Nordic countries. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences in education and training in military medicine for health professionals in the Nordic countries, and more specifically to identify the specific challenges regarding education and training of military medicine, and how e-learning is used at present and the opportunities for the future. Key educators within military medicine in the Nordic countries, as approved by the respective Surgeons General, were interviewed and the interviews were analyzed using content analysis. The data showed that all Nordic countries cooperate in the field of military medical training to some extent. The models of recruitment and employment of health professionals differed as well as the degree of political support. These differences affected the ability for health professionals to gain actual experience from the military environment. To improve the quality of medical education and training, attempts were made to recruit physicians. The recruitment of physicians was considered a challenge which had resulted in disruptions of courses, training programs and maintenance of accreditation. The Nordic countries were described as having commonalities in the military medical systems and common needs for international collaboration within training, but differing in the range of education and training. Gaps were identified in methods for transferring outcomes from education into practice, as well as regarding evaluation and feedback of outcomes to military medicine. The educational tradition was described as oriented towards practical skills training without requirements on pedagogical education of educators. The results confirmed previous studies showing that e-learning was underutilized. Contextual understanding and experience of healthcare were seen as crucial factors for successful e-learning development. Extended Nordic

  6. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  7. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A; Egan, Bernadette M; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-03-03

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%-27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children's development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%-1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  8. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hieke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”. The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9% of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%, followed by health claims (29% and health-related ingredient claims (6%. The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims, followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%. Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1% of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim. The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  9. The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value

  10. Economic Crisis: Most Vulnerable Immigrants. Case Studies in Berrien Country, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Avendaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life of Mexican immigrants in Berrien County, Michigan; due to the factors that influence transportation, mobilization (legal status, less opportunities of labor type and limitations of social nature (Medicaid, university and perception about quality of life. By applying a methodology of case studies, into the way each face the disadvantages about their legal status and their work, reconstructing the primary conditions of their lives, type of job, residency status in the country, reasons that impelled the immigration and changes before and after the crisis.

  11. Peace education in countries in crisis case study : Primary school curriculum in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Masri, Shaza

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Master Universitari en Cooperació al Desenvolupament (Pla de 2011). Codi: Universitari en Cooperació al Desenvolupament (Pla de 2011). Curs: 2014/2015 The focus of this research is the role of Peace Education in spreading a culture of peaces in a country in crisis. A primary school in Syria has cooperated in a study to analyze the need for an educational program that uses Peace Education to influence and encourage peaceful approaches to live and survive in these unstable ...

  12. Care provider perspectives on medical travel: A three-country study of destination hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Andrew N; Johnson, Tricia J; Lynch, Elizabeth B; Satjapot, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the current and potential role of medical travel in U.S. patient care, very little research has been conducted on clinician and other provider organizations' perspectives on providing international patient care. The present study sought to gain formative insights about medical travel from the providers' perspectives, by conducting structured interviews and focus groups in six hospitals from three countries catering to patients traveling from the United States. Findings highlighted the surprising role of international events and policies in the evolution of medical travel, as well as both the desire and need for more transparent quality standards.

  13. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  14. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Käser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs

  15. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M M; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-05-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  16. Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus

  17. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  18. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; De Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  19. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries : epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de, Girolamo G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Oakley Browne, M.A.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  20. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  1. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  2. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  3. Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country : an epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Bos, N.M. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a hig

  4. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  5. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  6. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  7. An Evaluation Of Advertising Models In Emergent Countries – The Case Of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenica Pjero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies.The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. As a result, advertising has become an essential marketing tool for these foreign firms in establishing their relatively less or unknown brands and products. The study aims to report the results of a survey about changing attitudes towards advertising in Albania. It examines the questionnaire - based response of a sample population of consumers from the city of Vlora, in their general attitudes towards advertising. Findings will contribute to the understanding of theoretical explanations for advertising in emerging markets, and of western firms using advertising marketing tool to penetrate these markets.

  8. Study on evaluation system of high & new technology superior enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization of economy and science & technology, high & new technology enterprises have become the point of Chinese economic growth and the important basis for constructing innovative country. By analyzing the characteristics of high & new technology superior enterprises and the influential factors, the evaluation index and method based on Grey Relation Analysis are designed. Some high & new technology enterprises in Heilongjiang province are evaluated and application tactics of evaluation system are proposed. This study provides scientific method and basis for government to obtain development state about high & new technology enterprises and design planning and policies of high & new technology industry.

  9. Group of Twenty Four Countries and Three Tiers: An International Comparative Study on China’s Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hao; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    It is of great signif icance to conduct an international comparative study on China’s and other countries’ urbanization by taking the concept of "scale" as a crucial study point. This paper puts forward that countries with an area over two million km2 or a GDP over 650 billion dollars are comparable with China. Accordingly, there are 24 such countries in the world leading the global socio-economic development. For consisting of almost all types of countries, they can be considered as basic references for international comparative studies on China’s urbanization. Based on the relationship between urbanization and economic levels, the 24 countries can be divided into three tiers. The fi rst tier countries are mainly developed countries at high urbanization and economic levels; the second tier countries are later starters yet urbanized at a rapid speed, thus have fallen into the "middle-income trap" because of an imbalanced urbanization and economic development; the third tier countries including China and India are still in the starting phase of urbanization, and the key to their future development is a steady economic growth and a balanced urbanization and economic development.

  10. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = −.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures

  11. Factors Influencing Adaptive Marine Governance in a Developing Country Context: a Case Study of Southern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S. Evans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance can be conceptualized as distinct phases of: 1 understanding environmental change; 2 using this understanding to inform decision making; and 3 acting on decisions in a manner that sustains resilience of desirable system states. Using this analytical framework, we explore governance in practice in two case studies in Kenya, that reflect the "messiness" of contemporary coastal governance in many developing country contexts. Findings suggest that adaptive marine governance is unlikely to be a smooth process of learning, knowledge sharing, and responding. There are institutional, sociocultural, and political factors, past and present, that influence each phase of both local and state decision making. New local institutions related to fisher associations and Beach Management Units influence learning and knowledge sharing in ways contrary to those expected of institutions that enable collaborative fisheries management. Similarly, state decision making is relatively uninformed by the diverse knowledge systems available in the coastal zone, despite the rhetoric of participation. Historical relations and modes of working continue to play a significant role in mediating the potential for adaptive governance in the future. The case studies are illustrative and point to a number of institutional and political issues that would need to be addressed in processes of governance reform towards more adaptive management in developing country contexts.

  12. [Study of names and folklore associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in various endemic countries in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibadi, K; Aujoulat, I; Meyers, W M; Mokassa, L; Muyembe, T; Portaels, F

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to present names used for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) and explain their meanings in various African languages. Representations associated with the disease were also studied. The study approach involved qualitative analysis of information from interviews and literature. Interviews were conducted with the directors of various programs and management centers. Findings from 9 African countries where Buruli ulcer is known to be endemic, i.e., Benin, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Southern Sudan and Togo, showed that the names used for the disease could be classified into three categories based on the geographical origin of infection, the features of the observed lesions, and aspects of ost often associated with belief in witch-craft, i.e., bad luck, fetishes, and curses. Representation of the disease in different African languages were similar and appear to demonstrate a good understanding of the disease in the countries where Buruli ulcer is prevalent. The impact of the representations of the disease on therapeutic choices and itineraries is also discussed.

  13. Rapid assessment of the performance of malaria control strategies implemented by countries in the Amazon subregion using adequacy criteria: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Walter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to implement a rapid assessment of the performance of four malaria control strategies (indoor spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, timely diagnosis, and artemisinin-based combination therapy using adequacy criteria. The assessment was carried out in five countries of the Amazon subregion (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru. Methods A list of criteria in three areas was created for each of the four strategies: preliminary research that supports the design and adaptation of the control strategies, coverage of the control strategies and quality of the implementation of the strategies. The criteria were selected by the research team and based on the technical guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Each criterion included in the four lists was graded relative to whether evidence exists that the criterion is satisfied (value 1, not satisfied (value 0 or partially satisfied (value 0.5. The values obtained were added and reported according to a scale of three implementation categories: adequate, intermediate and deficient. Results Implementation of residual indoor spraying and timely diagnosis was adequate in one country and intermediate or deficient in the rest. Insecticide-treated bed nets ranged between deficient and intermediate in all the countries, while implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT was adequate in three countries and intermediate in the other two countries evaluated. Conclusions Although ACT is the strategy with the better implementation in all countries, major gaps exist in implementation of the other three malaria control strategies in terms of technical criteria, coverage and quality desiredThe countries must implement action plans to close the gaps in the various criteria and thereby improve the performance of the interventions. The assessment tools developed, based on adequacy criteria, are considered useful for a rapid

  14. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow...... deaths). Stratification on duration of employment had a large effect on the ERR/Sv, reflecting a strong healthy worker survivor effect in these cohorts. This is the largest analytical epidemiological study of the effects of low-dose protracted exposures to ionizing radiation to date. Further studies......-up. A significant association was seen between radiation dose and all-cause mortality [excess relative risk (ERR) 0.42 per Sv, 90% CI 0.07, 0.79; 18,993 deaths]. This was mainly attributable to a dose-related increase in all cancer mortality (ERR/Sv 0.97, 90% CI 0.28, 1.77; 5233 deaths). Among 31 specific types...

  15. Survey of Yogurt Powder Storage in Ambient Export Countries A Safety Evaluation Standard Compliance and Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Kyeong; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Ha-Jung; Oh, Sejong; Imm, Jee-Young; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt powder is fermented milk processed in the form of dry yogurt, and has advantages such as stability, storability, convenience, and portability. China and Vietnam are important export target countries because of the increased demand for dairy products. Therefore, we surveyed dairy product standardization in order to establish an export strategy. Lactic acid bacteria counts are unregulated in Korea and Vietnam. In China, lactic acid bacteria counts are regulated at 1×10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and detected at 6.24±0.33 Log CFU/mL. All three countries have regulated standards for total bacterial counts. In China, total bacterial counts of milk powder are regulated to n=5, c=2, m=50,000, M=200,000 and detected at 6.02±0.12 Log CFU/mL, exceeding the acceptable level. Lactic acid bacterial counts appeared to exceed total bacterial counts. Coliform group counts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species were not detected. Acidity is not regulated in Korea and Vietnam. In China, acidity was regulated to over 70°T and detected 352.38±10.24°T. pH is unregulated in all three countries. pH was compared to that of general fermented milk, which is 4.2, and that of the sample was 4.28±0.01. Aflatoxin levels are not regulated in Korea and China. In Vietnam, aflatoxin level is regulated at 0.05 ppb. Therefore, all ingredients of the yogurt powder met the safety standards. This data obtained in this study can be used as the basic data in assessing the export quality of yogurt powder.

  16. An empirical evaluation of software quality assurance practices and challenges in a developing country: a comparison of Nigeria and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowunmi, Olaperi Yeside; Misra, Sanjay; Fernandez-Sanz, Luis; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of quality assurance in the software development process cannot be overemphasized because its adoption results in high reliability and easy maintenance of the software system and other software products. Software quality assurance includes different activities such as quality control, quality management, quality standards, quality planning, process standardization and improvement amongst others. The aim of this work is to further investigate the software quality assurance practices of practitioners in Nigeria. While our previous work covered areas on quality planning, adherence to standardized processes and the inherent challenges, this work has been extended to include quality control, software process improvement and international quality standard organization membership. It also makes comparison based on a similar study carried out in Turkey. The goal is to generate more robust findings that can properly support decision making by the software community. The qualitative research approach, specifically, the use of questionnaire research instruments was applied to acquire data from software practitioners. In addition to the previous results, it was observed that quality assurance practices are quite neglected and this can be the cause of low patronage. Moreover, software practitioners are neither aware of international standards organizations or the required process improvement techniques; as such their claimed standards are not aligned to those of accredited bodies, and are only limited to their local experience and knowledge, which makes it questionable. The comparison with Turkey also yielded similar findings, making the results typical of developing countries. The research instrument used was tested for internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha, and it was proved reliable. For the software industry in developing countries to grow strong and be a viable source of external revenue, software assurance practices have to be taken seriously

  17. The physical environment and occupant thermal perceptions in office buildings. An evaluation of sampled data from five European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2002-02-01

    The results from a large field study of thermal comfort in European office buildings are reported. Measurements of physical environmental conditions and occupant perceptions were collected over sixteen months from twenty-six different office buildings located in France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. This thesis focuses on the physical environmental measurements and occupant thermal perceptions; however, additional variables with connections to environmental satisfaction are also examined. An overview of human comfort theory is presented to help place this thesis in appropriate context. The overview presents thermal comfort issues within a broad framework of human response to the environment including physical, physiological. behavioural, psychological and other variables. A more narrowly focused overview of current thermal comfort research is also included. The work attempts to show relationships and produce useful information from the data set using graphical methods, especially lowess, a locally weighted regression based scatter plot smoothing technique. The objective of using this approach is to literally show the relationships visually. This approach allows the data set itself to illustrate the actual thermal conditions in European office buildings and the occupant perceptions of those conditions along with illustrating relationships. The data is examined in some detail with key relationships identified and explored. Significant differences between countries, both for the physical conditions and the perceptions of those conditions are identified. In addition, the variation over the course of the year for each country is explored. The relationship of daily average outdoor temperatures to indoor temperatures and indoor temperature perceptions is found to be critically important. The relationships, which appear to drive perceptions of thermal comfort, occur in complex ways, making simple, all encompassing explanations impossible. The nature and size of the

  18. Performance of power sectors in developing countries - a study of efficiency and World Bank policy using data development analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawdon, D.

    1996-08-01

    A substantial proportion of investment in the electric power sectors of developing countries has historically consisted of World Bank loans. At the same time, power sector lending has played a large part in the total lending of the World Bank itself. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to construct performance measures for 82 developing countries power sectors in order to evaluate World Bank policy. It examines the effectiveness of World bank lending activity in relation to measured technical, scale and congestion efficiencies. Policies promoting the privatisation of electricity generation and the increased emphasis on lending to Sub Saharan Africa are also evaluated. 11 tabs.

  19. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  20. The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

  1. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M.; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L.; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomar

  2. Evaluation of Vitamin D Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Association with Disease Activity across 15 Countries: “The COMORA Study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najia Hajjaj-Hassouni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to evaluate vitamin D status in 1413 RA patients of COMORA study from 15 countries and to analyze relationship between patients’ RA characteristics and low levels of vitamin D. All demographic, clinical, and biological data and RA comorbidities were completed. The results showed that the average of vitamin D serum dosage was 27.3 ng/mL ± 15.1 [0.1–151]. Status of vitamin D was insufficient in 54.6% and deficient in 8.5% of patients. 43% of RA patients were supplemented with vitamin D and absence of supplementation on vitamin D was related to higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.001. Finally, our study shows that the status of low levels of vitamin D is common in RA in different countries and under different latitudes. Absence of supplementation on vitamin D was related to higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with patients characteristics (age, BMI, and educational level, RA (disease activity and corticosteroid dosage, and comorbidities (lung disease and osteoporosis therapy. This suggests the need for a particular therapeutic strategy to improve vitamin D status in RA patients.

  3. Using the Green Infrastructure as an Economic Sustainable Tool for Improving Urban Life in Emerging Countries Urban Poverty Areas Greater Cairo Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khaled Ahmed Elewa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the last decades rapid urbanization in the emerging countries was producing bad urban quality. This urbanization of poverty is responsible of the phenomenon of the current spreading of slums in those countries main cities, Yet the common urban solutions for improving the urban life in those areas always require a high-cost budget which usuallysurpassing the financial ability of the local governments. The study main objective is to evaluate the possibility of using the Green Infrastructure as an economic sustainable toolfor improving the urban life in urban poverty areas of emerging countries. An analytical study was done based on the case of Greater Cairo city informal areas as urban poverty areas. The study has clarified how the elements of the Green Infrastructure could be used as an effective economic and sustainable tool through its environmental, urban, and social roles, for the improvement of urban poverty areas in the emerging countries main cities, Also has shown that the Green Infrastructure depends on available local natural elements, local experts experience and the most important. Its affordable cost, which make it an effectiveeconomic tool.Key Words: Green Infrastructure, Economic Sustainability, Emerging Countries

  4. [Physico-chemical and microbiological evaluation of UHT milk commercialized in three Mercosul countries (Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domareski, Jackson Luiz; Bandiera, Nataly Simões; Sato, Rafael Tamostu; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2010-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of UHT milk commercialized in three countries of Mercosul, samples of four different brands were acquired in each city (Foz do Iguaçu-Brazil, Puerto Iguazú-Argentina and Ciudad del Este-Paraguay) and submitted to the following analysis: fat content, titratable acidity, milk ethanol stability (with the following ethanol concentrations: 68, 72, 76 and 80%), total dry extract and no fat dry extract, pH, density and freezing point. Counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms were already done. In the physico-chemical evaluation of UHT milk, a significant number of samples were in disagree with the established patterns for fat content, no fat dry extract, density and freezing point. Except one brand from Brazil, milk samples showed stability to 68% ethanol. pH averages of Brazilian milk were in agree with the patterns and highest values were observed in samples acquired on Paraguay. Observing the microbiological analysis, 37.5%, 62.5% and 12.5% of samples acquired from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively, showed counts above the established patterns for mesophilic microorganisms. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were in disagree with the established patterns in 50%, 50% and 100% of samples from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  5. Innovation Toilet and Barriers of Diffusion in Developing Country Case Study: TOTO Electronic Bidet Seat Toilet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Adhiutama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of electronic bidet seat toilet in Japan has diffused to more than sixty percent of Japanese household while it has low rate of diffusion in other countries especially in developing country. From this phenomenon, it is interesting to understand about the barrier of diffusion, which focuses on the adopter categories of diffusion, barrier factors and proposition of key success factors of the diffusion in Indonesia as one of emerging economic and the member of G 20. There have been few studies about diffusion of innovation toilet, and this paper especially examines the diffusion of new innovations on electronic bidet toilet due to its successful diffusion among Japanese household, and further became a standard fixture toilet in Japan. This paper also discusses the product life cycle of electronic bidet toilet in Japan, global diffusion, identifies adopter categories and barrier factors of diffusion in Indonesia. Finally, theoretical propositions are developed on the diffusion of innovation for electronic bidet toilet in Indonesia.Keywords: Innovation toilet, Barriers of diffusion, Indonesia, TOTO Electronic bidet seat toilet

  6. Source country perceptions, experiences, and recommendations regarding health workforce migration: a case study from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kanchan; Quimson, Gabriella; Short, Stephanie D

    2014-10-31

    The Philippines continues to overproduce nurses for export. Little first-hand evidence exists from leading organisations in the Philippines concerning their experiences and perceptions in relation to Filipino nurse migration. What are their views about health workforce migration? This paper addresses this research gap by providing a source country perspective on Filipino nurse migration to Australia. Focus-group interviews were conducted with key informants from nine Filipino organisations in the Philippines by an Australian-Filipino research team. The organisations were purposively selected and contacted in person, by phone, and/or email. Qualitative thematic analysis was performed using a coding framework. Health workforce migration is perceived to have both positive and negative consequences. On the one hand, emigration offers a welcome opportunity for individual Filipino nurses to migrate abroad in order to achieve economic, professional, lifestyle, and social benefits. On the other, as senior and experienced nurses are attracted overseas, this results in the maldistribution of health workers particularly affecting rural health outcomes for people in developing countries. Problems such as 'volunteerism' also emerged in our study. In the context of the WHO (2010) Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel it is to be hoped that, in the future, government recruiters, managers, and nursing leaders can utilise these insights in designing recruitment, orientation, and support programmes for migrant nurses that are more sensitive to the experience of the Philippines' education and health sectors and their needs.

  7. The changing psychology of culture in German-speaking countries: A Google Ngram study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nadja; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-05-05

    This article provides evidence for the long-term affiliation between ecological and cultural changes in German-speaking countries, based on the assumptions derived from social change and human development theory. Based on this theory, the increase in urbanisation, as a measure of ecological change, is associated with significant cultural changes of psychology. Whereas urbanisation is linked to greater individualistic values and materialistic attitudes, rural environments are strongly associated with collectivistic values like allegiance, prevalence of religion, and feelings of belonging and benevolence. Due to an increase in the German urbanisation rate over time, our study investigates whether Germany and the German-speaking countries around show the presumed changes in psychology. By using Google Books Ngram Viewer, we find that word frequencies, signifying individualistic (collectivistic) values, are positively (negatively) related to the urbanisation rate of Germany. Our results indicate that predictions about implications of an urbanising population for the psychology of culture hold true, supporting international universality of the social change and human development theory. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a predicted reversal for the time during and after World War II, reflecting Nazi propaganda and influence. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The Study Of Fiscal Sustainability For The Case Of Overindebted European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea STOIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims in analysing the fiscal sustainability for the case of European countries most affected by the economic downturn and sovereign debt: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain. For that purpose, we apply fiscal reaction function which indicates the speed and the size of government response to shocks on public debt. We use annual data ranged on 1995-2013. The results show that only for the cases of Italy and Portugal governments managed to fulfil the conditions for a sustainable fiscal policy. For these countries, the response is positive and immediate. On contrary, for Ireland we detect a negative reaction in the sense of a decreasing primary surplus to the increase of public debt by 1 p.p.. For the cases of Greece and Spain, the results are not statistically significant and we cannot conclude whether fiscal policy is sustainable or not. But we can emphasize a positive reaction to the increase of public debt cost in the case of Spain.

  9. Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-02-06

    Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app, describing respondents' characteristics (demographics, smoking status, and other health related app use), and examining differences across countries. This is a cross-sectional exploratory study of adults 18 years and older, passively recruited over one year in 2012, who downloaded this study app (Quit Advisor) via the two largest app stores (Apple and Android). The total number of app downloads after one year was 1751, 72.98% (1278/1751) of them were Apple operation system users. Of these 1751 participants, 47.68% (835/1751) were from the United States, 29.18% (511/1751) were from the United Kingdom, and 16.68% (292/1751) were from Australia. There were 602 participants, 36.75% (602/1638) that completed a questionnaire within the app. Of these 602 participants, 58.8% (354/602) were female and the mean age was 32 years. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of age, operation system used, number of quitting attempts, and language spoken at home. However, there were significant differences between countries in terms of gender and stage of change. There were 77.2% (465/602) of the respondents that were ready to quit in the next 30 days and the majority of these had never sought professional help (eg, "Quitline"). More than half had downloaded smoking cessation apps in the past and of these, three-quarters had made quitting attempts (lasted at least 24 hours) using an app before. Respondents who had attempted to quit three times or more in the previous year were more likely

  10. Creating organizational innovations in countries in transition using Finnish change laboratory: A case study from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrožić Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Change Laboratory intervention method has been used in several Western countries to support innovation and learning within organizations. This study explored the applicability of the Change Laboratory method to work activities in Eastern European transition economies. The case of a Change Laboratory project at a Serbian publishing house was examined and discussed. The Change Laboratory led to a clear break from previous models and resulted in a new, much more efficient model of work organization based on teams. The studied publishing house can be characterized as an innovator within a relatively laggard industry. This characteristic increased the Serbian publisher’s potential for developing “learning partnerships” with publishing activities in EU Member States. These “learning partnerships” enabled appropriate Western concepts to be found that could be used as stimuli to develop a new model of work for the publishing house during the Change Laboratory.

  11. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe: A Multi-centre Study in 13 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars; Poot, Françoise; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucía; Kupfer, Jörg; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Linder, M Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; Middendorp, Henriët van; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Dalgard, Florence

    2017-01-25

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale. Patient satisfaction with the dermatologist was assessed with an 11-degree scale. A total of 3,635 adult outpatients and 1,359 controls participated in the study. Dermatological outpatients were less able to depend on others, were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress.

  12. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly.

  13. Cancer genetics education in a low- to middle-income country: evaluation of an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Hill

    Full Text Available Clinical genetic testing is becoming an integral part of medical care for inherited disorders. While genetic testing and counseling are readily available in high-income countries, in low- and middle-income countries like Kenya genetic testing is limited and genetic counseling is virtually non-existent. Genetic testing is likely to become widespread in Kenya within the next decade, yet there has not been a concomitant increase in genetic counseling resources. To address this gap, we designed an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya focused on the genetics of the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma. The objectives were to increase retinoblastoma genetics knowledge, build genetic counseling skills and increase confidence in those skills.The workshop was conducted at the 2013 Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy meeting. It included a retinoblastoma genetics presentation, small group discussion of case studies and genetic counseling role-play. Knowledge was assessed by standardized test, and genetic counseling skills and confidence by questionnaire.Knowledge increased significantly post-workshop, driven by increased knowledge of retinoblastoma causative genetics. One-year post-workshop, participant knowledge had returned to baseline, indicating that knowledge retention requires more frequent reinforcement. Participants reported feeling more confident discussing genetics with patients, and had integrated more genetic counseling into patient interactions.A comprehensive retinoblastoma genetics workshop can increase the knowledge and skills necessary for effective retinoblastoma genetic counseling.

  14. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  15. The costs in provision of haemodialysis in a developing country: A multi-centered study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijesinghe Aruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on health care systems in developing countries. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the processes and costs of haemodialysis in Sri Lanka and provide a framework for modeling similar financial audits. Methods This prospective study was conducted at haemodialysis units of three public and two private hospitals in Sri Lanka for two months in June and July 2010. Cost of drugs and consumables for the three public hospitals were obtained from the price list issued by the Medical Supplies Division of the Department of Health Services, while for the two private hospitals they were obtained from financial departments of the respective hospitals. Staff wages were obtained from the hospital chief accountant/chief financial officers. The cost of electricity and water per month was calculated directly with the assistance of expert engineers. An apportion was done from the total hospital costs of administration, cleaning services, security, waste disposal and, laundry and sterilization for each unit. Results The total number of dialysis sessions (hours at the five hospitals for June and July were 3341 (12959 and 3386 (13301 respectively. Drug and consumables costs accounted for 70.4-84.9% of the total costs, followed by the wages of the nursing staff at each unit (7.8-19.7%. The mean cost of a dialysis session in Sri Lanka was LKR 6,377 (US$ 56. The annual cost of haemodialysis for a patient with chronic renal failure undergoing 2-3 dialysis session of four hours duration per week was LKR 663,208-994,812 (US$ 5,869-8,804. At one hospital where facilities are available for the re-use of dialyzers (although not done during study period the cost of consumables would have come down from LKR 5,940,705 to LKR 3,368,785 (43% reduction if the method was adopted, reducing costs of haemodialysis per hour from LKR 1,327 at present to LKR 892 (33

  16. Study on the development of nanotechnology in advanced countries and in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fracalossi Rediguieri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study shows how nanotechnology evolves in developed countries and Brazil, raising aspects of private and governmental initiatives. The investigation was based in scientific literature, electronic articles and conference reports. Several sources of literature were used, including electronic databases and reference lists. By this study, it was observed that, although nanotechnology is in initial stage of development all over the world, the developed countries have had growing public and private investments in the area each year. In those countries, there is a concern toward both, the formation of specialists in nanotechnology and the transference of technology developed in universities and research institutes to industry. In Brazil, the study showed that despite the growing concern of investigators, national research centers and financial centers toward the development of the nanotechnology, there is still a need for more investment and formation of area specialists.O presente trabalho faz um estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da nanotecnologia, com enfoque na área de saúde, em países tecnologicamente mais avançados e no Brasil, levantando aspectos de iniciativas governamentais e privadas. A investigação foi baseada em literatura científica, artigos eletrônicos e relatórios de conferências. Foi observado que, apesar da nanotecnologia estar em estágio inicial no mundo inteiro, os países tecnologicamente mais avançados têm tido investimentos crescentes na área a cada ano, tanto públicos quanto privados. Há grande preocupação nesses países quanto à formação de profissionais especialistas na área e à transferência da tecnologia desenvolvida por universidades e institutos de pesquisa para a indústria. No Brasil, o estudo mostrou que apesar da crescente preocupação dos pesquisadores, centros de pesquisa e centros de financiamento com o desenvolvimento da nanotecnologia, ainda há necessidade de maiores investimentos e forma

  17. Do individualism and collectivism on three levels (country, individual, and situation) influence theory-of-mind efficiency? A cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tuong-Van; Finkenauer, Catrin; Huizinga, Mariette; Novin, Sheida; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether individualism and collectivism (IC) at country, individual, and situational level influence how quickly and accurately people can infer mental states (i.e. theory of mind, or ToM), indexed by accuracy and reaction time in a ToM task. We hypothesized that collectivism (having an interdependent self and valuing group concerns), compared to individualism (having an independent self and valuing personal concerns), is associated with greater accuracy and speed in recognizing and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. Students (N = 207) from individualism-representative (the Netherlands) and collectivism-representative (Vietnam) countries (Country IC) answered an individualism-collectivism questionnaire (Individual IC) and were randomly assigned to an individualism-primed, collectivism-primed, or no-prime task (Situational IC) before performing a ToM task. The data showed vast differences between the Dutch and Vietnamese groups that might not be attributable to experimental manipulation. Therefore, we analyzed the data for the groups separately and found that Individual IC did not predict ToM accuracy or reaction time performance. Regarding Situational IC, when primed with individualism, the accuracy performance of Vietnamese participants in affective ToM trials decreased compared to when primed with collectivism and when no prime was used. However, an interesting pattern emerged: Dutch participants were least accurate in affective ToM trials, while Vietnamese participants were quickest in affective ToM trials. Our research also highlights a dilemma faced by cross-cultural researchers who use hard-to-reach populations but face the challenge of disentangling experimental effects from biases that might emerge due to an interaction between cultural differences and experimental settings. We propose suggestions for overcoming such challenges.

  18. The Multidimensional Efficiency of Pension System: Definition and Measurement in Cross-Country Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybalski, Filip

    The existing literature on the efficiency of pension system, usually addresses the problem between the choice of different theoretical models, or concerns one or few empirical pension systems. In this paper quite different approach to the measurement of pension system efficiency is proposed. It is dedicated mainly to the cross-country studies of empirical pension systems, however it may be also employed to the analysis of a given pension system on the basis of time series. I identify four dimensions of pension system efficiency, referring to: GDP-distribution, adequacy of pension, influence on the labour market and administrative costs. Consequently, I propose four sets of static and one set of dynamic efficiency indicators. In the empirical part of the paper, I use Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and cluster analysis to verify the proposed method on statistical data covering 28 European countries in years 2007-2011. I prove that the method works and enables some comparisons as well as clustering of analyzed pension systems. The study delivers also some interesting empirical findings. The main goal of pension systems seems to become poverty alleviation, since the efficiency of ensuring protection against poverty, as well as the efficiency of reducing poverty, is very resistant to the efficiency of GDP-distribution. The opposite situation characterizes the efficiency of consumption smoothing-this is generally sensitive to the efficiency of GDP-distribution, and its dynamics are sensitive to the dynamics of GDP-distribution efficiency. The results of the study indicate the Norwegian and the Icelandic pension systems to be the most efficient in the analyzed group.

  19. Pediatric drug-related problems: a multicenter study in four French-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Di Paolo, Ermindo R; Lavoie, Annie; Quennery, Stefanie; Bussières, Jean-François; Brion, Françoise; Bourdon, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric intensive care patients represent a population at high risk for drug-related problems. There are few studies that compare the activity of clinical pharmacists between countries. To describe the drug-related problems identified and interventions by four pharmacists in a pediatric cardiac and intensive care unit. Four pediatric centers in France, Quebec, Switzerland and Belgium. This was a six-month multicenter, descriptive and prospective study conducted from August 1, 2009 to January 31, 2010. Drug-related problems and clinical interventions were compiled from four pediatric centers in France, Quebec, Switzerland and Belgium. Data on patients, drugs, intervention, documentation, approval and estimated impact were compiled. Number and type of drug-related problems encountered in a large pediatric inpatient population. A total of 996 interventions were recorded: 238 (24 %) in France, 278 (28 %) in Quebec, 351 (35 %) in Switzerland and 129 (13 %) in Belgium. These interventions targeted 270 patients (median 21 months old, 53 % male): 88 (33 %) in France, 56 (21 %) in Quebec, 57 (21 %) in Switzerland and 69 (26 %) in Belgium. The main drug-related problems were inappropriate administration technique (29 %), untreated indication (25 %) and supra-therapeutic dose (11 %). The pharmacists' interventions were mostly optimizing the mode of administration (22 %), dose adjustment (20 %) and therapeutic monitoring (16 %). The two major drug classes that led to interventions were anti-infectives for systemic use (23 %) and digestive system and metabolism drugs (22 %). Interventions mainly involved residents and all clinical staff (21 %). Among the 878 (88 %) proposed interventions requiring physician approval, 860 (98 %) were accepted. This descriptive study illustrates drug-related problems and the ability of clinical pharmacists to identify and resolve them in pediatric intensive care units in four French-speaking countries.

  20. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  2. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  3. E-readiness and Entrepreneurship: A Cross Country Study of the Link between Technological Infrastructure and Entrepreneurial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Constand, Richard L.; Gilbert, Arthur H.

    2011-01-01

    This current study focuses on the relationship between a country’s e-readiness environment and entrepreneurial activities. Many government policies assume there is a direct causal relationship between e-readiness and entrepreneurial activity and some past studies have reported evidence supporting such a link. In this paper, a cross country panel data analysis using three different measures of entrepreneurial activity and different measures of e-readiness examines this relationship. The result...

  4. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... negotiation between potential trade-offs among multiple goals, and interests of various stakeholders. The mutual benefits can be communicated through valid impact assessments and the integration of R&D into the practical implementation. Securing the continuity of funding and leadership is crucial...

  5. What’s Wrong with the Study of China/Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans KUIJPER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the thesis is submitted that there is something fundamentally amiss in Western Sinology (Zhōngguóxué, as distinct from Hànxué, which is a kind of old-fashioned philology: ‘China experts’ either pretend to be knowledgeable about everything related to China, in which case they cannot be taken seriously, or–– eventually––admit not to be scientific all-rounders with respect to the country, in which case they cannot be called ‘China experts’. The author expects no tenured professor of Chinese Studies/History to share this view. Having exposed the weakness, indeed the scandal of old-style Sinology, he also points out the way junior Sinologists should go. The fork in that road is two-pronged: translating or collaborating.

  6. A Comparison of Quality Management and Industrial Criteria between Iran and Developed Countries (Case Study: Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Karimimalayer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Consumer’s expectation has soared which brought about a gap between the discerned quality and actual quality of some American-made merchandises. On the other hand, considerable domestic and international market shares of Japanese products derived from the narrowed gap in quality of firms. In some industries, Japanese fine quality products have now replaced the United States as “number one” in such industries. For several years, Total Quality Management (TQM has been implemented in Western Europe since its earlier origin in Japan. In fact, the influence of TQM on a number of notable successful manufacturing organizations is inevitable, together with some less revealed failures. This research describes the details of management in Iran and compare its criteria’s with developed countries such as Japan. To some extent, this study is destined to present some solutions to improve the management and quality in industrial productions.

  7. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils;

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... identified critical factors related to economic viability, public funding, technological development, impact assessments, public policies and regulation, social capital, leadership and coordination as well as public acceptability and image. According to our results, transition to green economies requires...

  8. Are National and Organizational Cultures Isomorphic? Evidence from a Four Country Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Ellemose Gulev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigates whether organizational practices as observed through differing organizational cultures systematically replicate or reject national values. It is among the first to project delineated, narrow national cultural portrayals of Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Denmark against pattern-specific organizational cultures. Through country cluster analysis and correlation tests, the results achieve significance along all three dimensions. Trust allocations, authority perceptions and independence assertions were significant predictors for organizational traits of knowledge sharing practices, structure and control utilization, respectively. This demonstrates the value of assessing national values in conjunction with organizational culture in order to further understand the origins of corporate behaviour and the mechanisms that can help promote organizational effectiveness.

  9. Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: a longitudinal study of body mass index among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

    2007-09-01

    Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES.

  10. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2017-06-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  11. Clinical supervision of allied health professionals in country South Australia: A mixed methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saravana; Osborne, Kate; Lehmann, Tanya

    2015-10-01

    Recent times have witnessed dramatic changes in health care with overt recognition for quality and safety to underpin health care service delivery. In addition to systems-wide focus, the importance of supporting and mentoring people delivering the care has also been recognised. This can be achieved through quality clinical supervision. In 2010, Country Health South Australia Local Health Network developed a holistic allied health clinical governance structure, which was implemented in 2011. This research reports on emergent findings from the evaluation of the clinical governance structure, which included mandating clinical supervision for all allied health staff. A mixed method approach was chosen with evaluation of the impact of clinical supervision undertaken by a psychometrically sound instrument (Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale 26-item version), collected through an anonymous online survey and qualitative data collected through semistructured interviews and focus groups. Overall, 189 allied health professionals responded to the survey. Survey responses indicated allied health professionals recognised the importance of and valued receiving clinical supervision (normative domain), had levels of trust and rapport with, and were supported by supervisors (restorative domain) and positively affected their delivery of care and improvement in skills (formative domain). Qualitative data identified enablers such as profession specific gains, improved opportunities and consistency for clinical supervision and barriers such as persistent organisational issues, lack of clarity (delineation of roles) and communication issues. The findings from this research highlight that while clinical supervision has an important role to play, it is not a panacea for all the ills of the health care system. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  13. A study of brand name and country of production congruity : A consumer study – assessed with the example of a Swedish luxury bed manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Anna; Linnander Obermayer, Erik

    2013-01-01

    As companies become ever more globalised, manufacture firms choose to outsource production to lower labour cost countries. However, as studies have shown, such a relocation of production may lead to undesirably decreased quality perceptions by consumers as the brand origin and country of production are de-coupled. This quality perception linked to congruity between brand origin and country of production has been studied for various products and product classes, but little has been written abo...

  14. Information Technology of Study of the State Foreign Debt in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvieieva Iuliia M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to expansion of international relations, growth of interest of states in attraction of foreign capital, appearance of excessive debts and problems connected with them, urgency of the issue of the state foreign debt significantly increased. The problem of state foreign debt is especially sharp in developing countries. Taking into account specific features of functioning of economies of these states, it is necessary to develop information approaches with the aim of studying macro-economic processes, which could assist in creation of improved mechanisms of functioning of the debt policy. The goal of the article is building an information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which would allow conduct of a complex analysis of the studied problem. The article offers a three-stage information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which gives a possibility to analyse and assess the study problem. This article also reveals properties, functions and tasks, which are solve by the information technology. It gives a detailed description of each stage and its notional elements. It forms the structured database for a possibility to carry out an experiment. On the basis of the first stage the article builds econometric models, which reflect interrelations between macro-economic factors, which gives an opportunity to forecast, analyse and assess the state foreign debt.

  15. Low Request of Antibiotics from Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Six Countries: Results from the Happy Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Radzeviciene, Ruta; Reutskiy, Anatoliy; Caballero, Lidia

    2013-11-19

    A total of 59,535 patients with respiratory tract infections were registered in the Happy Audit project, an audit-based, before-and-after study conducted in primary care centres of six countries (Argentina, Denmark, Lithuania, Russia, Spain, and Sweden) in 2008 and 2009. An antibiotic was explicitly requested by the patient in 1,255 cases (2.1%), with a great variation across countries ranging from 0.4%-4.9%. Antibiotics were significantly more often prescribed to patients requesting them compared to those who did not (64% vs. 28%; p countries, suggesting that the different backgrounds and traditions largely explain this variability in patients' requests for antibiotics.

  16. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday dilem

  17. Dancing with the Devil: A Study of Country Size and the Incentive to Tolerate Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnutzmann, H.; Mccarthy, K.; Unger, B.

    The incidence of money laundering, and the zeal with which international anti-money laundering (AML) policy is pursued, varies significantly from country to country, region to region. There are, however, quite substantial social costs associated with a policy of toleration, and this begs the

  18. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday

  19. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  20. Dancing with the Devil: A Study of Country Size and the Incentive to Tolerate Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnutzmann, H.; Mccarthy, K.; Unger, B.

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of money laundering, and the zeal with which international anti-money laundering (AML) policy is pursued, varies significantly from country to country, region to region. There are, however, quite substantial social costs associated with a policy of toleration, and this begs the questio