WorldWideScience

Sample records for country studies programme

  1. Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huppatz Clare

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic Filariasis (LF is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA. The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified as endemic had completed five MDA campaigns and post-MDA prevalence surveys to assess their progress. We review available programme data and discuss their implications for other LF elimination programs in developing countries. Methods Reported MDA coverage and results from initial surveys and post-MDA surveys of LF using the immunochromatographic test (ICT from these five Pacific Island countries (Tonga, Niue, Vanuatu, Samoa and Cook Islands were analysed to provide an understanding of their quality and programme progress towards LF elimination. Denominator data reported by each country programme for 2001 was compared to official sources to assess the accuracy of MDA coverage data. Results Initial survey results from these five countries revealed an ICT prevalence of between 2.7 and 8.6 percent in individuals tested prior to commencement of the programme. Country MDA coverage results varied depending on the source of denominator data. Of the five countries in this case study, three countries (Tonga, Niue and Vanuatu reached the target prevalence of Conclusion Accurate and representative baseline and post-campaign prevalence data is crucial for determining program effectiveness and the factors contributing to effectiveness. This is emphasised by the findings of this case study. While three of the five Pacific countries reported achieving the target prevalence of

  2. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  3. Population education country programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Population education country programs in the countries of India, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka are reviewed. In India the machinery is beginning to roll for the nationwide implementation of a 3-year national population education project. A variety of strategies will be used at the national and state levels using existing facilities and infrastructure for implementing various aspects of the program. Recommendations and proposed project activities arrived at during 2 workshop/training programs are outlined. The Malaysian population education program recently developed a working draft of the scope, content, and objectives of population education at the primary and lower and upper secondary levels. This working draft is being pretested among teachers and curriculum developers, and, once revised, it will serve as the overall guiding framework for those responsible for preparing curriculum and instructional materials on population education. The population education program in Nepal will be implemented by 3 units: Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision, and Development Center; Tribhuvan University; and Division of Adult Education. The longterm objective is to institutionalize population education in the formal and nonformal education programs including the university. The Population Education Program of the Philippines has prepared a reader in Filipino for grade 3 pupils. Population education in the country has been promoted to a lesser degree in private than in public schools. the Institutional Development Program of the Population Center Foundation conducted a Summer Institute in Instructional Product Development for the primary purpose of institutionalizing population in the social science curriculum at the tertiary level. The population education program of Sri Lanka will undergo a revival in the recently approved 2-year project agreement between Sri Lanka's government and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

  4. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower…

  5. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  6. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  7. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  8. The SLMTA programme: Transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Yao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficient and reliable laboratory services are essential to effective and well-functioning health systems. Laboratory managers play a critical role in ensuring the quality and timeliness of these services. However, few laboratory management programmes focus on the competencies required for the daily operations of a laboratory in resource-limited settings. This report provides a detailed description of an innovative laboratory management training tool called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA and highlights some challenges, achievements and lessons learned during the first five years of implementation (2009–2013 in developing countries.Programme: SLMTA is a competency-based programme that uses a series of short courses and work-based learning projects to effect immediate and measurable laboratory improvement, while empowering laboratory managers to implement practical quality management systems to ensure better patient care. A SLMTA training programme spans from 12 to 18 months; after each workshop, participants implement improvement projects supported by regular supervisory visits or on-site mentoring. In order to assess strengths, weaknesses and progress made by the laboratory, audits are conducted using the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist, which is based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15189 requirements. These internal audits are conducted at the beginning and end of the SLMTA training programme.Conclusion: Within five years, SLMTA had been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries, transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries. To our knowledge, SLMTA is the first programme that makes an explicit connection between the performance of specific management behaviours and routines and ISO 15189 requirements. Because of this close

  9. A Regional Comparative Study of Distance Learning MBA Programmes in Selected Asian Countries%几个亚洲国家的远程MBA教学项目的区域性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建儒; 赵平

    2002-01-01

    Distance learning MBA programmes have increased tremendously in the past decade in selected Asian countries. This paper uses a stakeholders approach to conduct research on distance learning MBA programmes in Asian. Conclusions of the research are then given.

  10. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  11. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  12. FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

  13. IMF-Supported Programmes: Stimulating Capital to Non-defaulting Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, K.J.M. van der; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    International Monetary Fund (IMF)-supported programmes catalyse private capital to non-defaulting countries. We find the IMF to be effective in stimulating private capital flows to middle-income countries that participate in a Fund programme, but do not restructure their debt. IMF-supported programm

  14. A conceptual and analytical approach to comparative analysis of country case studies: HIV and TB control programmes and health systems integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to comparatively analyse large-scale communicable disease control programmes have, for the most part, neglected the wider health system contexts within which the programmes lie. In addition, many evaluations of the integration of vertical disease control programmes into health systems ha...

  15. Pathology Residency Programme of a Developing Country--Landscape of Last 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha; Kayani, Naila

    2016-01-01

    We report the evolution of a residency programme in Pathology from a developing country. This article highlights the historical perspective of our application procedure, the number of inductions, the programme framework, acheivements and limitations.

  16. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-04-28

    The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007-2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference (CSPA). The exercise was a combination of academic research and the development/application of an advocacy tool involving policy makers and stakeholders to influence the decision-making in the development, implementation, or change of HRH programmes while building evidence through a structured approach based on qualitative and quantitative information and the exchange and dissemination of best practices. This paper covers the methodological challenges, as well as a summary of the main findings of the study, which included 15 countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in the Central America, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in the Andean sub region, and Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the South Cone. Despite the different contexts, the results showed that the programmes evaluated faced common challenges, such as lack of political support and financial unsustainability. The evaluation process allowed the exchange and dissemination of practices, interventions, and programmes currently running in the region. A shared lesson was the importance of careful planning of the implementation of programmes and interventions. The similarities in the problems and challenges of HRH among the participating countries highlighted the need for a cooperation programme on the evaluation and assessment of implementation strategies in the Americas region.

  17. IMF-Supported Programmes: Stimulating Capital to Non-defaulting Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, K.J.M. van der; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    International Monetary Fund (IMF)-supported programmes catalyse private capital to non-defaulting countries. We find the IMF to be effective in stimulating private capital flows to middle-income countries that participate in a Fund programme, but do not restructure their debt. IMF-supported

  18. China: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Appendix A). From the Plateau of Tibet other less elevated highlands, rugged east-west trending mountains and plateaus interrupted by deep depresions ...China: A Country Study Table 3. Continued Coavmtiomal Convmtioto y Pinyr to Form of Referenc Form of Ream to nn Turpan Pendi Turfan Depresion Sungari

  19. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  20. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  1. Modelo B/Dual Language Programmes in the Basque Country and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Maria E.; Etxeberria, Feli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we undertake a cross-national comparison of early partial immersion programmes, known as dual language or Modelo B programmes, in the USA and the Basque Country in Spain, respectively. We attempt to make sense of their growth, the expanded social uses of the minority languages, and address seemingly contradictory pedagogical…

  2. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    Rehabilitation care is fundamental to health and human dignity and a human right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The provision of rehabilitation is important for reducing the need for formal support and enabling persons with disabilities to lead an independent life. Increasingly scholars and advocacy groups voice concerns over the significant barriers facing people with disabilities in accessing appropriate and quality rehabilitation. A growing body of research highlights a "respond-need" gap in the provision of rehabilitation and assistive technologies and underscore the lack of indicators for assessing performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring States compliance with human rights standards in rehabilitation service planning and programming. While research on human rights and health monitoring has increased exponentially over the last decade far too little attention has been paid to rehabilitation services. The proposed research aims to reduce this knowledge gap by developing a human rights based monitoring framework with indicators to support human rights accountability and performance assessment in rehabilitation. Concept mapping, a stakeholder-driven approach will be used as the core method to identify rights based indicators and develop the rehabilitation services monitoring framework. Concept mapping requires participants from various stakeholders groups to generate a list of the potential indicators through on line brainstorming, sort the indicators for conceptual similarity into clusters and rate them against predefined criteria. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster data analysis will be performed to develop the monitoring framework while bridging analysis will provide useful insights about patterns of agreement or disagreement among participants views on indicators. This study has the potential to influence future practices on data collection and measurement of compliance with

  3. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  4. Innovative strategies for a successful SLMTA country programme: The Rwanda story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Nzabahimana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009, to improve the performance of laboratories and strengthen healthcare systems, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO and partners launched two initiatives: a laboratory quality improvement programme called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA, and what is now called the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA.Objectives: This study describes the achievements of Rwandan laboratories four years after the introduction of SLMTA in the country, using the SLIPTA scoring system to measure laboratory progress.Methods: Three cohorts of five laboratories each were enrolled in the SLMTA programme in 2010, 2011 and 2013. The cohorts used SLMTA workshops, improvement projects, mentorship and quarterly performance-based financing incentives to accelerate laboratory quality improvement. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted over a two-year period from the time of enrolment. Audit scores were used to categorise laboratory quality on a scale of zero (< 55% to five (95% – 100% stars.Results: At baseline, 14 of the 15 laboratories received zero stars with the remaining laboratory receiving a two-star rating. At exit, five laboratories received one star, six received two stars and four received three stars. At the follow-up audit conducted in the first two cohorts approximately one year after exit, one laboratory scored two stars, five laboratories earned three stars and four laboratories, including the National Reference Laboratory, achieved four stars.Conclusion: Rwandan laboratories enrolled in SLMTA showed improvement in quality management systems. Sustaining the gains and further expansion of the SLMTA programme to meet country targets will require continued programme strengthening.

  5. Factors for success in collaboration between high- and low-income countries: Developing a physiotherapy education programme in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background This study presents an example of collaboration between two higher education institutions: one in Norway, a high-income country, and one in Sudan, a low-income country, in developing an entry-level physiotherapy education programme in Sudan. The institution in Sudan had minimal theoretical and practical knowledge in physiotherapy. The study examined the factors important for the success of the bilateral collaboration. Material and methods We analysed written documents produced in t...

  6. The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína

    2014-04-01

    In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too.

  7. Differences and similarities in rheumatology specialty training programmes across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivera, Francisca; Ramiro, Sofia; Cikes, Nada; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Kvien, Tore K; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Mandl, Peter; Moorthy, Arumugam; Panchal, Sonia; da Silva, José A P; Bijlsma, Johannes W

    2015-06-01

    To analyse the similarities and discrepancies between the official rheumatology specialty training programmes across Europe. A steering committee defined the main aspects of training to be assessed. In 2013, the rheumatology official training programmes were reviewed for each of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) countries and two local physicians independently extracted data on the structure of training, included competencies and assessments performed. Analyses were descriptive. 41 of the 45 EULAR countries currently provide specialist training in rheumatology; in the remaining four rheumatologists are trained abroad. 36 (88%) had a single national curriculum, one country had two national curricula and four had only local or university-specific curricula. The mean length of training programmes in rheumatology was 45 (SD 19) months, ranging between 3 and 72 months. General internal medicine training was mandatory in 40 (98%) countries, and was performed prior to and/or during the rheumatology training programme (mean length: 33 (19) months). 33 (80%) countries had a formal final examination. Most European countries provide training in rheumatology, but the length, structure, contents and assessments of these training programmes are quite heterogeneous. In order to promote excellence in standards of care and to support physicians' mobility, a certain degree of harmonisation should be encouraged. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Enresa's Participation in the Technical Assistance Programmes to the Eastern European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E. [ENRESA. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This article briefly describes the participation of ENRESA in the technical assistance programmes to the Central and Eastern European countries (PHARE) and to the New Independent States (TACIS) as well as in the co-operation programmes all of them established by the European Commission. It is worth to point out the active role of ENRESA within the European Consortium CASSIOPEE, formed in 1993 by the six radioactive waste management companies in existence in the European Union at that time. CASSIOPEE was created to assist the European Commission in the area of radioactive waste management of the PHARE and TACIS technical assistance programmes. (Author)

  9. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  10. Boosting health insurance coverage in developing countries: do conditional cash transfer programmes matter in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Olga; Brown, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Achieving universal health insurance coverage is a goal for many developing countries. Even when universal health insurance programmes are in place, there are significant barriers to reaching the lowest socio-economic groups such as a lack of awareness of the programmes or knowledge of the benefits to participating in the insurance market. Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes can encourage participation through mandatory health education classes, increased contact with the health care system and cash payments to reduce costs of participating in the insurance market. To explore if participation in a CCT programme in Mexico, Oportunidades, is significantly associated with self-reported enrolment in a public health insurance programme. Cross-sectional data from 2007 collected on 29 595 Mexican households where the household head is aged between ages 15 and 60 were analysed. A logit model was used to estimate the association between Oportunidades participation and awareness of enrolment in a public health insurance programme. Participation in the Oportunidades programme is associated with a 25% higher likelihood of being actively aware of enrolment in Seguro Popular, a public health insurance scheme for the lowest socio-economic groups. Participation in the Oportunidades CCT programme is positively associated with awareness of enrolment in public health insurance. CCT programmes may be used to promote participation of the lowest socio-economic groups in universal public health insurance systems. This is crucial to achieving universal health insurance coverage in developing countries. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale road safety programmes in low- and middle-income countries: an opportunity to generate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Peters, David H; Chandran, Aruna; Bishai, David

    2013-01-01

    The growing burden of road traffic injuries, which kill over 1.2 million people yearly, falls mostly on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, evidence generation on the effectiveness of road safety interventions in LMIC settings remains scarce. This paper explores a scientific approach for evaluating road safety programmes in LMICs and introduces such a road safety multi-country initiative, the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10). By building on existing evaluation frameworks, we develop a scientific approach for evaluating large-scale road safety programmes in LMIC settings. This also draws on '13 lessons' of large-scale programme evaluation: defining the evaluation scope; selecting study sites; maintaining objectivity; developing an impact model; utilising multiple data sources; using multiple analytic techniques; maximising external validity; ensuring an appropriate time frame; the importance of flexibility and a stepwise approach; continuous monitoring; providing feedback to implementers, policy-makers; promoting the uptake of evaluation results; and understanding evaluation costs. The use of relatively new approaches for evaluation of real-world programmes allows for the production of relevant knowledge. The RS-10 project affords an important opportunity to scientifically test these approaches for a real-world, large-scale road safety evaluation and generate new knowledge for the field of road safety.

  12. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  13. Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  14. Venezuela, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    relations with all 17 western hemisphere nations including Cuba , and joined the Adean Common Market. Internally Caldera permitted communist and other...mounted from within the country and by communist supported ( Cuba ) small units conducting guerrilla activities with the intent of producing a military...1973), pp. 14-26. 25Blutstein, op.cit., pp. 39-41. 26Ibid. pp. 41-44. 27Philip B. Taylor, Jr., The Venezuelan Golpe de Estado of 1958: The Fall of

  15. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    the Shandong terr-itorv alreadyv in its possession. Beijing also recognized Tokyo’s authority oVer Southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In...stretching from Harbin in the northeast through the Beijing area and south to China’s largest city, the huge industrial metropoli- tan complex of...country. Nearly all counties and towns had one or more machine factories. Major machinery centers were Shanghai, Tianjin, Shen- yang, Beijing, Harbin

  16. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in......, mathematics, and science. The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the topperforming countries; differences can be found in certain areas, in other areas there are greater differences between the four individual countries. Three...... main findings are: 1) Philosophically-based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body of professional knowledge within the Danish teacher education programmes, which is not true of the programmes in the Top-3 countries. 2) The programmes...

  17. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  18. Health promotion through self-care and community participation: Elements of a proposed programme in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Khanindra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during 1970s, primarily out of concerns about the limitation of professional health system. Since then there have been rapid growth in these areas in the developed world, and there is evidence of effectiveness of such interventions. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. There is a window of opportunity for promoting self care and community participation for health promotion. Discussion A broad outline is proposed for designing a health promotion programme in developing countries, following key strategies of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion and principles of self care and community participation. Supportive policies may be framed. Self care clearinghouses may be set up at provincial level to co-ordinate the programme activities in consultation with district and national teams. Self care may be promoted in the schools and workplaces. For developing personal skills of individuals, self care information, generated through a participatory process, may be disseminated using a wide range of print and audio-visual tools and information technology based tools. One such potential tool may be a personally held self care manual and health record, to be designed jointly by the community and professionals. Its first part may contain basic self care information and the second part may contain outlines of different personally-held health records to be used to record important health and disease related events of an individual. Periodic monitoring and evaluation of the programme may be done. Studies from different parts of the world indicate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of self care interventions. The proposed outline has potential for health promotion and cost reduction of health services in the developing countries, and may be adapted in different situations. Summary Self care, community participation and health

  19. International Evaluation Studies of Second Step, a Primary Prevention Programme: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Second Step is a social-emotional, skill-based, violence-prevention programme, which has been adapted for several European countries. The various versions of the programme (for kindergarten/preschool, elementary school, middle school) have been evaluated in a series of research studies. The outcomes and study designs of these studies are reported…

  20. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  1. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  2. Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: the Emerald programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-04-10

    There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.

  3. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Altobelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI and Low and Middle Income (LMI States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates.

  4. Information use skills in the engineering programme accreditation criteria of four countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cara

    2014-01-01

    The need for twenty-first century information skills in engineering practice, combined with the importance for engineering programmes to meet accreditation requirements, suggests that it may be worthwhile to explore the potential for closer alignment between librarians and their work with information literacy competencies to assist in meeting accreditation standards and graduating students with high-level information skills. This article explores whether and how information use skills are reflected in engineering programme accreditation standards of four countries: Canada, the USA, the UK, and Australia. Results indicate that there is significant overlap between the information use skills required of students by engineering accreditation processes and librarians' efforts to develop information literacy competencies in students, despite differences in terms used to describe these skills. Increased collaboration between engineering faculty and librarians has the potential to raise student information literacy levels and fulfil the information use-related requirements of accreditation processes.

  5. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  6. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  7. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Käser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs

  8. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M M; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-05-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  9. PROGRAMME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEASUREMENT OF SURVIVAL IN A PRIVATE. SECTOR HIV/AIDS DISEASE ... during the first 4 years of the programme was published in 2003.' The purpose of this ... that their scheme offers a Dl\\/IP, and must be willing to disclose their HlV ...

  10. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context.

  11. The Influence of Supranational Organizations on Educational Programme Planning in the Least Developed Countries: The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    Amidst growing criticisms of global financial institutions, primarily the World Bank, this article explores their influence on educational programme planning in some of the impoverished nations known as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The domination of these institutions originates not only from their monetary power but also from the…

  12. Evaluation of health benefits and harms of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country using discrete event simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arrospide (Arantzazu); M. Rue (Montserrat); N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); M. Comas (Merce); N. Larrañaga (Nerea); G. Sarriugarte (Garbiñe); J. Mar (Javier)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country (BCSPBC) was started in 1996, more than 400,000 women aged 50 to 69 years have been invited to participate. Based on epidemiological observations and simulation techniques it is possible to extend observed shor

  13. How Long Is Long Enough? L2 English Development through Study Abroad Programmes Varying in Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Rebecca; Mora, Joan C.; Pérez-Vidal, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes the oral production of advanced learners of English who have Catalan and Spanish as their first languages. Subjects participated in study abroad (SA) programmes in English-speaking countries as part of their undergraduate studies. A role-play task was used to elicit speech from learners prior to SA and upon arrival from…

  14. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  15. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D

    2016-09-22

    A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan). A conceptual framework for malaria elimination programme management was developed and data were extracted and synthesized. Findings were reviewed at a consultative workshop, which led to a revision of the framework and further data extraction and synthesis. Success factors of implementation, programme choices and changes, and enabling factors were distilled. Decentralized programmes enhanced engagement in malaria elimination by sub-national units and communities. Integration of the malaria programme into other health services was also common. Decentralization and integration were often challenging due to the skill and experience levels of newly tasked staff. Accountability for programme impact was not clarified for most programmes. Motivation of work force was a key factor in maintaining programme quality but there were few clear, detailed strategies provided. Different incentive schemes targeted various stakeholders. Training and supervision, although not well described, were prioritized by most programmes. Multi-sectoral collaboration helped some programmes share information, build strategies and interventions and achieve a higher quality of implementation. In most cases programme action was spurred by malaria outbreaks or a new elimination goal with strong leadership. Some programmes showed high capacity for flexibility through introduction of new strategies and tools. Several case-studies described methods for monitoring

  16. A case study of Gavi'S human papillomavirus vaccine support programme

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee Castro; Margherita Cinà; Mary Helmer-Smith; Christian Vlček; Collins Oghor; Danielle Cazabon

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted DNA virus that can lead to cervical cancer, is the most common cancer among women in developing regions. More than 270,000 women die per year from cervical cancer globally, and 85% of those deaths occur in developing countries. In the past, many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been unable to afford the implementation of HPV vaccination programmes, resulting in high cervical cancer mortality rates. Gavi, an organisation created t...

  17. Financial requirements of immunisation programmes in developing countries: a 2004-2014 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peny, Jean-Michel; Gleizes, Olivier; Covilard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-08-31

    Vaccines are a key contributor to public health, especially in developing countries. Despite numerous demonstrations of the cost-effectiveness of immunisation, vaccines spending accounted for only 1.7% of the total pharmaceutical market in 2002, when UNICEF estimated that 34 million children were not reached by routine immunisation, most of them in developing countries. Several international organizations or initiatives, like the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI), have defined a long-term goal of universal immunisation in developing countries. There is an urgent need to estimate the financial resources required to meet this goal. The objective of this study was to anticipate the funding needs for childhood immunisation in developing countries over the 2004-2014 period. The study scope includes all the 75 countries eligible for support from GAVI, and covers existing vaccines that are considered as a priority for GAVI (DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis), hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b (as a stand alone presentation or in combination with DTP) and yellow fever) as well as future vaccines (meningitis A and C, rotavirus, human papilloma virus (HPV), malaria, Streptococcus pneumoniae and tuberculosis) likely to be available within the 10-year period. We developed a methodology to estimate the number of doses required, based on disease prevalence and incidence, target populations, introduction dates of new vaccines, coverage dynamics and dosing regimen. The introduction price and price evolution of vaccines over time were modelled, taking into account the type of vaccine, the expected return on investment from vaccine manufacturers and the competitive landscape. Non-vaccine costs (capital costs and non-vaccine recurrent costs) were estimated based on the number of people immunised and number of doses dispensed, using available case studies as a reference. According to the optimal scenario that would consider the provision of all vaccines

  18. Anti-corruption programmes in post-communist transition countries and changes in the business environment, 1999-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Steves; Alan Rousso

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the anti-corruption activities of 24 transition countries in the period 1999-2002. These activities are divided into omnibus anti-corruption programmes, legislative reform aimed at tackling corruption, and adherence to international anti-corruption conventions. The paper presents a new measure for determining the extent of anti- corruption activity undertaken in these three categories during 1999- 2002. Using the results of a large survey of firms across the region, the pa...

  19. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-02

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner.

  20. A Study on the Translation of Erasmus+Programme Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩姣

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the European Commission carries out a new programme----"Erasmus+ Programme". It increases people's skills and employability through provides grants to support students, trainees, staff and volunteers to study or work abroad and organizations to organize activities. In order to let more Chinese people know about"Erasmus+Programme"and participate in it, the author of the paper just selects its introductory part Erasmus+Programme Guide to translate. While translating, the author of the paper finds that certain translation theory and correspondent translation methods must be adopted to guide the translation in order to produce a correct and expressive version. The paper is hence intended to study the translation theory and translation methods adopted in the translation of Erasmus+Programme Guide.

  1. Effectiveness of a regional self-study perinatal education programme: a successful adaptation in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, Lorenzo R; Campos, Miriam C; Cook, Lynn J; Vela, Gabriela R; Dávila, Jorge R

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Perinatal Continuing Education Programme (PCEP) in a Latin American country. We carried out a study within secondary and tertiary care, and rural Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula. Participants were doctors, nurses and nursing assistants working with pregnant women and newborns at each hospital. The PCEP was translated into Spanish and then implemented between January 1998 and December 2001. Two nurses at each hospital were trained to co-ordinate the programme and the personnel were invited to participate. Participation involved purchasing the self-teaching books, study outside work hours and participation in skills demonstration and practice sessions. Evaluation included the percentage of personnel who participated in and those who completed the programme, an opinion survey of the programme, level of pre- and post-intervention knowledge, and the quality of neonatal care according to expert-recommended routines. Results were analysed with chi-square and Student's t-tests. A total of 65.3% of the 1421 people in the study population began the programme and 72% of those completed it. Improvement was observed in 14 of 23 (PYucatan Peninsula, Mexico. This initial application of the PCEP in a Spanish-speaking country was successful.

  2. BIM Innovation Capability Programme - Irish BIM Study

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, Barry; Hore, Alan; West, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the Royal Institute of Architects Ireland (RIAI) conducted a survey which found that BIM adoption within Ireland was quite low at 16%. Over the last five years these figures have risen significantly, with the 2016 Irish Digital Transition Survey reporting that 76% of respondents possess confidence in their organisation’s BIM skills and knowledge. This represents a significant shift of BIM adoption in Ireland over the last five years. The BIM Innovation Capability Programme (BICP) I...

  3. Promoting healthy behaviours and improving health outcomes in low and middle income countries: a review of the impact of conditional cash transfer programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Lagarde, Mylene

    2012-11-01

    To provide an overview of Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes in low and middle income countries and present the evidence to date on their contribution to improvements in health and the encouragement of healthy behaviours. Several bibliographic databases and websites were used to identify relevant studies. To be included, a study had to provide evidence of effects of a financial incentive conditional upon specific health-related behaviours. Only experimental or quasi-experimental study designs were accepted. We identified 13 CCT programmes, whose effects had been evaluated, mostly in Latin-American countries. Their results suggest that CCTs have been effective in increasing the use of preventive services, improving immunisation coverage, certain health outcomes and in encouraging healthy behaviours. CCTs can be valuable tools to address some of the obstacles faced by populations in poorer countries to access health care services, or maybe to modify risky sexual behaviours. However, CCTs need to be combined with supply-side interventions to maximise effects. Finally, some questions remain regarding their sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Assessing the efficacy of a modified assertive community-based treatment programme in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botha Ulla A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recently published randomized controlled trials conducted in developed countries have reported no advantage for assertive interventions over standard care models. One possible explanation could be that so-called "standard care" has become more comprehensive in recent years, incorporating some of the salient aspects of assertive models in its modus operandi. Our study represents the first randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a modified assertive treatment service on readmission rates and other measures of outcome in a developing country. Methods High frequency service users were randomized into an intervention (n = 34 and a control (n = 26 group. The control group received standard community care and the active group an assertive intervention based on a modified version of the international model of assertive community treatment. Study visits were conducted at baseline and 12 months with demographic and illness information collected at visit 1 and readmission rates documented at study end. Symptomatology and functioning were measured at both visits using the PANSS, CDSS, ESRS, WHO-QOL and SOFAS. Results At 12 month follow-up subjects receiving the assertive intervention had significantly lower total PANSS (p = 0.02 as well as positive (p Conclusions Our results indicate that assertive interventions in a developing setting where standard community mental services are often under resourced can produce significant outcomes. Furthermore, these interventions need not be as expensive and comprehensive as international, first-world models in order to reduce inpatient days, improve psychopathology and overall levels of functioning in patients with severe mental illness.

  5. Seroepidemiology: an underused tool for designing and monitoring vaccination programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Felicity T; Hanson, Matt

    2016-09-01

    Seroepidemiology, the use of data on the prevalence of bio-markers of infection or vaccination, is a potentially powerful tool to understand the epidemiology of infection before vaccination and to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programmes. Global and national burden of disease estimates for hepatitis B and rubella are based almost exclusively on serological data. Seroepidemiology has helped in the design of measles, poliomyelitis and rubella elimination programmes, by informing estimates of the required population immunity thresholds for elimination. It contributes to monitoring of these programmes by identifying population immunity gaps and evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. Seroepidemiological data have also helped to identify contributing factors to resurgences of diphtheria, Haemophilus Influenzae type B and pertussis. When there is no confounding by antibodies induced by natural infection (as is the case for tetanus and hepatitis B vaccines), seroprevalence data provide a composite picture of vaccination coverage and effectiveness, although they cannot reliably indicate the number of doses of vaccine received. Despite these potential uses, technological, time and cost constraints have limited the widespread application of this tool in low-income countries. The use of venous blood samples makes it difficult to obtain high participation rates in surveys, but the performance of assays based on less invasive samples such as dried blood spots or oral fluid has varied greatly. Waning antibody levels after vaccination may mean that seroprevalence underestimates immunity. This, together with variation in assay sensitivity and specificity and the common need to take account of antibody induced by natural infection, means that relatively sophisticated statistical analysis of data is required. Nonetheless, advances in assays on minimally invasive samples may enhance the feasibility of including serology in large survey programmes in low

  6. The Information Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learners: A Case Study of the University of London International Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Tury, S.; Robinson, L; Bawden, D.

    2015-01-01

    An examination of the information behaviour of distance learning students is described, based on a case study of the International Programmes of the University of London. A comprehensive literature analysis, and comparison of relevant information behaviour models were carried out, supported by a survey of student behaviour. Following a pilot study, the main survey gained responses from 649 students, in 81 countries and following diverse study programmes. A variety of inter-related factors wer...

  7. Value for Money analysis of DFID-funded WASH programmes in six countries: Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tremolet, S; Prat, MA; Tincani, L.; Ross, I.; Mujica, A.; Burr, P.; Evans, BE

    2015-01-01

    This report presents summary findings from the Value for Money (VFM) analysis conducted for six DFID-funded programmes between September 2013 and April 2015. Based on these findings, the report formulates insights on how VFM analysis can be used to improve WASH programming. We identify challenges in doing such analysis and formulate recommendations to overcome these challenges to bring VFM analysis into the mainstream.

  8. Archives Educational Programs in Librarianship Schools : A Compression Study Between Algeria and Some Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheba Gheriamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the training of archivists in Algeria, specially of the origin and aims of archival studies programme in librarianship institute at the university of Algiers and comparing its experience with some Arabic contries like Egypt,Tunisia and Arabic Golf countries.

  9. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja K. Schachner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001 and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000, we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’ acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland, those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal, and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia. In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students’ ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  10. Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  12. QUALITY OF AN ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMME - EVALUATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Macur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of an academic study programme is evaluated by many: employees (internal evaluation and by external evaluators: experts, agencies and organisations. Internal and external evaluation of an academic programme follow written structure that resembles on one of the quality models. We believe the quality models (mostly derived from EFQM excellence model don’t fit very well into non-profit activities, policies and programmes, because they are much more complex than environment, from which quality models derive from (for example assembly line. Quality of an academic study programme is very complex and understood differently by various stakeholders, so we present dimensional evaluation in the article. Dimensional evaluation, as opposed to component and holistic evaluation, is a form of analytical evaluation in which the quality of value of the evaluand is determined by looking at its performance on multiple dimensions of merit or evaluation criteria. First stakeholders of a study programme and their views, expectations and interests are presented, followed by evaluation criteria. They are both joined into the evaluation model revealing which evaluation criteria can and should be evaluated by which stakeholder. Main research questions are posed and research method for each dimension listed.

  13. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries – An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M. M.; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers’ and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  14. Out-of-School-Time Study Programmes: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensiero, Nicola; Green, Francis

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the prevalence and effectiveness of out-of-school-time (OST) study programmes among secondary aged students, focusing on their potential for reducing socio-economic gaps in educational achievement. Compared to several extant studies, including the only prior study for Britain, whose findings could be affected by heterogeneous…

  15. Out-of-School-Time Study Programmes: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensiero, Nicola; Green, Francis

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the prevalence and effectiveness of out-of-school-time (OST) study programmes among secondary aged students, focusing on their potential for reducing socio-economic gaps in educational achievement. Compared to several extant studies, including the only prior study for Britain, whose findings could be affected by heterogeneous…

  16. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  17. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  18. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  19. Undoing the Knots: Identity Transformations in a Study Abroad Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Constance

    2011-01-01

    In times of globalised flows of students, this paper offers an alternative way of conceptualising identity change in the experiences of students on study abroad or student exchange programmes. Despite the "identity turn" of recent years, modernist notions of identity continue to impact on the ways in which study abroad experiences are conceived,…

  20. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans David B

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. Methods We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes – printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity – accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Results Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities

  1. General Practitioner Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme Study (GAPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avent, Minyon L; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Gilks, Charles;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a strong link between antibiotic consumption and the rate of antibiotic resistance. In Australia, the vast majority of antibiotics are prescribed by general practitioners, and the most common indication is for acute respiratory infections. The aim of this study is to assess...... have previously been demonstrated to be effective at reducing antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections, are: delayed prescribing; patient decision aids; communication training; commitment to a practice prescribing policy for antibiotics; patient information leaflet; and near patient...... testing with C-reactive protein. In addition, two sub-studies are nested in the main study: (1) point prevalence estimation carriage of bacterial upper respiratory pathogens in practice staff and asymptomatic patients; (2) feasibility of direct measures of antibiotic resistance by nose/throat swabbing...

  2. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    processes of change. Socioeconomic statistical information has been systematically published by Argentina’s Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos in...Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos Estima- 353 Argentina: A Country Study clones y proyecdones de poblaciion, 1950-2025. Buenos Aires: 1982...Aires: Institute Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, 1983. Argentina. Ministerio de Educaciön. Departamento de Estadis- tica. Estadisticas de la

  3. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    strengthen the cultural ties of the Singapore Chinese to China by establishing a cultural club, a debating society, Singapore’s first Chinese-language...break up ethnic en- claves and resettle kampong dwellers in Housing and Development Board apartment complexes had a great effect on the Malays. Evi- dence...for Communications and Information 201 Singapore: A Country Study ineffective in the 1980s. The major issues were economic, involv- ing debate over the

  4. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1972. Kundera , Milan . "The Czech Wager," New York Review of Books, 27, Nos. 21 and 22, January 21, 1981, 21-22. 369 Czechoslovakia.: A Country Study...1916, together with Eduard Bene§ and Milan Steffinik (a Slovak war hero), Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council. Masaryk in the United...Czechoslovakia’s aid only if French assistance came first. In 1935 Beneg succeeded Masaryk as president, and Prime Minister Milan Hod.a took over the Ministry

  5. Women Empowerment through Participation in Microcredit Programme: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdoushi Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although women constitute almost half of the total population of Bangladesh, they are ascribed a lower status than men. Especially, rural women in Bangladesh experience adverse situations in terms of socio-economic inequality and gender disparity. They are the most deprived of the society and majority of them are extremely poor. Microcredit programme contributes to increase empowerment of rural women in Bangladesh. Approach: This study examines the extent of empowerment creation of rural women through involvement in microcredit programme in Bangladesh. The study is based on empirical data collected through interview from the two groups of rural women e.g., with credit and without credit. The with credit respondent represents the rural women who have taken a loan from the Grammeen Banks microcredit programme. Results: The findings show that majority (84% of the with credit respondents are more empowered in terms of family decision making matters compared (76% to the without credit respondent. Conclusion: It is concluded that with credit rural women have enhanced their empowerment by participating in the microcredit programmes of Grameen Bank Bangladesh.

  6. Flexible learning: Evaluation of an international distance education programme designed to build the learning and teaching capacity of nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Tutticci, Naomi F; Douglas, Clint; Gray, Genevieve; Osborne, Yvonne; Evans, Katie; Nielson, Catherine M

    2016-11-01

    The professional development of nurse academics has been high on the agenda in many of the Asia-Pacific's developing countries including Vietnam. In collaboration with the Vietnamese Nurses Association, an Australian university designed and delivered a distance learning programme (DLP). The DLP sought to build academic capacity with a specific focus on the skills required to develop, implement and deliver a new national nursing curriculum. This paper will describe the design and delivery of the DLP as well as report on programme evaluation survey findings. Of the 175 surveys administered 112 were returned yielding a response rate of 64%. The majority of Vietnamese nurse academics identified all DLP modules as 'very well' designed and easy to learn from (range 63.9%-84.2%). Predominantly, academics also found the module content to be 'of great use' to their professional practice (range 73%-89.5%). Asked specifically about the benefit of the DLP online discussions, 106 (95.5%) participants stated they found the online discussions to be of use. An explanatory comment was also requested to explore this question and responses yielded three themes: 'networking and collaboration'; 'acquiring new knowledge'; and 'improving English'. When asked if they had changed their academic practice as a result of DLP participation, 105 (94.6%) academics stated they had - change was focussed on student centred learning and building a staff community of practice. While these study results indicate the DLP to be successful, it will be how Vietnamese academics utilise and build these skills which will measure the real success of the programme in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Martina, J.D.; Heugten, C.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic

  8. The Determinants of International Student Mobility Flows: An Empirical Study on the Erasmus Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Carlos; Bustillo Mesanza, Ricardo; Mariel, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The Erasmus Programme for higher education students is supposed to play an important socio-economic role within Europe. Erasmus student mobility flows have reached a relevant level of two million since 1987, boosted in recent years by the enlargement of the programme to eastern countries. Thereafter, it seems that flows have staggered. In this…

  9. The National Singing Programme for Primary Schools in England: An Initial Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…

  10. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    left in Bas-Zaire. 69 I- ________________________ Zaire: A Country Study In the east, the appropriation of land for ranching and planta - tions in the...tests positive for the AIDS virus ) in Kinshasa for the general popula- tion in 1987 were 6 to 8 percent; among prostitutes the figure was as high as 30...56 Kenya 550-77 Chile 550-81 Korea, North 550-60 China 550-41 Korea, South 550-26 Colombia 550-58 Laos 550-33 Commonwealth Caribbean, 550-24 Lebanon

  11. The role of early childhood education programmes in the promotion of child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen

    2014-04-01

    There is growing evidence that early childhood education (ECE) interventions can reduce the loss of developmental potential of disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). Less attention has been paid to the potential of these programmes to prevent child mental health problems and promote child well-being. Peer-reviewed journal articles describing controlled evaluations of ECE interventions in LAMIC were reviewed to identify studies with child mental health outcomes. Studies with proximal outcomes for child mental health including caregiver practices and caregiver mental health were also reviewed. Of 63 studies identified, 21 (33.33%) included child mental health outcomes; 12 of 16 studies with short-term measures showed benefits; 6 studies included a longer-term follow-up and all found benefits; 25 studies included caregiver outcomes: consistent benefits were found for caregiver practices (21 studies) and 6 of 9 studies that measured caregiver mental health reported benefits. Gains to child mental health may be most likely when ECE interventions include three main elements: (i) activities to increase child skills including cognition, language, self-regulation and social-emotional competence; (ii) training caregivers in the skills required to provide a cognitively stimulating and emotionally supportive environment; and (iii) attention to the caregivers' mental health, motivation and self-efficacy. Recommendations for the design and implementation of programmes are provided. ECE interventions are an important component of mental health prevention and promotion in LAMIC, and promoting child and caregiver well-being is a fundamental aspect of interventions to improve child development.

  12. Fault tolerant programmable digital attitude control electronics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude control electronics mechanization study to develop a fault tolerant autonomous concept for a three axis system is reported. Programmable digital electronics are compared to general purpose digital computers. The requirements, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) general fault tolerance can be achieved relatively economically, (2) recovery times of less than one second can be obtained, (3) the number of faulty behavior patterns must be limited, and (4) adjoined processes are the best indicators of faulty operation.

  13. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  14. Area Handbook Series: Angola: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    insurgency waged by the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola ( Unido Nacional para a Independncia Total de Angola-UNITA), which caused...Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organi- zation ( UNIDO ). The government also controlled the...of Angola (Marinha de Guerra Popular de Angola-MGPA) remained a relatively unimportant branch of the armed forces because of the exigencies of the

  15. Enhancing the attractiveness of european study programmes in biosystems engineering - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Wageningen University and all study programmes are very internationally oriented. First, most of the master programmes have a mandatory internship of 24 credits and the students are stimulated to go abroad. Second, the new structure of the programmes by September 2010 make it for especially the

  16. Enhancing the attractiveness of european study programmes in biosystems engineering - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Wageningen University and all study programmes are very internationally oriented. First, most of the master programmes have a mandatory internship of 24 credits and the students are stimulated to go abroad. Second, the new structure of the programmes by September 2010 make it for especially the bach

  17. Psycho-education programme for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Maaytah Mohammed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are by far the most predominant condition affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, however many patients have mild self-limiting symptoms and should not be referred for specialist care. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a simple, cost-effective management programme for TMDs using CD-ROM. 41 patients (age 18–70 participated in this study, patients were divided into three groups: the 1st group were involved in an attention placebo CD-ROM (contain anatomical information about the temporomandibular system, the 2nd group received information on CD-ROM designed to increase their control and self efficacy, while the 3rd group received the same programme of the 2nd group added to it an introduction to self-relaxing techniques followed by audio tape of progressive muscle relaxation exercises. Each of the groups was asked to complete a number of questionnaires on the day of initial consultation and six weeks afterwards. Results The two experimental groups (2nd & 3rd were equally effective in reducing pain, disability and distress, and both were more effective than the attention placebo group (1st, however the experimental groups appeared to have improved at follow-up relative to the placebo-group in terms of disability, pain and depressed mood. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of the design. A full, randomized, controlled trial is required to confirm the efficacy of the interventions developed here.

  18. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

  20. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  1. 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC. building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective provider-parent communication can improve childhood vaccination uptake and strengthen immunisation services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Building capacity to improve communication strategies has been neglected. Rigorous research exists but is not readily found or applicable to LMICs, making it difficult for policy makers to use it to inform vaccination policies and practice. The aim of this project is to build research knowledge and capacity to use evidence-based strategies for improving communication about childhood vaccinations with parents and communities in LMICs. Methods and design This project is a mixed methods study with six sub-studies. In sub-study one, we will develop a systematic map of provider-parent communication interventions for childhood vaccinations by screening and extracting data from relevant literature. This map will inform sub-study two, in which we will develop a taxonomy of interventions to improve provider-parent communication around childhood vaccination. In sub-study three, the taxonomy will be populated with trial citations to create an evidence map, which will also identify how evidence is linked to communication barriers regarding vaccination. In the project's fourth sub-study, we will present the interventions map, taxonomy, and evidence map to international stakeholders to identify high-priority topics for systematic reviews of interventions to improve parent-provider communication for childhood vaccination. We will produce systematic reviews of the effects of high-priority interventions in the fifth sub-study. In the sixth and final sub-study of the project, evidence from the systematic reviews will be translated into accessible formats and messages for dissemination to LMICs. Discussion This project combines evidence mapping, conceptual and taxonomy development, priority setting, systematic reviews, and knowledge transfer. It will build and share concepts, terms

  2. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was the Tijaniyah, a sect begun by Ahmad at Tijani in Morocco, which eventually penetrated Sudan in about 1810 via the western Sahel (see Glossary...rainfall in the usually productive regions of the Sahel (see Glossary) and southern Sudan added to the country’s economic problems. Refugees, both Sudanese...be irrigated for the first time. Heavy silting as well as serious problems of drainage and salinity occurred. As a result, by the late 1970s the

  3. Area Handbook Series: Libya, a Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    only true mountains, Tibesti Massif, rise in southern desert. Country has several saline lakes but no peren- nial watercourses. Less than 5 percent of...facilitate expanded Sanusi missionary activities in the Sahel and in sub-Saharan Africa. The Grand Sanusi’s son, Muhammad, succeeded him as the order’s...Groundwater was in short supply in the agricultural areas. In some locations it had been so excessively drawn upon that it had become brackish or saline

  4. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  5. Self-transfer and mortality amongst adults lost to follow-up in ART programmes in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lynne S; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Ajose, Olawale; Ford, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    To ascertain estimates of adult patients, recorded as lost to follow-up (LTFU) within antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, who have self-transferred care, died or truly stopped ART in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, IndMed and AIM databases (2003-2013) and IAS/AIDS conference abstracts (2011-2013) were searched for tracing studies reporting the proportion of traced patients found to have self-transferred, died or stopped ART. These estimates were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Twenty eight studies were eligible for inclusion, reporting true outcomes for 10,806 traced patients attending approximately 258 ART facilities. None were from outside sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty three studies reported 4.5-54.4% traced LTFU patients self-transferring care, providing a pooled estimate of 18.6% (95% CI 15.8-22.0%). A significant positive association was found between rates of self-transfer and LTFU in the ART cohort. The pooled estimates for unreported deaths were 38.8% (95% CI 30.8-46.8%; 27 studies) and 28.6% (95% CI 21.9-36.0%; 20 studies) for patients stopping ART. A significant decrease in unreported deaths from 50.0% (95% CI 41.5-58.4%) to 30.0% (95% CI 21.1-38.9%) was found comparing study periods before and after 31 December 2007. Substantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths amongst patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  7. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students' experiences of a study abroad programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Heidi C; Turner, de Sales

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students. background: Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity and incorporate this into caregiving. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students' experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock, and making a decision to take on the ways of the host culture. These actions led to an understanding that being sensitive to another culture required being open to its dynamics, acknowledging social and political structures, and incorporating other people's beliefs about health and illness. The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory-practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes on the deliver of culturally sensitive care.

  8. How have ART treatment programmes changed the patterns of excess mortality in people living with HIV? Estimates from four countries in East and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Slaymaker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial falls in the mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH have been observed since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa. However, access and uptake of ART have been variable in many countries. We report the excess deaths observed in PLWH before and after the introduction of ART. We use data from five longitudinal studies in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, members of the network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA. Methods: Individual data from five demographic surveillance sites that conduct HIV testing were used to estimate mortality attributable to HIV, calculated as the difference between the mortality rates in PLWH and HIV-negative people. Excess deaths in PLWH were standardized for age and sex differences and summarized over periods before and after ART became generally available. An exponential regression model was used to explore differences in the impact of ART over the different sites. Results: 127,585 adults across the five sites contributed a total of 487,242 person years. Before the introduction of ART, HIV-attributable mortality ranged from 45 to 88 deaths per 1,000 person years. Following ART availability, this reduced to 14–46 deaths per 1,000 person years. Exponential regression modeling showed a reduction of more than 50% (HR =0.43, 95% CI: 0.32–0.58, compared to the period before ART was available, in mortality at ages 15–54 across all five sites. Discussion: Excess mortality in adults living with HIV has reduced by over 50% in five communities in sub-Saharan Africa since the advent of ART. However, mortality rates in adults living with HIV are still 10 times higher than in HIV-negative people, indicating that substantial improvements can be made to reduce mortality further. This analysis shows differences in the impact across the sites, and contrasts with developed countries where mortality among PLWH on ART can be

  9. Study on the feasibility of provision of distance learning programmes in surgery to Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Edward A A; Blackmur, James P; Dewhurst, David; Ward, Ross M; Garden, O James; Wigmore, Stephen J

    2011-12-01

    Medical educational opportunities and resources are considerably limited in the developing world. The expansion of computing and Internet access means that there exists a potential to provide education to students through distance learning programmes. This study investigated the feasibility of providing distance learning course in surgery in Malawi. The study investigated the user requirements, technical requirements and Internet connections in two teaching hospitals in Malawi. In addition the appropriateness of current course material from the Edinburgh Surgical Sciences Qualification to Malawi trainees was assessed. The study found a high degree of interest from Malawian trainees in distance learning. The provision of basic science modules such as anatomy and physiology and the ability to access journals were considered highly desirable. The current ESSQ course would require extensive re-modelling to make it suitable to an African trainee's requirements. Internet speeds remain slow and access is currently expensive. There is considerable interest in distance learning programmes in Malawi but access to them is limited partly because of slow and expensive Internet access. Understanding the needs of trainees in countries such as Malawi will allow better direction of educational aid and resources to support surgical training. Copyright © 2010 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementing large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce in low- and middle-income settings: a multicountry case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Unni; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire

    2014-12-01

    To identify factors affecting the implementation of large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a multicountry case study synthesis. Eligible programmes were identified through consultation with experts and using Internet searches. Programmes were selected purposively to match the inclusion criteria. Programme documents were gathered via Google Scholar and PubMed and from key informants. The SURE Framework - a comprehensive list of factors that may influence the implementation of health system interventions - was used to organise the data. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key issues that emerged from the case studies. Programmes from Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Malawi, Venezuela and Zimbabwe were selected. Key system-level factors affecting the implementation of the programmes were related to health worker training and continuing education, management and programme support structures, the organisation and delivery of services, community participation, and the sociopolitical environment. Existing weaknesses in health systems may undermine the implementation of large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce. Changes in the roles and responsibilities of cadres may also, in turn, impact the health system throughout. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  12. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  13. Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad.

  14. Mathematics Teachers' Perception of Lesson Study as a Continuous Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Hj Suhaili, Hj Ade Shahren; Khalid, Madihah

    2011-01-01

    Lesson Study can be viewed as a continuous development programme because it offers teachers support in an environment unlike other traditional continuous development programmes. In this study, 28 primary mathematics teachers were surveyed and 4 out of the 28 were interviewed to examine how they perceived Lesson Study as professional development.…

  15. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) has proven to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Health Service – Osakidetza (Spain). Method/Design This is a randomised clinical trial in which patients diagnosed with DM2, 18–79 years of age, from four health regions within the Basque Health Service will be randomised into two groups: an intervention group, who will follow the SDSMP, and a control group, who will receive usual care in accordance with the clinical guidelines for DM2 and existing regulations in our region. The intervention consists of 2,5 hour-group sessions once a week for six weeks. The sessions cover target setting and problem solving techniques, promotion of physical exercise, basic knowledge of nutrition, proper use of medication, effective communication with relatives and health professionals, and basic knowledge about DM2 and its complications. This content is complemented by educational material: books, leaflets and CDs. The primary outcome measure will be the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and secondary outcome measures will include changes in levels of physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables, cardiovascular risk, quality of life, self-efficacy, number of consultations and drug prescriptions. The results will be analysed 6, 12 and 24 months after the intervention. Discussion If the intervention were to be effective, the programme should be spread to the entire diabetic population in the Basque Country and it could also be applied for other diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394 PMID:23718222

  16. Social inequality in health: dichotomy or gradient? A comparative study of problematizations in national public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2008-01-01

    Recent public health programmes from four countries: Denmark, England, Norway, and Sweden, are studied to analyse how social inequality in health is described, explained and suggested to be tackled, i.e., the problematization or the discursive process whereby the issue is framed and made accessible to political action. Social inequality in health is defined in these programmes both as a disadvantaged minority with major health problems, in contrast to the rest of the population, i.e., as a dichotomy; and as a gradient in which health problems are seen as increasing with lower social class or educational level. The causes of health inequality are identified as behaviour, social relations and underlying social structures. Policies aimed at reducing health inequality can be characterized as either in accordance with a residual welfare state model, targeting the disadvantaged, or a universal model, addressing the whole population. All countries have policies that are mixtures of these problematizations, but with some systematic differences between the countries. In this field England resembles the Scandinavian countries, as much as they resemble each other dispelling the idea of a Nordic or Scandinavian welfare state model.

  17. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in...

  18. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand...

  19. Curriculum (Study Programme) for the M.Sc., Medialogy, at Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf; Lavatino, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen.......Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen....

  20. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  1. Research capacity building in midwifery: Case study of an Australian Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Lewis, Lucy; Bayes, Sara; Keyes, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Having the research capacity to identify problems, create new knowledge and most importantly translate this knowledge into practice is essential within health care. Midwifery, as well as other health professions in Australia, is challenged in building its research capacity to contribute evidence to inform clinical practice. The aim of this project was to evaluate an innovative Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme offered at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Western Australia, to determine what was working well and how the programme could be improved. A case study approach was used to gain feedback from graduate midwives within a Graduate Research Intern (GRI) Programme. In addition outcomes were compiled of all projects the GRI midwives contributed to. Six GRI midwives participated in a survey comprising of four open ended questions to provide feedback about the programme. Findings confirm that the GRI programme increased the graduates understanding of how research works, its capacity to define a problem, generate new knowledge and inform clinical practice. The GRI midwives' feedback suggested the programme opened their thinking to future study and gave them enhanced insight into women's experiences around childbirth. To grow our knowledge as a professional group, midwives must develop and promote programmes to build our pool of research capable midwives. By sharing our programme evaluation we hope to entice other clinical settings to consider the value in replicating such a programme within their context. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Programme news: agencies report on their activities in nutrition. How is interagency coordination in countries actually meant to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination representatives have been urged to establish thematic groups to facilitate interagency coordination in their countries. By 1996, there were only six countries--Angola, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, and North Korea--that had not yet established such groups. In addition to information exchange and networking, thematic groups have focused on joint programming, development of sector plans, and resource mobilization. Four clusters of themes exist: food security and agriculture, health and population, poverty, and HIV. Remaining is a need to operationalize technical strategies and agency agendas, translate cross-sectoral priorities into sectoral priorities, and evaluate ongoing programs.

  3. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely.

  4. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Southeast Asian Studies, 1987. Villanueva , Honesto A. "The Independence Mission 1919: In- dependence Lies Ahead," Asian Studies [Manila], 9, No. 3...26, No. 5, May 1986, 501-17. Majul, Cesar Abid. "The Moros of the Philippines," Conflict, 8. Nos. 2-3, 1988, 169-84. Malajacan, Marcelino Q., Jr

  5. The IFLA ALP (Advancement of Librarianship in Developing Countries) Programme: A Bibliography. 1966-1990. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eve

    This bibliography presents sources which trace the development of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions' (IFLA) policy for the support of librarianship in Third World countries, the development of awareness and sensitivity to its issues within the library and information world, and the way in which professionals in…

  6. A Feminist Study of a Political Education Programme for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…

  7. Study on Position Control System with Programmable Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 卢仁军; 郝云鹏

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problems of mechanical cam, tracking in an automatic welding machine, a new method of programmable logic controller ( PLC) tracking is presented. Based on analyzing the forming of welding tracking, a mathematical model of position control is set up. The experiments show that using a modified machine, PLC makes little welding positional error and can meet the product requirements.

  8. A Feminist Study of a Political Education Programme for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Women's Campaign School (WCS) is a non-partisan, non-formal three-day educational programme held annually in Vancouver, to empower and inspire women to enter politics and as a means towards socio-political change. Our findings show the WCS provides excellent practical and tactical skills and an experiential learning opportunity that is highly…

  9. Coming to Know about the Body in Human Movement Studies Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Valeria; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of undergraduate Human Movement Studies (HMS) students learnt to know about the body during their four-year academic programme at an Australian university. When students begin an undergraduate programme in HMS they bring with them particular constructions, ideas and beliefs about their own bodies and about the body…

  10. The Preparation of Cognitively Agile Principals for Turnaround Schools: A Leadership Preparation Programme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Guerra, Daniel; Pisapia, John; Mick, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of two educational leadership university programmes to improve the cognitive agility of their graduates. The research looked to discover whether the aspiring principals exited the programmes with an increased ability to employ cognitive agility--the ability to use the multiple thinking skills of…

  11. Diving in and Exploring Curricular Frameworks: The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracy; MacIntyre, Bill; Bicknell, Brenda; Cutler, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre has developed a programme for secondary gifted and talented students offering hands-on science in the real world. These programmes are designed to include elements of the Enrichment Triad Model (ETM), specifically the three types of enrichment, and, to a lesser degree, some aspects of the Schoolwide Enrichment…

  12. The relative roles of ANC and EPI in the continuous distribution of LLINs: a qualitative study in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss-Nyland, Katherine; Koné, Diakalia; Karema, Corine; Ejersa, Waqo; Webster, Jayne; Lines, Jo

    2017-05-01

    The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries. In a qualitative evaluation of continuous distribution through the ANC and EPI, semi-structured, individual and group interviews were conducted in Kenya, Malawi, Mali, and Rwanda. Respondents included national, sub-national, and facility-level health staff, and were selected to capture a range of roles related to malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. Policies, guidelines, and data collection tools were reviewed as a means of triangulation to assess the structure of LLIN distribution, and the methods of data collection and reporting for malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. In the four countries visited, distribution of LLINs was more effectively integrated through ANC than through EPI because of a) stronger linkages and involvement between malaria and reproductive health programmes, as compared to malaria and EPI, and b) more complete programme monitoring for ANC-based distribution, compared to EPI-based distribution. Opportunities for improving the distribution of LLINs through these channels exist, especially in the case of EPI. For both ANC and EPI, integrated distribution of LLINs has the potential to act as an incentive, improving the already strong coverage of both these essential services. The collection and reporting of data on LLINs distributed through the ANC and EPI can provide insight into the performance of LLIN distribution within these programmes. Greater attention to data collection and use, by both the global malaria community, and the integrated programmes, can improve

  13. Area Handbook Series: Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    urea fertilizer, and in 1987 Iraq continued to import fertilizer as an emergency measure. Meanwhile, additional fertilizer plants were 151 Iraq: A...Study 1980 and 1985; 1985 production totaled almost 150,000 tons. Iraq also produced maize , millet, and oil seeds in smaller quantities. A number of

  14. Area Handbook Series: Yugoslavia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Center Press, 1988. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and Prospects for Economic Re- form in Yugoslavia," Eastern European Politics and Societies, 2, Winter...1988, 94-114. 312 Bibliography Bukowski , Charles J., and Mark A. Cichock (eds.). Prospects for Change in Socialist Systems. New York: Praeger, 1987...67. Biberaj, Elez. "Yugoslavia: A Continuing Crisis?" Conflict Studies [London], 225, October 1989, 1-22. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and

  15. Area Handbook Series: Paraguay: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    University of New Mexico Press, 1978. Wilgus, A. Curtis. Historical Atlas of Latin America: Political, Geo- graphic, Economic, Cultural . New York...34 Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35, No. 3, April 1987, 601-27. Benftez, Luis G. Historia de la educacin paraguaya. Asunci6n: In- dustrial... cultural factors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the

  16. Assessing the effects of HIV/AIDS and TB disease control programmes on health systems in low- and middle-income countries of Southeast Asia: a semi-systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conseil, A; Mounier-Jack, S; Rudge, J W; Coker, R

    2013-12-01

    To systematically review the literature on if and how HIV/AIDS and TB programmes have impacted on general healthcare systems in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Medline, Embase, Global Health and CINHAL were searched for English language literature published between 1st January 2003 and 31st March 2011. Papers included had to focus on: HIV and/or TB control programmes; the low- and-middle-income ASEAN countries; and factors related to any health systems functions. The effects were examined along six system functions: Stewardship and Governance; Financing; Planning; Service Delivery; Monitoring and Evaluation; and Demand Generation. A comprehensive thematic analytical tool aligned with the above six health systems functions was developed to support data extraction and analysis. 88 papers met the inclusion criteria. Most programme effects highlighted were related with health service delivery. The other five health system functions were seldom scrutinized, and each covered by less than a quarter of papers. Overall 69% of effects highlighted were positive effects whereas 31% were negative. There was a paucity of robust evidence. Effects on health systems were rarely a focus of research protocols but more often a minor component in the Results/Discussion sections. Particular attention should be paid by Global Health Initiatives to the negative effects that emerged from this study, such as the development of parallel systems, specific incentives not available to the general health systems, and lack of integration of services with private healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping evidence of interventions and strategies to bridge the gap in the implementation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme policy in sub-Saharan countries: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroda H. Ngidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV is a life-saving public health intervention. Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries have made significant progress in the programme, but little is known about the strategies used by them to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV.Aim: To map evidence of strategies and interventions employed by SSA in bridging the implementation gap in the rapidly changing PMTCT of HIV programme policy.Methods: Electronic search of the databases MEDLINE, PubMed and SABINET for articles published in English between 2001 and August 2016. Key words included ‘Sub-Saharan African countries’, ‘implementation strategies’, ‘interventions to bridge implementation gap’, ‘prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV’ and ‘closing implementation gap’.Results: Of a total of 743 articles, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Manual content analysis resulted in the identification of three categories of strategies: (1 health system (referral systems, integration of services, supportive leadership, systematic quality-improvement approaches that vigorously monitors programme performance; (2 health service delivery (task shifting, networking, shared platform for learning, local capacity building, supportive supervision; as well as (3 community-level strategies (community health workers, technology use – mHealth, family-centred approaches, male involvement, culturally appropriate interventions.Conclusion: There are strategies that exist in SSA countries. Future research should examine multifaceted scientific models to prioritise the highest impact and be evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency.

  18. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  19. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  20. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  1. Evaluation of mentorship programme in nursing education: a pilot study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Hülya; Hisar, Filiz; Demir, Sevil Güler

    2010-11-01

    Mentorships increase the students' confidence, help ease the difficulties associated with their new environment and reality, increase self-esteem and help socialize students into the nursing role. The main objective of the programme was to support mentee students in facilitating their transition to the university and nursing. This descriptive, exploratory study was designed using Maslow's hierarchy of needs and a pre/post test Rotter's locus of control. Sixty-two (62) first-year students and fifty-eight (58) fourth-year students were eligible to be in the mentoring programme. Mentors and mentees contacted each other weekly as required to provide information and support. Nursing lecturers were available to support the mentors for regular contact over the 13 weeks of the programme. The data were collected by questionnaire for the first-year and fourth-year students. In addition, in order to determine the efficacy of the mentoring programme, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale was administered to first-year students both at the beginning and the end of the study. The majority of first-year students stated that they benefited from the programme. It was established that the mentoring programme influenced the locus of control positively. The mentoring programme may be used to improve the adaptation of nursing students to both the university and nursing profession. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Should I stay or should I go? A systematic review of factors that influence healthcare students' decisions around study abroad programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary; Boateng, Edward Appiah; Evans, Catrin

    2016-04-01

    Study abroad programmes have been shown to have significant benefits for participating healthcare students such as promoting cultural awareness and understanding of different healthcare settings, policies and practices. Healthcare students are encouraged to undertake elective or Erasmus placements overseas to enhance personal and professional development and to broaden horizons through lived cultural experience. However, there is a relatively low uptake of such opportunities amongst this student group. This systematic review aimed to explore factors that influence healthcare students' decision making around study abroad opportunities within undergraduate training programmes. A systematic review was undertaken utilising a narrative synthesis approach. A comprehensive literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, and ERIC databases. Key institutions were contacted for grey literature. Studies that reported on factors that influence healthcare students' decisions regarding study abroad programmes were included in the review. Ten studies were identified for inclusion (5 qualitative studies, 5 surveys), indicating a paucity of research in this area. Data synthesis indicates that factors that influence healthcare students' decisions to participate in study abroad programmes are similar across different geographic locations and different professional groups. Factors that support decisions to study overseas include having sufficient information about study abroad programmes, especially early in an academic programme, having an interest in other cultures/countries and having academic staff and family as positive role models who motivate them to study abroad. Key barriers are cost and language issues. Language remains a significant barrier even when generous bursaries are available, as with the Erasmus scheme, when students are not proficient with the language spoken in host countries. Students tend to prefer destinations where language is not

  3. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient -0.039; 95% CI: -0.058, -0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.035, -0.003), GNI (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.055, -0.015), and both EI and GNI (-0.017; 95% CI: -0.033, -0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.

  4. Digital mammography in a screening programme and its implications for pathology: a comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Most studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with conventional screen-film mammography (SFM) have been radiology-based. The pathological implications of FFDM have received little attention in the literature, especially in the context of screening programmes. The primary objective of this retrospective study is to compare FFDM with SFM in a population-based screening programme with regard to a number of pathological parameters.

  5. Xpert® MTB/RIF for national tuberculosis programmes in low-income countries: when, where and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trébucq, A; Enarson, D A; Chiang, C Y; Van Deun, A; Harries, A D; Boillot, F; Detjen, A; Fujiwara, P I; Graham, S M; Monedero, I; Rusen, I D; Rieder, H L

    2011-12-01

    Xpert ® MTB/RIF offers new and important possibilities for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and/or rifampicin (RMP) resistance, and many are encouraging rapid and widespread implementation. This simple test can be implemented almost everywhere, and it provides results within a few hours. In low-income countries (LICs), however, its cost, environmental limitations (stable and regular electricity, adequate room temperature) and difficulties involved in supply and maintenance are major obstacles. While it may be suitable for major reference hospitals, operational research is needed to evaluate the test and its additional yield above high-quality smear microscopy and clinical algorithms before its use at the peripheral level. In the meantime, direct microscopy should remain the initial diagnostic test for TB suspects. In most LICs, the prevalence of RMP resistance among new TB patients is very low; an Xpert MTB/RIF result indicating RMP resistance will thus always need confirmation by another test. In a population at high risk of RMP resistance (> 15%), however, the positive predictive value for RMP resistance by Xpert MTB/RIF is high, and identification of RMP resistance is an excellent proxy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The assay should be widely used for this purpose if, and only if, excellent MDR-TB management is available, both for ethical reasons and to reduce the risk of extensively drug-resistant TB.

  6. A prospective survey in European Society of Cardiology member countries of atrial fibrillation management: baseline results of EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot General Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Laroche, Cécile; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Santini, Massimo; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Oliveira, Mário Martins; Mairesse, Georges; Crijns, Harry J G M; Simantirakis, Emmanouil; Atar, Dan; Kirchhof, Paulus; Vardas, Panos; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P

    2014-03-01

    Given the advances in atrial fibrillation (AF) management and the availability of new European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, there is a need for the systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of AF in ESC member countries. We conducted a registry of consecutive in- and outpatients with AF presenting to cardiologists in nine participating ESC countries. All patients with an ECG-documented diagnosis of AF confirmed in the year prior to enrolment were eligible. We enroled a total of 3119 patients from February 2012 to March 2013, with full data on clinical subtype available for 3049 patients (40.4% female; mean age 68.8 years). Common comorbidities were hypertension, coronary disease, and heart failure. Lone AF was present in only 3.9% (122 patients). Asymptomatic AF was common, particularly among those with permanent AF. Amiodarone was the most common antiarrhythmic agent used (∼20%), while beta-blockers and digoxin were the most used rate control drugs. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) were used in 80% overall, most often vitamin K antagonists (71.6%), with novel OACs being used in 8.4%. Other antithrombotics (mostly antiplatelet therapy, especially aspirin) were still used in one-third of the patients, and no antithrombotic treatment in only 4.8%. Oral anticoagulants were used in 56.4% of CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, with 26.3% having no antithrombotic therapy. A high HAS-BLED score was not used to exclude OAC use, but there was a trend towards more aspirin use in the presence of a high HAS-BLED score. The EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot Registry has provided systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of AF by cardiologists in ESC member countries. Oral anticoagulant use has increased, but novel OAC use was still low. Compliance with the treatment guidelines for patients with the lowest and higher stroke risk scores remains suboptimal.

  7. Effectiveness of a balance training home exercise programme for adults with haemophilia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K; Fearn, M; Williams, S; Mudge, L; Walsh, C; McCarthy, P; Walsh, M; Street, A

    2010-01-01

    Adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders often develop lower limb musculoskeletal problems associated with bleeds into joints and muscles, which may affect balance performance and increase likelihood of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized balance and strength home exercise programme on improving balance and related outcomes for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. Twenty male adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders (mean age 39.4 years, 95% CI = 33.7-45.1) were recruited to participate. They underwent a comprehensive clinical and force platform assessment of balance and related measures. Based on assessment findings, the assessing physiotherapist provided an individualized home exercise programme of balance, strengthening and walking exercises. Re-assessment occurred after the 4-month exercise programme. Twelve participants (60%) completed the programme and were re-assessed. There were no safety problems or dropouts associated with the exercise programme aggravating joint status. Although there were no statistically significant changes in any of the measures (adjusted for multiple comparisons), there were improvements of between 5% and 22% on 10 of the 16 measures, with the Neurocom modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (P = 0.036) and Timed Sit to Stand (P = 0.064) approaching significance. A tailored home exercise programme targeting balance, strengthening and walking is feasible for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. These results suggest that positive physical outcomes including improved balance and mobility may be achieved with this type of programme.

  8. Improving the well-being of elderly patients via community pharmacy-based provision of pharmaceutical care - A multicentre study in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsten, C; Bjorkman, [No Value; Caramona, M; Crealey, G; Frokjaer, B; Grundberger, E; Gustafsson, T; Henman, M; Herborg, H; Hughes, C; McElnay, J; Magner, M; van Mil, F; Schaeffer, M; Silva, S; Sondergaard, B; Sturgess, [No Value; Tromp, D; Vivero, L; Winterstein, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to measure the outcomes of a harmonised, structured pharmaceutical care programme provided to elderly patients: (greater than or equal to 65 years of age) by community pharmacists in a multicentre international study performed in 7 European countries. Design and setting:

  9. [Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan.

  10. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  11. Indicators for tracking programmes to strengthen health research capacity in lower- and middle-income countries: a qualitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Boyd, Alan; Aslanyan, Garry; Bates, Imelda

    2014-04-12

    The monitoring and evaluation of health research capacity strengthening (health RCS) commonly involves documenting activities and outputs using indicators or metrics. We sought to catalogue the types of indicators being used to evaluate health RCS and to assess potential gaps in quality and coverage. We purposively selected twelve evaluations to maximize diversity in health RCS, funders, countries, and approaches to evaluation. We explored the quality of the indicators and extracted them into a matrix across individual, institutional, and national/regional/network levels, based on a matrix in the ESSENCE Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation framework. We synthesized across potential impact pathways (activities to outputs to outcomes) and iteratively checked our findings with key health RCS evaluation stakeholders. Evaluations varied remarkably in the strengths of their evaluation designs. The validity of indicators and potential biases were documented in a minority of reports. Indicators were primarily of activities, outputs, or outcomes, with little on their inter-relationships. Individual level indicators tended to be more quantitative, comparable, and attentive to equity considerations. Institutional and national-international level indicators were extremely diverse. Although linkage of activities through outputs to outcomes within evaluations was limited, across the evaluations we were able to construct potential pathways of change and assemble corresponding indicators. Opportunities for improving health RCS evaluations include work on indicator measurement properties and development of indicators which better encompass relationships with knowledge users. Greater attention to evaluation design, prospective indicator measurement, and systematic linkage of indicators in keeping with theories of change could provide more robust evidence on outcomes of health RCS.

  12. Market competition and price of disease management programmes: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; Venema, Bob; de Jong, Judith D; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2014-10-30

    Managed competition was introduced into the health care system in several countries including the Netherlands, although effects of competition of both providers and health insurers on the price of health care are inconclusive. We investigated the association between competition of both providers (care groups) and health insurers and the price of disease management programmes (DMPs). Data from 76 DMP contractual agreements for type II diabetes mellitus in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were used to analyse the association between market competition and the price of DMPs. Market competition was calculated per municipal health services region (GGD). Insurer market competition was measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), care group competition by the number of care groups and the care group market share of GPs. The effect of competition was cross-sectionally studied with linear regression analyses. Insurer market concentration (HHI) and care group market share were not associated with the price of DMPs. The number of care groups in a GGD region was associated with a lower price (-€4.68; 95% CI: -8.36 - -1.00). The mean difference in the price of DMPs between health insurers was €58. The price of DMPs seems to be more dependent on the particular health insurer than on market conditions. For competition among health insurers and provider groups to develop, preconditions such as selective contracting and option for patient to change provider should be in place.

  13. A pilot study evaluating a support programme for parents of young people with suicidal behaviour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE) was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples\\' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents\\' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32) of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme) and 37% (N = 17) of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme).A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children\\'s difficulties. RESULTS: Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  14. A pilot study evaluating a support programme for parents of young people with suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley Sinead

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm (DSH is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. Methods Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32 of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme and 37% (N = 17 of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme. A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children's difficulties. Results Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  15. Implementing the RISE second victim support programme at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Hanan; Connors, Cheryl; Paine, Lori; Norvell, Matt; Taylor, Henry; Wu, Albert W

    2016-01-01

    Background Second victims are healthcare workers who experience emotional distress following patient adverse events. Studies indicate the need to develop organisational support programmes for these workers. The RISE (Resilience In Stressful Events) programme was developed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital to provide this support. Objective To describe the development of RISE and evaluate its initial feasibility and subsequent implementation. Programme phases included (1) developing the RISE programme, (2) recruiting and training peer responders, (3) pilot launch in the Department of Paediatrics and (4) hospital-wide implementation. Methods Mixed-methods study, including frequency counts of encounters, staff surveys and evaluations by RISE peer responders. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic characteristics and proportions of responses to categorical, Likert and ordinal scales. Qualitative analysis and coding were used to analyse open-ended responses from questionnaires and focus groups. Results A baseline staff survey found that most staff had experienced an unanticipated adverse event, and most would prefer peer support. A total of 119 calls, involving ∼500 individuals, were received in the first 52 months. The majority of calls were from nurses, and very few were related to medical errors (4%). Peer responders reported that the encounters were successful in 88% of cases and 83.3% reported meeting the caller's needs. Low awareness of the programme was a barrier to hospital-wide expansion. However, over the 4 years, the rate of calls increased from ∼1–4 calls per month. The programme evolved to accommodate requests for group support. Conclusions Hospital staff identified the need for a multidisciplinary peer support programme for second victims. Peer responders reported success in responding to calls, the majority of which were for adverse events rather than for medical errors. The low initial volume of calls emphasises the importance of

  16. Influenza in Thailand: a case study for middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, James Mark; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Kingnate, Darika; Fukuda, Keiji; Chaising, Arunee; Dowell, Scott F

    2004-11-25

    Recent studies in Hong Kong and Singapore suggest that the annual impact of influenza in these wealthy tropical cities may be substantial, but little is known about the burden in middle-income tropical countries. We reviewed the status of influenza surveillance, vaccination, research, and policy in Thailand as of January 2004. From 1993 to 2002, 64-91 cases of clinically diagnosed influenza were reported per 100,000 persons per year. Influenza viruses were isolated in 34% of 4305 specimens submitted to the national influenza laboratory. Vaccine distribution figures suggest that less than 1% of the population is immunized against influenza each year. In January 2004, Thailand reported its first documented outbreak of influenza A H5N1 infection in poultry and the country's first human cases of avian influenza. Thailand's growing economy, well-developed public health infrastructure, and effective national immunization program could enable the country to take more active steps towards influenza control.

  17. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  18. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  19. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  20. Friendly and Hostile Country Perceptions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Beytullah; Topçu, Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Peace education requires that students have a correct and academic perception regarding other countries. These perceptions of students, who acquire certain perceptions starting from primary school to university, need to be based on real facts and should not contain extravagance. This study aims to determine whether 3rd year Prospective Social…

  1. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  2. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  3. Antimicrobial stewardship programme in critical care medicine: A prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Ramirez, P; Gordon, M; Villarreal, E; Frasquet, J; Poveda-Andres, J L; Salavert-Lletí, M; Catellanos, A

    2017-09-04

    Hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes have achieved savings and a more rational use of antimicrobial treatments in general wards. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the experience of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in an intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective interventional, before-and-after study. 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary hospital. Prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship programme. Antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial related costs, multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRM) prevalence, nosocomial infections incidence, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality rates were compared before and after one-year intervention. A total of 218 antimicrobial episodes of 182 patients were evaluated in 61 team meetings. Antimicrobial stewardship suggestions were accepted in 91.5% of the cases. Total antimicrobial DDD/100 patient-days consumption was reduced from 380.6 to 295.2 (-22.4%; p=0.037). Antimicrobial stewardship programme was associated with a significant decrease in the prescription of penicillins plus b-lactamase inhibitors, linezolid, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. Overall antimicrobial spending was reduced by €119,636. MDRM isolation and nosocomial infections per 100 patient-days did not change after the intervention period. No changes in length of stay or mortality rate were observed. An ICU antimicrobial stewardship programme significantly reduced antimicrobial use without affecting inpatient mortality and length of stay. Our results further support the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in critical care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Do multi-sectoral development programmes affect health? A Bolivian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, F; Dearden, K; Jimenez, W

    1999-12-01

    This cross-sectional study, carried out in Inquisivi, Bolivia, a rural area where Save the Children/US works, tests the hypothesis that participation in multisectoral development programmes results in improved health behaviours and better health outcomes. To test this hypothesis, four groups of households were compared: those participating in Save the Children's health-only programmes; those with access to health and micro-enterprise credit or health and literacy programmes; those participating in all three programmes (health, credit and literacy); and households from comparison communities (no access to any of Save the Children's programmes). Data come from a stratified sample of 499 households in the altiplano, foothills and valleys of the Andes. Findings reported here suggest that there is no clear association between participation in one or more of Save the Children's programmes and parents' actions to prevent and treat diarrhoea. Additionally, the point prevalence of diarrhoea was similar for all four groups. However, children of individuals participating in health, credit and literacy were significantly less likely than children from comparison communities to be malnourished or at risk of becoming malnourished, even after controlling for such potentially confounding factors as social class, source of drinking water, and the availability of health facilities.

  5. Tackling the Tuberculosis Epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa – unique opportunities arising from the second European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP programme 2015-2024

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Zumla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB today remains a global emergency affecting 9.0 million people globally. The African Region bears the highest global TB/HIV burden and over 50% of TB cases in SSA are co-infected with HIV. An estimated 1.5 million died from the TB globally in 2013. A large majority of the 360,000 HIV-positive TB cases who died were from sub-Saharan Africa. Research and development is an important pillar of the WHO post-2015 global TB strategy. Advances in development of diagnostics, drugs, host-directed therapies, and vaccines will require evaluation under field conditions through multi-centre clinical trials at different geographical locations. Thus it is critically important that these evaluations are fully supported by all African governments and the capacity, trained staff and infrastructure required to perform the research and evaluations is built and made available. This viewpoint article reviews the opportunities provided by recently launched second programme (2015-2024 of the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP2 for tackling the TB epidemic in Africa through its magnanimous portfolio. The unique opportunities provided by EDCTP2 for leadership of scientific research in TB and other diseases fully devolving to Africa are also covered.

  6. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala,Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region on...

  7. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia) and three Southern European countries (Portugal, Greece and Spain, and additional to this the autonomous region of Catalonia) to the three original SUN countries. The topics covered ...

  8. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  9. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  10. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Mishra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment.In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation of the undergraduate Physics programme at IGNOU. The evaluation, the first of its type for this programme, adapted the major tenets of the CIPP model. The findings are based on the responses from a randomly chosen sample of 509 learners across India. The methods employed for the study include records, document, and database analysis, surveys, and case studies.Although the University has enhanced access to higher science education, the attrition rate is high (73%, and the success rate is low. The authors recommend that the University review and reorient its strategies for providing good quality, learner-centred higher education in science subjects. The programme should address the concerns of the learners about the effectiveness of the student support systems, the difficulty level, and the learner-friendliness of study materials with the goal of achieving long-term sustainability while maintaining parity with the conventional system. The need for improving the presentation of the courses and simplifying the mathematical details is emphasised.

  11. Therapeutic patient education in heart failure: do studies provide sufficient information about the educational programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format.

  12. Feasibility studies of safety assessment methods for programmable automation systems. Final report of the AVV project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.; Tuulari, E. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-10-01

    Feasibility studies of two different groups of methodologies for safety assessment of programmable automation systems has been executed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The studies concerned the dynamic testing methods and the fault tree (FT) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methods. In order to get real experience in the application of these methods, an experimental testing of two realistic pilot systems were executed and a FT/FMEA analysis of a programmable safety function accomplished. The purpose of the studies was not to assess the object systems, but to get experience in the application of methods and assess their potentials and development needs. (46 refs., 21 figs.).

  13. Integrating ICT in Kenyan Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Case Study of a Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Krug, Don; Bill, Mike; Smulders, Maaike; Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Kenyan secondary schools. Specifically, it is a case study of four schools with no previous access to ICT. The professional development programme from which data for this study were drawn was designed to support teachers learning to integrate ICT in the…

  14. The effect of a short integrated study skills programme for first-year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, K.M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Themmen, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for outcome-based studies on strategies for supporting at-risk medical students that use long-term follow-up and contemporaneous controls. AIM: To measure the effect of a short integrated study skills programme (SSP) on the study progress of at-risk medical students. METH

  15. Stakeholders' Cooperation in the Study Programme Quality Assurance: Theory and Practice in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileicikiene, Nora

    2011-01-01

    The cooperation of various stakeholders' groups is a prerequisite to develop and realise high-quality study programmes, i.e. during studies to develop skills that are relevant to the labour market and social life. In order to achieve effective stakeholders' cooperation, it is necessary to identify stakeholder's groups relevant to a study programme…

  16. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Rute

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%, Leadership (61,03%, Customer results (58,46 and People (51,28% had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%, People results (41,03%, Policy and strategy (37,91%, Key performance results (19,23% and Society results (19,23% had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement.

  17. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana I; Rosa, Maria J; Soares, Pedro; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge; Carvalho, Joana

    2011-02-21

    In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results showed that Processes (65,38%), Leadership (61,03%), Customer results (58,46) and People (51,28%) had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%), People results (41,03%), Policy and strategy (37,91%), Key performance results (19,23%) and Society results (19,23%) had lower percentage occurrences. Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement.

  18. Roles, tasks and educational functions of postgraduate programme directors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydén, Hanna; Ponzer, Sari; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Kihlström, Lars; Nordquist, Jonas

    2015-10-01

    A programme director is often required to organise postgraduate medical education. This leadership role can include educational as well as managerial duties. Only a few published studies have explored programme directors' own perceptions of their role. There is a need to explore the use of theoretical frameworks to improve the understanding of educational roles. To explore programme directors' own perceptions of their role in terms of tasks and functions, and to relate these roles to the theoretical framework developed by Bolman and Deal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 programme directors between February and August 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis using a deductive approach. The various roles and tasks included by participants in their perceptions of their work could be categorised within the framework of functions described by Bolman and Deal. These included: structuring the education (structural function); supporting individuals and handling relations (human resource function); negotiating between different interests (political function); and influencing the culture at the departmental level (symbolic function). The functions most often emphasised by participants were the structural and human resource functions. Some tasks involved several functions which varied over time. Programme directors' own perceptions of their roles, tasks and functions varied widely. The theoretical framework of Bolman and Deal might be helpful when explaining and developing these roles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Building the capacity of nursing professionals in Cambodia: Insights from a bridging programme for faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Koto?Shimada, Kyoko; Yanagisawa,, Satoko; Boonyanurak, Puangrat; Fujita, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    To upgrade nursing instruction capacity in Cambodia, two bridging programmes were opened for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing simultaneously in?country and out?of?country (Thailand). A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to assess effectiveness of both programmes jointly and to explore needs concerning the further development of nursing education. This study included interviews with 34 current or previous programme participants (nursing instructors or hospital preceptors) and 10 man...

  20. Effect of agricultural programmes on the livelihood of the vulnerable group: a case study of the Fadama III programme in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of the Fadama III programme to the livelihood of the vulnerable group in Kwara State, Nigeria. Results revealed that the group was made up of mainly old, less-educated, small-scale farmers, with many years of farming experience. Benefits derived from the programme by the group include input support, asset acquisition, rural infrastructure, advisory services, capacity building, increased output, and income. The major constraints faced by the group were illiteracy, pests and diseases, inadequate inputs, and untimely funding. This study suggests policy measures on how to better the livelihood of the vulnerable group of farmers.

  1. The personal value of being part of a Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) links programme to develop a palliative care degree programme in Sub Saharan Africa: a descriptive study of the views of volunteer UK health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, B A; Kirton, J A; Downing, J; Frame, K

    2015-12-14

    There is a global need to expand palliative care services to reach the increasing number requiring end of life care. In developing countries where the incidences of cancer are rising there is an urgent need to develop the palliative care workforce. This paper reports on a UK Department for international development (DFID) initiative funded through the Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) where palliative care staff, both clinical and academic, volunteered to help to develop, support and deliver a degree in palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the study was to explore the personal impact on the health care professionals of being part of this initiative. An evaluation approach using a confidential electronic survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions was distributed to all 17 volunteers on the programme, three months after completion of the first cohort. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content thematic analysis. Ethical review deemed the study to be service evaluation. 82 % (14) responded and several themes emerged from the data including the positive impact on teaching and educational skills; clinical practice and finally personal development. Using a score of 1-10 (1-no impact, 10 maximum impact) 'Lifestyle choices - life work balance' (rating 7.83) had the most impact. This approach to supporting the development of palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa through skill sharing in supporting the delivery of a degree programme in palliative care was successful in terms of delivery of the degree programme, material development and mentorship of local staff. Additionally, this study shows it provided a range of positive impacts on the volunteer health care professionals from the UK. Professional impacts including increased management skills, and being better prepared to undertake a senior role. However it is the personal impact including lifestyle choices which the volunteers reported as the highest impact

  2. Assessing Quranic Reading Proficiency in the j-QAF Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarif, Muhammad Mustaqim Mohd; Mohamad, Nurfadilah; Bakar, Bhasah Abu

    2014-01-01

    In its effort to provide solid religious foundation for Muslim students, the Ministry of Education Malaysia has launched a national religious literacy initiative known as the j-QAF Programme in 2004. This programme has since been implemented in public primary schools throughout the country and incorporated as a part of the curriculum of studies.…

  3. Country Report: Economics as a Social Science in French lycées :A Programme Shaped by the Evolution of a School Discipline

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    Elisabeth Chatel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1960s, courses in economics have become established in French lycées for pupils aged approximately 16 to 18 as part of both the general and technological (services streams. There are no other specific programmes in economics at the other levels of the school system. In lower secondary schools (collèges, which cater for children aged between 11 and 15, economic phenomena are presented in a somewhat descriptive manner during history and geography lessons. These descriptions introduce children to an economic vocabulary that includes terms such as GDP, productivity, inflation, growth and development. However, the acquisition of this vocabulary does not lead on to the teaching of any real economic arguments, nor of economic concepts or theories in the strict sense. Economics as just defined in not taught in the vocational streams either. The aim of this article is to characterise the teaching of economics that is provided in the general streams of French upper secondary schools as part of a subject called Economic and Social Sciences (ESS. It is here that economics teaching is most heavily concentrated; furthermore, it is the only one of the two economics programmes in French lycées for which curriculum studies exist. The article will show that, despite the considerable changes it has undergone, this programme has retained the critical and socially aware approach that has been present since it was first established. It was by no means evident that such an approach, inspired originally by the work of historians of the Annales school, would be adopted, even less retained, since it goes against the grain of developments in economics at university level, both in French universities and internationally, during the two decades between 1980 and the year 2000 (LeVan Lemesle 1983; Le Merrer 1990. During this period, the economics taught in universities became less descriptive and more formalised and moved away from the other social

  4. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  5. ASSESSING INCOME EFFECT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES: A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY-BASED AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN KWARA STATE (NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Olaniyi Adewumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, governments initiate various programmes to address income poverty among rural farmers. However, studies that focus on the impact of such programmes on farmers’ income are either scanty or non-existent, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Therefore, this study examines the impact of Community-Based Agriculture and Rural Development Project (CBARDP in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 120 respondents comprising 60 benefi ciaries and 60 non-benefi ciaries of the programme. Descriptive statistics and double-diff erence estimator were used for the data analysis. The study showed that there was 46.3% increase in the income of the benefi ciaries while the non-benefi ciaries had just 7.4% increase. The study further revealed that there was a positive income diff erence of N151.27 in favour of the benefi ciaries of the project. However, the constraints to deriving a full impact of the programme by the benefi ciaries were: lack of commitment by the facilitators, lack of technical know-how, poor transportation system and inadequacy of the equipment provided. The study therefore recommends policies aimed at overhauling the activities of the facilitators, improving the technical skill of the benefi ciaries, improving the transportation system and providing the benefi ciaries with more equipment.

  6. Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male height in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male height are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male height in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature.

  7. Understanding similarities in the local implementation of a healthy environment programme: insights from policy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Carole; Gendron, Sylvie; Lamontagne, Lise; Potvin, Louise

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of the local implementation of a procedural public health programme whose objective is to create healthy environments (HE) for vulnerable families in the province of Quebec (Canada) through the funding of local projects. Considering the potential issue of programme-context interaction, our research question was the following: Does the procedural nature of this HE programme result in variation between local cases in terms of the types of projects and collaborations it subsidizes? Given that the creation of healthy environments requires intersectoral health action to address social determinants of health, the data were analysed with respect to intersectorality and cooperation. Results of this qualitative multiple case study (n = 8), for the period 2004-2009, show that the majority of subsidized projects were in the health and social services sector and focused on parenting, parent-child attachment, nutrition and the social networks of families. Only a few initiatives reached beyond the health and social services sector to address social health determinants such as education, housing and transportation. Membership and mandates of the local groups responsible for programme implementation also showed little intersectorality. The limited variation between these eight cases can be attributed to the configuration of the local networks, as well as to specific issues in urban and rural areas. To explain the overall similarity of results across cases, we turned to the literature on policy instruments which suggests that particular characteristics of a programme may produce effects that are independent of its intended objective. In our study, several programme mechanisms, such as those framing the definition of «healthy environment» and budget management rules, could have encouraged the local development of initiatives that focus on individual skills related to parenting and attachment rather than the development of

  8. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  9. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  10. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  11. The role of intermediaries in delivering an occupational health and safety programme designed for small business - a case study of an insurance incentive programme in the agriculture sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kirsten Bendix; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intermediaries play an important role in disseminating national Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) programmes to small businesses but not much is known about the factors that influence their role. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the factors that influence intermediaries’ contribution...... to the transformation and dissemination of a national OHS programme for small business that built on an Insurance incentive scheme – the New Zealand Workplace Safety Discount scheme. It is a case study of this scheme implementation in the agriculture sector. Data was collected from scheme documentation and semi...

  12. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  13. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Teaching in an Australian Accounting Programme--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace; Cooper, Barry J.; Dellaportas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to elicit and understand the views of Mainland Chinese students concerning their learning experience in an Australian accounting education programme. The article contributes to the literature by investigating the issues and implications associated with international students' perceptions of teaching, as little…

  14. Participation in Formal Technical and Vocational Education and Training Programmes Worldwide: An Initial Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a common perception that technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is diversifying and expanding in terms of its supply and demand. Practitioners and policymakers often believe that educational systems are offering a wider array of programmes at different levels and in various fields of study. They also assume that these…

  15. The effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on intravenous medication errors : a controlled before and after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Huong; Pham, Hong-Tham; Vo, Dang-Khoa; Nguyen, Tuan-Dung; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Taxis, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about interventions to reduce intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Objective To assess the effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on clinically relevant errors during intravenous medicatio

  16. The effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on intravenous medication errors : a controlled before and after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Huong; Pham, Hong-Tham; Vo, Dang-Khoa; Nguyen, Tuan-Dung; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Taxis, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about interventions to reduce intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Objective To assess the effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on clinically relevant errors during intravenous medicatio

  17. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Lokman, S.; Monshouwer, K.; Lemmers, L.; Conrod, P.; Wiers, R.; Engels, R.; Kleinjan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent a

  18. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Lokman, S.; Monshouwer, K.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Conrod, P.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent a

  19. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors' confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders' participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  20. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors’ confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders’ participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  1. Gender differences found in a qualitative study of a disordered eating prevention programme: What do boys have to say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marcela L; Mora, Marisol; Penelo, Eva; Goddard, Elizabeth; Treasure, Janet; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative studies examining gender differences of eating disorder prevention programmes are scarce. We aimed to evaluate gender differences in adolescents who participated in a larger study on effectiveness of a disordered eating prevention programme. Perceptions of eating, female and male aesthetic models, media influences, prevention programmes and emerging topics from 12 school-going boys who received a media-literacy programme (n = 4), media-literacy plus nutrition-awareness programme (n = 4) or neither (n = 4) were explored using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and compared with previous results in girls. Findings suggest that the prevention programme is effective for both genders. Gender differences and consumer-culture influences may be considered in future interventions.

  2. Source country perceptions, experiences, and recommendations regarding health workforce migration: a case study from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kanchan; Quimson, Gabriella; Short, Stephanie D

    2014-10-31

    The Philippines continues to overproduce nurses for export. Little first-hand evidence exists from leading organisations in the Philippines concerning their experiences and perceptions in relation to Filipino nurse migration. What are their views about health workforce migration? This paper addresses this research gap by providing a source country perspective on Filipino nurse migration to Australia. Focus-group interviews were conducted with key informants from nine Filipino organisations in the Philippines by an Australian-Filipino research team. The organisations were purposively selected and contacted in person, by phone, and/or email. Qualitative thematic analysis was performed using a coding framework. Health workforce migration is perceived to have both positive and negative consequences. On the one hand, emigration offers a welcome opportunity for individual Filipino nurses to migrate abroad in order to achieve economic, professional, lifestyle, and social benefits. On the other, as senior and experienced nurses are attracted overseas, this results in the maldistribution of health workers particularly affecting rural health outcomes for people in developing countries. Problems such as 'volunteerism' also emerged in our study. In the context of the WHO (2010) Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel it is to be hoped that, in the future, government recruiters, managers, and nursing leaders can utilise these insights in designing recruitment, orientation, and support programmes for migrant nurses that are more sensitive to the experience of the Philippines' education and health sectors and their needs.

  3. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  4. The effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on intravenous medication errors: a controlled before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong-Thao; Pham, Hong-Tham; Vo, Dang-Khoa; Nguyen, Tuan-Dung; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Taxis, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about interventions to reduce intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To assess the effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on clinically relevant errors during intravenous medication preparation and administration in a Vietnamese hospital. A controlled before and after study with baseline and follow-up measurements was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) and a post-surgical unit (PSU). The intervention comprised lectures, practical ward-based teaching sessions and protocols/guidelines, and was conducted by a clinical pharmacist and a nurse. Data on intravenous medication preparation and administration errors were collected by direct observation 12 h/day for seven consecutive days. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess the effect of the intervention on the prevalence of clinically relevant erroneous doses, corrected for confounding factors. 1204 intravenous doses were included, 516 during the baseline period (236 on ICU and 280 on PSU) and 688 during the follow-up period (407 on ICU and 281 on PSU). The prevalence of clinically relevant erroneous doses decreased significantly on the intervention ward (ICU) from 64.0% to 48.9% (pclinically relevant errors (p=0.013). The pharmacist-led training programme was effective, but the error rate remained relatively high. Further quality improvement strategies are needed, including changes to the working environment and promotion of a safety culture.

  5. Determinants of timely completion : the impact of Bachelor's degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Torenbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely completion of university degree programmes is a topic of growing concern to higher education institutions and their students. This paper reports on a study about the impact of degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress. The setting for the study is a Dutch law s

  6. Determinants of timely completion : the impact of Bachelor's degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Torenbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely completion of university degree programmes is a topic of growing concern to higher education institutions and their students. This paper reports on a study about the impact of degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress. The setting for the study is a Dutch law s

  7. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  8. Creating a blended learning module in an online master study programme in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Benjamin; Ring, Christina; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Schmidt-Strassburger, Uta

    2015-01-01

    The medical faculty of Ulm University has launched the postgraduate master online study programme Advanced Oncology (AO) in 2010. We describe the challenges in developing an e-learning module using the example of a medical biometry course, focusing the implementation of the course material and our single-loop learning experience after the first students have finished and evaluated the lecture. Programme participants are qualified medical doctors and researchers in biomedical areas related to the field of oncology. The study programme provides the majority of lectures online via didactic videos accompanied by one-week attendance seminars. Supplementary learning materials include review articles, supportive reading material, multiple choice questions, and exercises for each unit. Lecture evaluations based on specific questions concerning learning environment and information learned, each measured on a five-point Likert scale. Lecture videos were implemented following the classical triad of the didactic process, using oncological examples from practice to teach. The online tutorial support offered to students was hardly used, thus we enhanced faculty presence during the face-to-face seminars. Lecture evaluations improved after revising the learning material on the basis of the first AO student cohort's comments. Developing and implementing an online study programme is challenging with respect of maximizing the information students learn due to limited opportunities for personal contact between lecturers and students. A more direct interaction of lecturers and students in a blended learning setting outperforms a mere web-based contact in terms of learning advantage and students' satisfaction, especially for complex methodological content.

  9. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key findings of…

  10. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key…

  11. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past.

  12. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  13. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  14. An economic evaluation for prevention of diabetes mellitus in a developing country: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Li, Changping; Gong, Hui; Cui, Zhuang; Fan, Linlin; Yu, Wenhua; Zhang, Cui; Ma, Jun

    2013-08-07

    The serious consequences of diabetes mellitus, and the subsequent economic burden, call for urgent preventative action in developing countries. This study explores the clinical and economic outcomes of strategies that could potentially prevent diabetes based on Chinese circumstances. It aims to provide indicators for the long-term allocation of healthcare resources for authorities in developing countries. A representative sample of Chinese adults was used to create a simulated population of 20,000 people aged 25 years and above. The hybrid decision tree Markov model was developed to compare the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of four simulated diabetes prevention strategies with a control group, where no prevention applied. These preventive strategies were the following: (i) one-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with lifestyle interventions on diet, (ii) on exercise, (iii) on diet combined exercise (duo-intervention) respectively in those with IGT, and (iv) one-off screening alone. Independent age-specific models were simulated based on diverse incidences of diabetes, mortalities and health utilities. The reported outcomes were the following: the remaining survival years, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per diabetes or IGT subjects, societal costs per simulated subject and the comparisons between preventions and control over 40 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed based on variations of all assumptions, in addition to the performance and the compliance of screening. Compared with the control group, all simulated screening programmes prolonged life expectancy at the initiation ages of 25 and 40 years, postponed the onset of diabetes and increased QALYs at every initiation age. Along with an assumption of six years intervention, prevention programmes were associated with cost-saving compared with the control group, especially in the population aged 25 years. The savings were at least US$2017 per

  15. Pilot Study on Harmonisation of Reactor Safety in WENRA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Most of the objectives, set for the Pilot Study, were met. It can be concluded that the methodology was adequate for its purpose. National requirements on selected safety issues have been systematically compared and the major gaps and differences have been identified. Convenient overviews have been provided of differences and similarities between the countries. Furthermore, the conclusions are based on a safety justification and are detailed enough to provide input to a further more detailed analysis on the national level. It was not possible, however, to provide fully verified conclusions about the implementation of the reference levels in the different countries. This has to do with the following constraints on the study: In line with the Terms of Reference, the comparison of formal requirements did not address the more detailed use of criteria and methods to verify compliance. The same requirement could be enforced differently in different regulatory systems, and hence lead to different implementation. The Pilot Study also assessed the implementation, but it was not possible to do this in sufficient detail to identify such differences. The implementation was assessed on the basis of current knowledge of the respective regulatory body, but it was not possible to provide the panels with evidence of the implementation. For these reasons, conclusions about implemented safety provisions in the different countries should be drawn with precaution. The introduction of the panel assessments greatly improved the quality and consistency of the comparison assessments. Uncertainties in the assessments are mainly connected with lack of time to make a detailed analysis in some cases. The reliability of the assessments seems to be sufficient for the objectives of the Pilot Study. The introduction of the IAEA safety standards in the study proved to be helpful and provided confidence in the scope and strictness of the reference levels. This Pilot Study has contributed to

  16. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  17. Teacher Experiences of Delivering an Obesity Prevention Programme (The WAVES Study Intervention) in a Primary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tania L; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Pallan, Miranda J; Passmore, Sandra; Adab, Peymane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been a wealth of childhood obesity prevention studies in school-based settings. However, few have investigated the experiences of school staff charged with delivery of such programmes. This study aimed to elicit teachers' experiences of delivering a childhood obesity prevention programme for children aged 6-7 years. Design:…

  18. Nutrition Education in Australian Midwifery Programmes: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Arrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has explored how nutrition content in midwifery education prepares midwives to provide prenatal nutrition advice. This study examined the nature and extent of nutrition education provided in Australian midwifery programmes. A mixed-methods approach was used, incorporating an online survey and telephone interviews. The survey analysis included 23 course coordinators representing 24 of 50 accredited midwifery programmes in 2012. Overall, the coordinators considered nutrition in midwifery curricula and the midwife’s role as important. All programmes included nutrition content; however, eleven had only 5 to <10 hours allocated to nutrition, while two had a designated unit. Various topics were covered. Dietitians/other nutrition experts were rarely involved in teaching or reviewing the nutrition content. Interviews with seven coordinators revealed that nutrition education tended to be problem-oriented and at times based on various assumptions. Nutrition content was not informed by professional or theoretical models. The development of nutrition assessment skills or practical training for midwifery students in providing nutrition advice was lacking. As nutrition is essential for maternal and foetal health, nutrition education in midwifery programmes needs to be reviewed and minimum requirements should be included to improve midwives’ effectiveness in this area. This may require collaboration between nutrition experts and midwifery bodies.

  19. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmied Virginia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address

  20. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs

  1. Temperature Variability and Mortality: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G.; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D.; Bell, Michelle L.; Overcenco, Ala; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Saldiva, Paulo; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    G, Tong S. 2016. Temperature variability and mortality: a multi-country study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1554–1559; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP149 PMID:27258598

  2. Dissemination of solar photovoltaics: a study on the government programme to promote solar lantern in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velayudhan, S.K. [Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad (India)

    2003-11-01

    The study examines the reasons for the limited dissemination of solar lanterns in India. It uses ''diffusion of innovation'' framework to examine the dissemination process. The impact of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and also the communication within the community about the product are examined. To understand the influence of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and the information source used by adopters, a survey of 188 users across 15 locations is carried out. The study shows that the benefits promoted by the government programme for disseminating solar lantern are not the reasons for purchase in most cases. The results suggest that the emphasis on subsidy by the support programme shifts the focus to the cost of the solar lantern than its benefits. Contrary to expectation there is no significant difference in the profile of early and late adopters. The subsidy for solar lanterns and the targets set for government officials are the possible influence on the observed profile for adopter categories. The early majority who can afford the solar lantern and take up the innovation on its merits are expected to disseminate the innovation. The programme on the contrary not only fails to identify and promote to the early adopters, but focus on the disadvantaged groups. There are therefore no champions for the innovation and an absence of word-of-mouth communication. The information source is restricted to government agencies, while the potential user looks for evaluative information on the product from existing users. The application of ''diffusion of innovation'' framework to understand the dissemination process of solar lantern suggests reworking the support programmes designed to promote solar lanterns. The lessons can be extended to programmes designed for dissemination of other solar photovoltaic products. (author)

  3. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berg Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.

  4. The role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-International Hydro-logical Programme in sustainable water resources management in East Asian countries%联合国教科文组织国际水文计划项目在东亚可持续水资源管理中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小丽; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, IHP (International Hydrological Programme) has been actively operating as a UNESCO's (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) international scientific cooperative programme in water research, water resources manage- ment, education and capacity-building, and the only broadly-based science programme of the UN (United Nations) system in this region. By a number of initiatives and networks, the IHP has progressively carried out activities on the quantity and quality of global/regional wate resources, transboundary water resources management, mitigation of water related hazard, and water education. While addressing comprehensive areas over water challenges, greater emphasis has been placed on the role of water resources management for sustainable de- velopment and with respect to the expected changes in climate and environmental conditions. WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme) and its major product WWDR (World Water Development Report) in East Asia are under the framework of IHP which supports field ori- ented activities on monitoring freshwater, developing case studies, enhancing national as- sessment capacity, and facilitating decision making processes. In light of transboundary wa- ters in IHP, RSC (Regional Steering Committee) plays a focal role for facilitating regional cooperation in the Southeast and East Asia and Pacific States. Furthermore, ISI (International Sediment Initiative) and IFI (International Flood Initiative) have significant roles, respectively, for the management of erosion and sedimentation in line with river system or reservoir man- agement, and for the flood management focusing on capacity building of each country in East Asia. There are other major areas of concern under UNESCO's IHP programme in East Asia, specifically in aspects including, mitigating water conflicts on transboundary aquifers through ISARM (International Shared Aquifer Resources Management), water management of arid areas

  5. Die Lerneffekte von Exkursionen im Rahmen eines Study-Abroad-Programms: Eine Fallstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue-Bergeler, Devon Johanna

    2009-01-01

    Betreute kulturelle Exkursionen sind ein fester Bestandteil von vielen Study-Abroad-Programme. Sie werden allgemein positiv bewertet und bieten viele Chancen für fremdsprachliches und landeskundliches Lernen, sowie als „Handlungsfeld“ für das Gelernte. Es fehlen jedoch wissenschaftliche Begründungen sowie empirische Untersuchungen, die den Lernwert von Exkursionen bei Study-Abroad-Programmen nachweisen. Deshalb wurden folgenden Leitfragen untersucht: Welche Lerneffekte können Exkursionen ...

  6. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  7. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy...

  8. Re-Imagining School Health in Education and Health Programmes: A Study across Selected Municipal Schools in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in…

  9. Lived Literacy Curriculum in a Globalized Schooling Context: A Case Study of a Sino-Canadian Transnational Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Heydon, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the lived curriculum from the vantage of the students in a case study of a Sino-Canada transnational education programme in China. The programme consisted of subject area curricula transplanted from Ontario, Canada, and taught in English, as well as subject area curricula from Mainland China that was taught in Mandarin. The…

  10. "Crazy? So what!": A School Programme to Promote Mental Health and Reduce Stigma--Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Dietrich, Sandra; Heider, Dirk; Blume, Anne; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the health-promoting and stigma-reducing effect of the German school-based programme "Crazy? So what!". Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental longitudinal control-study was carried out with assessments one week prior to the school programme, immediately after it and three…

  11. Does the Company Programme Have the Same Impact on Young Women and Men? A Study of Entrepreneurship Education in Norwegian Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether a European entrepreneurship programme called the "Company Programme" (CP) has an impact on young women and men with regard to career preferences, and perceptions of business skills and the likelihood of having a company. CP is taught to 270,000 students in 39 European countries, and approximately 15% of Norwegian…

  12. Use of the Moodle Platform to Promote an Ongoing Learning When Lecturing General Physics in the Physics, Mathematics and Electronic Engineering Programmes at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gabriel A.; Sáenz, Jon; Leonardo, Aritz; Gurtubay, Idoia G.

    2016-08-01

    The Moodle platform has been used to put into practice an ongoing evaluation of the students' Physics learning process. The evaluation has been done on the frame of the course General Physics, which is lectured during the first year of the Physics, Mathematics and Electronic Engineering Programmes at the Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). A test bank with more than 1000 multiple-choice questions, including conceptual and numerical problems, has been prepared. Throughout the course, the students have to answer a 10-question multiple-choice test for every one of the blocks the course is divided in and which were previously treated and worked in the theoretical lectures and problem-solving sessions. The tests are automatically corrected by Moodle, and under certain criteria, the corresponding mark is taken into account for the final mark of the course. According to the results obtained from a statistical study of the data on the student performances during the last four academic years, it has been observed that there exists an actual correlation between the marks obtained in the Moodle tests and the final mark of the course. In addition, it could be deduced that students who have passed the Moodle tests increase their possibilities of passing the course by an odds ratio close to 3.

  13. Population and country: Actuality of Rudolf Kjellen's study

    OpenAIRE

    Stepić Milomir; Srećković Jelena

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine relation between population and country in the meaning of Sweden scientist Rudolf Kjellén. In the introduction population as an agent of power was determined. It is presented that it's necessary to use modern approach in a science of the country. The analysis of the case at Kjellén's biologistics conception at the country has been determined, too. Two sub-systems in relation to population agent at the country have been analyzed: demo-politics and socio-p...

  14. A suicide education programme for nurses to educate the family caregivers of suicidal individuals: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Yu, Pei-Jane; Lin, Ching-Hsing

    2013-10-01

    Family members lack the ability to care for suicidal relatives. Nurses have a responsibility to improve family members' ability to care for their suicidal relatives. The aims of this study were to design a suicide education programme for nurses to educate family caregivers and to evaluate the longitudinal (12 months after the educational programme) effects of a suicide care education programme on the ability of families to care for suicidal relatives. A randomised controlled trial was conducted. The study population (n=61) was composed of the family caregivers of suicidal individuals. Several caregivers (n=26) were randomly allocated to an experimental group who attended a two-hour suicide care education programme, and the other caregivers (n=35) represented a control group who did not attend the education programme. All of the participants were given a questionnaire at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months during the period from 2009 to 2011. The results of the longitudinal effects of the suicide care education programme demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences after the educational programme as compared to before the programme with regard to "seeking assistance from resources" and the ability to care for those who were once suicidal. The longitudinal results of both groups showed that there was a significant difference in terms of "caring ability" at 12 months. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis indicated that evaluations performed at the three-month time point were able to effectively predict success in "seeking assistance from resources", "caring ability"; caring ability was also significantly improved among those who engaged in the educational programme at the 12-month time point. The suicide care education programme had long-term effects for family caregivers caring for their suicidal relatives. Nurses could employ this suicide care education programme to improve the ability of family caregivers to care for their

  15. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  16. Design and evaluation of a treatment programme for Spanish adolescents with overweight and obesity. The EVASYON Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redondo-Figuero Carlos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB among adolescents worldwide has increased since the 60 s. Spain has reached one of the highest OW/OB prevalence rates among adolescents from European countries. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and evaluation in the EVASYON study (Development, implementation and evaluation of the efficacy of a therapeutic programme for adolescents with OW/OB: integral education on nutrition and physical activity. Methods/Design The EVASYON was planned by a multidisciplinary team to treat OW/OB in Spanish adolescents. The EVASYON is a multi-centre study conducted in 5 hospitals in 5 Spanish cities (Granada, Madrid, Pamplona, Santander and Zaragoza and two hundred and four OW/OB Spanish adolescents were recruited for this intervention. The treatment was implemented for approximately one-year follow-up. The adolescents were treated in groups of a maximum of 10 subjects; each group had 20 visits during the treatment period in two phases: intensive during the first 2 months (1st to 9th visits, and extensive during the last 11 months (10th to 20th visits. In order to assess the efficacy of the treatment, 8 dimensions were measured: diet; physical activity and fitness; eating behaviour; body composition; haematological profile; metabolic profile; minerals and vitamins; immuno-inflammatory markers. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms were also determined. Discussion The treatment programme developed in the EVASYON study was designed as a national pilot study to be implemented as an effective treatment for adolescents with OW/OB into the Spanish Health Care Service.

  17. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH, many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective: To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH, gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution. Design: In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results: For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data

  18. Qualitative study of peer workers within the 'Partners in Recovery' programme in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, John; Cashin, Andrew; Mills, Jem; Hutchinson, Marie; Kozlowski, Desiree; Graham, Iain

    2016-12-21

    In Australia and internationally, Peer Workers are increasingly being incorporated into the mental health workforce. Underpinning this trend is the conviction that the inclusion of workers with lived experience in overcoming mental health challenges is central to transforming service delivery. Given there are few identified Australian studies into the experiences of Peer Workers, this paper reports findings from qualitative interviews conducted in a Partners In Recovery programme in one regional area in Australia. The interviews formed part of a larger mixed-method study evaluating Peer Worker roles in the programme. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts with Peer Workers and other staff employed in the programme (n = 22) was undertaken. Central to the five themes that emerged was the concept of lived experience expertise in overcoming mental health challenges. The themes were: (i) role variance, (ii) the challenges and opportunities for Peer Worker, (iii) the processes Peer Workers employed as they attempted to shape an identify and language, (iv) the inconsistencies and challenges of employing lived experience as a defining feature of the peer worker role, and (v) the nature of trust arising from lived experience relationships. From this study, it is evident that the Peer Worker role remains underdeveloped. The difficulties experienced by Peer Workers in establishing a homogenous identity and role is not unique. The process and lack of clarity around role identity revealed from the narratives, parallels the experiences of Mental Health Nursing.

  19. Assessing optimal target populations for influenza vaccination programmes: an evidence synthesis and modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Baguelin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine policies that maximise health benefit through efficient use of limited resources are needed. Generally, influenza vaccination programmes have targeted individuals 65 y and over and those at risk, according to World Health Organization recommendations. We developed methods to synthesise the multiplicity of surveillance datasets in order to evaluate how changing target populations in the seasonal vaccination programme would affect infection rate and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a contemporary evidence-synthesis approach, we use virological, clinical, epidemiological, and behavioural data to develop an age- and risk-stratified transmission model that reproduces the strain-specific behaviour of influenza over 14 seasons in England and Wales, having accounted for the vaccination uptake over this period. We estimate the reduction in infections and deaths achieved by the historical programme compared with no vaccination, and the reduction had different policies been in place over the period. We find that the current programme has averted 0.39 (95% credible interval 0.34-0.45 infections per dose of vaccine and 1.74 (1.16-3.02 deaths per 1,000 doses. Targeting transmitters by extending the current programme to 5-16-y-old children would increase the efficiency of the total programme, resulting in an overall reduction of 0.70 (0.52-0.81 infections per dose and 1.95 (1.28-3.39 deaths per 1,000 doses. In comparison, choosing the next group most at risk (50-64-y-olds would prevent only 0.43 (0.35-0.52 infections per dose and 1.77 (1.15-3.14 deaths per 1,000 doses. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes a framework to integrate influenza surveillance data into transmission models. Application to data from England and Wales confirms the role of children as key infection spreaders. The most efficient use of vaccine to reduce overall influenza morbidity and mortality is thus to target children in addition to older adults. Please

  20. Note On Research Design For The Study Of Community Participation In Health Care Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Susan B

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available After describing types of research designs for the study of community participation in health care programmes, this paper examines one methodology, the quantitative methodology, the quantitative methodology, in detail. It presents some of the major attractions and limitations of this approach. The attractions include the need for evaluation of success and failure and of cost effectiveness of programmes. The limitations include the inability of the approach to deal with definitions and interventions that cannot be quantitified and the difficulty of identifying casual relationship between interventions and outcomes. These characteristics are illustrated by a case by a medical school in Asia. Research design, research developments and research outcomes are described and analysed. The paper concludes that an alternative analysis which examines the linkages between participation and health improvements would be more useful as it would allow the political, social and economic dimensions of community participation to be examined.

  1. How to Establish a Bioinformatics Postgraduate Degree Programme: A Case Study from South Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Machanick, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Research Unit in Bioinformatics at Rhodes University (RUBi), South Africa offers a Masters of Science in Bioinformatics. Growing demand for Bioinformatics qualifications results in applications from across Africa. Courses aim to bridge gaps in the diverse backgrounds of students who range from biologists with no prior computing exposure to computer scientists with no biology background. The programme is evenly split between coursework and research, with diverse modules from a range of departments covering mathematics, statistics, computer science and biology, with emphasis on application to bioinformatics research. The early focus on research helps bring students up to speed with working as a researcher. We measure success of the programme by the high rate of subsequent entry to PhD study: 10 out of 14 students who completed in the years 2011-2013.

  2. Presence, characteristics and equity of access to breast cancer screening programmes in 27 European countries in 2010 and 2014. Results from an international survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deandrea, S; Molina-Barceló, A; Uluturk, A

    2016-01-01

    The European Union Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening suggests the implementation of organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on mammography every other year for women aged 50 to 69years, ensuring equal access to screening, taking into accoun...

  3. International survey of environmental programmes - a compilation of information from twelve countries received in response to a questionnaire distributed in 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllander, C.; Karlberg, O.; Luening, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Johansson, G.

    1995-11-01

    The report compiles information from Cuba, Finland, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, relevant to the organisation and execution of programmes for environmental surveillance of nuclear facilities (source and environmental monitoring). 28 refs, 19 tabs.

  4. Delivering a transition programme in literacy from level 4 to level 5 for nursing students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine; Perkins, Andrew; Marks-Maran, Di

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores the development, delivery and evaluation of a pilot programme in academic literacy skills to help students make the transition from year 1 of their undergraduate nursing programme (level 4) to year 2 (level 5). Although there is a good deal of literature available about supporting students in year 1 to develop academic literacy skills, there is a dearth of literature on supporting students as they move from level to level during their university programmes. The pilot programme comprised five 1½ hr sessions on different aspects of literacy skills in the transition period between year 1 and year 2. Students from one cohort were invited to participate on a voluntary basis. Students undertook a pre-test before starting the programme and a post-test at the end. However, only a small number chose to sit the post-test making comparative analysis impossible. However, results of the student questionnaires showed that student confidence in their literacy skills increased and their perceptions of their literacy skills were that they were improved as a result of the programme. Importantly, marks on semester 2 written assignments were improved compared with year 1 work for those who had attended the programme. This study is important for both the progression of students from year 1 to year 2 of their nursing programme and for their ability to develop the kinds of literacy skills required for nursing practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of exercise training programmes in obesity - an overview of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leońska-Duniec, A; Ahmetov, I I; Zmijewski, P

    2016-09-01

    Frequent and regular physical activity has significant benefits for health, including improvement of body composition and help in weight control. Consequently, promoting training programmes, particularly in those who are genetically predisposed, is a significant step towards controlling the presently increasing epidemic of obesity. Although the physiological responses of the human body to exercise are quite well described, the genetic background of these reactions still remains mostly unknown. This review not only summarizes the current evidence, through a literature review and the results of our studies on the influence of gene variants on the characteristics and range of the body's adaptive response to training, but also explores research organization problems, future trends, and possibilities. We describe the most reliable candidate genetic markers that are involved in energy balance pathways and body composition changes in response to training programmes, such as FTO, MC4R, ACE, PPARG, LEP, LEPR, ADRB2, and ADRB3. This knowledge can have an enormous impact not only on individualization of exercise programmes to make them more efficient and safer, but also on improved recovery, traumatology, medical care, diet, supplementation and many other areas. Nevertheless, the current studies still represent only the first steps towards a better understanding of the genetic factors that influence obesity-related traits, as well as gene variant x physical activity interactions, so further research is necessary.

  6. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  7. Culture and Economic Growth——Cross Country Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薇

    2015-01-01

    The folowing paper aims to analyze the relationship of cultural factors for economic growth, using Penn world table data and Hofstede's five dimension data from 96 countries and regions. We provide strong evidence that cultures (extremely uncertainty avoidance), together with human resource and capital stock, play an important part in a country's economic. While including standard neo-classical growth model variables such as investment rates and a substitute for human capital, the impact of cultural variables like power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence are investigated. In particular, we find that uncertainty avoidance is always robust to the gross economic growth across countries.

  8. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  9. Population and country: Actuality of Rudolf Kjellen's study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepić Milomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine relation between population and country in the meaning of Sweden scientist Rudolf Kjellén. In the introduction population as an agent of power was determined. It is presented that it's necessary to use modern approach in a science of the country. The analysis of the case at Kjellén's biologistics conception at the country has been determined, too. Two sub-systems in relation to population agent at the country have been analyzed: demo-politics and socio-politics. It has been referred on actuality at Kjellén's ideas as well as on certain deficiencies at his ideas. Conclusion at this paper has been dedicated to wide influences at Kjellén's ideas.

  10. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Liesbeth ADM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previous scores in order to give feedback about potential changes. The (difference in effectiveness of the different versions of the programme will be tested and compared to a control group, in which respondents only receive a short health risk appraisal. Programme evaluations will assess satisfaction with and appreciation and personal relevance of the intervention among the respondents. Finally

  11. Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiara Chu-Mei; Soljak, Michael; Lee, John Tayu; Woringer, Maria; Johnston, Desmond; Khunti, Kamlesh; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    To determine coverage of NHS Health Check, a national cardiovascular risk assessment programme in England, in the first four years after implementation, and to examine prevalence of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and uptake of statins in high risk patients. Study sample was 95,571 patients in England aged 40-74years continuously registered with 509 practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between April 2009 and March 2013. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of Health Check attendance; elevated CVD risk factors and statin prescribing among attendees. Programme coverage was 21.4% over four years, with large variations between practices (0%-72.7%) and regions (9.4%-30.7%). Coverage was higher in older patients (adjusted odds ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 2.49-3.31 for patients 70-74years) and in patients with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (2.37, 2.22-2.53), but lower in Black Africans (0.75, 0.61-0.92) and Chinese (0.68, 0.47-0.96) compared with White British. Coverage was similar in patients living in deprived and affluent areas. Prevalence of high CVD risk (QRISK2≥20%) among attendees was 4.6%. One third (33.6%) of attendees at high risk were prescribed a statin after Health Checks. Coverage of the programme and statin prescribing in high risk individuals was low. Coverage was similar in deprived and affluent groups but lower in some ethnic minority groups, possibly widening inequalities. These findings raise a question about whether recommendations by WHO to develop CVD risk assessment programmes internationally will deliver anticipated health benefits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Neurocognition, presence and acceptance of a VR programme for psychotic patients: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus-Calafell, Mar; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with psychosis exhibit a wide range of cognitive deficits which are associated with poor functioning and poor outcomes in psychosocial interventions. Recently, virtual reality (VR) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. We have developed and applied an integrated VR programme to improve social skills in people with schizophrenia: the Soskitrain. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between patients' cognitive deficits, their sense of presence and their ratings of the programme's acceptability. Twelve clinically stabilized outpatients with a well-established diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder underwent neuropsychological assessment prior to treatment, while after the intervention they completed a questionnaire about their sense of presence and the acceptability of the VR programme. Post-treatment results revealed a high sense of presence among patients, as well as good verisimilitude and high acceptance of the virtual environments. In addition, there were significant negative correlations between sense of presence and deficits in both delayed verbal learning and processing speed. The paper discusses the implications of cognitive impairment for the experience and acceptance of VR when treating psychotic patients.

  13. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    , and psychoactive medicinal drugs were detected less frequently than in younger age groups. In 75% of single vehicle crashes, the driver was under 50 years. Thus, the majority of accidents where the drivers must be considered responsible, occurred with drivers who had recently used alcohol, or drugs, alone...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three...... countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) blood samples were available for more than 70% of the drivers, allowing representative prevalence data to be collected. 60% of the drivers in single vehicle crashes had alcohol and/or drug in their blood samples, compared with 30% of drivers killed in collisions...

  14. Mechanisms of change of a novel weight loss programme provided by a third sector organisation: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Naoimh E; Visram, Shelina; Connell, Louise A

    2016-05-10

    There is a need for theory-driven studies that explore the underlying mechanisms of change of complex weight loss programmes. Such studies will contribute to the existing evidence-base on how these programmes work and thus inform the future development and evaluation of tailored, effective interventions to tackle overweight and obesity. This study explored the mechanisms by which a novel weight loss programme triggered change amongst participants. The programme, delivered by a third sector organisation, addressed both diet and physical activity. Over a 26 week period participants engaged in three weekly sessions (education and exercise in a large group, exercise in a small group and a one-to-one education and exercise session). Novel aspects included the intensity and duration of the programme, a competitive selection process, milestone physical challenges (e.g. working up to a 5 K and 10 K walk/run during the programme), alumni support (face-to-face and online) and family attendance at exercise sessions. Data were collected through interviews with programme providers (n = 2) and focus groups with participants (n = 12). Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo10. Published behaviour change frameworks and behaviour change technique taxonomies were used to guide the coding process. Clients' interactions with components of the weight loss programme brought about a change in their commitment, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and social and environmental contexts. Intervention components that generated these changes included the competitive selection process, group and online support, family involvement and overcoming milestone challenges over the 26 week programme. The mechanisms by which these components triggered change differed between participants. There is an urgent need to establish robust interventions that can support people who are overweight and obese to achieve a healthy weight and maintain this change. Third

  15. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  16. Setting up a structured laboratory mentoring programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talkmore Maruta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laboratory mentoring programmes can be an important vehicle to establish and solidify quality management systems and help laboratories achieve accreditation goals. Different mentoring approaches have been used with varying levels of success. The authors provide a guide to implementing a structured laboratory mentorship programme based on their practical field experience.Method: The study is based on experience in Lesotho as well as subsequent roll out of a similar approach in the other African countries of Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland and Cameroon between 2009 and 2011.Summary: We highlight critical elements to consider when setting up a long-term, sustainable and well-structured mentorship programme. These elements include: well-defined goals; sufficient length of mentor engagement on site; standardised approach across laboratories; measurement of progress using standardised tools; well-structured reporting mechanisms; alignment of the programme with overall Ministry of Health plans; and selection and training of the mentors. These elements will differ in application, depending on countries’ needs and available resources. A structured approach allows for scalability, comparison across laboratories and countries and an easier approach to budgeting and planning for countries intending to set up similar programmes.

  17. REHABILITATION PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRANJC JOLDIKJ

    Full Text Available Centre for Education and Rehabilitation of Physi­cally Handicapped Children and Adolescents Kamnik (Zavod za usposabljanje invalidne mlad­ine Kamnik; hereinafter: ZUIM perform verified or state-ap­proved programme the Rehabilitation practical pro­gramme. The programme is intended for all those young people, who have completed primary school education, but cannot continue regular schooling in secondary school pro­grammes. The programme con­sists of several equivalent parts: education, practical work, train­ing work, health, therapeutic, psychologi­cal, and other activities. For every beginner in the first month of education members of the operative team create an individualized programme, which in­cludes individualized school work, individualized training programme, and other expert activities. The programme can last for 6 years maximum, it can however be completed earlier, when the op­erative team feels the training is no longer neces­sary. Pro­gress of a young person is what matters the most, and if there is no progress, the training is brought to an end. Training of young people in the Rehabilitation practical programme is only the be­ginning. The country will have to start considering social enter­prises, which are found elsewhere in the world, for example in Scandinavian countries and in the USA.

  18. A pilot trial to study the effectiveness of an exercise programme in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STASINOPOULOS DIMITRIOS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot trial was to study the effectiveness of an exercise programme in the treatment of chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy. Patients were allocated to two groups by sequential allocation. the patients in group a (n=10 received an exercise programme consisted of slow progressive isotonic, including eccentric, strengthening exercises and static stretching exercises. The exercise programme was given daily (apart from weekends for 4 weeks. The patients in the group B (placebo group, n=10 received placebo tablets (unmarked vitamin C twice daily for four weeks. Patients’ pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VaS at the end of the four-week course of treatment (week 4 and three months after the end of treatment (week 16. Differences between groups were determined using the independent t test. The difference within groups between baseline and end of treatment was analysed with a paired t test. At the end of treatment there was a decline in visual analogue scale of about 7 units in the exercise programme group compared with baseline (p0.0005, independent t test in favour of the exercise programme group. Although the pain reduced in patients with shoulder tendinopathy at the end of the treatment using an exercise programme, future controlled studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of an exercise programme in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopthy.

  19. Preoperative therapeutic programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.J.; Lamberts, H.; Reutelingsperger, I.M.M.D.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Veldman, A.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Investigation of the feasibility and preliminary effect of a short-term intensive preoperative exercise programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled pilot study. Setting: Ordinary hospital in the Netherland

  20. Effects of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme on participation of the visually impaired elderly : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To pilot test the newly developed multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme Visually Impaired elderly Persons Participating (VIPP). Method: A single group pretest-posttest design pilot study included 29 visually impaired persons (>= 55 years). The intervention (20 weekly meetings) co

  1. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Edwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1 the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2 the growing need for comprehensive care, (3 patient empowerment, (4 and defaulter tracing; and (5 the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a

  2. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  3. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  4. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  5. A longitudinal, qualitative study exploring sustained adherence to a hand exercise programme for Rheumatoid Arthritis evaluated in the SARAH Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud This study explores the experience of participants taking part in a hand exercise programme for people with rheumatoid arthritis with a focus on adherence. The exercise programme was tested in a randomised controlled trial. This parallel qualitative study will inform future implementation into clinical practice. \\ud \\ud Method:\\ud Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews from 14 participants were undertaken at 2 time points (4 and 12 months after randomisation). We collected data o...

  6. Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Haritha; Pramya, N; Prabhu, Karthiga; Mascarenhas, Mariano; Reddi Rani, P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India. Girls aged ≤ 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes in women aged > 19 years who delivered in the same hospital during the study period. A total of 620 teenage pregnancies were compared with 14,878 non-teenage women. The obstetric and perinatal outcome was compared in the study and control groups using t test with Yates correction. We calculated Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals(CI) and p values; p teenage pregnancy in the study was 4%. A signicant proportion of teenage mothers were in their first pregnancies and their mean age was 18.04 years. Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of anaemia, past dates, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), normal vaginal delivery, episiotomy, low birth weight, and a significantly lower incidence of caesarean sections/perineal tears in teenage mothers compared to other mothers. In contrast, the incidence of hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction of fetus, pre-term labour and postpartum haemorrhage were similar in both the groups. The data in our study should throw more light on the current thinking of the obstetrical problems facing teenage mothers, in which some of our results support and others refute several long held beliefs about the risks in teenage pregnancy. Early booking, adequate antenatal care and delivery by trained people should improve the obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage pregnancies, which is still an unresolved problem inspite of various government programmes in developing countries.

  7. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  8. Women Empowerment through Participation in Micro-Credit Programme: A Case Study from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Hoque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Numerous micro-credit organizations have been emerged as the form of mushroom in Bangladesh in the recent times. All of them are providing micro-credit to the poor women with the view of poverty reduction and empowering the rural women. Thus, the researchers take an attempt to check that to what extent these micro-credit programmes are effective in empowering rural women. Approach: The study was attempted to assess the impact of micro-credit programmes in empowering rural women in Bangladesh. All women of Rampur village were the population of the study. Empirical data for the study were collected from 180 women of Rampur village under Palashbari sub-district of Gaibandha district by using structured questionnaire. Among these 180 women 50% were active members of MF NGOs and rest were individual housewives. Lists of micro-credit NGO women were collect from concerned MF NGOs and from these lists, respondent women were selected as random basis. Similarly, lists of the individual housewives were collected from union council office and from that lists respondent women were selected randomly. Results: The result of the study revealed that only 21% of the respondent women are empowered and rest of them is not yet empowered. However, among the empowered respondent women 69% of them are the active members of micro-credit programmes. The result of the study also explored that among the socio-economic factors of the women institutional participation, media exposure and family land holdings are very important for women empowerment. While, micro-credit use by own self, duration of micro-credit use and monitoring by the concerned MF NGO are found as significant factors for women empowerment who are associated with micro-credit programmes. Conclusion: It was therefore, recommended that if it was possible to provide micro-credit to rural women and monitor them regularly, that women by themselves use this money in productive sector then they

  9. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    given age cohort. Many poor, developing countries have a broad base and steadily taper - ing higher levels, which reflects a large number of births and...as running, gymnastics, volleyball , ice skating, and traditional Korean games. Group gym- nastic exercises are considered an art form as well as a form

  10. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    climate provides plentiful sunshine , moder- ated by the relatively high altitude of most areas of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from...spring water they called "the water of Yakan." To those who drank it, they promised restored health, eternal life, and the return of the ancestors and

  11. Children's environmental knowing: A case study of children's experiences during an environmental education programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sandra Anne

    This study explores children's experiences during WaterWorlds (pseudonym) a field-based environmental education programme at a marine science centre. The study objectives were to investigate how children understand and interpret their experiences, and how these experiences foster their environmental knowing. To address these objectives, I carried out a case study at a marine science centre in British Columbia. I examined children's WaterWorlds experiences and explored their environmental understandings and commitment to environmental action. I analysed the experiences of children in four separate classes and carried out an in-depth examination of four individual children. Data were collected using informal semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations, researcher journal logs, and student documents including their writing and illustrations. My findings indicate that the WaterWorlds programme experience fosters children's environmental knowing. Participation in WaterWorlds activities led to connection, caring, and concern for other species and in some cases, for the marine environment as a whole. During the programme, children chose the ways they interpreted and expressed their environmental knowledge, ethic of care, advocacy, and commitment to action. This development of each child's self-expression resulted in motivational and powerful learning experiences that inspired and nurtured their connections to the earth. This research provides evidence and examples of how educators can foster children's environmental knowing through multi-disciplinary environmental education experiences. It illustrates that activities such as observing and documenting the lives of other animal species, collecting data and conducting research on those species, and working and learning alongside experts in the field of environmental education are powerful experiences that motivate concern and care for the earth among children.

  12. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  13. CDIO Projects In DTU’s B.Eng. In Electronics Study Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Claus; Brauer, Peter; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the four cross disciplinary CDIO semester projects in the B.Eng. in Electronics study at DTU, and – along with similar papers describing the other six B.Eng. programs – provides documentation to accompany an exposition with students demonstrating their projects, furthermore...... the paper is meant as an inspiration to others working on implementing cross disciplinary projects in their curriculum. In the B.Eng. in Electronics programme each of the first 4 semester contains a cross disciplinary project, two of these are CDIO Design Build courses which are placed in the 1st and 4th...

  14. CDIO Projects In DTU’s B.Eng. In Electronics Study Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Claus; Brauer, Peter; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the four cross disciplinary CDIO semester projects in the B.Eng. in Electronics study at DTU, and – along with similar papers describing the other six B.Eng. programs – provides documentation to accompany an exposition with students demonstrating their projects, furthermore...... the paper is meant as an inspiration to others working on implementing cross disciplinary projects in their curriculum. In the B.Eng. in Electronics programme each of the first 4 semester contains a cross disciplinary project, two of these are CDIO Design Build courses which are placed in the 1st and 4th...

  15. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    . L'intégration du changement climatique aux politiques de développement durable permettrait à ces pays d'accomplir leurs objectifs de développement tout en abordant le changement climatique. Un nombre de programmes de recherche ont étudié la manière de réaliser les synergies potentielles au niveau...... plupart des politiques de développement ne mèneront pas à un modèle de développement durable, vu qu'elles n'abordent pas de manière suffisante la question du changement climatique. Cependant, de bonnes opportunités existent pour intégrer les politiques en vue d'accomplir les objectifs de développement...

  16. The Correlation between Gender Inequalities and Their Health Related Factors in World Countries: A Global Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate gender inequalities and their health associated factors in world countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken using data of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP and World Health Organization (WHO. The main variable in this study was gender inequality index (GII. All countries were stratified by WHO regions. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the linear correlation between GII and investigated factors by WHO regions. The mean of GII was greater in Africa and lower in Europe region. There was negative significant association between GII and life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling, prevalence of current tobacco smoking, high blood pressure and overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption rate, and cancer death rate. But there was positive significant association between GII and noncommunicable diseases death rates. In conclusion, gender inequalities, though decreasing over the past decades in world, remain notably greater in Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions than in Europe. Gender inequality is also an important issue which is related to health factors. Hence, countries will need to focus on public health intervention and equal distribution of economic resources to reduce gender inequality in society.

  17. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  18. A qualitative study of teachers' experiences of a school reintegration programme for young children following a burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah M N; Gaskell, Sarah L; Murray, Craig D

    2014-11-01

    School reintegration programmes provide support to both children absent from school as a result of a serious health problem and their teachers, but little is known regarding their efficacy, or the impact of the situation on teachers. This qualitative study explored the experience of primary school teachers who were involved in a school reintegration programme, following a burn injury to a child in their class. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with four primary school teachers. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings indicated that participants were positive regarding the programme, but detailed aspects which could be improved, for example better communication before the child's return. They discussed their fears and concerns, including a strong need to protect the child from further harm. Implications of this study include the need to provide adequate support to teachers in similar positions, and further develop school reintegration programmes to best facilitate the child's return to school.

  19. Programmes of measures under the water framework directive – a comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    direct the authorities’ activities with regard to water management. It concludes that there are major differences in the precision of the measures, the range of legal instruments used, and in the focus on active and direct management of the aquatic environment. The Danish programme seems to facilitate...... the establishment of an adaptive management, whereas the Swedish and Norwegian programmes seem to take a more integrative approach.......The water framework directive requires programmes of measures composed by the Member States, in order to achieve its environmental objectives. This article examines three programmes of measures for river basins in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, with a focus on the differences in how the programmes...

  20. A bibliometric study of food and nutrition education programmes and interventions in schools in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Trescastro-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 13.9% of children and young people in Spain today are obese, and 26.3% are overweight. It is therefore essential that healthy eating habits be developed early in life. Food and nutrition education, taught as part of health education programmes in schools, plays a fundamental role in instilling this behaviour. Te main goal of this publication was to conduct a bibliometric review in order to analyse the literature on food and nutrition education programmes and interventions in schools in Spain which have been shown to influence health and/or school children’s eating habits.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of the results obtained from a literature search of the databases Medline, Cochrane Library Plus en Español, Cuiden, Excelencia clínica, IBECS, Scielo, CSIC (ICYT, ISOC e IME, Lilacs, Cuidatge y Teseo. A study of bibliometric indicators: databases, journals, documents published, languages, authorship, index of collaboration, and degree of obsolescence (Burton and Kebler half-life, and Price index.Results: The search provided a total of 148 citations. The final percentage of relevant articles was 49 (33.11%. The database that provided the highest number of pertinent citations was Medline, accounting 24 (48.98%. 42 of the selected citations (85.71% corresponded to original articles. The journal with the largest number of papers was Nutrición Hospitalaria (Hospital Nutrition, accounting 11 (22.45%. The Burton and Kebler half-life was 6 years and the Price index was 42.86%.Conclusions: Many academic articles have been published concerning food and nutrition education programmes in schools in Spain, indicating the importance of acquiring healthy eating habits and behaviours in childhood and the interest this subject arouses.

  1. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  2. The effect of a preoperative education programme on perioperative anxiety in children: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mariam; Glasper, Alan; Keeton, Diana; Spargo, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The distress of children at the induction of anesthesia (DAI) is unpleasant for all involved and potentially harmful. Many strategies such as premedication or parental presence at induction have been described to minimize it. A preoperative education programme [the 'Saturday Morning Club' or (SMC)] has been in existence in our institution for a number of years and an observational study of children undergoing day case surgery was undertaken to assess the influence of attendance at the SMC on DAI. Ninety-four children aged between 2 and 16 years of age were included in the study; 21 attended the SMC and 73 did not. Patient anxiety using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was measured by blinded observers on the day ward, in the preoperative waiting room and at induction of anesthesia. Parental anxiety at the same locations was self reported using a visual analogue scale. Attendance at the SMC had a favorable effect on patient anxiety levels in all three locations but only reached statistical significance in the waiting room (P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). At present there is little evidence to support the use of preoperative education programmes in the UK and further studies are required to determine their benefit.

  3. A Case Study of English Language Acquisition by Chechen Programme Refugees in Roscommon, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Rose

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the acquisition of English by Programme Chechen refugees who arrived in Ireland eleven years ago. Many of them had less than a basic level of English. To meet their language needs, an intensive English course was set up by the local Vocational Education Committee. However, the refugees’ basic needs such as health care, parental care took precedence over language provision. The study found that the Chechens were unable to fully participate in and benefit from the language course. The process of acquiring English happened to a large extent outside the classroom. The study also looked at how the Chechens acquired language outside the classroom and within their social environment. The findings from assessments, a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, individual case studies and notes made from empirical observation all reinforced each other. This research showed that the Chechens in Roscommon town have become well integrated; they are independent and plan to stay. Most of them speak English quite well and are continuing to improve by participating in local society. However, based on the results of this research, it is recommended that in future , an initial language course for programme refugees should be adapted to allow for immediate pressing concerns over housing and health for example, and that such a course should be less intensive and longer. The paper will be of interest to those who teach refugees at any level as well as teachers of English as a second language and education policy makers.

  4. Retrospective cohort study of an enhanced recovery programme in oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, P A C; Shaw, C; Hine, C; Scholtes, S; Koutra, M; Andrew, H; Hacking, M; Allum, W H

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Enhanced recovery programmes have been established in some areas of elective surgery. This study applied enhanced recovery principles to elective oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery. Methods An enhanced recovery programme for patients undergoing open oesophagogastrectomy, total and subtotal gastrectomy for oesophageal and gastric malignancy was designed. A retrospective cohort study compared length of stay on the critical care unit (CCU), total length of inpatient stay, rates of complications and in-hospital mortality prior to (35 patients) and following (27 patients) implementation. Results In the cohort study, the median total length of stay was reduced by 3 days following oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy. The median length of stay on the CCU remained the same for all patients. The rates of complications and mortality were the same. Conclusions The standardised protocol reduced the median overall length of stay but did not reduce CCU stay. Enhanced recovery principles can be applied to patients undergoing major oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy as long as they have minimal or reversible co-morbidity.

  5. Area Handbook Series. Cote D’Lvoire; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). By the end of that year, it had reports...level to be defended. Coffee Cte d’Ivoire ranked third in world coffee production after Brazil and Colombia . Introduced as a cash crop during the...substantially higher salaries, Through- out the country, there were French mechanics, foremen, planta - tion’owners, storekeepers, clerical workers, and

  6. Study Programme On Contemporary Cultures In Colima, Mexico. Shortcuts And Long Ways Round To Plenitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Galindo Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta la historia aparentemente irrepetible del Programa de Estudios sobre las Culturas Contemporáneas de Colima, México. El autor presenta a lo largo de seis distintos apartados un relato que relaciona elementos de trayectorias individuales, grupales y colectivas, con una historia de la ciencia social en México a lo largo de más de tres décadas. El Programa Cultura fue posible por una combinación de accidentes y visiones luminosas. Emergió en el medio con menos condiciones posibles para un proyecto de altos estudios, desde ahí creció, se desarrolló, llegó a su plenitud, y después decayó y se fue retrayendo a la inercia de la vida institucional universitaria común. Esta es la historia de un programa de investigación ejemplar, una historia para ser conocida, disfrutada, y divulgada. This work describes the seemingly unrepeatable story of the Study Programme on Contemporary Cultures in Colima, Mexico. In six sections, the author describes the relation between individual, group and collective paths in a Mexican social science narrative spanning more than three decades. The Programa Cultura [Culture Programme] was made possible thanks to a combination of coincidences and brilliant visions. Despite the precarious conditions for conducting a top research project, It came into being, developed, and reached its plenitude, before flagging and falling victim of the inertia of everyday institutional life at university. This is the story of an exemplary research programme, a story that should be known, enjoyed and disseminated.

  7. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  8. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.

  9. Contrasting predictors of poor antiretroviral therapy outcomes in two South African HIV programmes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Robin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many national antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes encourage providers to identify and address baseline factors associated with poor treatment outcomes, including modifiable adherence-related behaviours, before initiating ART. However, evidence on such predictors is scarce, and providers judgement may often be inaccurate. To help address this evidence gap, this observational cohort study examined baseline factors potentially predictive of poor treatment outcomes in two ART programmes in South Africa, with a particular focus on determinants of adherence. Methods Treatment-naïve patients starting ART were enrolled from a community and a workplace ART programme. Potential baseline predictors associated with poor treatment outcomes (defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml or having discontinued treatment by six months were assessed using logistic regression. Exposure variables were organised for regression analysis using a hierarchical framework. Results 38/227 (17% of participants in the community had poor treatment outcomes compared to 47/117 (40% in the workplace. In the community, predictors of worse outcomes included: drinking more than 20 units of alcohol per week, having no prior experience of chronic medications, and consulting a traditional healer in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 15.36, 95% CI 3.22-73.27; aOR 2.30, 95%CI 1.00-5.30; aOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.00-5.19 respectively. Being male and knowing someone on ART were associated with better outcomes (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.74; aOR 0.44, 95%CI 0.19-1.01 respectively. In the workplace, predictors of poor treatment outcomes included being uncertain about the health effects of ART and a traditional healer's ability to treat HIV (aOR 7.53, 95%CI 2.02-27.98; aOR 4.40, 95%CI 1.41-13.75 respectively. Longer pre-ART waiting time (2-12 weeks compared to Conclusion Baseline predictors of poor treatment outcomes were largely unique to each programme, likely reflecting

  10. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: a 2-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus impairs the possibility of leading a normal life in 0.5–1% of the population. While neither medical nor surgical treatment appears effective, counselling may offer some relief. An intervention combining counselling and hearing devices is offered to clients referred to the Centre for Help Aids and Communication (CHC in southern Denmark. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine i the characteristics of CHC's clients and their tinnitus, ii the effectiveness of the treatment, and iii whether particular client groups benefit more than others. Methods One hundred new clients presenting with tinnitus completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI three times – before their first consultation, after one month and after 1–2 years. The scores were tested for significant differences over time using tests for paired data. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with a clinically important difference (i.e. THI score improvement of at least 20 points. Results At final follow-up, total THI score was significantly lower than baseline, i.e. 29.8 (CI 25.5–34.2 vs. 37.2 (CI 33.1–37.2, p Conclusion The tinnitus management programme appeared to provide significant benefit to many clients at a relatively low cost. It would be useful to conduct a randomised controlled study comparing the current programme with alternative forms of combination counselling/sound therapy approaches.

  11. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sathamurthy; L M Gantayet; A K Ray

    2007-02-01

    Department of Atomic Energy, India has taken up the development of ADS in view of many attractive features like inherent safety, capability to transmute large quantities of nuclear waste, better utilization of thorium etc. A roadmap has been finalized for the development of ADS. One of the key components of the ADS is the spallation target. Considering the neutron yield, thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage issues, we are proposing to develop spallation target based on heavy density liquid metals like lead and lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE). Both window and windowless target configurations are presently being studied. In view of the various advantages we are also studying liquid metal flow circulation based on gas lift mechanism. An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the existing ones are utilized to design the entire target loop as well as sub-systems. In this presentation the details of these activities are presented.

  12. Being normal, not vulnerable: case study of a 2-day residential programme for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Taylor, Rachel M; Morgan, Sue; Fern, Lorna A

    2017-07-13

    To identify and describe the outcomes and facilitating processes of participation at 'Find Your Sense of Tumour' (FYSOT), a 2-day residential programme/conference for young people with cancer, from the perspective of professionals attending and patient representatives. Case study. Observation of the 'Find Your Sense of Tumour' over 18s residential programme and face-to-face interviews in hospital and phone interviews. Twenty-six participants - 19 professionals from hospitals across the UK who accompanied young people to FYSOT; 3 programme organisers; and 4 young people from the programme steering committee. Participant observation and semistructured interviews. This process evaluation of an educational, social and peer-to-peer support residential weekend for young people with cancer identified key outcomes for young people - positive attitudes (increased sociability, confidence), belonging (feeling accepted, understood), recreation (trying new activities, having fun) and increased knowledge (balance between educational talks and interactions with other young people); and three overarching facilitating processes - being with other young people, the professionals accompanying young people to the event for support and guidance, and the conference/intentional programming. Being in a safe, relaxed and fun environment with other young people facilitates the development of peer support networks and increases young people's confidence and knowledge. Although the focus of the residential programme is on young people, interviewees acknowledge the impact of attending on professionals' motivation, learning and changes in practice. This study has extended our understanding of the role of residential programmes by identifying outcomes and facilitating mechanisms. We have shown that residential programmes have an important role in providing participants with social, emotional and informational support, as well as play an important role in redefining normality. Longitudinal

  13. Nurse- and peer-led self-management programme for patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator; a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk Jacques

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing. Improved treatment options increase survival after an acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac arrest, although patients often have difficulty adjusting and regaining control in daily life. In particular, patients who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD experience physical and psychological problems. Interventions to enhance perceived control and acceptance of the device are therefore necessary. This paper describes a small-scale study to explore the feasibility and the possible benefits of a structured nurse- and peer-led self-management programme ('Chronic Disease Self-Management Program' – CDSMP among ICD patients. Methods Ten male ICD patients (mean age = 65.5 years participated in a group programme, consisting of six sessions, led by a team consisting of a nurse specialist and a patient with cardiovascular disease. Programme feasibility was evaluated among patients and leaders by measuring performance of the intervention according to protocol, attendance and adherence of the participating ICD patients, and patients' and leaders' opinions about the programme. In addition, before and directly after attending the intervention, programme benefits (e.g. perceived control, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and quality of life were assessed. Results The programme was conducted largely according to protocol. Eight patients attended at least four sessions, and adherence ranged from good to very good. On average, the patients reported to have benefited very much from the programme, which they gave an overall report mark of 8.4. The leaders considered the programme feasible as well. Furthermore, improvements were identified for general self-efficacy expectancies, symptoms of anxiety, physical functioning, social functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, and pain. Conclusion This study suggests that a self-management programme led by a

  14. Time spent studying on a pre-registration nursing programme module: an exploratory study and implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C; Lipscomb, Martin; Lockyer, Lesley; Yates, Sue; Young, Pat

    2010-11-01

    European Union (EU) regulations require that university programmes are of specified duration. Additional EU regulations apply specifically to university based nurse education, enacted in the UK by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). However, little is known about how much time student nurses spend on their studies. In this exploratory study, students undertaking a single module in the pre-registration diploma programme at an English university were asked to keep a log of learning activity for the duration of the module. Twenty-six students completed the log. These students achieved higher grades and attended more lectures than the average for the module. The mean study time was 128.4 h against a regulatory assumption that the module should take 200 h. More than half of the 26 students undertook paid work during the module run, though this work was not associated with poorer performance. Problems in regulation for course duration are discussed and it is suggested that undertaking a 4600 h course in 3 years is problematic. More research is required so that patterns of study can be better understood and student centred programmes meeting regulatory requirements developed.

  15. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese

    2011-01-01

    with other vehicles. In single vehicle accidents, 66% of the drivers under 30 years of age had alcohol and/or drugs in their blood (alcohol only – 40%; drugs only – 12%; alcohol and drugs – 14%). The drugs found were mostly illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs with warning labels (in 57% and 58...... within 24 h of the accident, in the years 2001 and 2002 in the five Nordic countries (total population about 24 million inhabitants). The samples were analysed for more than 200 different drugs in addition to alcohol, using a similar analytical programme and cut-off limits in all countries. In three......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  16. Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals.

  17. 'Side effects' are 'central effects' that challenge retention on antiretroviral therapy in HIV treatment programmes in six sub-Saharan African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renju, Jenny; Moshabela, Mosa; McLean, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the bodily and relational experience of taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the subsequent effect on retention in HIV care in six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 130 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had initiated ART, 38...

  18. Trend road safety measures : international course on transportation and road engineering in developing countries. Two-year postgraduate Diploma and M.Sc. programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1991-01-01

    This course focuses mainly on traffic and transport in developing countries, and deals primarily with matters of infrastructure. Road safety and road safety problems are closely related to the construction and operation of the road network. (See also C 1341 - C1346).

  19. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  20. Tax burden in EU countries – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the overall tax burden and tax policy of European countries. The theoretical part of the paper explains the term of tax burden and summarizes its measuring possibilities. It especially deals with the tax quota as the most generally applied indicator but some alternative indicators, such as the tax freedom day or tax misery index, are also mentioned. The empirical part of the paper is aimed on the comparison of tax burden of “old” and “new” EU member states following mentioned indicators. Certain tax policy recommendations are formulated on the basis of performed comparison.

  1. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koyanagi

    Full Text Available Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China to 17.0% (Poland. After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78, arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46, and depression (OR 1.75-5.12 were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI for 1,2,3, and ≥ 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82, 2.55 (1.99-3.27, 3.22 (2.52-4.11, and 7.62 (5.88-9.87 respectively in the overall sample.Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies

  2. Education for health: case studies of two multidisciplinary MPH/MSc public health programmes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, W; Russell, J; Wills, J

    2003-09-01

    Amidst the winds of change that are blowing across the UK public health (PH) landscape in relation to the essential abilities and national standards that are required for the 'art and science' of PH, the preparation for a new cadre of 'PH professionals' is already underway. Several postgraduate masters programmes in public health (MPH) have taken on board the challenge of addressing the requisite sets of skills and expertise as a guide to their content and delivery. Although there are recommendations regarding teaching PH to undergraduate medical students, little consensus seems to exist on teaching postgraduate PH to non-medically qualified professionals, health managers and administrators. Employing a case study approach, this article analyses the methods used, philosophies and processes, structure and organization, outcomes to date, and lessons learnt from MPH programmes implemented at two institutions in the UK. The programmes have been initiated recently, and have had the opportunity to take on board the recent national guidelines about training standards. The findings indicate that preparatory work of the programmes, and the challenges and strengths in meeting the recent policy developments in PH training are pertinent points. The MPH programmes highlight key issues in interprofessional education and its purpose, its process and its outcomes in relation to multidisciplinary specialist practice. These programmes provide a variety of models for others wishing to develop or restructure their postgraduate PH teaching programmes. The finalization of the national standards for specialist practice in PH in the UK is encouraged, along with clearer working definitions of the domains of expertise required. Collectively, attention to these measures can ensure that the processes which teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with PH knowledge and skills.

  3. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Duy Pham

    Full Text Available Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness.We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY.Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300-68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100-54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200-496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447-2,747], US$2,344 [1,843-2,765], and US$248 [201-319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively.Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden.

  4. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  5. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI. We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients.

  6. Rural Development and Labour-Intensive Schemes. Impact Studies of Some Pilot Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaude, J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines case studies of special public works programs in five countries (Burkina Faso, Burundi, Rwanda, Nepal, and United Republic of Tanzania) that included afforestation projects, anti-erosion works, and the building of reservoirs. Discusses program design, implementation, and impact. (CH)

  7. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. W

  8. Transition to blended learning: experiences from the first year of our blended learning Bachelor of Nursing Studies programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary-Rose; Kirwan, Anne; Kelly, Mary; Corbally, Melissa; O Neill, Sandra; Kirwan, Mary; Hourican, Susan; Matthews, Anne; Hussey, Pamela

    2016-10-01

    The School of Nursing at Dublin City University offered a new blended learning Bachelor of Nursing Studies programme in the academic year 2011. To document the experiences of the academic team making the transition from a face-to-face classroom-delivered programme to the new blended learning format. Academics who delivered the programme were asked to describe their experiences of developing the new programme via two focus groups. Five dominant themes were identified: Staff Readiness; Student Readiness; Programme Delivery and Student Engagement; Assessment of Module Learning Outcomes and Feedback; and Reflecting on the First Year and Thinking of the Future. Face-to-face tutorials were identified as very important to both academics and students. Reservations about whether migrating the programme to an online format encouraged students to engage in additional practices of plagiarism were expressed by some. Student ability/readiness to engage with technology-enhanced learning was an important determinant of their own success academically. In the field of nursing blended learning is a relatively new and emerging field which will require huge cultural shifts for staff and students alike.

  9. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross......-national differences with respect to their design and generosity. These differences are evident in national variations in poverty rates, especially among children and elderly people. We investigated to what extent variations in family and pension policies are linked to infant mortality and old-age excess mortality....... METHODS: Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970...

  10. Methodology used in comparative studies assessing programmes of transition from paediatrics to adult care programmes: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, E; Mellerio, H; Guilmin-Crépon, S; Gottot, S; Jacquin, P; Boulkedid, R; Alberti, C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the methodologies employed in studies assessing transition of care interventions, with the aim of defining goals for the improvement of future studies. Design Systematic review of comparative studies assessing transition to adult care interventions for young people with chronic conditions. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrial.gov. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies 2 reviewers screened comparative studies with experimental and quasi-experimental designs, published or registered before July 2015. Eligible studies evaluate transition interventions at least in part after transfer to adult care of young people with chronic conditions with at least one outcome assessed quantitatively. Results 39 studies were reviewed, 26/39 (67%) published their final results and 13/39 (33%) were in progress. In 9 studies (9/39, 23%) comparisons were made between preintervention and postintervention in a single group. Randomised control groups were used in 9/39 (23%) studies. 2 (2/39, 5%) reported blinding strategies. Use of validated questionnaires was reported in 28% (11/39) of studies. In terms of reporting in published studies 15/26 (58%) did not report age at transfer, and 6/26 (23%) did not report the time of collection of each outcome. Conclusions Few evaluative studies exist and their level of methodological quality is variable. The complexity of interventions, multiplicity of outcomes, difficulty of blinding and the small groups of patients have consequences on concluding on the effectiveness of interventions. The evaluation of the transition interventions requires an appropriate and common methodology which will provide access to a better level of evidence. We identified areas for improvement in terms of randomisation, recruitment and external validity, blinding, measurement validity, standardised assessment and reporting. Improvements will increase our capacity to determine effective interventions for transition care. PMID:28131998

  11. The evolution of midwifery education at the master's level: a study of Swedish midwifery education programmes after the implementation of the Bologna process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, Evelyn; Mårtensson, Lena B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, midwifery education has undergone a number of reforms in the past few decades. In several countries, it has shifted from vocational training to academic education. The higher education reform, known as the "Bologna process" aimed to create convergence in higher education among a number of European countries and enhance opportunities for mobility, employment and collaborative research. It also indicated a transparent and easily compared system of academic degrees, generating a new educational system in three cycles. This study explores the implementation of the process in Sweden when the midwifery education was transferred from diploma to postgraduate or master's level. The aim of this study was to analyse how the implementation of the Bologna process in the Swedish higher education system has impacted midwifery education programmes in the country. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were employed to analyse 32 questionnaire responses from teachers and the 2009-2010 curricula and syllabi of 11 postgraduate midwifery education programmes at Swedish universities and university colleges. The results revealed variations among the universities at the major subject into the three disciplines; midwifery, nursing and caring with different conceptualisations, even when the content was identical in the curricula to that of the midwifery professional knowledge base. Implementation of the new reform not only has accelerated the academisation process, but also puts higher demand on the students and requires higher competencies among teachers to involve more evidence-based knowledge, seminars, independent studies and a postgraduate degree project in the major subject. Thus the students earn not only a diploma in midwifery, but also a master's degree in the major subject, which affords the opportunity for an academic career. But still there is a tension between professional and academic education.

  12. Study of Ethical Values and Practices in Academic Programmes at a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Kogilah; Shetty, M. V.

    The study on ethical values in academic programmes has attracted the attention of many researchers throughout the world especially in view of its important role today. Many academic programmes today focus on how to make profit both for the individual and the organization and on how to increase the firm`s market share and shareholders value and in the process may compromise on their ethical values and have unethical practices. Thus, this study is undertaken to evaluate the extent of integration of ethical values in the academic programmes of the higher learning operating institution involved with post graduate and higher level programs. The impact of demographics and race of the lecturer and students have been separately ascertained. The sample has been taken from one college, rated to be high in ethical values and practices, a sample of 120 students and 31 lecturers from a leading college (reputed for ethical values) have been collated and analyzed for validation of the objectives. The explanation on ethics has been done to a large extent in the study. The study also indicates the number of higher learning institutions to indicate the extent of impact if these issues are appropriately addressed. Government policy in this regard also needs to be reviewed and improved to avoid deterioration of ethical values and practices in the dynamic market place of today. This study review that, the level at which lecturers at the institutions have high ethical values and do incorporate it in their lectures and discussions in the classroom. The impact of demographic factors on the ethical values and practice of the lecturers have useful insights for academic staff recruitment and staff training. On the other hand, students` ethical values and behavior is a cause for concern to everyone as these future pillars of the nation have been found to have their ethical values and practices at low levels. The implications for the college management as to consider further emphasis on the

  13. Programmes of measures under the water framework directive – a comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    The water framework directive requires programmes of measures composed by the Member States, in order to achieve its environmental objectives. This article examines three programmes of measures for river basins in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, with a focus on the differences in how the programmes...... direct the authorities’ activities with regard to water management. It concludes that there are major differences in the precision of the measures, the range of legal instruments used, and in the focus on active and direct management of the aquatic environment. The Danish programme seems to facilitate...

  14. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconer Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the National Child Measurement Programme and key service providers from 5 primary care trusts (administrative bodies responsible for providing primary and secondary care services. We will conduct baseline questionnaires, followed by provision of weight feedback and 3 follow up questionnaires over the course of a year. Questionnaires will measure change in parental risk perception of overweight, health behaviours and health service use. Qualitative interviews will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to change. This study will produce preliminary data on National Health Service costs associated with weight feedback and determine which feedback approach (letter and letter plus telephone is more effective. Discussion This study will provide the first large scale evaluation of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback. Findings from this evaluation will inform future planning of the National Child Measurement Programme.

  15. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  16. People’s participation in watershed management programmes: Evaluation study of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Bagdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available People’s participation in watershed management programmes is an important strategy of government of India for making watershed programmes successful. Participation of local beneficiary farmers is mandatory in planning, implementation and maintenance of watershed development projects as per common guidelines issued by Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD has launched holistic watershed development programmes on 2nd October, 2006 to help farmers in the six distressed districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra in India. Therefore, there is a need to know the level of participation by the local people in government sponsored watershed management programmes. The study was conducted during 2011 – 2012 in this Vidarbha region of Maharashtra to measure the extent of people’s participation in NABARD Supported Holistic Watershed Development Programme (NSHWDP. In this paper a detailed structured three-point-continuum schedule was developed by the investigators regarding various aspects of participation by local people in soil and water conservation for watershed management programme. People’s Participation Index (PPI was also designed to compute the extent of people’s participation. Data for this study was gathered through personal interviews from farmers of six selected districts in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. Findings of this study indicated that the extent of people’s participation in planning was 63.7 per cent, in implementation was 57.7 per cent and in maintenance was 75.1 per cent. It shows that the extent of people’s participation in NSHWDP in the six distressed districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra was moderate during watershed programme planning and implementation phases, whereas, high level of participation was exhibited during maintenance phase.

  17. Country Image and the Study Abroad Destination Choice of Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on the issue of country image in destination choice. To examine the relationship between these two variables, the study tests whether mainland Chinese who favor a destination as their ideal first choice for study abroad have a significantly more positive view of that destination's country image than their…

  18. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  19. Family Literacy Programmes: A Comparative Study of Gender Roles in England, Ireland and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anthea; Atkin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    There is concern from government in each of the sample sites over the role fathers play in supporting their children through school. Fathers have become a more "visible parent" and a focus for policy-makers in education. Family literacy programmes are used in this article as an example of an educational programme where fathers are often absent.…

  20. Preventing and Confronting School Bullying: A Comparative Study of Two National Programmes in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prevent and curb school bullying have resulted in a proliferation of anti-school-bullying programmes, many based on intuitive appeal rather than systematic evidence. This article presents a comparative analysis of two Norwegian programmes whose developers have demonstrated the effectiveness of their interventions: the Olweus Programme…

  1. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of…

  2. A Comparative Study of Two Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Programmes in the USA and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.; Duffield, Stacy K.; Glava, Adina E.; Glava, Catalin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overall exploratory comparison of two specific pre-service teacher preparation programmes at two research-intensive institutions of higher education in the USA and Romania. The main conclusions suggest that US and Romanian teacher candidates differ very little in their ratings of their respective programmes in terms of…

  3. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  4. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of the coping…

  5. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arundhati; Vijayshri; Garg, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment. In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation…

  6. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of…

  7. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  8. Environmental Education as an Object of Study in Post-graduate Programmes in Tourism in Brazil (period 1997-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salete Goulart Martins Denicol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Education (EE is an important tool for the sustainable development of tourism, which is used to educate people on minimizing environmental impacts caused by the use of natural resources in tourist activities. Within this perspective, studies on EA in the Post-graduate Programmes in tourism in Brazil seem to be important and necessary to identify trends and gaps in the process of knowledge production. The aim of this study is to map how Environmental Education is contemplated in knowledge production in the dissertations of those programmes, which are recommended by Capes from 1997 a 2011. This research is exploratory and analyses dissertations which look at environmental education from Capes Theses Repository. The results show that from six Post-Graduate Programmes in Tourism in Brazil, only five dissertations (two from the Master Programme in Tourism and Hospitality of Universidade do Vale do Itajaí and three from the Master Programme in Tourism of Universidade de Caxias do Sul contemplate environmental education as an object of study.

  9. Socio-ethical education in nanotechnology engineering programmes: a case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Balamuralithara; Er, Pek Hoon; Visvanathan, Punita

    2013-09-01

    The unique properties of nanotechnology have made nanotechnology education and its related subjects increasingly important not only for students but for mankind at large. This particular technology brings educators to work together to prepare and produce competent engineers and scientists for this field. One of the key challenges in nanotechnology engineering is to produce graduate students who are not only competent in technical knowledge but possess the necessary attitude and awareness toward the social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. In this paper, a research model has been developed to assess Malaysian nanotechnology engineering students' attitudes and whether their perspectives have attained the necessary objectives of ethical education throughout their programme of study. The findings from this investigation show that socio ethical education has a strong influence on the students' knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to socio ethical issues related to nanotechnology.

  10. Impact of participation in a theatre programme on quality of life among older adults with chronic conditions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon Keung; Mueller, Kris; Mayor, Ellise; Azuero, Andres

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to evaluate the effect of participation in the "Seasoned Arts At the Samford for You" (SAASY) programme, which included a 6-week acting class and four public performances, on the psychological well-being and health-related quality of life of older adults. Twelve older adults with chronic conditions from a low-income senior apartment and a senior living community participated in the programme. The acting class, led by two professional artists, met for a 2-hour class weekly for six weeks. Participants completed the General Well-being Schedule (GWBS) and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) both at the beginning of the programme and one month after the programme ended. In addition, participants were individually interviewed to explore the perceived impact of the theatre programme on their well-being. Participants reported a significantly higher score in the GWBS and on the physical but not on the mental component summary of the SF-36 at post-SAASY programme. Content analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that participants attained an improved sense of self-worth and self-advocacy and overcame self-imposed limitations. Results showed improvement in psychological well-being and health-related quality of life, most notably in the physical health component of SF-36 after participating in the programme. Practice implications for occupational therapists using drama as a creative leisure occupation to promote health among older adults with chronic conditions may involve analysis of participants' occupational profile, identification of deficit areas and adaptation of the acting programme content to meet specific needs and goals. The present study used a pretest and post test one group design that has numerous inherent limitations that affect the ability to make valid inferences from study findings. A more rigorous research design with a wait-listed control group and collection of outcome measures immediately after

  11. From parent to 'peer facilitator': a qualitative study of a peer-led parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S; Michelson, D; Day, C

    2015-01-01

    Peer-led interventions are increasingly common in community health settings. Although peer-led approaches have proven benefits for service users, relatively little is known about the process and outcomes of participation for peer leaders. This study investigated experiences of parents who had participated as 'peer facilitators' in Empowering Parents, Empowering Communities (EPEC), a peer-led programme designed to improve access to evidence-based parenting support in socially disadvantaged communities. A qualitative cross-sectional design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 peer facilitators and scrutinized using thematic analysis. Peer facilitators developed their knowledge and skills through personal experience of receiving parenting support, participation in formal training and supervised practice, access to an intervention manual, and peer modelling. Peer facilitators described positive changes in their own families, confidence and social status. Transformative personal gains reinforced peer facilitators' role commitment and contributed to a cohesive 'family' identity among EPEC staff and service users. Peer facilitators' enthusiasm, openness and mutual identification with families were seen as critical to EPEC's effectiveness and sustainability. Peer facilitators also found the training emotionally and intellectually demanding. There were particular difficulties around logistical issues (e.g. finding convenient supervision times), managing psychosocial complexity and child safeguarding. The successful delivery and sustained implementation of peer-led interventions requires careful attention to the personal qualities and support of peer leaders. Based on the findings of this study, support should include training, access to intervention manuals, regular and responsive supervision, and logistical/administrative assistance. Further research is required to elaborate and extend these findings to other peer-led programmes. © 2014 John Wiley

  12. Acceptability of a reflective e-portfolio instituted in an orthodontic specialist programme: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, I; Oliver, R G

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to highlight students' and mentors' acceptability of a reflective e-portfolio instituted in a postgraduate orthodontic programme in the UK. A reflective e-portfolio was developed on the basis of principles provided by a literature search and was piloted for 2 months with six students and seven mentors. At the end of the experience, mentors' and students' acceptability of the e-portfolio with a reflective component was studied using questionnaires. The data were analysed using basic quantitative and qualitative methods. Students' response highlighted acceptability issues related to each aspect of the e-portfolio derived from the literature: relevance of the e-portfolio reflective part; time required for the process; support and mentoring; the implementation method; and the electronic medium. Mentors showed a more positive attitude towards the e-portfolio, expressing only some concerns about the time involved in using it. Furthermore, the analysis of the data highlighted some other acceptability matters: the specificity of the e-portfolio, the communication amongst students and the relationship between students and mentors. The future successful implementation of the reflective e-portfolio will depend on the productive management of the acceptability issues identified by students and mentors, in particular:(i)the specificity of the e-portfolio that would avoid its overlapping with other part of the programme;(ii)the increasing communication amongst students to improve their knowledge of the reflective writing process; and (iii)the development of a relationship between students and mentors helping to create the appropriate environment for reflection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Disciplinary Enculturation Experiences of Five East Asian Doctoral Students in US-Based Second Language Studies Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonhee

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the non-discursive aspects of the disciplinary enculturation experiences of five international doctoral students from East Asia in three Second Language studies graduate programmes in the United States. Based largely on interview data, this study examined how students participate in their graduate discourse communities and…

  14. Numeracy Competence Requirements for Admission to Undergraduate Degree Programmes: A Case Study of a Programme to Prepare Pre-Registration Nursing Student Candidates for a Numeracy Entrance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Beattie; Perkins, Andrew; Fritsch, Lynn Faller; Burke, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Some undergraduate programmes require evidence of baseline numeracy skills as a condition of entry. With a widened entry gate into higher education and a recognised "mathematics problem" in society, students wishing to enrol onto degree programmes that require evidence of numeracy often find it difficult to provide such evidence.…

  15. Effectiveness of the Austrian disease-management-programme for type 2 diabetes: study protocol of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its rising prevalence type 2 diabetes plays an important role concerning population health in Austria and other western countries. In various studies deficiencies in the care of diabetic patients have been revealed. These deficiencies may be overcome by disease-management-programmes (DMPs, but international experience shows that the effectiveness of DMPs is inconsistent. In particular large programmes designed by state-affiliated public health insurances have not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs. We are therefore conducting a large scale RCT of the Austrian DMP for type 2 diabetic patients in the province of Salzburg to evaluate the programme regarding its effects on metabolic control, guideline adherent care and the quality of life of diabetic patients. Methods/Design The study is open for participation to all GPs and internists in the province of Salzburg. Physicians are randomized before recruitment of patients with the districts of Salzburg as clusters of randomisation. A total of over 1200 patients with type 2 diabetes will then be recruited. In the intervention group the DMP is applied for one year. Controls receive usual care. Endpoints are a decrease in HbA1c in the intervention group > 0,5% compared to controls, a higher percentage of patients with required diagnostic measures according to guidelines, improved cardiovascular risk profile and higher quality of life scores within one year. Current status of the study 98 Physicians agreed to participate in the study. 96 of them recruited 1494 patients, 654 in the intervention and 840 in the control group. Trail Registration This trial has been registered with Current Controlled Trials Ltd. (ISRCTN27414162.

  16. Basic life support skill improvement with newly designed renewal programme: cluster randomised study of small-group-discussion method versus practice-while-watching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Tae Rim; Kang, Mun Ju; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-12-01

    For the basic life support (BLS) renewal course, we have devised a new educational programme entitled a small-group-discussion (SGD) programme using personalised video-based debriefing. We compared the efficacy in BLS skill improvement of the SGD programme with the currently used practice-while-watching (PWW) programme, which uses a standardised education video. This was a prospective, cluster randomised study, conducted in a single centre, over 6 months from May 2009 to October 2009. Training was performed in two groups of participants, each group with a different renewal education programme. The efficacy of the programmes was compared using the modified Cardiff test and skill-reporting manikins. Results from 2169 participants were analysed: 1061 in the SGD programme group and 1108 in the PWW programme group. There were no differences between groups on the pretest, either in compression or non-compression skills. However, on the post-test, the SGD programme gave better results for both compression skills and non-compression skills. The new SGD renewal programme is more effective than the PWW programme for improving skills in BLS renewal training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. "It's a complex mesh"- how large-scale health system reorganisation affected the delivery of the immunisation programme in England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Tracey; Lwembe, Saumu; Saliba, Vanessa; Raj, Thara; Mays, Nicholas; Ramsay, Mary; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2016-09-15

    The English health system experienced a large-scale reorganisation in April 2013. A national tri-partite delivery framework involving the Department of Health, NHS England and Public Health England was agreed and a new local operational model applied. Evidence about how health system re-organisations affect constituent public health programmes is sparse and focused on low and middle income countries. We conducted an in-depth analysis of how the English immunisation programme adapted to the April 2013 health system reorganisation, and what facilitated or hindered the delivery of immunisation services in this context. A qualitative case study methodology involving interviews and observations at national and local level was applied. Three sites were selected to represent different localities, varying levels of immunisation coverage and a range of changes in governance. Study participants included 19 national decision-makers and 56 local implementers. Two rounds of interviews and observations (immunisation board/committee meetings) occurred between December 2014 and June 2015, and September and December 2015. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and written accounts of observed events compiled. Data was imported into NVIVO 10 and analysed thematically. The new immunisation programme in the new health system was described as fragmented, and significant effort was expended to regroup. National tripartite arrangements required joint working and accountability; a shift from the simpler hierarchical pre-reform structure, typical of many public health programmes. New local inter-organisational arrangements resulted in ambiguity about organisational responsibilities and hindered data-sharing. Whilst making immunisation managers responsible for larger areas supported equitable resource distribution and strengthened service commissioning, it also reduced their ability to apply clinical expertise, support and evaluate immunisation providers' performance

  18. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  19. Why do women not use antenatal services in low- and middle-income countries? A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Finlayson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs don't receive adequate antenatal care. Women's views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a predetermined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMICs who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line-of-argument synthesis. We derived policy-relevant hypotheses from the findings. We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1,230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: "pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy", "resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty", and "not getting it right the first time". The line-of-argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralised, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs, and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource constraints, and when women experience

  20. Programming jammed Codman Hakim programmable valves: study of an explanted valve and successful programming in a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sui-To; Wen, Eleanor; Fong, Dawson

    2013-08-01

    Malfunction of a Codman Hakim programmable valve due to jamming of its programmable component may necessitate shunt revision. The authors report a method for programming jammed Codman Hakim programmable valves by using a Strata II magnet and additional neodymium magnets. The programming method was derived after studying a jammed valve in the laboratory that was explanted from an 10-year-old boy with a history of fourth ventricle ependymoma. Programming the explanted valve with a Codman programmer failed, but rotating a Strata II magnet above the valve resulted in rotation of the spiral cam in the valve. It was found that the Strata II magnet could be used to program the jammed valve by rotating the magnet 90° or multiples of 90° above the valve. The strength of the magnetic field of the Strata II magnet was able to be increased by putting neodymium magnets on it. The programming method was then successfully used in a patient with a jammed Codman Hakim programmable valve. After successful programming using this method, clinical and radiological follow-up of the patient was advised.

  1. Exploring the Dimensions of Brand Reputation in Higher Education--A Case Study of a Finnish Master's Degree Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Kati

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the dimensions that are relevant to brand reputation, particularly in the context of master's degree programmes. The data analysis is based on Vidaver-Cohen's "Business school quality dimensions and reputational attributes". The qualitative data for the case study comprise a student questionnaire and…

  2. Exploring the Dimensions of Brand Reputation in Higher Education--A Case Study of a Finnish Master's Degree Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Kati

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the dimensions that are relevant to brand reputation, particularly in the context of master's degree programmes. The data analysis is based on Vidaver-Cohen's "Business school quality dimensions and reputational attributes". The qualitative data for the case study comprise a student questionnaire and…

  3. Using smartphones and tablets in higher education contexts: an exploratory study within a teacher education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmigiani Davide

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse and explore the potential opportunities offered by mobile devices to improve the higher education scenario. In particular, the study was conducted within a teacher education programme. The students attended a course called Educational Technology, which focussed on the use of mobile devices (smartphones and tablets inside and outside the classroom. We examined the impact of mobile learning on students’ university activities and the changes in the organisation of their studying activity, their learning strategies and their interaction/cooperation levels. After the course, we administered a questionnaire that highlighted some findings concerning the differences between smartphones and tablets in supporting these aspects. We found that both types of devices improved the interaction/collaboration among students and the search for information, which was useful for studying. However, the organisation of studying and the learning strategies were supported only by tablets and for specific aspects of learning. This exploratory research suggests, on the one hand, some possible solutions to improve the quality of university activities, and on the other, it underlines some difficulties that will be analysed more thoroughly in further studies.

  4. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  5. The important role of food composition in policies and programmes for better public health: A South African case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette; Pretorius, B

    2018-01-01

    Most governments have committed to the set of Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations (UN) to be achieved by 2030. Subsequently the governments have drafted, or are in process of drafting, policies and programmes which aim to answer to these global requests. South Africa provides a unique case study: despite economic growth, undernutrition has not improved when compared to other industrialised nations, while at the same time, diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity have exponentially increased. Access to healthy food is a constitutional right of all South Africans, and towards increasing food security and improving population health, various policies, programmes and regulations have been developed and implemented by the government to rectify the situation. The paper presents an overview of food composition within these public health policies, programmes and regulations and unpacks the important role of accurate food composition data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  7. Community involvement in the development of an environmental education programme: the Tswaing meteorite crater conservation area as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Swanepoel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the relevance of applied research in education is its actual impact on society. A case study was undertaken to determine how research insights could be implemented by involving a local community in the design and implementation of environmental education programmes in their environment. The Tswaing Meteorite Crater conservation area project was undertaken with the active participation of teachers, learners and education officers from the communities living around Tswaing, as well as subject specialists. Issues which should be considered in the development of similar programmes were also highlighted.

  8. Task shifting from physicians to nurses in primary care in 39 countries: a cross-country comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Claudia B; Aiken, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Primary care is in short supply in many countries. Task shifting from physicians to nurses is one strategy to improve access, but international research is scarce. We analysed the extent of task shifting in primary care and policy reforms in 39 countries. Cross-country comparative research, based on an international expert survey, plus literature scoping review. A total of 93 country experts participated, covering Europe, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (response rate: 85.3%). Experts were selected according to pre-defined criteria. Survey responses were triangulated with the literature and analysed using policy, thematic and descriptive methods to assess developments in country-specific contexts. Task shifting, where nurses take up advanced roles from physicians, was implemented in two-thirds of countries (N = 27, 69%), yet its extent varied. Three clusters emerged: 11 countries with extensive (Australia, Canada, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and USA), 16 countries with limited and 12 countries with no task shifting. The high number of policy, regulatory and educational reforms, such as on nurse prescribing, demonstrate an evolving trend internationally toward expanding nurses' scope-of-practice in primary care. Many countries have implemented task-shifting reforms to maximise workforce capacity. Reforms have focused on removing regulatory and to a lower extent, financial barriers, yet were often lengthy and controversial. Countries early on in the process are primarily reforming their education. From an international and particularly European Union perspective, developing standardised definitions, minimum educational and practice requirements would facilitate recognition procedures in increasingly connected labour markets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  10. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  11. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  12. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  13. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  14. Social science teachers on citizenship education: A comparative study of two post-communist countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with

  15. A pilot study on acoustic regulations for schools – Comparison between selected countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Guigou-Carter, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic regulations for schools exist in most countries in Europe, the main reasons being improving learning conditions for pupils and work conditions for teachers. As a pilot study, comparison between requirements in selected countries in Europe has been carried out. The findings show a diversi...

  16. Improving the participation in the Erasmus Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.; Beerkens-Soo, M.; Beerkens, Maarja; Cremonini, Leon; Besançon, Barbara; Focken, Noor; Leurs, Bart; McCoshan, Andrew; Huisman, Jeroen; Mozuraityte, Neringa; Souto-Otero, Manuel; de Wit, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which European students experience financial and other barriers to participation in the ERASMUS programme. The evidence indicates that the main barriers to participation vary significantly between countries, with the exception of financial issues, which are an important concern for students everywhere. ERASMUS participation is associated with students’ socio-economic background, primarily influenced by individual preferences and cost-benefit considerations ra...

  17. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  18. Country of origin effect on luxury brands evaluation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kassouf Pizzinatto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the country of origin effect in luxury brands evaluation, theory that concerns the stereotype developed in the mind of consumers from a negative or positive image of the country where the product was manufactured, influencing product brand evaluation image. The methodological process was conducted with experiments, involving manipulation of variables thought printed advertisings, stimulus, as developed especially for the research, in three different situations: first the negative country of origin effect (with bad manufacture quality stereotyped image; second the positive country of origin effect (with good manufacture quality stereotyped image; e a third without any mention of the country of origin. Data were collected through printed questionnaires, answered by 330 people. Results indicated that luxury brand evaluation is not affected by positive country of origin stimulus, but it can influence positively the non luxury brands. The negative country of origin affects both, luxury and non luxury brands, however the effect is superior in non luxury brands. In the stimulus without mention regarding the country of origin, the brand luxury evaluation was not highly affected. However it improved the evaluation of non luxury brands, when compared with the negative country of origin stimulus.

  19. Habits and Television Preferences of Youths and Adolescents: A Study in the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Ana Aierbe Barandiaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work gives us a picture of what and how long youngsters watch television according to a sample of 144 adolescents and young people from the Basque Country (Spain. The main aim is to know our reality and contrast it with available data from other researches. First of all, the results from other works on the television habits and preferences of youngsters are summarized and then the results obtained after applying the Questionnaire on Television Habits (QTH, which was set up “ad hoc” for this research, are presented. The obtained data show us that the time spent watching TV is not so long as we might have expected and this activity does not replace other ones either. As regards the television diet, the favourite contents are fiction series and news, but not the most harmful programmes.

  20. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  1. Importance of strategic management in the implementation of private medicine retailer programmes: case studies from three districts in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Vicki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home-management of malaria strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective anti-malarial drug use through the informal sector, with a potential channel being the Private Medicine Retailers (PMRs. Previous evaluations of PMR programmes focused on their impact on retailer knowledge and practices, with limited evidence about the influence of implementation processes on the impacts at scale. This paper examines how the implementation processes of three PMR programmes in Kenya, each scaled up within a district, contributed to the outcomes observed. These were a Ministry of Health programme in Kwale district; and two programmes supported by non-governmental organizations in collaboration with government in Kisii Central and Bungoma districts. Methods The research methods included 24 focus group discussions with clients and PMRs, 19 in-depth interviews with implementing actors, document review and a diary of events. The data were analysed using the combination of a broad policy analysis framework and more specific scaling up/diffusion of innovations frameworks. Results The Kisii programme, a case study of successful implementation, was underpinned by good relationships between district health managers and a “resource team”, supported by a memorandum of understanding which enabled successful implementation. It had flexible budgetary and decision making processes which were responsive to local contexts, and took account of local socio-economic activities. In contrast, the Kwale programme, which had implementation challenges, was characterised by a complex funding process, with lengthy timelines, that was tied to the government financial management system which constrained implementation Although there was a flexible funding system in Bungoma, a perceived lack of transparency in fund management, inadequate management of inter-organisational relationships, and inability to adapt and respond to changing circumstances led to

  2. Effects of Psychosocial Day Care Programme on Quality of Life in Patients Affected with Schizophrenia - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretić, Tanja Grahovac; Ružić, Klementina; Letica-Crepulja, Marina; Petrić, Daniela; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Frančišković, Tanja

    2016-06-01

    The basic aim of this prospective research was to establish the effect of psychosocial day care programme on the therapy outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. While 115 patients with schizophrenia were invited to participate, 100 of them completed the study and were subdivided into two groups. In addition to pharmacotherapy, the experimental group only (N=50) was integrated into a day-hospital-based psychosocial day care programme. The instruments were applied in three phases: the first measurement for experimental group subjects took place on the first day of psychosocial day-care programme, while for the control group subjects the same was performed on the last day of inpatient care. The second measurement for the experimental group was performed in the end of psychosocial day-care programme, while for the control group patients it occurred four months after inpatient treatment. The third measurement was carried out six months after the second one. The following instruments were applied: General Demographic Questionnaire at the first measurement, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life-MANSA both at the first and third measurement, and Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale-PANSS at all three measurements. Experimental group patients showed a statistically significant increase in quality of life outcomes as well as statistically significant decrease in positive symptoms and general psychopathology at all three measurements and with regard to the control group. As to the negative symptoms, only the third measurement revealed a statistically significant difference. The results obtained indicate that the adjuvant treatment of psychosocial day care programme has a positive effect on treatment outcomes: on the increase of the patients' quality of life, and, to some extent, on the decrease of symptom intensity in positive symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum. However, the effect of psychosocial day-care programme on the negative symptoms was proved to be

  3. Philosophical Skepticism Not Relativism Is "the" Problem with the Strong Programme in Science Studies and with Educational Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayannakos, Dimitris P.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of David's Bloor argument for the Strong Programme (SP) in Science Studies is criticized from the philosophical perspective of anti-skeptical, scientific realism. The paper transforms the common criticism of SP--that the symmetry principle of SP implies an untenable form of cognitive relativism--into the clear philosophical issue of…

  4. Philosophical Skepticism Not Relativism Is "the" Problem with the Strong Programme in Science Studies and with Educational Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayannakos, Dimitris P.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of David's Bloor argument for the Strong Programme (SP) in Science Studies is criticized from the philosophical perspective of anti-skeptical, scientific realism. The paper transforms the common criticism of SP--that the symmetry principle of SP implies an untenable form of cognitive relativism--into the clear philosophical issue of…

  5. Policies Regulating the Assignments of the Bachelor of Education Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sutapa

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the policies formulated by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an open and distance learning university of India for regulating the practices related to the assignments of its Bachelor of Education programme. Following the examination it argues that some policies are formulated in the context of the…

  6. [Study of dietary habits and its relation with cardiovascular disease risk factors with help of specialization computers programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontsevaia, A V; Eganian, R A; Kalinina, A M; Romanenko, T S; Omel'ianenko, M G

    2008-01-01

    Specialization computers programme investigation of dietary risk factors in organized population of universities employers revealed high abundance of this behavior chronic disease risk factors: disturbances of dietary regimen, high salt intake, high intake of saturated fats (butter) and eggs. The study showed significant relationship between abdominal obesity and high blood pressure, total plasma cholesterol also was significantly higher in persons with abdominal obesity.

  7. Development of Health Education Learning Module in Bac.TSE-LDPE Programme in TTI: Needs Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Alijah; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2015-01-01

    This study is to explore the need to develop learning modules of health education for trainee teachers in the Bachelor Of Teaching (Hons)(Special Education-Learning Disabilities For Primary Education) Programme (Bac.TSE-LDPE) in the Teacher Training Institute (TTI). The questionnaire uses the Likert scale with the close ended questions analysed by…

  8. Relationship between Teachers' ICT Competency, Confidence Level, and Satisfaction toward ICT Training Programmes: A Case Study among Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasir, Zaidatun; Abour, Khawla Mohammed El Amin; Halim, Noor Dayana Abd; Harun, Jamalludin

    2012-01-01

    There are three main variables that would make the integration of ICT tools as an easy process. Those three variables are teachers' ICT competency, teachers' confidence level in using ICT, and teachers' satisfaction on ICT training programmes. This study investigated the relationships among these three variables and measured the levels of the…

  9. Challenges in Academic Reading and Overcoming Strategies in Taught Master Programmes: A Case Study of International Graduate Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on research into academic reading practices of international graduate students in taught Master programmes in a Malaysian university. The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges faced in the academic reading practices as well as the strategies employed to overcome the challenges in the academic reading practices.…

  10. Concerns and Expectations of Students Participating in Study Abroad Programmes: Blogging to Reveal the Dynamic Student Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad programmes have become increasingly popular with university students and within academia. They are often seen as an experiential opportunity to expand student learning and development, including increases in global, international and intercultural competences. However, despite the increasing popularity of and participation in study…

  11. Using an instrument to analyse competence-based study programmes; experiences of teachers in Dutch vocational education and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, R.; Dekker - Groen, A.M.; Biemans, H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based education is becoming increasingly popular. Competencies are used more and more as the starting point for designing curricula and instructional methods, especially in vocational education and training, to realize authentic and self-steering study programmes. Despite its popularity

  12. Grip on challenging behaviour : a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Bosmans, Judith E; van Tulder, Maurits W; Eefsting, Jan A; Gerritsen, Debby L; Pot, Anne-Margriet

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. METHODS/DESIGN:

  13. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  14. Building Technological Capabilities in Ghanaian SMEs through Private Sector Development Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Jens Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s an increasing number of donors have initiated pro-grammes to support the private sector in developing countries in order to enhance eco-nomic growth and thereby alleviate poverty. This paper uses case studies of a wide spec-trum of private enterprises in Ghana...... and related business entities to illustrate how the private sector programme of Danida has worked in Ghana. It looks into the direct effects of the programme, i.e. capability building and simultaneously shows how conventional evaluation procedures miss many of the derived effects of the programme....

  15. GEOTRACES: An international marine chemistry programme studying micronutrient cycles, contaminants and paleoproxy calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gideon; Anderson, Bob

    2010-05-01

    A number of trace elements are critical for marine life and therefore influence the functioning of ocean ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. Some trace elements are also of concern as anthropogenic contaminants while others, together with a diverse array of isotopes, are used to assess modern ocean processes and the role of the ocean in past climate change. Despite the recognised importance of these trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, our understanding of their marine biogeochemical cycles remains sparse. Recent advances in our ability to sample the ocean cleanly and to make rapid and precise measurements of low-concentration constituents of seawater now enable a dramatic step forward in understanding. GEOTRACES is an international programme that aims to make this advance. Full details of the programme are available at http://www.geotraces.org. In this presentation we will briefly summarize the scientific goals that motivate GEOTRACES, but also describe the processes of setting up the programme, its infrastructure, and the opportunities for collaboration between GEOTRACES and other programmes. The programme started through a bottom-up process of scientific discussion at international meetings. Planning and writing of the Science Plan proceeded under sponsorship from SCOR (Scientific Committee on Ocean Research) and European activities have more recently been co-ordinated through an ESF COST Action (see http://costaction.earth.ox.ac.uk for details). A number of workshops, including one focused on Arctic activities, set out plans for international implementation of the Science Plan involving more than 20 major ocean sections. Initial field work was conducted during IPY and generated exciting new discovery. Other early work has concentrated on enabling activities: setting up a data management system (http://www.bodc.ac.uk/geotraces/); a rigorous measurement intercalibration programme; opening of an International Project Office in Toulouse, and engagement of

  16. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  17. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  18. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  19. Developing Key Skills as a Science Communicator: Case Studies of Two Scientist-Led Outreach Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Illingworth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outreach by scientific researchers in school classrooms often results in widespread benefit for learners, classroom teachers and researchers. This paper presents a consideration of these benefits using two case studies in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES. In each case, different school classroom-based activities were designed by scientists, but were improved by input from educational professionals, which helped to maximize the mutual learning experiences and to ensure the quality of the content and its delivery. Each case study suggests an improvement in scientist’s working knowledge of best practices for classroom-based outreach activities, which can translate to improved practices for University-level teaching, among other tangible career-relevant benefits. Despite these benefits, these projects highlight the well-established need for improved training for researchers in effective outreach practices, increased value on programme evaluation, and the growing need for meaningful professional recognition for researchers involved in these important, and ever-growing, outreach activities.

  20. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    national et les concessions entre les différents aspects du développement durable qui doivent être abordés. Les secteurs de l'énergie et du transport sont couverts dans maintes études, et un certain degré d'attention est aussi porté au secteur de l'infrastructure et de l'approvisionnement en eau. La....... The energy and transportation sectors are covered in many studies, but some attention is also given to the infrastructure sector and water supply. Most existing development policies will not lead to a sustainable development pattern, since they insufficiently address climate change. However, good...... opportunities exist for integrated policies to achieve development goals while engaging with climate change. The energy and transportation sector studies identified many alternative national low-cost policies with much lower GHG emissions than the business-as-usual policy. Opportunities are identified...

  1. Distribution of country of origin in studies used in Cochrane Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inclusion in systematic reviews is one important component in judging the potential impact of clinical studies upon practice and hence the 'value for money' of spending for clinical research. This study aims to quantify the distribution of countries of origin of clinical studies used in Cochrane Reviews (CRs, and to link these data to the size of a country and to its spending on research. METHODS: Random sample of publications used for CRs published in Issue 1 2008 and of publications used in CRs in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Publications without original data were excluded. Likely countries of origin determined based on abstracts/full texts. CIA World Factbook (population data and OECD database (economic data were used. RESULTS: 1,000 random entries out of 140,005 references available in all specialities. In 876 (91.4% of 959 eligible studies, country of origin was determined. The USA was the leading contributor (36.0% of the studies, followed by UK (13.4%, Canada (5.3%, Australia and Sweden (3.7%. In the CAM sample, country of origin was determined in 458 (93.5% of 497 assessed studies. Again, the USA was the leading contributor (24.9%, with China also emerging as a significant contributor (24.7% in this field. For both samples, the contribution of smaller countries (especially Scandinavian countries, Greece, and Ireland became more noteworthy when considered in relation to population size and research spending. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the leading roles of both the USA and the UK in publishing clinical papers. The emerging role of China can be seen, particularly related to CAM studies. Taking into account size of population and economic power, countries like France, Germany, Italy, and Spain provide small contributions. In contrast, smaller countries like Australia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Sweden also play major roles.

  2. [Bibliometrics study of the development trend of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of MEDLINE and EMBASE database, through bibliometrics, the quantitative research was conducted on the published literatures on the acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trial abroad. The situation of published articles in each continent, country and institution was analyzed statistically. It was found that the number of published articles was higher in Germany, America, England, Sweden, Austria, Japan, South Korea, etc. In Europe, the clinical trial of acupuncture and moxibustion was in the tendency of more country participants, wider distribution and larger amount of research. In North America, America was the main country for the study. In Asia, Japan and South Korea played the leading role. Of those countries, some institutions in Germany America, and South Korea were on the top of the list. In future, the above-mentioned countries and institutions should be monitored specifically so as to launch the active cooperation and strategic project.

  3. Solar Cell Fabrication Studies Pertinent to Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Joseph Henry

    That there is a need in the world today, and in the Third World in particular, for developing renewable energy sources is a proposition without question. Toward that end, the harnessing of solar energy has attracted much attention recently. In this thesis, we have addressed the question of Photovoltaics among the many approaches to the problem as being of poignant relevance in the Third World. Based on our studies, which involved the physics of solar cells, various solar cell configurations, the materials for their fabrication and their fabrication sequences, we arrived at the conclusion that silicon homojunction solar cells are best suited to the present needs and environment of, and suitable for development in the Third World, though Cadmium Sulphide-Cuprous Sulphide solar cell could be considered as a viable future candidate. Attendant with the adoption of photovoltaics as electric energy supply, is the problem of technology transfer and development. Towards that goal, we carried out in the laboratory, the fabrication of solar cells using very simple fabrication sequences and materials to demonstrate that tolerable efficiencies are achievable by their use. The view is also presented that for a thriving and viable solar cell industry in the Third World, the sine qua non is an integrated national policies involving all facets of solar cell manufacture and application, namely, material processing and fabrication, basic research, and development and socio -economic acceptance of solar cell appliances. To demonstrate how basic research could benefit solar cell fabrication, we undertook a number of experiments, such as varying our fabrication sequences and materials, finding their radiation tolerance, and carrying out Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) studies, in an attempt to understand some of the fabrication and environmental factors which limit solar cell performance. We thus found that subjecting wafers to preheat treatments does not improve solar cell

  4. Impact of a women's counselling programme on combined hormonal contraception in Portugal--the IMAGINE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rosa R; Palma, Fátima; Sá, José Luís; Vicente, Lisa; Bombas, Teresa; Nogueira, Ana Maria; Rocha, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this health education project was to measure the impact of counselling about combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) methods on the subsequent choice of method by Portuguese women. This was a multi-centre study with a representative population, at the national and regional levels, of 2951 Portuguese women≥16 years of age visiting the gynaecologist. Counselling on available CHC methods was provided using a single leaflet, and their CHC choice was assessed before and after counselling. A combined oral contraceptive (COC) was the method preferred by the majority of the women prior to counselling. After counselling, 35% of women who initially had chosen the pill, switched to either the vaginal ring or the transdermal patch, and the difference was statistically significant. Ease of use was the major reason for choosing the COC, while a lower probability of omission was the reason for choosing the vaginal ring and the patch. The implementation of a counselling programme significantly affected contraceptive choices leading in a number of cases to the selection of alternatives better suited to women's lifestyle. Age and educational level are socio-demographic factors which play an important role.

  5. Programmability of the HPCS Languages: A Case Study with a Quantum Chemistry Kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shet, Aniruddha G [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Harrison, Robert J [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    As high-end computer systems present users with rapidly increasing numbers of processors, possibly also incorporating attached co-processors, programmers are increasingly challenged to express the necessary levels of concurrency with the dominant parallel programming model, Fortran+MPI+OpenMP (or minor variations). In this paper, we examine the languages developed under the DARPA High-Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program (Chapel, Fortress, and X10) as representatives of a different parallel programming model which might be more effective on coming high-performance systems. The application used in this study is the Hartree-Fock method from quantum chemistry, which combines access to distributed data with a task-parallel algorithm and is characterized by significant irregularity in the computational tasks. We present several different implementation strategies for load balancing of the task parallel computation, as well as distributed array operations, in each of the three languages. We conclude that the HPCS languages provide a wide variety of mechanisms for expressing parallelism, which can be combined at multiple levels, making them quite expressive for this problem.

  6. Programmability of the HPCS Languages: A Case Study with a Quantum Chemistry Kernel (Extended Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shet, Aniruddha G [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Harrison, Robert J [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    As high-end computer systems present users with rapidly increasing numbers of processors, possibly also incorporating attached co-processors, programmers are increasingly challenged to express the necessary levels of concurrency with the dominant parallel programming model, Fortran+MPI+OpenMP (or minor variations). In this paper, we examine the languages developed under the DARPA High-Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program (Chapel, Fortress, and X10) as representatives of a different parallel programming model which might be more effective on coming high-performance systems. The application used in this study is the Hartree-Fock method from quantum chemistry, which combines access to distributed data with a task-parallel algorithm and is characterized by significant irregularity in the computational tasks. We present several different implementation strategies for load balancing of the task parallel computation, as well as distributed array operations, in each of the three languages. We conclude that the HPCS languages provide a wide variety of mechanisms for expressing parallelism, which can be combined at multiple levels, making them quite expressive for this problem.

  7. Exploring substance use normalization among adolescents: a multilevel study in 35 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Kolobov, Tanya; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Walsh, Sophie D; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2013-11-01

    The substance use normalization thesis predicts that adolescent substance users are less likely to report substance use risk factors in high than in low prevalence countries. This study tests whether national population-level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis prevalence rates moderate the strength of the relationship between individual level social and behavioral risk factors and individual level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use. Data from 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (N = 68,045, age = 15) from 35 countries was analyzed using logistic Hierarchical Linear Modeling. As expected based on low cannabis prevalence rates in all countries studied, no evidence of normalization was found for recent cannabis use. Also in line with the normalization thesis, results show that for substance use that reaches above 40% in at least some of the countries studied (drunkenness, alcohol and cigarette use), adolescents who reported use are less likely to report social and behavioral risk factors in high prevalence countries than in low prevalence countries. However, support for the normalization thesis was only partial in that results show that in models where evidence for normalization was found, there are risk factors that predict substance use to an equal degree regardless of country level prevalence rates. The current research shows that the normalization thesis is a useful framework for understanding the contextual aspects of adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. The study has implications for drug prevention as it suggests that selective prevention efforts may be particularly useful in low prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors may usefully identify adolescents at most risk for developing drug use problems. This approach may be less useful in high prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors is less likely to satisfactorily identify those at risk for developing drug use problems.

  8. Die meting van neurolinguistiese programmering se verteenwoordigende stelsels: 'n Eksploratiewe studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Bester

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neurolinguistic programming's representative systems: an Exploratory study. An overview of Psychology literature indicates that various authors have agreed upon the existence of Neurolinguistic Programming's (NLP representative systems. Until recently, no study has been reported in the literature that offers a comprehensive measuring instrument for these constructs. The principal aim of this study was to determine the desirability of measuring NLPs representative systems with a comprehensive normative questionnaire. Three theoretical constructs were hypothesized and a "Questionnaire on Sensory Modalities" consisting of 84 items was developed. This questionnaire was administered to students (N=338 from three different tertiary institutions. A second factor analysis on the 18 subscores of a first factor analysis, yielded two factors that did not reflect the three representative systems. The implications of these findings are discussed.Opsomming 'n Oorsig van die Sielkunde-literatuur wys daarop dat verskeie outeurs saamstem oor die bestaan van Neurolinguistiese Programmering (NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels. Tot onlangs toe is geen studie oor die bestaan van n omvattende meetinstrument vir NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels in die literatuur gerapporteer nie. Die hoofdoel van die onderhawige studie was om vas te stel of dit wenslik is om NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels met 'n omvattende normatiewe vraelys te meet. Drie konstrukte is voorveronderstel en 'n "Vraelys oor Sensoriese Modaliteite", bestaande uit 84 items, is gekonstrueer. Hierdie vraelys is afgeneem op studente (N=338 van drie verskillende tersiere instellings. hTweede faktorontleding op die 18 subtellings van n eerste faktorontleding, het twee faktore opgelewer wat nie die drie verteenwoordigende stelsels suiwer weergee nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  9. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichenko Maryna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  10. Construction Safety Assessment Framework for Developing Countries: A Case Study of Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanchana Priyadarshani; Gayani Karunasena; Sajani Jayasuriya

    2013-01-01

    ... management in developing countries. [...]the aim of this study is to develop a method for measuring safety management on construction sites by identifying factors that affect construction safety performance...

  11. Politics of Implementation: A Study of Rural Development Programme (SGSY) in the Hill Areas of Manipur with Reference to Churachandpur District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There could be variety of factors involves in the process of implementation of rural development programmes. Deeper analysis of these factors brings out fundamental questions involved in the implementation of rural development programmes i.e questions about conflict, decision making and who gets what, when and how in a society. This study examines the politics involved in the implementation of Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana(SGSY) programme and its influence on the programmeís outcome among the tribal in Churachandpur District of Manipur. It shows that politics pervades and impedes the implementation of rural development programmelike SGSY and has negative influences on its outcome.

  12. Comparative study of disability-free life expectancy across six low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinda, Witness; Chen, He

    2017-04-01

    There is a knowledge gap about the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to compute and compare DFLE in six such countries, and examine sex differences in DFLE in each country. Based on data from the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health wave 1 survey, we used the Sullivan method to estimate DFLE among persons aged years 50 years and older. Disability was divided into moderate disability and severe disability during the calculation. Of the six countries, China had the highest DFLE and lowest expected average lifetime with disability. India had the lowest DFLE and highest life years with moderate and severe disability. In each country, women live longer than men, but with more disabilities in both absolute and proportional terms. The huge sex difference in Russia requires special attention. In addition, most of the life expectancy lived with disability was spent with severe disability, rather than moderate disability. The study has shed some light on the disparities across the six countries with regard to DFLE at old ages. The low percentage of DFLE in life expectancy in some countries, such as India, calls for effective policies on healthy aging. The "sex disability-survival paradox" in DFLE is supported by our results. To differentiate the severity of disability should be routine in calculating DFLE. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 637-644. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Smoking cessation programmes using traditional medicine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Kim, Kyeong Han; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Sun, Seung-Ho; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Park, Sunju

    2016-12-01

    There are growing interests in using various methods including traditional and complementary medicines (T&CM) for tobacco control. The study aimed to introduce how traditional Korean medicine (TKM) applied to smoking cessation programmes in Korea and to show the detail information of each programme for designing other smoke cessation programmes. Reports of the smoke cessation programmes in Korea were searched on March 10th, 2016, from the webpages of the related agencies and the databases: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Korea Health Foundation, the Association of Korean Medicine, PubMed, Google scholar, the RISS, the KISS, the NDSL, and the OASIS. Smoking cessation programmes, projects, or services using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) were included with no language, implementation site, and year restrictions. The three smoking cessation programmes using TKM in South Korea were the public health centre smoking cessation programme (PHC-SCP), the Ministry of Gender Equality & Family smoking cessation programme (MOGEF-SCP), and the National Health Insurance Service smoking cessation treatment project (NHIS-SCP). All programmes included ear acupuncture and counselling. Manual acupuncture was only used in the NHIS-SCP. The MOGEF-SCP and the NHIS-SCP used herbal medicines selectively. The PHC-SCP and MOGEF-SCP provided education programme and other tools such as non-smoking doll, self-writing handbook. They were run at no cost for participants. Treatment period were different for each programmes, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 to 12 weeks, respectively. Treatment frequency was twice a week for PHC-SCP and MOGEF-SCP, and dependent on each clinic for NHIS-SCP. This study showed the summaries of the smoking cessation programme that used TKM. The three programmes and the detail information will be a reference for other countries that are going to apply T&CM to their smoking cessation programme. Though TKM integrated smoking cessation programmes had been contributed to

  14. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  15. An Implementation Study of Two Evidence-Based Exercise and Health Education Programmes for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, O. R. W.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E. C. M. P.; Klazinga, N. S.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness in real-life of programmes which have been tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We report on an implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Three types of…

  16. Learning, Teaching, and Constructing Identities: ESL Pre-Service Teacher Experiences during a Short-Term International Experience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, John

    2011-01-01

    Short-term international experience programmes are a common element of English second language (ESL) teacher education in many countries. This study problematizes the belief that such programmes necessarily result in beneficial changes in pre-service teachers thinking about themselves as teachers--their beliefs, habits, and values--by exploring…

  17. A primary school active break programme (ACTI-BREAK): study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-09-19

    Levels of overall physical activity have been shown to decline across childhood. Schools are considered ideal settings to promote physical activity as children spend a large amount of their waking hours at school. Time-efficient physical activity strategies that demonstrate a positive impact on academic-related outcomes are needed to enable physical activity to be prioritised in the school day. The ACTI-BREAK programme requires classroom teachers to integrate active breaks; 5-min bursts of moderate-intensity physical activity into their classroom routine. Active breaks have been shown to be effective in improving academic-related outcomes, a potentially appealing aspect for teachers and schools. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of the ACTI-BREAK programme on children's academic achievement. Secondary aims are to explore the impact of ACTI-BREAK on children's on-task behaviour and objectively measured physical activity levels. ACTI-BREAK is a 6-week, classroom-based, physical activity intervention. This pilot trial of the programme will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled design. Government primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia will be invited to participate in the programme in 2017. Randomisation will occur at the school level, with the aim to recruit six schools (three intervention and three control). The ACTI-BREAK programme is theoretically grounded, and was developed with input and guidance from current primary school teachers. Teachers from the intervention schools will receive a 45-min training session and be asked to incorporate ACTI-BREAKS into their classroom routine three times per day for 6 weeks. Intervention support will be provided via assisted delivery. The primary outcomes will be children's academic achievement in mathematics and reading. Children's on-task behaviour and school-day physical activity will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Process evaluation will also be

  18. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowles Heather R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity.

  19. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  20. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Moreno, Estibaliz; Sánchez Perez, Álvaro; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Arbonies Ortiz, Juan Carlos; del Campo Pena, Emma; Ochoa de Retana Garcia, Lourdes; Ángeles Rua Portu, María; Piñera Elorriaga, Koldo; Zenarutzabeitia Pikatza, Amaya; Urquiza Bengoa, Miren Nekane; Sanz Echave, Rosario; Méndez Sampedro, Tomás; Oses Portu, Ana; Gorostidi Fano, Lourdes; Aguirre Sorondo, Miren Bakarne

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) has proven to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Heal...

  1. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Moreno, Estibaliz; del Campo Pena, Emma; Ochoa de Retana Garcia, Lourdes; Arbonies Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Piñera Elorriaga, Koldo; Rua Portu, Mª Angeles; Urquiza Bengoa, Miren Nekane; Mendez Sampedro, Tomas; Oses Portu, Ana; Zenarutzabeitia Pikatza, Amaya; Gorostidi Fano, Lourdes; Aguirre Sorondo, Bakarne; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Rotaeche Del Campo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) proved to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Healt...

  2. Selection criteria for a radiography programme in South Africa: Predictors for academic success in the first year of study

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Anne Kridiotis; Johan Bezuidenhout; Jacques Raubenheimer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selection criteria used to admit students to a radiography programme at the Central University of Technology (CUT) included academic criteria, as well as the General Scholastic Aptitude Test (GSAT) and Self-directed Search (SDS) Questionnaire. Aims and objectives: The aim of the study was to identify which selection criteria were predictors of academic success in the first year of study. As a four year Bachelor's degree in Radiography (480 credits) was to replace the three year...

  3. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brod Meryl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country. There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

  4. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  5. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Maryna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research--talent and talent management--has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement,…

  6. Productivity assessments in small ruminants improvement programmes. A case study of the West African Dwarf Goat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the suitabilit

  7. Implementation of a teaching programme to improve doctors' awareness of DVLA guidelines: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Sykes, Mark; Green, Ben L; Watson, Robert; Gollop, Nicholas D; Shalhoub, Joseph; Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie

    2017-02-01

    Over half of the UK population holds a driver's licence. Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) guidelines are available for conditions from most specialties. Despite this, no focused training occurs in the undergraduate or postgraduate setting. We evaluate the impact of a teaching programme to improve guideline awareness. A 25-point questionnaire was designed using the current DVLA guidelines. Five questions were included for the following fields: neurology, cardiology, drug and alcohol abuse, visual disorders and respiratory. This was distributed to doctors in training at five hospitals. Four weeks later, a single-session teaching programme was implemented. The questionnaire was redistributed. Preintervention and postintervention scores were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. 139 preteaching and 144 post-teaching questionnaires were completed. Implementation of a single-session teaching programme significantly improved the knowledge of DVLA guidelines in all five areas explored. Median scores: neurology, preteaching 40%, post-teaching 100%, pvisual disorders, 40%, 100%, pteaching programme can significantly improve guideline knowledge and awareness, serving as a cost-effective intervention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Helping Children Talk about Shapes: A Case Study with Ten Children in the Learning Support Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ng Swee

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an activity which attempts to change the discourse of a mathematics classroom with the specific intent to help children who may have difficulties with mathematics and ways of communicating. Ten 8-year old children in the Learning Support Programme were engaged in an open-ended geometric task. In this paper a brief description…

  9. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  10. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.

  11. University Lawyers: A Study of Legal Risk, Risk Management and Role in Work Integrated Learning Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Craig; Klopper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) is in growing demand by multiple stakeholders within the higher education sector in Australia. There are significant and distinct legal risks to universities associated with WIL programmes. University lawyers, along with WIL administrators and university management, are responsible for managing legal risk. This…

  12. Precursors of developmental dyslexia: an overview of the longitudinal Dutch Dyslexia Programme study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, A. van der; Bergen, E. van; Zuijen, T. van; Jong, p de; Maurits, N.; Maassen, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that developmental dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder, characterized by deficits in the auditory, visual, and linguistic domains. In the longitudinal project of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme, 180 children with a familial risk of dyslexia (FR) and a comparison group of

  13. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  14. Characteristics of a central change programme within a governmental bureaucracy: A grounded theory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Korte (Ronald); G.J. van der Pijl (Gert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The purpose of the paper is to present a theory of organisational change within the setting of a governmental bureaucracy. Design/methodology/ approach Orthodox grounded theory is employed in the setting of a change programme in 12 Audit departments of the Dutch Ministries (publi

  15. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  16. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Results: Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. Conclusion: The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation. PMID:15564218

  17. Productivity assessments in small ruminant improvement programmes : a case study of the West African dwarf goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the

  18. Effectiveness and efficiency of integrated mental health care programmes in Germany: study protocol of an observational controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierlin, Annabel Sandra; Herder, Katrin; Helmbrecht, Marina Julia; Prinz, Stefanie; Walendzik, Julia; Holzmann, Marco; Becker, Thomas; Schützwohl, Matthias; Kilian, Reinhold

    2014-06-04

    Since 2009 some German health insurance companies have implemented integrated mental health care services along the principles of assertive community treatment in collaboration with local mental health service providers across Germany. Focus of this study is the analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this integrated care programme compared to care as usual in routine care surroundings in five regions in Germany. In this 18-month multi-centre observational trial 250 patients enrolled in an integrated mental health care programme and 250 patients who receive treatment as usual from five catchment areas will be included. In addition, in each group about 125 relatives of the participating patients will be included. The primary outcome criterion is the improvement of empowerment; secondary outcomes are subjective quality of life, functional impairment and costs of illness. Data will be collected at baseline and three follow-ups after 6, 12 and 18 months. Data will be analysed by means of mixed effects regression models. Propensity score methods are used for selection bias control. Study results are expected to provide information about how integrated care programmes in their present form contribute to the improvement of mental health care. In addition, the study will provide hints to weaknesses of the current integrated care programme and options to overcome them. The major strengths of this study are the real-world character of the study intervention with a simultaneous high level of academic rigour. However, the fact that patients are not randomised to study groups and that there is no blinding might limit the study. German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00005111.

  19. Stakeholders' Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta; Sicińska Ewa; Wit Liesbeth de; Ruprich Jiří; Řehůřková Irena; Brown Kerry A.; Timotijevic Lada; Sonne Anne-Mette; Haugaard Pernille; Guzzon Antonella; Garcia Noé Brito; Alevritou Eleni; Hermoso Maria; Sarmant Yuliya; Lähteenmäki Liisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify the main factors infl uencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants...

  20. The Effect of Product Country of Origin: An Empirical Study Using Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowsar, Ali Mohammad; Ishii, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This article extends cue utilization theory with the help of the idea of cue diagnosticity. Themain objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of country of origin (COO) effect asa high scope cue during consumer choice decision for personal computers. Two conjointanalyses were done on the data collected by a questionnaire survey of 65 respondents. Fromthe data we found that the influence of the cues, like-price, brand name, country of origin,product character and warranty, on the bra...

  1. Country of origin effect on luxury brands evaluation: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Kassouf Pizzinatto; Nadia Kassouf Pizzinatto; Evandro Luiz Lopes; Antonio Carlos Giuliani

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the country of origin effect in luxury brands evaluation, theory that concerns the stereotype developed in the mind of consumers from a negative or positive image of the country where the product was manufactured, influencing product brand evaluation image. The methodological process was conducted with experiments, involving manipulation of variables thought printed advertisings, stimulus, as developed especially for the research, in three different situations: first t...

  2. Waste a necessary evil for economically impoverished communities in least developed countries (LCDc): a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available , waste harvesters, job creation, least developed countries, Lesotho 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Setting the scene Developing countries are faced with a multitude of inter-related social, economic and environmental problems and challenges... guideline by UNCHS (1995) and Whittington (1998) which is based on confidentiality, reliability, neutrality, accuracy, objectivity and honesty. The major source of the study was Ha Tsosane dumpsite in Maseru (where 36 harvesters wereinterviewed...

  3. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Slangen, B.F.; Winkens, B.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological

  4. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Slangen, B.F.; Winkens, B.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological

  5. The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horan Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures. Methods/Design Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5 will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment, or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and functional outcome

  6. The impact of Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme, Oportunidades, on birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L; Gertler, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of Oportunidades, a large-scale, conditional cash transfer programme in Mexico, on birthweight. The programme provides cash transfers to low-income, rural households in Mexico, conditional on accepting nutritional supplements health education, and health care. The primary analyses used retrospective reports from 840 women in poor rural communities participating in an effectiveness study and randomly assigned to incorporation into the programme in 1998 or 1999 across seven Mexican states. Pregnant women in participating households received nutrition supplements and health care, and accepted cash transfers. Using multivariate and instrumental variable analyses, we estimated the impact of the programme on birthweight in grams and low birthweight (Oportunidades beneficiary status was associated with 127.3 g higher birthweight among participating women and a 4.6 percentage point reduction in low birthweight. The Oportunidades conditional cash transfer programme improved birthweight outcomes. This finding is relevant to countries implementing conditional cash transfer programmes.

  7. Patient level cost of diabetes self-management education programmes: an international evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Gerardine; O'Donnell, Shane; Quigley, Etáin; Cullen, Kate; Gibney, Sarah; Levin-Zamir, Diane; Ganahl, Kristin; Müller, Gabriele; Muller, Ingrid; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Chang, Wushou Peter; Van Den Broucke, Stephan

    2017-06-04

    The objective of this study was to examine the value of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in understanding the process and costs of delivering diabetes self-management education (DSME) programmes in a multicountry comparative study. Outpatient settings in five European countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, UK) and two countries outside Europe, Taiwan and Israel. Providers of DSME programmes across participating countries (N=16) including healthcare professionals, administrators and patients taking part in DSME programmes. Primary measure: time spent by providers in the delivery of DSME and resources consumed in order to compute programme costs. Secondary measures: self-report measures of behavioural self-management and diabetes disease/health-related outcomes. We found significant variation in costs and the processes of how DSME programmes are provided across and within countries. Variations in costs were driven by a combination of price variances, mix of personnel skill and efficiency variances. Higher cost programmes were not found to have achieved better relative outcomes. The findings highlight the value of TDABC in calculating a patient level cost and potential of the methodology to identify process improvements in guiding the optimal allocation of scarce resources in diabetes care, in particular for DSME that is often underfunded. This study is the first to measure programme costs using estimates of the actual resources used to educate patients about managing their medical condition and is the first study to map such costs to self-reported behavioural and disease outcomes. The results of this study will inform clinicians, managers and policy makers seeking to enhance the delivery of DSME programmes. The findings highlight the benefits of adopting a TDABC approach to understanding the drivers of the cost of DSME programmes in a multicountry study to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for DSME. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  8. Towards a new orientation: a qualitative longitudinal study of an intensive care recovery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janet F; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H; Christensen, Doris F; Egerod, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    To describe the patient experience of ICU recovery from a longitudinal perspective by analysing follow-up consultations at three time-points. After a stay in the intensive care unit, patients risk physical and psychological problems during recovery. Follow-up after intensive care has emerged to aid psychological recovery, and improve health-related quality of life. More insight is needed into the mechanisms of intensive care recovery. A descriptive multicenter longitudinal qualitative design. A subsample of 36 consultations with 12 patients strategically selected from a randomised controlled trial on intensive care recovery from 10 Danish intensive care units. Data were generated during an ICU recovery programme including three consultations (at 1-3, 4-5, 9-11 months). First consultation was face-to-face using patient photographs to aid memory. Second and third consultations were by telephone using reflection sheets to focus dialogue. Thematic analysis and narrative theory were used to explore mechanisms of recovery using audio-recordings of consultations, patient photographs and reflection sheets as the sources of data. The basic narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation was obtained in steady-state or progressive recovery. This study provides a contemporary understanding of the process of intensive care recovery. Recovery evolves through narratives of mortal danger, risk of relapse and moving forward towards a new orientation in life. These findings enable health care professionals to understand what patients experience during stages of recovery. This is important to improve health care professionals in the assessment of long-term outcome, and management of patients after intensive care. © 2016 John Wiley

  9. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary heart failure disease management programme on 1-year mortality: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde-Castérot, Hervé; Agrinier, Nelly; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas; Alla, François; Thilly, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    We performed a multicenter prospective observational cohort study (Epidémiologie et Pronostic de l'Insuffisance Cardiaque Aiguë en Lorraine, Epidemiology and Prognosis of Acute Heart Failure in Lorraine [EPICAL2]) to evaluate the effectiveness on mortality of a community-based multidisciplinary disease management programme (DMP) for heart failure (HF) patients.Between October 2011 and October 2012, 1816 patients, who were hospitalized for acute HF or who developed acute HF during a hospitalization, were included from 21 hospitals in a northeast region of France. At hospital admission, their mean age was 77.3 (standard deviation [SD] 11.6) years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.0 (SD 16.0)%. A subset of patients were enrolled in a multidimensional DMP for HF (n = 312, 17.2%), based on structured patient education, home monitoring visits by HF-trained nurses, and automatic alerts triggered by significant clinical and biological changes to the patient. The DMP involved general practitioners, nurses, and cardiologists collaborating via an individual web-based medical electronic record. The outcome was all-cause mortality from the 3rd to the 12th month after discharge. During the follow-up, a total of 377 (20.8%) patients died: 321 (21.3%) in the control group and 56 (17.9%) in the DMP group. In a propensity score analysis, DMP was associated with lower 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.92). Instrumental variable analysis gave similar results (hazard ratio 0.56, 0.27-1.16).In a real world setting, a multidimensional DMP for HF with structured patient education, home nurse monitoring, and appropriate physician alerts may improve survival when implemented after discharge from hospitalization due to worsening HF.

  10. The role of behavioural factors in explaining socio-economic differences in adolescent health: a multilevel study in 33 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Matthias; Erhart, Michael; Vereecken, Carine A; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2009-08-01

    Attempts to describe and explain socio-economic differences in health have mainly focused on adults. Little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health in adolescence including inconsistent findings between SES and health among young people. Data were derived from representative samples of 13 and 15-year-old students in 33 European and North American countries (n=97,721) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/2002. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to investigate socio-economic differences in self-rated health among adolescents and the contribution of health-related behaviours to the explanation of such differences. Odds ratios of self-rated health by family affluence were calculated before and after adjustment for behavioural factors (tobacco smoking, physical activity, television use, breakfast intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables). On average, adolescents from low affluent families had an odds ratio for low self-rated health of 1.84 for boys and 1.80 for girls, compared to those from high affluent families. The majority of behavioural factors were significantly associated with family affluence in all countries and explained part of the relationship between self-rated health and family affluence. Smoking, physical activity and breakfast consumption showed the largest independent effect on health. The present study suggests that behavioural factors in early adolescence partly account for the association between self-rated health and socio-economic status. Prevention programmes should target unhealthy behaviours of adolescents from lower socio-economic groups to help prevent future life-course disadvantages in terms of health and social inequalities.

  11. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012 : Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bulanova, Oxana; Madsen, Einar Lier

    2014-01-01

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The re...

  12. Who attends a UK diabetes screening programme? Findings from the ADDITION-Cambridge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, LA; Simmons, RK; Barling, RS; Butler, R; Williams, KM; Prevost, AT; Kinmonth, AL; Wareham, NJ; Griffin, SJ

    2012-01-01

    Aims One of the factors influencing the cost-effectiveness of population screening for type 2 diabetes may be uptake. We examined attendance and practice- and individual-level factors influencing uptake at each stage of a diabetes screening programme in general practice. Methods A stepwise screening programme was undertaken among 135,825 people aged 40-69 years without known diabetes in 49 general practices in East England. The programme included a score based on routinely available data (age, sex, BMI and prescribed medication) to identify those at high risk who were offered random capillary blood glucose (RBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin tests. Those screening positive were offered fasting capillary blood glucose (FBG) and confirmatory oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Results 33,539 high risk individuals were invited for a RBG screening test; 24,654 (74%) attended. 94% attended the follow-up FBG test and 82% the diagnostic OGTT. 70% of individuals completed the screening programme. Practices with higher GP staff complements and those located in more deprived areas had lower uptake for RBG and FBG tests. Male sex and a higher BMI were associated with lower attendance for RBG testing. Older age, prescription of antihypertensive medication and a higher risk score were associated with higher attendance for FBG and RBG tests. Conclusions High attendance rates can be achieved by targeted stepwise screening of individuals assessed as high risk by data routinely available in general practice. Different strategies may be required to increase initial attendance, ensure completion of the screening programme, and reduce the risk that screening increases health inequalities. PMID:20722672

  13. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  14. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants...... was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths...

  15. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona KOSTELECKÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additionalinformation about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specificcharacteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  16. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...

  17. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey included...... 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and North America in 1997-98.The main outcome measures were physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of students being bullied varied enormously across countries....... The lowest prevalence was observed among girls in Sweden (6.3%, 95% CI: 5.2-7.4), the highest among boys in Lithuania (41.4%, 95% CI 39.4-43.5). The risk of high symptom load increased with increasing exposure to bullying in all countries. In pooled analyses, with sex stratified multilevel logistic models...

  18. Do weight management programmes delivered at professional football clubs attract and engage high risk men? A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Smillie, Susan; Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally

    2014-01-21

    The prevalence of obesity in men in the UK is amongst the highest in Europe but men are less likely than women to use existing weight loss programmes. Developing weight management programmes which are appealing and acceptable to men is a public health priority. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a men-only weight management programme delivered to groups of men at top professional football clubs, encourages men to lose weight by working with, not against, cultural ideals of masculinity. To inform further development of interventions in football club settings, the current study explored who is attracted to FFIT and why overweight/obese men choose to take part. A mixed-methods study analysing baseline data on 747 men aged 35-65 years with BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 who were participants in a randomised controlled trial of FFIT, and data from 13 focus group discussions with 63 men who had attended the programme. Objectively-measured mean body mass index was 35.3 kg/m2 (sd 4.9). Overall over 90% of participants were at very high or extremely high risk of future ill-health. Around three-quarters of participants in all age groups were at 'very high' risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (72%, 73% and 80% of men aged 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years respectively). A further 21%, 16% and 13% were at 'extremely high' risk. Qualitative data revealed that the powerful 'draw' of the football club attracted men otherwise reluctant to attend existing weight management programmes. The location and style of delivery of early FFIT sessions fostered team spirit; men appreciated being with others 'like them' and the opportunity to undertake weight management in circumstances that enhanced physical and symbolic proximity to something they valued highly, the football club. The delivery of a weight management intervention via professional football clubs attracted men at high risk of ill-health. The setting enabled men to join a weight management programme in

  19. On-farm effects and farmer attitudes towards agri-environmental programmes : A case study in Baden-Württemberg

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoux, P.; Kazenwadel, G.; Doluschitz, R.

    1998-01-01

    International audience; Political strategies to reduce negative environmental effects of agriculture can be divided into injunctions such as inhibitions and precepts, and into voluntary approaches. These two substantially different approaches are studied in the German Federal state of Baden-Württemberg, using as exampIes the Market Release and Landscape Conservation Programme (MEKA, voluntary), and the regional Regulation for Water Protection Areas (ScMLVO, compulsory) respectively. In order ...

  20. Effects of Sure Start local programmes on children and families: early findings from a quasi-experimental, cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Sure Start local programmes (SSLPs) on children and their families. To assess whether variations in the effectiveness of SSLPs are due to differences in implementation. \\ud \\ud Design Quasi-experimental cross sectional study using interviews with mothers and cognitive assessment of children aged 36 months who speak English. \\ud \\ud Setting Socially deprived communities in England: 150 communities with ongoing SSLPs and 50 comparison communities. \\ud \\ud Pa...

  1. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  2. Effectiveness of a conditional cash transfer programme on TB cure rate: a retrospective cohort study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Ana W; Rasella, Davide; Boccia, Delia; Maciel, Ethel L N; Nery, Joilda S; Olson, Zachary D; Barreira, Draurio C N; Sanchez, Mauro N

    2016-03-01

    Despite the efforts of the National Tuberculosis Programme, TB cure rates in Brazil are sub-optimal. The End TB Strategy for post-2015 identifies conditional cash transfer interventions as powerful tools to improve TB control indicators, including TB cure rate. This study aims to inform the new policy by evaluating the role of the Bolsa Familia Programme (BFP), one of the largest conditional cash transfer programmes in the world, on TB cure rates in Brazil. We undertook a retrospective cohort study, based on an unprecedented record linkage of socioeconomic and health data, to compare cases of patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2010 receiving BFP cash benefits (n=5788) with those who did not (n=1467) during TB treatment. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate the relative risks for TB cure adjusted for known confounders. The cure rate among patients exposed to BFP during TB treatment was 82.1% (4752/5788), 5.2% higher than among those not exposed. This was confirmed after controlling for TB type, diabetes mellitus, HIV status and other relevant clinical and socioeconomic covariates (RR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11 for cure rates among BFP beneficiaries). This association seemed higher for patients not under directly observed treatment (RR=1.11; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16). Although further research is needed, this study suggests that conditional cash transfer programmes can contribute to improve TB cure rate in Brazil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  4. Stages of change: A qualitative study on the implementation of a perinatal audit programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit and feedback is an established strategy for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP, implemented in South African public hospitals in the late 1990s, measures perinatal mortality rates and identifies avoidable factors associated with each death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the processes involved in the implementation and sustainability of this programme. Methods Clinicians' experiences of the implementation and maintenance of PPIP were explored qualitatively in two workshop sessions. An analytical framework comprising six stages of change, divided into three phases, was used: pre-implementation (create awareness, commit to implementation; implementation (prepare to implement, implement and institutionalisation (integrate into routine practice, sustain new practices. Results Four essential factors emerged as important for the successful implementation and sustainability of an audit system throughout the different stages of change: 1 drivers (agents of change and team work, 2 clinical outreach visits and supervisory activities, 3 institutional perinatal review and feedback meetings, and 4 communication and networking between health system levels, health care facilities and different role-players. During the pre-implementation phase high perinatal mortality rates highlighted the problem and indicated the need to implement an audit programme (stage 1. Commitment to implementing the programme was achieved by obtaining buy-in from management, administration and health care practitioners (stage 2. Preparations in the implementation phase included the procurement and installation of software and training in its use (stage 3. Implementation began with the collection of data, followed by feedback at perinatal review meetings (stage 4. The institutionalisation phase was reached when the results of the audit were integrated into routine practice (stage 5 and

  5. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Peykari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes′ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were "effect," "woman," and "metabolic syndrome." Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEALTH STATUS BETWEEN COUNTRIES ALONG THE NEW SILK ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju’e Yan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using World Statistics Data from the year 2012, health status differences between countries along the “New Silk Road” were compared and analyzed. Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, as well as certain disease incidence rates were used. The study indicated that the 12 countries along the New Silk Road had longer life expectancy at birth. Females had longer life expectancy at birth than males, but life expectancy at age 60 was shorter than the global average, and healthy life expectancy at birth was also shorter. Maternal health status was generally good in each country. China, Russia, and 4 other countries had better children’s health status than India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Non-communicable diseases caused higher mortality than communicable diseases and accidental injuries. However, the age standardized mortality rates of communicable diseases in India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were still relatively high. Communicable diseases were also the leading cause of reduction in life expectancy. Tuberculosis had a more significant impact on health status. In conclusion, health status varies among the New Silk Road countries. Countries including China and Iran have relatively better health status, and non communicable diseases were the predominant risk factor impacting health. However, in countries such as India and Afghanistan, mortality caused by communicable diseases is still prominent. Under the current trend of globalization, New Silk Road countries are supposed to collaborate to expand their healthcare systems, and improve the health conditions for their people.

  7. Human Poverty: a practical and analytical study on Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Mohamed Ahmed, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The poverty problem is no longer a problem embodied in only one country, or bounded by a certain geographic area. It has become a problem with heavily international concerns. Poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that outreaches low or no incomes to the so called human poverty. Human poverty is one of the major obstacles to development particularly in the so called least developing countries (LDCs. In this paper, efforts were concentrating on defining the problem of human poverty, its measurement methods and the underlying causes of it in these countries. Empirically and by the use of OLS regression method and cross-sectional data from some poor countries (Human Development Report, 2005, three models tried to tackle the research problem. The first model was a combination of both low and medium income poor countries, the second was medium income and the third was low income poor countries. Among the results of this research is that variables of general expenditure on education and health and the growth rate in total domestic product are major causes of human poverty. Significantly, the results showed that there were very low growth rates levels in total domestic product, very low general expenditures on education and health which indicate serious symptoms of higher human poverty indices. Finally, the study recommends that governments might better concentrate on more expenditure on education and health as a main priority to eradicate all types of poverty particularly the human poverty.

  8. Motivational orientation of persons managing community water supply and sanitation programmes: An empirical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayford Benjamin Kwashie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation into factors that determined the decisions of members of Water and Sanitation (Watsan Committees to participate in and commit themselves to management activities that would ensure the sustainability of water supply and sanitation programmes in their communities.The major finding was that the motivational orientation of the Watsan members was gradually shifting from purely normative to remunerative values. It implies that their continued membership and willingness to perform their management tasks satisfactorily, in future, would depend on how much satisfaction they derived from being members. These motivational factors are essential if the participation and commitment of local organizations to the entire programme management process is to be guaranteed.

  9. Expert Programmer versus Parallelizing Compiler: A Comparative Study of Two Approaches for Distributed Shared Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. P. O'Boyle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines current parallel programming practice and optimizing compiler development. The general strategies employed by compiler and programmer to optimize a Fortran program are described, and then illustrated for a specific case by applying them to a well-known scientific program, TRED2, using the KSR-1 as the target architecture. Extensive measurement is applied to the resulting versions of the program, which are compared with a version produced by a commercial optimizing compiler, KAP. The compiler strategy significantly outperforms KAP and does not fall far short of the performance achieved by the programmer. Following the experimental section each approach is critiqued by the other. Perceived flaws, advantages, and common ground are outlined, with an eye to improving both schemes.

  10. Motives for the Choice of Studies – Unique Study Programmes and Their Publication (the Survey of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the school year of 2009–2010 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University initiated the the survey of motives for studies at this university. The aim of the research is to conduct a survey among first year undergraduate students and find out motives for their choise to study at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Due to weaknesses of national science and studies system, devaluation of diplomas, outdated teaching methods, scien- tific research unproductivity and simulation, lack of attention to the student, ineffective study loans system, discrimination of private study institutions and their students, etc., a new Science and Study Law was initiated in 2009. Thus new challenges to the country, universities, and university communities arise. Future students are becoming more aware studying opportunities both within the country and abroad. Motives and choices of studies are determined by more complex approaches and levers. The article analyses a survey is based on responses of first year undergraduates of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The objective of the survey is to find out why and how students have chosen to study at this university. The purpose of the article is to identify these motives, provide analysis and assessment of survey data.

  11. Effectiveness of local support for the adoption of a national programme – a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pearce

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Change management in health care is a complex and time-consuming endeavour, and no less so in implementing technological systems. In deploying a nationwide programme, the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR, the Australian Government employed a number of national and local change management programmes.Objective This article describes the processes undertaken and the experiences of introducing the PCEHR into 74 general practices across a specific area of metropolitan Melbourne.Method An online survey was developed by an independent evaluator and offered to all participating practices. The response rate was 82%.Results The deployment and testing of the eHealth infrastructure and the roll- out of the PCEHR were deeply supported through face-to-face, locally contextualised support processes. The area Medicare Local (ML, an organisation that provides support services to general practice and allied health in the community, provided support and programme coordination. This support occurred in the environment of a number of other initiatives to improve adoption.Conclusion The impact and value of this support in the registration and adoption process was explored in an online survey and found to be the key factor in practice engagement and success. ML support was seen as instrumental in improving adoption and was more effective than other activities. This article highlights the role of local support, in this case, MLs, in the effective implementation of eHealth programmes across a range of stakeholder groups, in particular, general practice, and the potential for the lessons learned from the engagement model of such an entity to be more generally applied.

  12. Maintaining Unity - Relatives in older patient's fast-track treatment programmes. A Grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. FINDINGS: Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved...... to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. CONCLUSION: The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes....

  13. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  15. Protocol of Taste and See: A Feasibility Study of a Church-Based, Healthy, Intuitive Eating Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lycett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity treatment remains a high global priority. Evidence suggests holistic approaches, which include a religious element, are promising. Most research is from the USA, but recent evidence suggests a need within the UK population. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of running and evaluating a Christian-based, healthy, intuitive-eating programme, in a UK church. This is the protocol of a mixed-methods single-group feasibility study of a ten-week programme. The programme focuses on breaking the “diet and weight regain” cycle using principles from intuitive eating uniquely combined with biblical principles of love, freedom, responsibility, forgiveness, and spiritual need. We will recruit at least ten adult participants who are obese, overweight, or of a healthy weight with problematic eating behaviours. Participants can be from any faith or none. Robust measures of physical, psychological and spiritual outcomes will be used. Results are not yet available. Findings will be used to design a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test efficacy through many churches. If weight reduces by a small amount, there will be substantial benefits to public health. With a strong association between obesity and mental-ill health, a holistic intervention is particularly important. Using churches addresses religious and spiritual health, and uses existing social structures and a voluntary workforce that are sustainable and cost-effective.

  16. The effectiveness of an improved multidisciplinary pain management programme: a 6- and 12-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Elin; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a Norwegian-revised study on the effectiveness of a follow-up multidisciplinary management programme for chronic pain to investigate the change processes associated with treatment.   Substantial evidence supports the use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches to chronic pain. As relapse is often reported, follow-up sessions should be included.   A follow-up quasi-experimental design was performed, and a previous control group was used. The study initially included 117 participants, and 104 of the sample completed the 6- and 12-month follow-up programme. The 6-month follow-up consisted of therapeutic dialogue and education combined with physical activity. At the 12-month follow-up, a telephonic consultation was conducted. The data collection period was between September 2006 and January 2008. The statistical and clinical significance were considered.   Findings suggest that this follow-up programme can potentially maintain the positive results of the basic programme in terms of reduced pain perception, improved health-related quality of life, and movement towards self-management.   These results are consistent with the ultimate goal of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches, which is to help patients with chronic pain to cope more effectively and to improve their health-related quality of life and functioning. To maintain treatment improvements and advance nursing, there is a clear need for research that tests the efficacy of follow-up interventions that are designed to prevent drop out and relapse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. E-mentoring for violence and injury prevention: early lessons from a global programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Meddings, David; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    To address the growing burden of violence and injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, in 2007 the World Health Organization launched MENTOR-VIP, a global violence and injury prevention (VIP)-mentoring programme. The programme aims to develop human resource capacity through 12-month mentoring arrangements between individual VIP experts (mentors) and less-experienced injury practitioners (mentees). In this paper, we review the first five years of the programme (2007-2011) using a systems analysis and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) frameworks, discuss programme findings and make recommendations. A well-defined programme with clear instructions, successful matching of mentorship pairs with similar interests and language, a formal accord agreement, institutional support and effective communication were identified as programme strengths. Overambitious projects, lack of funds and difficulties with communications were identified as programme weaknesses. Mentorship projects that require institutional permissions or resources could be potential threats to the success of mentorship. The study resulted in the four following recommendations to strengthen the programme: (1) institute additional steps in selection and matching mentor-mentee pair; (2) train mentors on e-mentoring; (3) conduct special orientation for mentees to the programme; and (4) maintain effective and open communication throughout the programme.

  18. Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) programme: study protocol for evaluating the feasibility and impact on case detection rates of contact tracing and single dose rifampicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Jaeggi, Tanja; Steinmann, Peter; Mieras, Liesbeth; van Brakel, Wim; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Tiwari, Anuj; Bratschi, Martin; Cavaliero, Arielle; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Mirza, Fareed; Aerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The reported number of new leprosy patients has barely changed in recent years. Thus, additional approaches or modifications to the current standard of passive case detection are needed to interrupt leprosy transmission. Large-scale clinical trials with single dose rifampicin (SDR) given as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to contacts of newly diagnosed patients with leprosy have shown a 50–60% reduction of the risk of developing leprosy over the following 2 years. To accelerate the uptake of this evidence and introduction of PEP into national leprosy programmes, data on the effectiveness, impact and feasibility of contact tracing and PEP for leprosy are required. The leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis (LPEP) programme was designed to obtain those data. Methods and analysis The LPEP programme evaluates feasibility, effectiveness and impact of PEP with SDR in pilot areas situated in several leprosy endemic countries: India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. Complementary sites are located in Brazil and Cambodia. From 2015 to 2018, contact persons of patients with leprosy are traced, screened for symptoms and assessed for eligibility to receive SDR. The intervention is implemented by the national leprosy programmes, tailored to local conditions and capacities, and relying on available human and material resources. It is coordinated on the ground with the help of the in-country partners of the International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations (ILEP). A robust data collection and reporting system is established in the pilot areas with regular monitoring and quality control, contributing to the strengthening of the national surveillance systems to become more action-oriented. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the relevant ethics committees in the countries. Results and lessons learnt from the LPEP programme will be published in peer-reviewed journals and should provide important evidence and guidance for

  19. The Situation of Top Universities\\\\\\' Websites in the Islamic World Countries: a Webometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Goltaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With regards to important role of universities’ websites, this article aimed to study top universities of the Islamic countries using webometrics methods. Research data were extracted from AltaVista search engine and WEBOMETRICS website. In this study, top universities of the Islamic countries were ranked with some indexes such as number of links, web impact factor, world rank, size, visibility, rich files and scholar. Results showed that there was a significant relation between web impact factor with some indicators such as world rank, size, rich files and scholar, but there was not any significant relation between web impact factor and visibility of the website. Strong significant correlation between top universities of the Islamic world countries websites’ world rank and their ranks based on GDP was another result that we can mention in this study.

  20. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O Mensah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration.The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and

  1. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Ernest O; Aikins, Moses K; Gyapong, Margaret; Anto, Francis; Bockarie, Moses J; Gyapong, John O

    2016-05-01

    The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP) in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration. The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII) with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and planning were

  2. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  3. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  4. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

  5. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  6. How is Family Centered Care Perceived by Healthcare Providers from Different Countries? An International Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Paraszczuk, Ann Marie; Çavuşoğlu, Hicran; Shields, Linda; Pars, Hatice; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) is a healthcare delivery model in which planning care for a child incorporates the entire family. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare how healthcare providers from three countries with varied cultural and healthcare systems perceive the concept FCC by measuring attitudes, and to psychometrically identify a measure that would reflect "family-centeredness." The Working with Families questionnaire, translated when appropriate, was used to capture participants' perceptions of caring for hospitalized children and their parents from pediatric healthcare providers in the United States, Australia and Turkey (n=476). The results indicated significantly more positive attitudes reported for working with children than parents for all countries and individual score differences across countries: the U.S. and Turkey child scores were significantly higher than Australia, whereas the U.S. and Australia parent scores were both significantly higher than Turkey. Perceptions of working with families were different for nurses from the three countries that call for a clearer understanding about perceptions in relation to delivery systems. Further analyses revealed FCS scores to be significantly different between nurses and physicians and significantly correlated with age, number of children and education. The results of this study add to our understanding of influences on practice from different countries and healthcare systems. The FCS score may be useful to determine baseline beliefs and ascertain effectiveness of interventions designed to improve FCC implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  8. erception of Technical Education Students on the Role of ICT in General Studies Programme (GSP In University Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kennedy Umunadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important widely discussed issues in contemporary general studies programme in university education. The paper examined the perception of technical education students on the role of information and communication technology in general studies programme in Nigeria. The paper discussed National Policy for Information and Communication Technology, the role of ICT in general studies in university education, general studies in university education, university education policies, and approaches to ICT integration in general studies. The study made use of questionnaire as instrument of the study. The population of the study was 48 students in technical education unit of technical and business education department, Delta State University, Abraka. The students attested that some of the ICT facilities are available but not properly utilized in learning general studies in the university. The findings also revealed that there is a significant difference in the perception of students on the extent of availability and utilization of ICT facilities in learning general studies. It was based on these findings that the researcher recommended that general studies should be equipped with ICT facilities to facilitate learning in technical education field among others.

  9. Association between Food for Life, a Whole Setting Healthy and Sustainable Food Programme, and Primary School Children’s Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables: A Cross-Sectional Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mat; Pitt, Hannah; Oxford, Liz; Bray, Issy; Kimberlee, Richard; Orme, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of dietary health is a public health priority in England and in other countries. Research shows that the majority of children do not consume the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables (F&V). There has been relatively little research on the impact of programmes, such as Food for Life, that (a) integrate action on nutrition and food sustainability issues, and (b) are delivered as commissions in a local authority area. The study sought to assess pupil F&V in schools engaged with the Food for Life (FFL) programme. The design was a cross-sectional study comparing pupils in FFL engaged (n = 24) and non-engaged (n = 23) schools. A total of 2411 pupils aged 8–10 completed a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjusting for confounders, pupils in schools engaged with FFL consumed significantly more servings of F&V compared to pupils in comparison schools (M = 2.03/1.54, p < 0.001). Pupils in FFL schools were twice as likely to eat five or more portions of F&V per day (Odds Ratio = 2.07, p < 0.001, Confidence Interval = 1.54, 2.77). Total F&V consumption was significantly higher (p < 0.05) amongst pupils in schools with a higher level FFL award. Whilst limitations include possible residual confounding, the study suggests primary school engagement with the FFL programme may be an effective way of improving children’s dietary health. PMID:28613266

  10. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Ferrarini, Tommy; Kangas, Olli; Norström, Thor; Palme, Joakim; Fritzell, Johan

    2008-11-08

    Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross-national differences with respect to their design and generosity. These differences are evident in national variations in poverty rates, especially among children and elderly people. We investigated to what extent variations in family and pension policies are linked to infant mortality and old-age excess mortality. Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970-2000 for family policies and 1950-2000 for pension policies. Increased generosity in family policies that support dual-earner families is linked with lower infant mortality rates, whereas the generosity in family policies that support more traditional families with gainfully employed men and homemaking women is not. An increase by one percentage point in dual-earner support lowers infant mortality by 0.04 deaths per 1000 births. Generosity in basic security type of pensions is linked to lower old-age excess mortality, whereas the generosity of earnings-related income security pensions is not. An increase by one percentage point in basic security pensions is associated with a decrease in the old age excess mortality by 0.02 for men as well as for women. The ways in which social policies are designed, as well as their generosity, are important for health because of the increase in resources that social policies entail. Hence, social policies are of major importance for how we can tackle the social determinants of health.

  11. Can cross country differences in return-to-work after chronic occupational back pain be explained? An exploratory analysis on disability policies in a six country cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Schellart, A J M; Cassidy, J D; Loisel, P; Veerman, T J; van der Beek, A J

    2009-12-01

    There are substantial differences in the number of disability benefits for occupational low back pain (LBP) among countries. There are also large cross country differences in disability policies. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) there are two principal policy approaches: countries which have an emphasis on a compensation policy approach or countries with an emphasis on an reintegration policy approach. The International Social Security Association initiated this study to explain differences in return-to-work (RTW) among claimants with long term sick leave due to LBP between countries with a special focus on the effect of different disability policies. A multinational cohort of 2,825 compensation claimants off work for 3-4 months due to LBP was recruited in Denmark, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Relevant predictors and interventions were measured at 3 months, one and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The main outcome measure was duration until sustainable RTW (i.e. working after 2 years). Multivariate analyses were conducted to explain differences in sustainable RTW between countries and to explore the effect of different disability policies. Medical and work interventions varied considerably between countries. Sustainable RTW ranged from 22% in the German cohort up to 62% in the Dutch cohort after 2 years of follow-up. Work interventions and job characteristics contributed most to these differences. Patient health, medical interventions and patient characteristics were less important. In addition, cross-country differences in eligibility criteria for entitlement to long-term and/or partial disability benefits contributed to the observed differences in sustainable RTW rates: less strict criteria are more effective. The model including various compensation policy variables explained 48% of the variance. Large cross-country differences in sustainable RTW after chronic LBP are mainly

  12. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  13. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  14. Using Delphi Technique and the P-Process model to assess health communication programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Onigbanjo-Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategic health communication is an integral part of the programmes and development that influence decisions regarding health. Health communication is often integrated into public health interventions to improve programme outcomes. Despite the massive donor funding for public health programmes in Nigeria, there is limited information on the current status of health communication programmes. This study aims to identify the knowledge gaps, describe the future direction and highlight recommendations for strengthening health communication programmes in Nigeria. Using a purposive sampling methodology, the online study used a two-staged Delphi Technique and the P-Process model to collect data from key stakeholders. Stakeholders included donors, government, civil society organisations, research institutions, education and training institutions, and communities. Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS. Capacity-building gaps were identified and a conceptual framework was developed. These gaps included: the low technical capacity of stakeholders in health communication, limited resources for organisations to implement activities, the lack of a strategic framework to guide the implementation of health communication programmes, and minimal collaboration with stakeholders. These findings provided an insight into the current state of health communication programmes, which is mainly at the programme activity level. In this study, the findings highlighted a critical need to develop and strengthen health communication programmes in Nigeria with a view to improving performance and health outcomes and optimising healthservice delivery in the country.

  15. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  16. Farmer’s views and values to focus on cattle conservation policies: the case of eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Martin-Collado, D.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Soini, K.; Diaz, C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify elements useful in designing policies and programmes for conservation of farm animal genetic resources, taking as case study a group of European local cattle breeds. We first investigated the implications of differences among countries in the policies and programmes to be dev

  17. Opportunities, constraints and constrained opportunities - A study on mothers' working time patterns in 22 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Salin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze mothers’ working time patters across 22 European countries. The focu was on three questions: how much mothers prefer to work, how much they actually work, and to what degree their preferred and actual working times are (in)consistent with each other. The focus was on cross-national differences in mothers’ working time patterns, comparison of mothers’ working times to that of childless women and fathers, as well as on individual- and country-level factors t...

  18. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  19. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  20. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  1. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  2. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The labour force participation rate of married women varies considerably between the European countries. There may be several explanations for this evidence. In this study, the effect of the different income tax schemes on female labour force participation is investigated and compared. A common...... labour supply function is estimated on cross-section household samples for each of the countries Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and East and West Germany. Based on the estimated labour supply functions, we calculate for each of the countries the hypothetical part time and full time participation rates...... of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  3. Mania in the Nordic countries: patients and treatment in the acute phase of the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Knud; Porsdal, Vibeke; Aarre, Trond F

    2009-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics have a central role in pharmacotherapy. There are, however, substantial differences in how the treatment is realized in different countries. The aim of this paper was to compare the treatment of acute mania in the Nordic...... countries with other European countries during the first 12 weeks of the EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) study. Adult patients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated/changed oral medication...... status, functional status and pharmacological treatment. Psychiatric status at inclusion measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) were similar in the Nordic and European patient groups, which is surprising as 73% of the Nordic patients...

  4. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  5. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  6. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  7. Social Science Teachers on Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Two Post-Communist Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Jeliazkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with the everyday dilemmas of teaching in a field which is by definition controversial and loaded with diverse political meanings. The study involved teachers in the two countries using Q-methodology, a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Five distinct ways of dealing with these questions, five types of views were found in Bulgaria: Pragmatic Conservatives, Deliberative Liberals, Local Social Guardians, Personal Growth Facilitators, and Global Future Debaters. In Croatia, the types of views were: Patriotic Conservatives, Liberal Democracy Mentors, Reflective Humanists, and Personal Growth Coaches. The differences and similarities between the teachers’ views in both countries are compared. The study highlights the crucial role of teachers, of their beliefs and experiences in shaping national and European citizenship education policies. The implications of the study findings for citizenship education policy, curriculum development, and teacher training are briefly discussed.

  8. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  9. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  10. Do the Media set the Parliamentary Agenda? A Comparative Study in Seven Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vliegenthart, Rens; Walgrave, Stefaan; Baumgartner, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of work has examined the relationship between media and politics from an agenda-setting perspective: is attention for issues initiated by political elites with the media following suit, or is the reverse relation stronger? A long series of single-country studies has suggested a num...

  11. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  12. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  13. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  14. Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDRON STEPHANE; LAGAE KAAT

    2015-01-01

    Key findings of the JRC's research Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries for the Research Highlights series on behalf of the Evidence Group (EG) of the UK Council on Child Internet Safety

  15. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  16. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  17. Trans fatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amaral, E.; Kestesloot, H.; Rimestad, A.; Thamm, M.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from fast

  18. The right to health : A multi-country study of law, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Ferguson, Rhonda; Markovic, Milan; Nnamuchi, Obi

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study engages with the fields of human rights law, health law, and public health. It analyses how the internationally guaranteed human ‘right to health’ is realized by States at a national level. It brings together scholars from more than ten different countries, with each of

  19. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  20. Trans fatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amaral, E.; Kestesloot, H.; Rimestad, A.; Thamm, M.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from