WorldWideScience

Sample records for country studies programme

  1. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  2. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolnicar, J.; Kamel, R.; Perera, O.; Tauchid, M.

    1992-08-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  3. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  4. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  5. Multivariant strategy study for the use of plutonium in a nuclear programme: the case of the large and small country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Kunsch, P.; Verraver, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a multicriteria study into the desirability of introducing a plutonium using FBR programme into two fictitious countries, one large and one small, are presented. The strategy discussed concerns only base load electrical energy production with both fossil and nuclear fuels. A number of independent social, economic and political objectives need to be considered in the choice of power plant programme. These include the price of fuel, the safety of fuel supply, the balance of services, the new investments needed and the impact of new technology. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on ''Nuclear power programmes in developing countries'' is a report to the IAEA by a Senior Expert Group. A description is given of the requirements for a successful nuclear power programme, including the constraints that developing countries might face in the introduction and execution of the programme. The group attempted to identify the main issues affecting the financing of nuclear power projects and suggested specific actions that could be undertaken in order to reduce economic and financial risks. The various issues were discussed under the topic headings:-programme-project-related factors, investment climate, financing plan, export credits and creditworthiness. (U.K.)

  7. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, H.C.; Hasling, W.; Hera, C.H.; Maudarbocus, A.Y.; Mtimet, S.

    1993-10-01

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  8. Country programme frameworks. A special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As a result of the recommendations of the TC Policy Review Seminar held in 1994 the Department of Technical Co-operation initiated Country Programme Framework (CPF) related activities in early 1995. Draft Guidelines for carrying out the CPF process were issued in February 1995. An agenda was propose for carrying gout the CPF process, which also included field missions to those countries where the information on national programmes and priorities available at the Agency was believed to be insufficient. In December 1995 the Evaluation Section was requested by the TC management to evaluate the approach and the progress achieved to date. The findings and conclusions of this evaluation have been formulated after extensive discussions with both in-house staff and external evaluation consultants. They thus represent a distillation of the views expressed by all. 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in February 1986 a Senior Expert Group (SEG) on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes, which was asked: (a) To identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; (b) To study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes, and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This report summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study. It also presents a number of recommendations on mechanisms to assist developing countries in promoting and financing their nuclear power programmes. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Nuclear power plant ageing management programmes in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Laakso, K.; Pekkonen, A.

    1992-09-01

    The report describes ageing studies of nuclear power plants and research programmes on plant life extension in foreign countries. Ageing studies are aimed to ascertain that the availability and safety of components and structures can be maintained throughout the plant lifetime. In life extension programmes the purpose is to evaluate the technical and economical possibilities to extend the plant lifetime beyond the originally planned operation period, without reducing the plant safety. The main emphasis of the report is put on the ageing and life extension programmes in the United States. Besides the U.S. studies, research on plant life extension possibilities conducted in France and Japan are also described. Examples of studies performed in other nuclear energy producing countries are given. These examples are mainly related to the development of maintenance programmes and techniques

  11. Current nuclear programmes in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Anna.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, when China became the fifth declared nuclear weapons state NWS (joining the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France), no other state has openly declared a nuclear capacity. But four states - Israel, South Africa, India and Pakistan - are now believed to have such a capacity. This chapter will briefly document the nuclear weapons programmes of these four 'threshold' countries which possess the industrial infrastructure to enable them to produce nuclear weapons' but assiduously refrain from publicly expressing any interest in acquiring such weapons. The chapter will go on to discuss those states which are not on the threshold but which are attempting to become nuclear-capable through building the necessary technology or acquiring it on the international market. The political motivation for these countries to 'go nuclear', and the assistance they have received in this endeavour from the NWSs themselves, will also be discussed. (author)

  12. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  13. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Promotion and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 the Agency's Director General established a Senior Expert Group on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Planning of Nuclear Power Programmes. This group, which was comprised of 20 experts with extensive experience in the topics to be studied, coming from 15 Member States plus the World Bank, was asked to: identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This paper summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study

  14. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  15. Reflections on Health Promotion and Disability in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Case Study of Parent-Support Programmes for Children with Congenital Zika Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kuper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC has been adopted by many countries as a national target for 2030. People with disabilities need to be included within efforts towards UHC, as they are a large group making up 15% of the world’s population and are more vulnerable to poor health. UHC focuses both on covering the whole population as well as providing all the services needed and must include an emphasis on health promotion, as well as disease treatment and cure. Health promotion often focusses on tackling individual behaviours, such as encouraging exercise or good nutrition. However, these activities are insufficient to improve health without additional efforts to address poverty and inequality, which are the underlying drivers of poor health. In this article, we identify common challenges, opportunities and examples for health promotion for people with disabilities, looking at both individual behaviour change as well as addressing the drivers of poor health. We present a case study of a carer support programme for parents of children with Congenital Zika Syndrome in Brazil as an example of a holistic programme for health promotion. This programme operates both through improving skills of caregivers to address the health needs of their child and tackling poverty and exclusion.

  16. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab

  17. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Kenya, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $3.9 million of Agency support received, Kenya ranks 39th among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958-1991. Almost half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of the equipment (44%), followed by training (33%) and expert services (23%). Two-thirds of the funds available were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (66%), while extra-budgetary contributions accounted for 18%, in-kind contributions for 14%, and UNDP for 2% of the resources. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the four major areas have been general atomic energy development (30%), agriculture (22%), nuclear medicine and nuclear safety (13% each)

  18. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Niger, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $1.5 million of Agency support received, Niger ranks 65th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. About two-thirds of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (62%), complemented by expert services (26%) and training (12%). Almost the entire resources utilized were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), with only a small share made available through assistance in kind (4%). With regard to project disbursements by sector, the four major areas have been agriculture (34%), general atomic energy development (31%), hydrology (18%) and nuclear safety (12%)

  19. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cameroon, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $1.3 million of Agency support received, Cameroon ranks 68th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (24%) and training (15%). The best part of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (90%); the remaining ten per cent were made available through extrabudgetary contributions (8%) and assistance in kind (2%). With regard to project disbursements by sector, the four major areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (38%), agriculture (23%), nuclear medicine (14%) and hydrology (13%)

  1. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Mali, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.7 million of Agency support received, Mali ranks 51st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (58%), followed by expert services (27%) and training (15%). With a share of 93%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided the best part of the resources, while only very small shares were made available through extrabudgetary contributions and assistance in kind (5% and 2%, respectively). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the four major areas have been hydrology (31%), nuclear medicine (24%), agriculture (21%) and nuclear raw materials (16%)

  2. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Costa Rica, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.8 million of Agency support received, Costa Rica ranks 49th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Over half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (52%), followed by expert services (37%) and training (11%). Sixty-two per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 37% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (5%) and through in-kind assistance (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear raw materials (36%), nuclear physics and chemistry (24%) and agriculture (20%). Smaller shares have gone to hydrology (11%) and nuclear medicine (8%)

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Algeria, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $3.6 million of Agency support received, Algeria ranks 41st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Seventy per cent of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of equipment, followed by expert services (17%) and training (13%). Almost all of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (97%), the remaining 3% were made available through assistance in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the three major areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (28%), agriculture (27%) and nuclear medicine (20%)

  5. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ethiopia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $2.5 million of Agency support received, Ethiopia ranks 54th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), complemented by expert services (16%) and training (29%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (88%), the remainder was made available through assistance in kind (6%), UNDP and extrabudgetary contributions (3% each). During the past ten years, project disbursements went to four major areas: agriculture (45%), nuclear medicine (35%), nuclear safety (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (6%)

  6. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Guatemala, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3 million of Agency support received, Guatemala ranks 46th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (72%), followed by training (15%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (37%), agriculture (28%), nuclear medicine (16%) and hydrology (8%). The remaining 11% were shared by general atomic energy development, nuclear raw materials, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear safety

  7. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Mexico, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $7.7 million of Agency support received, Mexico ranks 21st among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. The largest share of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of expert services (36%), followed by equipment and training (27% each) and sub-contracts (10%). Almost two-thirds of the funds available were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (65%), the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (14%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector the five major areas have been nuclear safety (34%), nuclear engineering and technology (27%), agriculture (17%), nuclear physics and chemistry (9%), and nuclear techniques in industry and hydrology (9%)

  8. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Uganda, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $1.6 million of Agency support received, Uganda ranks 61st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (47%), complemented by a strong training component (37%), while expert services have received only a relatively small share (16%). Ninety-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the remaining two per cent were made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: agriculture (64%), nuclear medicine (24%) and nuclear safety (12%)

  9. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Uruguay, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $4.2 million of Agency support received, Uruguay ranks 37th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (67%), followed by expert services (19%) and training (14%). Seventy-three per cent of the resources were provided through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 24% were made available through extrabudgetary contributions. The remaining 3% were provided through assistance in kind, with only an insignificant contribution by UNDP. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear medicine (35%), agriculture (23%), general atomic energy development (17%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (11%) and industry and hydrology (7%)

  10. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zaire, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $3.9 million of Agency support received, Zaire ranks 38th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (60%), followed by training (24%) and expert services (16%). With a share of 76%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than three quarters of the total resources available, while only small shares were made available through UNDP (11%), extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (9%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest area has been general atomic energy development (26%), followed by agriculture (18%), nuclear safety (18%), nuclear techniques in industry and hydrology (13%), and nuclear physics and chemistry (11%)

  11. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Nigeria, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $9.3 million of Agency support received, Nigeria ranks 14th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. During the past ten years, 44% of this assistance has been provided in the form of equipment, followed by training (27%), expert services (26%) and sub-contracts (3%). With 45% and 44%, respectively, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund and extrabudgetary contributions hold almost equal shares in the total resources made available, while in-kind assistance accounts for 9% and UNDP for 2% of the resources. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, by far the largest area has been agriculture (70%), with significantly smaller shares going to nuclear physics and chemistry (11%), nuclear medicine (8%) and nuclear safety (7%)

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Senegal, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $2.2 million of Agency support received, Senegal ranks 56th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than one-third of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (67%), followed by expert services (21%) and training (12%). Eighty per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 16% were made available by UNDP and about 2% each through extrabudgetary contributions and assistance in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, by far the largest area has been agriculture (43%). Smaller shares have gone to general atomic energy development (15%), nuclear physics and chemistry (13%), nuclear medicine and hydrology (11% each), and nuclear safety (7%)

  13. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximising local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, and domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing, and finance for the fuel cycle

  14. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: The implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximizing local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; Eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing; and finance for the fuel cycle. (author)

  15. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Brazil, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $17 million of Agency support received, Brazil ranks 2nd among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. Over half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (51%), complemented by expert services (34%) and training (15%). Almost two-thirds of the funds were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (63%), the rest was provided through extrabudgetary contributions (30%), assistance in kind (4%) and UNDP (3%). With regard to total disbursements - by sector - under those projects that were operational during the period 1982 through November 1992, the three major areas have been: general atomic energy development (47%), nuclear safety (22%) and agriculture (13%). During the same period, the country has provided experts and training course lectures for a total of 405 assignments, and has hosted 178 fellowships and scientific visits as well as 46 regional and interregional training events with a total of 603 participants

  16. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Argentina, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $7.5 million of Agency support received, Argentina ranks 22nd among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. Forty-six per cent of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment, complemented by expert services (40%) and training (14%). The largest share of the resources was made available by UNDP (87%), and only small shares were provided through the TACF (12%) and assistance in kind (less than 1%). With regard to total disbursements - by sector - under those projects that were operational during the period 1982 through mid-December 1992, by far the largest area has been nuclear engineering and technology (91%), while only very small shares went to nuclear safety (4%), industry and hydrology (3%) and agriculture (2%). During the same period, the country has provided experts and training course lectures for a total of 601 assignments, and has hosted 153 fellowships and scientific visits as well as 42 regional and interregional training courses with a total of 568 participants

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Thailand 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Thailand carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bangladesh 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bangladesh carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Guatemala 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Guatemala carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Iceland 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Iceland carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bangladesh 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bangladesh carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Cyprus 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Cyprus carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Albania 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Albania carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Indonesia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Indonesia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Poland 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Poland carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Romania 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Romania carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Viet Nam 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Viet Nam carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Philippines 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Philippines carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with The Philippines 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in The Philippines carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Greece 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Greece carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Dominican Republic 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Dominican Republic carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Nicaragua 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Nicaragua carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Afghanistan 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Afghanistan carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Jamaica 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Jamaica carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Ecuador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Ecuador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with El Salvador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in El Salvador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Nigeria 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Nigeria carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Colombia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Colombia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Portugal 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Portugal carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Pakistan 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Pakistan carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Myanmar 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Myanmar carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Malaysia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Malaysia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Jordan 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Jordan carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Mongolia 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Mongolia carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Egypt 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Egypt carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Mexico 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Mexico carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Hungary 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Hungary carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. Heart failure programmes in countries with a primary care-based health care system. Are additional trials necessary? Design of the DEAL-HF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Porte, PWFBA; Lok, DJA; van Wijngaarden, J; Cornel, JH; Pruijsers-Lamers, D; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Hoes, AW

    Background: Several randomised studies of heart failure (HF) management programmes in the United States, Australia and Europe have shown a considerable reduction in hospitalisation rates for HE In this article, a comprehensive review of these studies will be provided and their applicability to

  16. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Madagascar, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3.5 million of Agency support received, Madagascar ranks 42nd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), followed by expert services (32%) and training (13%). With a share of 69%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than two-thirds of the total resources available, while 29% were made available through UNDP and 2% through assistance in kind. Extrabudgetary contributions accounted for less than one per cent. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, by far the largest area has been nuclear raw materials (66%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (18%). Only small shares have gone to nuclear safety (7%), agriculture (5%) and nuclear engineering and technology (4%)

  17. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sudan, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $5.7 million of Agency support received, Sudan ranks 31st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Over the past ten years, almost equal shares of this assistance were provided in the form of equipment (46%) and training (42%), and only a small percentage was provided in the form of expert services (12%). The best part of the resources was made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (77%), while in-kind and extrabudgetary contributions account for 13% and 10% of the resources, respectively. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, the two largest areas have been general atomic energy development (37%) and agriculture (21%), followed by nuclear medicine (14%). Smaller shares (6% each) have gone to nuclear physics and chemistry, nuclear engineering and technology, hydrology, and nuclear safety

  18. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Peru, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $12.6 million of Agency support received, Peru ranks 4th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 2nd in each of the four years 1982 through 1985. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (59%), followed by expert services (29%) and training (12%). Forty-five per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 29% of the resources were made available through extrabudgetary contributions, and 21% by UNDP. The remaining 5% were provided in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (27%), general atomic energy development (17%), nuclear raw materials (14%), nuclear medicine (12%) and industry and hydrology (11%). Nuclear safety, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear physics and chemistry have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  19. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cuba, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $8.2 million of Agency support received, Cuba ranks 19th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 3rd in 1982 and 4th in 1984. Over three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (81%), followed by expert services (10%) and training (9%). Seventy-one per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 28% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The remaining 1% was made available through extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions. With regard to project disbursements by sector, the largest areas have been general atomic energy development (36%), agriculture (20%), nuclear physics and chemistry (10%) and nuclear safety (10%). Industry and hydrology, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear medicine have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ghana, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $6.5 million of Agency support received, Ghana ranks 29th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (53%), followed by training through fellowships and scientific visits (34%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-four per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, 13% through assistance in kind, 11% through extrabudgetary contributions, and 2% by UNDP. It should be noted that the share for extrabudgetary contributions includes an amount of $250,000 made available by the Ghanaian Government for the purchase of equipment by the Agency under a funds-in-trust arrangement. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest share has gone to agriculture (36%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (21%), nuclear medicine (16%), industry and hydrology (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (9%)

  1. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Egypt, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $22.2 million of Agency support received, Egypt ranks first among all recipients of technical assistance, not only for the period 1958 - 1991, but also held this rank in each of the five years 1982 through 1986 and in 1988. More than half of this assistance has been provided in the form of equipment (57%), followed by expert services (19%), training (17%) and sub-contracts (7%). With 42% and 43%, respectively, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund and extrabudgetary contributions hold almost equal shares in the total resources available, while in-kind assistance accounts for 9% and UNDP for 6% of the resources. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, the two largest areas have been nuclear safety (34%) and agriculture (33%), followed by nuclear engineering and technology (11%). Smaller shares - from 4% to 7% each-- have gone to industry and hydrology, nuclear medicine, nuclear physics and chemistry, and general atomic energy development

  2. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  3. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Rudert

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages.

  4. Breastfeeding promotion, support and protection: review of six country programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-08-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a "health equalizer" and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers' training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages.

  5. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  6. Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The

  7. The simplification of quality assurance programmes to suit developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Whilst the need to produce and maintain documentation covering the supply and operation of Nuclear Steam Supply Systems is appreciated, it is felt that there is now a tendency to regard such documentation as more important than the plant itself. This tendency must be corrected if the safety and reliability of nuclear plants is to be maintained. The following paper proposes actions which will bring documentation into its proper perspective and make it more easily understood internationally. In addition, it is proposed that a common international Quality Assurance Programme Standard should be adopted by countries importing and exporting NSSS in order to make the requirements more understandable to all concerned. The proposals cover Quality Assurance Systems Specifications and the training of quality engineers and evaluators, and discuss Quality Assurance Programmes and Quality Plans. Specifically, the paper suggests the actions which could be undertaken now and proposes the bodies which should be responsible for such actions. (author)

  8. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Costs and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Bennett, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This article refers to a seminar (organized by the IAEA) on Costs and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes in Developing Countries held in Vienna from 9-12 September 1985. Its main objective was to promote a dialogue among the various parties involved in the domain of nuclear power financing, i.e. buyers, suppliers and financing organizations. At the meeting the Agency presented information showing that nuclear power plants are an economic means of generating electricity. In relation hereto the article deals with such topics as performance records, economic records, projected nuclear plant additions, financing constraints, current debt problems and new working relationships

  9. A conceptual and analytical approach to comparative analysis of country case studies: HIV and TB control programmes and health systems integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to comparatively analyse large-scale communicable disease control programmes have, for the most part, neglected the wider health system contexts within which the programmes lie. In addition, many evaluations of the integration of vertical disease control programmes into health systems ha...

  10. FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

  11. Lessons Learned in Performing and Implementing the Results of TNA in a Newly Developed Regulatory Body with a Mandate to Regulate the Country's Expanding Nuclear Power Programme: A Case Study of PNRA no. 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Moazzam

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: → It is essential that regulatory bodies apply a systematic approach to training need assessment; → Education and training requires capital investment, time and effort; it must be planned long in advance to be effective; → It is essential for a country considering a nuclear power programme to establish and implement a corresponding manpower development programme for its regulatory body

  12. Pathology Residency Programme of a Developing Country--Landscape of Last 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ali, Natasha; Kayani, Naila

    2016-01-01

    We report the evolution of a residency programme in Pathology from a developing country. This article highlights the historical perspective of our application procedure, the number of inductions, the programme framework, acheivements and limitations.

  13. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cote d'Ivoire, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.7 million of Agency support received, Cote d'Ivoire ranks 60th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Over half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of equipment (59%), complemented by expert services (26%) and training (15%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (91%), the remainder was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (7%) and through assistance in kind (2%). During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: agriculture (59%), general atomic energy development (30%) and nuclear safety (11%)

  14. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with the United Republic of Tanzania, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $ 3.4 million of Agency support received, the United Republic of Tanzania ranks 44th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (49%), followed by training through fellowships and scientific visits (29%) and expert services (22%). Ninety-two per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through assistance in kind (5%) and through extrabudgetary contributions (3%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, by far the largest share has gone to agriculture (48%), followed by nuclear physics (20%), nuclear safety (17%) and nuclear medicine (11%)

  15. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-04-28

    The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007-2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference (CSPA). The exercise was a combination of academic research and the development/application of an advocacy tool involving policy makers and stakeholders to influence the decision-making in the development, implementation, or change of HRH programmes while building evidence through a structured approach based on qualitative and quantitative information and the exchange and dissemination of best practices. This paper covers the methodological challenges, as well as a summary of the main findings of the study, which included 15 countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in the Central America, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in the Andean sub region, and Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the South Cone. Despite the different contexts, the results showed that the programmes evaluated faced common challenges, such as lack of political support and financial unsustainability. The evaluation process allowed the exchange and dissemination of practices, interventions, and programmes currently running in the region. A shared lesson was the importance of careful planning of the implementation of programmes and interventions. The similarities in the problems and challenges of HRH among the participating countries highlighted the need for a cooperation programme on the evaluation and assessment of implementation strategies in the Americas region.

  16. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  17. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  18. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  19. World health organization radiation medicine programme in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.; Volodin, V.

    1993-01-01

    Where WHO's catalytic role can stimulate cooperation between countries, and in crucial areas where international cooperation in use of ionizing radiation in medicine is needed, activities may be carried out in such areas as; 1) preparation and dissemination of authoritative information on rational use of radiation in medicine; 2) cooperative quality assurance studies; 3) workshops on specific topics in radiation medicine or protection; 4) seminars on topics that have international implications. 21 refs

  20. The Philippines. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  1. The Philippines. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, E B [Agro-industrial Consultancy, Burgess Hill, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  2. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  4. Balancing the need to rapidly scale-up and improve clinical outcomes in antiretroviral programmes in developing countries: lessons from an Indian programmatic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Peter; Beyers, Nulda; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is highly effective reducing mortality and AIDS-related morbidity in HIV-infected people and at preventing transmission of HIV between individuals. The article reviewed for this commentary reported on data from an Indian ART cohort that showed low median baseline CD4 counts and high rates of mortality and loss to follow-up. Programme implementers in developing regions need to balance the need for rapid scale-up and simultaneous improvement in clinical outcomes. Challenges outlined support HIV treatment strategies that combine improved HIV diagnosis, linkage to care and provision of ART with a strong community-based component. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    Rehabilitation care is fundamental to health and human dignity and a human right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The provision of rehabilitation is important for reducing the need for formal support and enabling persons with disabilities to lead an independent life. Increasingly scholars and advocacy groups voice concerns over the significant barriers facing people with disabilities in accessing appropriate and quality rehabilitation. A growing body of research highlights a "respond-need" gap in the provision of rehabilitation and assistive technologies and underscore the lack of indicators for assessing performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring States compliance with human rights standards in rehabilitation service planning and programming. While research on human rights and health monitoring has increased exponentially over the last decade far too little attention has been paid to rehabilitation services. The proposed research aims to reduce this knowledge gap by developing a human rights based monitoring framework with indicators to support human rights accountability and performance assessment in rehabilitation. Concept mapping, a stakeholder-driven approach will be used as the core method to identify rights based indicators and develop the rehabilitation services monitoring framework. Concept mapping requires participants from various stakeholders groups to generate a list of the potential indicators through on line brainstorming, sort the indicators for conceptual similarity into clusters and rate them against predefined criteria. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster data analysis will be performed to develop the monitoring framework while bridging analysis will provide useful insights about patterns of agreement or disagreement among participants views on indicators. This study has the potential to influence future practices on data collection and measurement of compliance with

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Syrian Arab Republic 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Syrian Arab Republic carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Cote d'Ivoire 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Cote d'Ivoire carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the People's Republic of China 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the People's Republic of China carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Republic of Korea 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Republic of Korea carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the United Arab Emirates 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the United Arab Emirates carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes...... and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). METHODS: WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic...... regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. RESULTS: This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have...

  14. Innovative strategies for a successful SLMTA country programme: The Rwanda story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Nzabahimana

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study describes the achievements of Rwandan laboratories four years after the introduction of SLMTA in the country, using the SLIPTA scoring system to measure laboratory progress. Methods: Three cohorts of five laboratories each were enrolled in the SLMTA programme in 2010, 2011 and 2013. The cohorts used SLMTA workshops, improvement projects, mentorship and quarterly performance-based financing incentives to accelerate laboratory quality improvement. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted over a two-year period from the time of enrolment. Audit scores were used to categorise laboratory quality on a scale of zero (< 55% to five (95% – 100% stars. Results: At baseline, 14 of the 15 laboratories received zero stars with the remaining laboratory receiving a two-star rating. At exit, five laboratories received one star, six received two stars and four received three stars. At the follow-up audit conducted in the first two cohorts approximately one year after exit, one laboratory scored two stars, five laboratories earned three stars and four laboratories, including the National Reference Laboratory, achieved four stars. Conclusion: Rwandan laboratories enrolled in SLMTA showed improvement in quality management systems. Sustaining the gains and further expansion of the SLMTA programme to meet country targets will require continued programme strengthening.

  15. Why do managers allocate resources to workplace health promotion programmes in countries with national health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Angela M; Sharp, David J

    2007-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that worksite health promotion (WHP) programmes reduce healthcare costs and improve employee productivity. In many countries, a large proportion of healthcare costs are borne by the state. While the full benefits of WHP are still created, they are shared between employers and the state, even though the employer bears the full (after-tax) cost. Employers therefore have a lower incentive to implement WHP activity. We know little about the beliefs of managers with decision responsibility for the approval and implementation of WHP programmes in this context. This article reports the results of a study of the attitudes of Canadian senior general managers (GMs) and human resource managers (HRMs) in the auto parts industry in Ontario, Canada towards the consequences of increasing discretionary spending on WHP, using Structural Equation Modelling and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We identified factors that explain managers' intentions to increase discretionary spending on wellness programmes. While both senior GMs and HRMs are motivated primarily by their beliefs that WHP reduces indirect costs of health failure, GMs were also motivated by their moral responsibility towards employees (but surprisingly HRMs were not). Importantly, HRMs, who usually have responsibility for WHP, felt constrained by a lack of power to commit resources. Most importantly, we found no social expectation that organizations should provide WHP programmes. This has important implications in an environment where the adoption of WHP is very limited and cost containment within the healthcare system is paramount.

  16. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ``Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries`` are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs.

  18. Content, participants and outcomes of three diabetes care programmes in three low and middle income countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmen, J. van; Ku, G.M.; Darras, C.; Kalobu, J.C.; Bewa, E.; Pelt, M. van; Hen, H.; Acker, K. van; Eggermont, N.; Schellevis, F.; Kegels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To improve access and quality of diabetes care for people in low-income countries, it is important to understand which elements of diabetes care are effective. This paper analyses three diabetes care programmes in the DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines. Methods: Three programmes offering

  19. Content, participants and outcomes of three diabetes care programmes in three low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olmen, J.; Marie, K.G.; Christian, D.; Clovis, K.J.; Emery, B.; Maurits, V.P.; Heang, H.; Kristien, V.A.; Natalie, E.; Francois, S.; Guy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To improve access and quality of diabetes care for people in low-income countries, it is important to understand which elements of diabetes care are effective. This paper analyses three diabetes care programmes in the DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines. Methods Three programmes offering

  20. A strategic storage programme for developing countries - to be or not to be?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, B.W. [Petroleum Management Consultant, Moss (Norway)

    1995-05-01

    In the industrialised world agreements between countries or legislation will dictate that there shall be strategic fuel storage of {open_quotes}X{close_quotes} amount of days. What about the developing countries, the third world? For the most part they have no storage regulations. Should they consider a strategic fuel storage programme? If so, how can they go about it? What are the obstacles? Many have neither the technical expertise nor the monies. This paper will explore how developing countries can have a strategic oil storage programme - How they can plan, justify, finance, execute and operate such a storage without having a major impact on their countries.

  1. Needs of countries with limited nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The main paper in this working group comes from Austria; it deals with the assurance of long-term supply of nuclear technology and nuclear fuel. Starting from an analysis of the structure of nuclear power programs of small industrialized countries, the paper discusses how supply of services can be assured in these countries during all steps of the fuel cycle. Detailed data and diagrams outline possible solutions under the aspect of production capacities and cost

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1982-1995 country programme evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This evaluation of the country programme in Iran was requested by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The main reasons for the evaluation were the desire to determine the results of the Agency's TC programme in Iran since 1982 (the post-revolution period) and how they are being utilized, and to identify specific areas for future co-operation. The evaluation included a two-week field mission during November/December 1995, integrated by three outside experts and one Agency staff member. Figs, tabs

  3. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D D [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  4. The problems of financing a nuclear programme in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiancette, G.; Penz, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the free market and deregulation framework financing of nuclear power in developing countries requires solutions different from those applied in the seventies and eighties. The paper presents the financial specificity of nuclear power, project finance concept and the market risk. (author)

  5. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  6. Mauritius country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manraj, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country's energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  7. Concept of a QA-programme for the recipient country, goals and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.W.

    1986-04-01

    Ordering, design and erection of a NPP is a complex business even in a country with experience. Therefore a QA-Programme can be helpful to do the work in a planned and organized manner. In the case of a recipient country the use of administrative QA-measures seems to be a necessary support, especially for the ordering company. It is not the intention of the QA-Programme to say what to do, and so it cannot solve ''political'' questions of the business, but the QA-Programme can say how the work has to be done to bring it to a good end. This lecture points out the most important and interesting questions in the phase of establishing a QA-Programme. Examples of solutions are given. (author). 13 figs

  8. School-based vaccination programmes: a systematic review of the evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Perman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes. Methods We undertook a systematic review of evidence on school-based vaccination programmes in order to understand the influence of organisational factors on the delivery of programmes. Our eligibility criteria were studies that (1 focused on childhood or adolescent vaccination programmes delivered in schools; (2 considered organisational factors that influenced the preparation or delivery of programmes; (3 were conducted in a developed or high-income country; and (4 had been peer reviewed. We searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015 using MEDLINE and HMIC electronic databases. Additional studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Library and bibliographies. We extracted data from the studies, assessed quality and the risk of bias, and categorised findings using a thematic framework of eight organisational factors. Results We found that most of the recent published literature is from the United States and is concerned with the delivery of pandemic or seasonal flu vaccination programmes at a regional (state or local level. We found that the literature is largely descriptive and not informed by the use of theory. Despite this, we identified common factors that influence the implementation of programmes. These factors included programme leadership and governance, organisational models and institutional relationships, workforce capacity and roles particularly concerning the school nurse, communication with parents and

  9. Enresa's Participation in the Technical Assistance Programmes to the Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly describes the participation of ENRESA in the technical assistance programmes to the Central and Eastern European countries (PHARE) and to the New Independent States (TACIS) as well as in the co-operation programmes all of them established by the European Commission. It is worth to point out the active role of ENRESA within the European Consortium CASSIOPEE, formed in 1993 by the six radioactive waste management companies in existence in the European Union at that time. CASSIOPEE was created to assist the European Commission in the area of radioactive waste management of the PHARE and TACIS technical assistance programmes. (Author)

  10. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Determann (Domino); I.J. Korfage (Ida); A. Fagerlin (Angela); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); M.C.J. Bliemer (Michiel); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); M.S. Lambooij (Mattijs); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on

  11. Board Characteristics, Country of Origin, and the Decision to Participate in the CDP’s Water Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrazi Bakhtiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the propensity of the world’s largest companies to participate in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP water programme. Drawing upon stakeholder theory, we assess the influence of board characteristics and country of origin on the decision of 748 largest companies from 42 countries to respond to the 2015 CDP water programme. Based on the binary logistic regression, we found that companies which participated in the survey have boards dominated by the independent directors, no specific environmental committee, and were domiciled in countries which placed greater emphasis on the information needs of the shareholders. We also found the evidence of companies operating in high water intensive industries to be more inclined towards participating in the survey. The findings provide tentative evidence to support the arguments of stakeholder theory.

  12. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the Foratom Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverola Pelayo, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of the nuclear power programme from the experience of the Foratom Member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of the nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over, and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle a distinction can be made between areas of high (economic) risk such as in the prospecting and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered. (author)

  13. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the FORATOM member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverola-Pelayo, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of nuclear power programme from the experience of the FORATOM member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement, the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle, a distinction can be made between phases of high (economic) risk such as in the prospection and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered

  14. Large-scale road safety programmes in low- and middle-income countries: an opportunity to generate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Peters, David H; Chandran, Aruna; Bishai, David

    2013-01-01

    The growing burden of road traffic injuries, which kill over 1.2 million people yearly, falls mostly on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, evidence generation on the effectiveness of road safety interventions in LMIC settings remains scarce. This paper explores a scientific approach for evaluating road safety programmes in LMICs and introduces such a road safety multi-country initiative, the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10). By building on existing evaluation frameworks, we develop a scientific approach for evaluating large-scale road safety programmes in LMIC settings. This also draws on '13 lessons' of large-scale programme evaluation: defining the evaluation scope; selecting study sites; maintaining objectivity; developing an impact model; utilising multiple data sources; using multiple analytic techniques; maximising external validity; ensuring an appropriate time frame; the importance of flexibility and a stepwise approach; continuous monitoring; providing feedback to implementers, policy-makers; promoting the uptake of evaluation results; and understanding evaluation costs. The use of relatively new approaches for evaluation of real-world programmes allows for the production of relevant knowledge. The RS-10 project affords an important opportunity to scientifically test these approaches for a real-world, large-scale road safety evaluation and generate new knowledge for the field of road safety.

  15. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca

    2013-01-01

    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  16. Economic evaluation of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country: retrospective cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Rue, Montserrat; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Comas, Merce; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Mar, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening in the Basque Country has shown 20 % reduction of the number of BC deaths and an acceptable overdiagnosis level (4 % of screen detected BC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the breast cancer early detection programme in the Basque Country in terms of retrospective cost-effectiveness and budget impact from 1996 to 2011. A discrete event simulation model was built to reproduce the natural history of breast cancer (BC). We estimated for lifetime follow-up the total cost of BC (screening, diagnosis and treatment), as well as quality-adjusted life years (QALY), for women invited to participate in the evaluated programme during the 15-year period in the actual screening scenario and in a hypothetical unscreened scenario. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated with the use of aggregated costs. Besides, annual costs were considered for budget impact analysis. Both population level and single-cohort analysis were performed. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was applied to assess the impact of parameters uncertainty. The actual screening programme involved a cost of 1,127 million euros and provided 6.7 million QALYs over the lifetime of the target population, resulting in a gain of 8,666 QALYs for an additional cost of 36.4 million euros, compared with the unscreened scenario. Thus, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 4,214€/QALY. All the model runs in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio lower than 10,000€/QALY. The screening programme involved an increase of the annual budget of the Basque Health Service by 5.2 million euros from year 2000 onwards. The BC screening programme in the Basque Country proved to be cost-effective during the evaluated period and determined an affordable budget impact. These results confirm the epidemiological benefits related to the centralised screening system and support the continuation of the programme.

  17. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  18. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  19. Botswana country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  20. Spanish recruitment programmes for Latin Americans in countries of origin: a flexible management framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª López-Sala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, countries whose markets needed seasonal labour have sought new ways of importing foreign workers through channelling and recruitment programmes in countries of origin. This article seeks to demonstrate that, in the case of Spain, the effective development of this process has only been possible because of a flexible and dynamic system in which bilateral agreements have played a major role, among them those signed with some Latin American countries. Flexible management of these programmes has been implemented via legislation, via the institutions and actors involved, and via the immigrants themselves, who have managed (or been forced to adapt to the changes of a labour market conditioned by the globalisation of labour and capital.

  1. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    of professional knowledge within the Danish teacher education programmes, which is not true of the programmes in the Top-3 countries and (2) the programmes in Canada and Singapore more frequently employ literature combining research-based knowledge with practical guidance and experiences, while the programmes......This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand....... The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the top-performing countries. Two main findings are: (1) philosophically based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body...

  2. Impact of health research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: the case of WHO/TDR programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minja, Happiness; Nsanzabana, Christian; Maure, Christine; Hoffmann, Axel; Rumisha, Susan; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zicker, Fabio; Tanner, Marcel; Launois, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening (RCS) activities. A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods (questionnaires and in-depth interviews) was applied to a selected group of 128 individual and 20 institutional capacity development grant recipients that completed their training/projects between 2000 and 2008. A semi-structured interview was also conducted on site with scientists from four institutions. Most of the grantees, both individual and institutional, reported beneficial results from the grant. However, glaring inequities stemming from gender imbalances and a language bias towards English were identified. The study showed that skills improvement through training contributed to better formulation of research proposals, but not necessarily to improved project implementation or communication of results. Appreciation of the institutional grants' impact varied among recipient countries. The least developed countries saw the programmes as essential for supporting basic infrastructure and activities. Advanced developing countries perceived the research grants as complementary to available resources, and particularly suitable for junior researchers who were not yet able to compete for major international grants. The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research capacity in disease endemic countries and should focus on strengthening

  3. Impact of health research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: the case of WHO/TDR programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happiness Minja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening (RCS activities. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods (questionnaires and in-depth interviews was applied to a selected group of 128 individual and 20 institutional capacity development grant recipients that completed their training/projects between 2000 and 2008. A semi-structured interview was also conducted on site with scientists from four institutions. Most of the grantees, both individual and institutional, reported beneficial results from the grant. However, glaring inequities stemming from gender imbalances and a language bias towards English were identified. The study showed that skills improvement through training contributed to better formulation of research proposals, but not necessarily to improved project implementation or communication of results. Appreciation of the institutional grants' impact varied among recipient countries. The least developed countries saw the programmes as essential for supporting basic infrastructure and activities. Advanced developing countries perceived the research grants as complementary to available resources, and particularly suitable for junior researchers who were not yet able to compete for major international grants. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research

  4. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  5. Working toward a sustainable laboratory quality improvement programme through country ownership: Mozambique’s SLMTA story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessina Masamha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Launched in 2009, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme has emerged as an innovative approach for the improvement of laboratory quality. In order to ensure sustainability, Mozambique embedded the SLMTA programme within the existing Ministry of Health (MOH laboratory structure. Objective: This article outlines the steps followed to establish a national framework for quality improvement and embed the SLMTA programme within existing MOH laboratory systems. Methods: The MOH adopted SLMTA as the national laboratory quality improvement strategy, hired a dedicated coordinator and established a national laboratory quality technical working group comprising mostly personnel from key MOH departments. The working group developed an implementation framework for advocacy, training, mentorship, supervision and audits. Emphasis was placed on building local capacity for programme activities. After receiving training, a team of 25 implementers (18 from the MOH and sevenfrom partner organisations conducted baseline audits (using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation [SLIPTA] checklist, workshops and site visits in six reference and two central hospital laboratories. Exit audits were conducted in six of the eight laboratories and their results are presented. Results: The six laboratories demonstrated substantial improvement in SLIPTA checklistscores; median scores increased from 35% at baseline to 57% at exit. It has been recommended that the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory apply for international accreditation. Conclusion: Successful implementation of SLMTA requires partnership between programme implementers, whilst effectiveness and long-term viability depend on country leadership, ownership and commitment. Integration of SLMTA into the existing MOH laboratory system will ensure durability beyond initial investments. The Mozambican model holds great promise that

  6. Working toward a sustainable laboratory quality improvement programme through country ownership: Mozambique's SLMTA story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamha, Jessina; Skaggs, Beth; Pinto, Isabel; Mandlaze, Ana Paula; Simbine, Carolina; Chongo, Patrina; de Sousa, Leonardo; Kidane, Solon; Yao, Katy; Luman, Elizabeth T; Samogudo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme has emerged as an innovative approach for the improvement of laboratory quality. In order to ensure sustainability, Mozambique embedded the SLMTA programme within the existing Ministry of Health (MOH) laboratory structure. This article outlines the steps followed to establish a national framework for quality improvement and embedding the SLMTA programme within existing MOH laboratory systems. The MOH adopted SLMTA as the national laboratory quality improvement strategy, hired a dedicated coordinator and established a national laboratory quality technical working group comprising mostly personnel from key MOH departments. The working group developed an implementation framework for advocacy, training, mentorship, supervision and audits. Emphasis was placed on building local capacity for programme activities. After receiving training, a team of 25 implementers (18 from the MOH and seven from partner organisations) conducted baseline audits (using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation [SLIPTA] checklist), workshops and site visits in six reference and two central hospital laboratories. Exit audits were conducted in six of the eight laboratories and their results are presented. The six laboratories demonstrated substantial improvement in audit scores; median scores increased from 35% at baseline to 57% at exit. It has been recommended that the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory apply for international accreditation. Successful implementation of SLMTA requires partnership between programme implementers, whilst effectiveness and long-term viability depend on country leadership, ownership and commitment. Integration of SLMTA into the existing MOH laboratory system will ensure durability beyond initial investments. The Mozambican model holds great promise that country leadership, ownership and institutionalisation can set the stage for

  7. Healthcare study programmes in innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mandysová, Petra; Hlaváčová, Klára; Kovářová, Veronika; Kylarová, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the three-year project (registration number CZ.1.07/2.2.00/15.0357) was to innovate three out of the existing five study programs of the Faculty of Health Studies, University of Pardubice (FHS UPa) and to enhance the professional competence of the academic staff, which would lead to the modernization of teaching methods and incorporation of new, scientific knowledge in the educational activities. The project responded to the societal demand for highly qualified healthcare personnel...

  8. Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: the Emerald programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-04-10

    There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.

  9. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Emma; Rapacchietta, Leonardo; Angeletti, Paolo Matteo; Barbante, Luca; Profeta, Filippo Valerio; Fagnano, Roberto

    2017-04-23

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI) and Low and Middle Income (LMI) States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates.

  10. Transfer of radioactive waste management expertise from Switzerland to other countries with small nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.; Birkhaeuser, Ph.; Kickmaier, W.; Vomvoris, S.; Zuidema, P.

    2000-01-01

    A legal requirement which coupled demonstration of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal to the extension of reactor operational licenses beyond 1985 acted to force rapid development of the Swiss radioactive waste management programme. Over a period of almost 30 years and at a cost of approximately 800 M CHF Nagra has become established as a centre of excellence in this field. Resources include highly experienced manpower, literature and databases supporting development of national repositories for L/ILW and HLW/TRU and state-of-the-art R and D infrastructure (including 2 underground laboratories, hot-laboratory facilities at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute), modelling groups at universities etc.). This paper reviews Nagra's experience and considers various ways in which expertise can be transferred to other small countries to minimise duplication of effort and optimise development of their own national programmes. (author)

  11. Participation of CASSIOPEE in the EU technical assistance programmes to Eastern countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A.R.; Vico, E.; Deconinck, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    CASSIOPEE, established in 1993, is a European Economic Interest Group formed by ANDRA (France), COVRA (the Netherlands), DBE (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), NIREX (United Kingdom) and ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium). CASSIOPEE provides assistance to the Central and Eastern European countries and to the New Independent States through the EU Programmes in two different ways: developing radioactive waste management strategies and advising on the implementation of adequate engineering resources.The advisory role of CASSIOPEE in the EU assistance programmes and main projects defined and/or developed by CASSIOPEE are presented. The activities in the area of low and intermediate level waste related to safety assessment of existing repositories, site selection, waste acceptance criteria ect. are given

  12. radiation safety culture for developing country: Basis for s minimum operational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a methodology for an integrated strategy aiming at establishing an adequate radiation Safety infrastructure for developing countries, non major power reactor programme. Its implementation will allow these countries, about 50% of the IAEA's Member States, to improve marginal radiation safety, specially to those recipients of technical assistance and do not meet the Minimum radiation Safety Requirements of the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection Progress in the implementation of safety regulations depends on the priority of the government and its understanding and conviction about the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. There is no doubt to conclude that the reasons for the deficiency of sources control and dose limitation are related to the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, specially considering the establishment of an adequate legislation; A minimum legal infrastructure; A minimum operational radiation safety programme; Alternatives for a Point of Optimum Contact, to avoid overlap and conflict, that is: A 'Memorandum of Understanding' among Regulatory Authorities in the Country, dealing with similar type of licensing and inspection

  13. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  14. What Is "Enterprise Education?" An Analysis of the Objectives and Methods of Enterprise Education Programmes in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytti, Ulla; O'Gorman, Colm

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores what constitutes "enterprise education" in four European countries. It proposes a conceptual schema for capturing the various objectives of enterprise education programmes and initiatives. This conceptual schema is then used to categorise the objectives of 50 enterprise programmes from Austria, Finland, Ireland, and…

  15. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in......, mathematics, and science. The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the topperforming countries; differences can be found in certain areas, in other areas there are greater differences between the four individual countries. Three...

  16. Cost Effective Ways of Implementing Nuclear Power Programme in African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderojua, Abraham; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    still growing fast and hence are characterized by a foreseeable increase in electricity demand to drive the factors of production. 1.3 Objective of this Paper The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficient means of building nuclear power plants and associated infra structure in African countries. The concept adopted in this paper to achieve efficient allocation of resources is sharing of infrastructural items. The paper lists examples of sharing arrangement on the African continent for other purposes other than nuclear power programme. This is an attempt to justify the workability of the concept for nuclear power programme. Mention has also been made of similar sharing arrangement in other countries for the purpose of nuclear power programme. The factors that will enhance the success of sharing concept in African countries have also been highlighted

  17. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  18. Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Today, numerous countries are considering construction of their first nuclear power plant or the expansion of a small nuclear power programme, and many of these countries have limited experience in managing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. They often have limited information about available technologies and approaches for safe and long term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel arising from power reactors. The lack of basic know-how and of a credible waste management strategy could present a major challenge or even an obstruction for countries wishing to

  19. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  20. IAEA analytical quality assurance programmes to meet the present and future needs of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Fajgelj, A.; Dekner, R.; Vera Ruiz, H.; Carvalho, F.P.; Povinec, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    For many years the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been promoting analytical quality assurance and quality control in its Member States with emphasis on measurands that are amenable to analysis by nuclear and related techniques, i.e. radionuclides, trace elements, and stable isotopes. This paper reviews briefly the rationale for some of these activities, particularly in relation to the needs of participants in developing countries arising out of co-ordinated research programmes, technical co-operation projects and global and regional networks. Emphasis is given to biological and environmental reference materials with a matrix of natural origin. Also described are some activities arising out of the requirements of ISO-25 and other relevant international quality standards. (orig.)

  1. Integrating national community-based health worker programmes into health systems: a systematic review identifying lessons learned from low-and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-09-22

    Despite the development of national community-based health worker (CBHW) programmes in several low- and middle-income countries, their integration into health systems has not been optimal. Studies have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the integration processes, but systematic reviews to provide a more comprehensive understanding are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of published research to understand factors that may influence the integration of national CBHW programmes into health systems in low- and middle-income countries. To be included in the study, CBHW programmes should have been developed by the government and have standardised training, supervision and incentive structures. A conceptual framework on the integration of health innovations into health systems guided the review. We identified 3410 records, of which 36 were finally selected, and on which an analysis was conducted concerning the themes and pathways associated with different factors that may influence the integration process. Four programmes from Brazil, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan met the inclusion criteria. Different aspects of each of these programmes were integrated in different ways into their respective health systems. Factors that facilitated the integration process included the magnitude of countries' human resources for health problems and the associated discourses about how to address these problems; the perceived relative advantage of national CBHWs with regard to delivering health services over training and retaining highly skilled health workers; and the participation of some politicians and community members in programme processes, with the result that they viewed the programmes as legitimate, credible and relevant. Finally, integration of programmes within the existing health systems enhanced programme compatibility with the health systems' governance, financing and training functions. Factors that inhibited the integration process included a rapid

  2. The Minimum reporting package – Using standardised indicators to analyse the performance of Supplementary Feeding Programmes in 7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Susan; Andert, Christoph; Keane, Emily; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: The 2008 HPN Network Paper ‘Measuring the effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding Programmes in emergencies’ highlighted the inconsistencies, inadequacies and bias associated with reporting of Supplementary Feeding Programmes (SFP) and outlined the lack of existing tools to support all reporting needs for Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programmes. The ‘Minimum Reporting Package’ (MRP) was developed in response to this paper, and has evolved to a concise and comprehensive management tool which uses standardised indicators to improve the reporting and monitoring of the treatment components of community based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). The aim of the tool is to provide a contextualised overview of the CMAM programmes to improve programme management decisions, improve accountability and assist urgently needed learning in the effectiveness of this programme approach. Methods: Data is collected regularly by a group of MRP partners and feeds into a central database. Analysis is on-going and leading to a larger analysis planned for the end of 2013/early 2014. The aims of these analyses are: • To describe the characteristics of CMAM programmes • To describe and assess the effect of CMAM programmes on rehabilitating malnourished individuals • To compare programme performance and outcomes according to contextual factors, differences in protocols or approaches. A preliminary analysis was run on Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) data collected between January 2012 and July 2013. The length of programme data differs but is generally above 3 months in order to be able to analyse programme results (a full contextual analysis will be conducted in early 2014 to be presented). Results: SFP data was available from 4 NGOs, supporting 10 programmes in 7 countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, India, Kenya, Somalia). After data cleaning, a total of 23,584 admissions and 15,496 were included. The

  3. Launching a nuclear nower programme in a developing country - Technical and Scientific Support Organisations (TSO) in capacity building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngotho, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The need for involvement of Technical and Scientific Support Organisations (TSO) in developing countries intending to launch a nuclear power programme (NPP) cannot be overemphasized. In an International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety held in 2008, Mumbai, India, I presented a paper entitled 'Launching a Nuclear Power Programme - a third world country's perspective' - IAEA-CN-158/9. I pointed out some real constraints encountered by a developing country while trying to introduce a nuclear power programme. This was inadequate base infrastructure, financial incapability and lack of skilled manpower. Granted there are areas where the role of TSOs is minimal like in carrying the actual cost of infrastructure but their input in areas of technology, evaluation, assessment and skills development cannot be gainsaid. (author)

  4. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  5. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  6. The World Health Organization-United Nations Population Fund Strategic Partnership Programme's implementation of family planning guidelines and tools in Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Sheila K; Ba-Thike, Katherine; Gaffield, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Strategic Partnership Programme, a collaboration between the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund to improve evidence-based guidance for country programs through the introduction of selected practice guidelines to improve sexual and reproductive health. Information for this report is from questionnaires sent to Ministries of Health in 2004 (baseline assessment) and in 2007 (assessment of outcome), annual country reports and personal communication with focal points from Ministries of Health and World Health Organization regional and country offices. Following the Strategic Partnership Programme, family planning guidance was used extensively to: formulate and update reproductive health policy; update standards and guidelines; improve training curricula; conduct training activities; develop advocacy and communication materials; and promote change in service. The Strategic Partnership Programme was successful in promoting the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for reproductive health in several Asian countries. The countries that adapted the family planning guidance observed an increase in demand for contraceptives commodities. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  8. Barriers and Facilitators for implementing programmes and services to address hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in low and middle income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: An estimated 87.6% of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy cases is in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study is to review the evidence on barriers and facilitators to programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. METHODS: A systematic review...... they relate to capacity in terms of human and material resources; availability of feasible and appropriate guidelines; organizational management and referral pathways. Individual level barriers and facilitators include knowledge; risk perception; illness beliefs; financial condition; work obligations......; concerns for the baby and hardship associated with services. At the social and societal level, perceptions and norms related to women's roles, mobility and health; the knowledge and support of the women's social network; and structural aspects are important influencing factors. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous...

  9. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocklehurst Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.

  10. Cooperation with Emerging Countries in Advanced Mining Training Programmes Involving an Industrial Partner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadeh, H., E-mail: Hossein.Ahmadzadeh@ema.fr [CESMAT, CESSEM, Alès (France); Petitclerc, J-L. [AREVA NC, Paris (France)

    2014-05-15

    After about 20 years at a low level of activity the global uranium mining industry has been enjoying a significant expansion since about 2003. However, it is apparent that the “quiet” period has led to a shortage of new staff coming into the industry, many middle ranking and skilled professionals have moved to other industries and many of the remaining staff is fast approaching retirement. Many organizations are looking at ways to address this situation as quickly and effectively as possible, including governments, industry and the IAEA. This paper describes one training programme that has been developed, and is currently being implemented, as a joint venture between the uranium mining company AREVA NC and the Centre for Advanced Studies of Mineral Resources, which is located at the School of Mines in Ales, France. (author)

  11. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D

    2016-09-22

    A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan). A conceptual framework for malaria elimination programme management was developed and data were extracted and synthesized. Findings were reviewed at a consultative workshop, which led to a revision of the framework and further data extraction and synthesis. Success factors of implementation, programme choices and changes, and enabling factors were distilled. Decentralized programmes enhanced engagement in malaria elimination by sub-national units and communities. Integration of the malaria programme into other health services was also common. Decentralization and integration were often challenging due to the skill and experience levels of newly tasked staff. Accountability for programme impact was not clarified for most programmes. Motivation of work force was a key factor in maintaining programme quality but there were few clear, detailed strategies provided. Different incentive schemes targeted various stakeholders. Training and supervision, although not well described, were prioritized by most programmes. Multi-sectoral collaboration helped some programmes share information, build strategies and interventions and achieve a higher quality of implementation. In most cases programme action was spurred by malaria outbreaks or a new elimination goal with strong leadership. Some programmes showed high capacity for flexibility through introduction of new strategies and tools. Several case-studies described methods for monitoring

  12. Financial requirements of immunisation programmes in developing countries: a 2004-2014 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peny, Jean-Michel; Gleizes, Olivier; Covilard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-08-31

    Vaccines are a key contributor to public health, especially in developing countries. Despite numerous demonstrations of the cost-effectiveness of immunisation, vaccines spending accounted for only 1.7% of the total pharmaceutical market in 2002, when UNICEF estimated that 34 million children were not reached by routine immunisation, most of them in developing countries. Several international organizations or initiatives, like the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI), have defined a long-term goal of universal immunisation in developing countries. There is an urgent need to estimate the financial resources required to meet this goal. The objective of this study was to anticipate the funding needs for childhood immunisation in developing countries over the 2004-2014 period. The study scope includes all the 75 countries eligible for support from GAVI, and covers existing vaccines that are considered as a priority for GAVI (DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis), hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b (as a stand alone presentation or in combination with DTP) and yellow fever) as well as future vaccines (meningitis A and C, rotavirus, human papilloma virus (HPV), malaria, Streptococcus pneumoniae and tuberculosis) likely to be available within the 10-year period. We developed a methodology to estimate the number of doses required, based on disease prevalence and incidence, target populations, introduction dates of new vaccines, coverage dynamics and dosing regimen. The introduction price and price evolution of vaccines over time were modelled, taking into account the type of vaccine, the expected return on investment from vaccine manufacturers and the competitive landscape. Non-vaccine costs (capital costs and non-vaccine recurrent costs) were estimated based on the number of people immunised and number of doses dispensed, using available case studies as a reference. According to the optimal scenario that would consider the provision of all vaccines

  13. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey

    2014-01-01

    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  14. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  15. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  16. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development has been suggested as a framework for integrating development and climate change policies in developing countries. Mainstreaming climate change into sustainable development policies would allow these countries to achieve their development goals while addressing climate...... change. A number of research programmes have investigated how potential synergies could be achieved at national level and what kind of trade-offs between the various aspects of sustainable development have to be faced. An overview of these studies is provided, focusing on national case studies....... The energy and transportation sectors are covered in many studies, but some attention is also given to the infrastructure sector and water supply. Most existing development policies will not lead to a sustainable development pattern, since they insufficiently address climate change. However, good...

  17. Infrastructure and Other Considerations to Launch Nuclear Power Programme: The Case of Sub-Sahara African Developing Countries like Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshesha, Atnatiwos Zeleke

    2011-01-01

    Trends in the world's population and energy use during the past decades show dramatic increases; and the demand for electricity, mainly from developing countries, is expected to increase more rapidly than the demand for other forms of energy. Besides, concern of climate change led to the need for production of significant amount of 'safe and clean' energy which in turn favours to nuclear option. Other alternative renewable sources like solar and wind can assist but currently they are short of supplying the required high energy demand either economically or/and in substantial amount. Nuclear option therefore remains a possible (developed) technology to fill this energy gap; and many countries including developing one show interest to make use of this energy source. In this paper the economic situations and energy production of six East Africa Sub-Saharan developing countries, with total population of 240 million were assessed, and 6.8% and 2.9% average GDP and population growth respectively registered in the last four years; however, their energy production in 2008 (est.) was 17.662 billion kWh, which is the least in the world. The contribution of inadequate energy and its poor coverage in hampering development, increase poverty and unstability were also analyzed. To come out of this cyclic challenge; it is recommended that countries based on regional economic cooperation should interconnect their electricity grid like EAPP and cooperate to invest commonly or unilaterally to launch Nuclear Power Programmes in relatively stable countries. Candid support of the international community is crucial, and IAEA should support and encourage such arrangements. It is also noted that the best candidate to start NP programme in these countries would be the worldwide dominant water cooled reactors. However, for countries with low grid capacity and to carry out projects in remote areas which are far-away from national grid systems or to desalinate water, considerations for smaller

  18. A training programme to build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries: findings from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lauren D; Barnoya, Joaquin; Gharzouzi, Eduardo N; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-04-01

    Guatemala is experiencing an increasing burden of cancer but lacks capacity for cancer prevention, control and research. In partnership with a medical school in the United States of America, a multidisciplinary Cancer Control Research Training Institute was developed at the Instituto de Cancerología (INCAN) in Guatemala City. This institute provided a year-long training programme for clinicians that focused on research methods in population health and sociocultural anthropology. The programme included didactic experiences in Guatemala and the United States as well as applied training in which participants developed research protocols responsive to Guatemala's cancer needs. Although INCAN is the point of referral and service for Guatemala's cancer patients, the institute's administration is also interested in increasing cancer research - with a focus on population health. INCAN is thus a resource for capacity building within the context of cancer prevention and control. Trainees increased their self-efficacy for the design and conduct of research. Value-added benefits included establishment of an annual cancer seminar and workshops in cancer pathology and qualitative analysis. INCAN has recently incorporated some of the programme's components into its residency training and established a research department. A training programme for clinicians can build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Training in population-based research methods will enable countries such as Guatemala to gather country-specific data. Once collected, such data can be used to assess the burden of cancer-related disease, guide policy for reducing it and identify priority areas for cancer prevention and treatment.

  19. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-02

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner.

  20. Effectiveness of a regional self-study perinatal education programme: a successful adaptation in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, Lorenzo R; Campos, Miriam C; Cook, Lynn J; Vela, Gabriela R; Dávila, Jorge R

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Perinatal Continuing Education Programme (PCEP) in a Latin American country. We carried out a study within secondary and tertiary care, and rural Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula. Participants were doctors, nurses and nursing assistants working with pregnant women and newborns at each hospital. The PCEP was translated into Spanish and then implemented between January 1998 and December 2001. Two nurses at each hospital were trained to co-ordinate the programme and the personnel were invited to participate. Participation involved purchasing the self-teaching books, study outside work hours and participation in skills demonstration and practice sessions. Evaluation included the percentage of personnel who participated in and those who completed the programme, an opinion survey of the programme, level of pre- and post-intervention knowledge, and the quality of neonatal care according to expert-recommended routines. Results were analysed with chi-square and Student's t-tests. A total of 65.3% of the 1421 people in the study population began the programme and 72% of those completed it. Improvement was observed in 14 of 23 (Pevaluated neonatal care practices. Participants rated the written material as very clear and useful in daily practice. The PCEP is an effective strategy for improving the level of knowledge and perinatal care in all regional hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. This initial application of the PCEP in a Spanish-speaking country was successful.

  1. Productivity studies of the nuclear waste programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Haakan

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate reviews and supplements the SKB proposal for cost estimations for the nuclear waste programme. These estimations are of great importance for the determination of annual fees to the Nuclear Waste Fund and guarantee amounts in accordance with the Financing Act. The majority of the Nuclear Waste Fund's assets are invested in real interest bonds, issued by the Swedish state. The average duration for the Nuclear Waste Fund investments was 12.8 years at the end of December 2001. From July 1, 2002 on the Nuclear waste Fund investments will consist of nominal and real bonds on the official market. The Fund is increased in line with the Consumer Price Index (KPI). If real costs within the nuclear waste programme increase at a faster rate than the KPI, there is a risk that the Nuclear Waste Fund will be 'under balanced'. SKI has developed a weighted index, the KBS-3-index, to compare the SKB cost re-estimate with. Productivity changes have however no impact on these indices. The KBS-3-index indicates that there might be a risk that the de facto, cost increases will exceed KPI. An improved productivity might however balance the cost escalations. Productivity is normally defined as production divided by the input of production factors. The production can be a quantity measurement or the value added. A common approach is calculation of the labour productivity. The productivity development within different industries in Sweden and in EU varies, and is not only positive. The so called DEA method is used for productivity and efficiency measurements in public and private operations. Efficiency evaluations based on known norms are not made with the DEA models. Instead the evaluation is performed in relation to an empirically based reference technology, a relative efficiency. A selection or an optimisation of output is difficult for the nuclear waste programme. It is not possible to change parts of the nuclear waste programme to something else

  2. Assessing the efficacy of a modified assertive community-based treatment programme in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botha Ulla A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recently published randomized controlled trials conducted in developed countries have reported no advantage for assertive interventions over standard care models. One possible explanation could be that so-called "standard care" has become more comprehensive in recent years, incorporating some of the salient aspects of assertive models in its modus operandi. Our study represents the first randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a modified assertive treatment service on readmission rates and other measures of outcome in a developing country. Methods High frequency service users were randomized into an intervention (n = 34 and a control (n = 26 group. The control group received standard community care and the active group an assertive intervention based on a modified version of the international model of assertive community treatment. Study visits were conducted at baseline and 12 months with demographic and illness information collected at visit 1 and readmission rates documented at study end. Symptomatology and functioning were measured at both visits using the PANSS, CDSS, ESRS, WHO-QOL and SOFAS. Results At 12 month follow-up subjects receiving the assertive intervention had significantly lower total PANSS (p = 0.02 as well as positive (p Conclusions Our results indicate that assertive interventions in a developing setting where standard community mental services are often under resourced can produce significant outcomes. Furthermore, these interventions need not be as expensive and comprehensive as international, first-world models in order to reduce inpatient days, improve psychopathology and overall levels of functioning in patients with severe mental illness.

  3. Fisheries credit programmes and revolving loan funds: case studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietze, U; Merrikin, P

    1992-01-01

    ... programmes and revolving loan funds. In order to gain more information in this vital area, the Fishery Industries Division of FAO initiated a series of case studies in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean...

  4. The validity and reliability of the cross-national comparison of degree programme levels in European countries : What have students learnt?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2017-01-01

    A cross-national comparison of degree programme levels became relevant when the borders of European countries opened for students and graduates, and higher education institutions were restructured into bachelor’s and master’s programmes. This new situation foregrounded the questions of what students

  5. Programme of studies. Vol. 3: Energy. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains the reports on studies carried out by different institutions. Their titles are: 1. Overall economic impact of strategies for cutting down emissions, 2. Analysis of obstacles to, and steps towards, the realization of CO 2 emission reduction targets, 3. Future regulatory framework, especially for line-transmitted energy, in support of climate protection targets, 4. Conceptual study for a further-education and market introduction programme ''Efficient and economical use of electricity'', 5. Perspectives and consequences of the completion of the internal European market, especially the stepwise establishment of a European power market, and of international conventions (in particular with a view to climate protection) for a policy aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 6. Concept for, and valuation of, economic relations with developing countries, the Commonwealth of independent states (CIS), and eastern Europe with the aim of cutting down greenhouse gases, as well as population projections for united Germany to the year 2100 - with special regard to migrations. (orig.) [de

  6. Presence, characteristics and equity of access to breast cancer screening programmes in 27 European countries in 2010 and 2014. Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deandrea, S; Molina-Barceló, A; Uluturk, A; Moreno, J; Neamtiu, L; Peiró-Pérez, R; Saz-Parkinson, Z; Lopez-Alcalde, J; Lerda, D; Salas, D

    2016-10-01

    The European Union Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening suggests the implementation of organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on mammography every other year for women aged 50 to 69years, ensuring equal access to screening, taking into account potential needs for targeting particular socioeconomic groups. A European survey on coverage and participation, and key organisational and policy characteristics of the programmes, targeting years 2010 and 2014, was undertaken in 2014. Overall, 27 countries contributed to this survey, 26 of the 28 European Union member states (92.9%) plus Norway. In 2014, 25 countries reported an ongoing population-based programme, one country reported a pilot programme and another was planning a pilot. In eight countries, the target age range was broader than that proposed by the Council Recommendation, and in three countries the full range was not covered. Fifteen countries reported not reaching some vulnerable populations, such as immigrants, prisoners and people without health insurance, while 22 reported that participation was periodically monitored by socioeconomic variables (e.g. age and territory). Organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on routine mammograms are in place in most EU member states. However, there are still differences in the way screening programmes are implemented, and participation by vulnerable populations should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing countries: Proposals for a programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1981-11-01

    Cancer of the uterus is one of the most common forms of cancer in developing countries. It may be successfully treated or favourably influenced by intracavitary treatment. For this therapy there are commercially available systems. Three levels of complexity (according to the equipment of the hospital) are recommended for the application of this procedure in the developing countries and the procedure for its introduction is suggested

  8. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  9. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    carry a selendang, a long stretch of cloth draped over the shoulder, which on less formal occasions was used to carry babies or objects. Urban...vols.) (The Asia Society.) New York: Scribner’s, 1988. 419 Indonesia: A Country Study Foss, Christopher F. (ed.). Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 1991-92

  10. Archives Educational Programs in Librarianship Schools : A Compression Study Between Algeria and Some Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheba Gheriamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the training of archivists in Algeria, specially of the origin and aims of archival studies programme in librarianship institute at the university of Algiers and comparing its experience with some Arabic contries like Egypt,Tunisia and Arabic Golf countries.

  11. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  12. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Gina

    1998-01-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  13. QUALITY OF AN ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMME - EVALUATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Macur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of an academic study programme is evaluated by many: employees (internal evaluation and by external evaluators: experts, agencies and organisations. Internal and external evaluation of an academic programme follow written structure that resembles on one of the quality models. We believe the quality models (mostly derived from EFQM excellence model don’t fit very well into non-profit activities, policies and programmes, because they are much more complex than environment, from which quality models derive from (for example assembly line. Quality of an academic study programme is very complex and understood differently by various stakeholders, so we present dimensional evaluation in the article. Dimensional evaluation, as opposed to component and holistic evaluation, is a form of analytical evaluation in which the quality of value of the evaluand is determined by looking at its performance on multiple dimensions of merit or evaluation criteria. First stakeholders of a study programme and their views, expectations and interests are presented, followed by evaluation criteria. They are both joined into the evaluation model revealing which evaluation criteria can and should be evaluated by which stakeholder. Main research questions are posed and research method for each dimension listed.

  14. Pre-entry screening programmes for tuberculosis in migrants to low-incidence countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Yates, Tom A; Zenner, Dominik; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    Several high-income countries have pre-entry screening programmes for tuberculosis. We aimed to establish the yield of pre-entry screening programmes to inform evidence-based policy for migrant health screening. We searched six bibliographic databases for experimental or observational studies and systematic reviews, which reported data on migrant screening for active or latent tuberculosis by any method before migration to a low-incidence country. Primary outcomes were principal reported screening yield of active tuberculosis, yield of culture-confirmed cases, and yield of sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli cases. Where appropriate, fixed-effects models were used to summarise the yield of pre-entry screening across included studies. We identified 15 unique studies with data for 3 739 266 migrants screened pre-entry for tuberculosis between 1982 and 2010. Heterogeneity was high for all primary outcomes. After stratification by prevalence in country of origin, heterogeneity was reduced for culture-confirmed and smear-confirmed cases. Yield of culture-confirmed cases increased with prevalence in the country of origin, and summary estimates ranged from 19·7 (95% CI 10·3-31·5) cases identified per 100 000 individuals screened in countries with a prevalence of 50-149 cases per 100 000 population to 335·9 (283·0-393·2) per 100 000 in countries with a prevalence of greater than 350 per 100 000 population. Targeting high-prevalence countries could result in the highest yield for active disease. Pre-entry screening should be considered as part of a broad package of measures to ensure early diagnosis and effective management of migrants with active tuberculosis, and be integrated with initiatives that address the health needs of migrants. Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research, Medical Research Council, Public Health England. Copyright © 2014 Aldridge et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier

  15. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja K. Schachner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001 and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000, we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’ acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland, those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal, and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia. In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students’ ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  16. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K; He, Jia; Heizmann, Boris; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants' acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement) through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland), those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal), and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia). In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students' ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  17. Developing the necessary infrastructure. Chapter 1; IAEA activities in support of countries considering embarking on Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira, O.

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA supports in a variety of ways in establishing an appropriate infra-structure necessary to secure safe and reliable operation and still maintaining the international safeguards regime, especially in developing countries which are considering introduction of nuclear power programme. The TC projects to support introduction of nuclear power has been formulated and its number increased significantly recently. Various guidance documents have been published by the IAEA recently to enable progressive development of national infrastructure. The IAEA guidance documents constitute a basis of advises to newcomer countries. The recently formulated important mission is INIR mission to review the status of national infrastructure in the context of measuring the distance to the expected milestone. Finally, it is expected that the newcomers would make informed decision-making on going to nuclear power by fully understanding the necessary obligations and national long-term commitment, by confirming viability of nuclear power options in the country's energy plan through Energy Planning and long-term strategic assessment using IAEA guidance and tools

  18. Online Delivery of Programmes: A case study of IGNOU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Online education is the most exciting segment in the Indian IT space. A host of e-education sites continue to enter the market with focused offerings, linking up students and teachers, almost on a daily basis. This is happening because the new medium seeks to supplement – not replace – traditional teaching-learning methodologies. Keeping in view the global and in country/domestic market changes, India has to play a vital role in terms of software exports, skilled manpower support, and online education. With India currently in the midst of a "dotcom" wave, Indira Ghandi National Open University (IGNOU has taken the initiative in launching online in January 2000 two of its educational computer programmes. In July 2000 it launched twenty capsule courses (each comprising three courses in different specialization areas of management [http://www.ignou.com/index.htm]. Each of these capsules addresses one specific functional or specialization area, one basic course pertaining to that specialization and a project course. The Bachelor of Information Technology and Advanced Diploma in Information Technology programmes are offered through a Virtual Campus Initiative (VCI. Management Programme capsule courses are offered through Project MEIDS (Management Education through Interactive Delivery Systems.

  19. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  20. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the Philippines’ own claim to Sabah, the territory in northeastern Bor- neo that had become a Malaysian state in 1963. Marcos and the Road to Martial...north, was on the risc 50 Historical Setting In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was or- ganized on Malaysian soil. The MNLF conducted an...particularly so where the 7enter was itself a full-scale 91 Philippines: A Country Study town, complete with restaurants, cinemas , banks, specialty

  1. Area Handbook Series. Albania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    inadequa prenal cue, tbe proportion of preature births increse •d from 7 to 11 perent between 197 amd early 1992. Hospits lacked es- sen"h mecidmund erp...were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also 151 Albania: A Country Study imported... entrepreneurs from the reta marketplace. At first, peasants began setting up road- side fruit and vegetables stands or carrying their produce to mar- kets in

  2. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    kid- napping of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann from Argentina. Another kidnapping, in 1986, brought to Israel for prosecution the nuclear...penalty could be imposed for treason or for conviction for Nazi war crimes but, as of 1988, 331 Israel: A Country Study Eichmann was the only person to be...See land ownership Eichmann , Adolph, 331-32 extensive threat concept, 267-68 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 58 Ezekiel, 11 Eisenstadt, S. N., 83 Ezra, II

  3. Integration of antenatal care services with health programmes in low– and middle– income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyra E de Jongh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC presents a potentially valuable platform for integrated delivery of additional health services for pregnant women–services that are vital to reduce the persistently high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs. However, there is limited evidence on the impact of integrating health services with ANC to guide policy. This review assesses the impact of integration of postnatal and other health services with ANC on health services uptake and utilisation, health outcomes and user experience of care in LMICs.

  4. Strengthening capacity to research the social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the INTREC programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Nicholas; Mirny, Anna; Haafkens, Joke A; Ramroth, Heribert; Padmawati, Siwi; Bangha, Martin; Berkman, Lisa; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Blomstedt, Yulia; Becher, Heiko; Sankoh, Osman; Byass, Peter; Kinsman, John

    2017-05-25

    The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students' motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54%) completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy briefs. The INTREC programme has trained a

  5. Strengthening capacity to research the social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the INTREC programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Henschke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1 an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2 a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3 a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Methods Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students’ motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Results Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54% completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy

  6. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  7. National economic development programmes and GHG mitigation strategies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokona, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, it is being acknowledged there that there is no need for more scientific evidence about the deleterious effects of anthropogenic emissions before taking action. Moreover, there is no longer any doubt that any perspective for the mitigation or stabilization of these gases can only be envisaged from a global approach. The most privileged nations, just as the least favoured nations, find themselves faced with a specific emergency period of immeasurable limits. In other words, this phenomenon can result in irreversible consequences or incur such high costs in being resolved that we must not wait before taking precautionary measures on a collective scale. When presented as such, this environmental issue is far too limited to its 'direct effects' which, for most Third World countries, are only a small part of a much larger problem, and a crucial aspect is the relationship between environment and development. The Third World countries, and particularly those of sub-Saharan Africa, confronted with an endemic crisis, might be tempted to treat their problems linked to anthropic emissions by paralipsis. But this could hardly be held against them, for they are assailed by a number of concurrent problems of proportions until now unheard of on our planet. However, it is not preposterous to think that sustained reflection on the planet's environmental problems such as greenhouse gas emissions could enhance their capacity to solve their own problems. Provided, however, that they have real power in decision-making and in taking action. (au)

  8. Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Results and future programme of HTR's study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursid Djokolelono; Soedyartomo Soentono

    1990-01-01

    Study on the application of HTRs for the enhanced oil recovery in the Duri oil field (Sumatra, Indonesia) was performed in 1986/1987. The economic and technological advantages over crude burning option were identified. Crude oil prices, HTR capital costs, discount rates and company's income structure represented dominant parameters. Further sensitivity calculations on important economic parameters were obtained to reflect the condition of 1988. This nuclear option was also incorporated in the energy planning study for the whole of Indonesia using the MARKAL model, and resulted in the conditions of its applicability. The scenarios chosen in this MARKAL study were high and low GDP growth rate, whereas the criteria chosen were the minimum cost with and without a predetermined policy of reduced domestic use of oil. In the high scenario the HTRs as well as the natural gas options could not compete against the low cost boilers with crude-oil fuel. But in the case of reduced domestic oil use the HTRs came out to supplement the crudeburning boilers starting in the sixth five year plan (1994-999), even earlier than the natural gas option. The authors further discuss the industrial environment, in relation to the regional development, the possible local participation, as well as the plan to materialize the merits of this novel application. (author)

  10. Results and future programme of HTR's study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djokolelono, Mursid; Soentono, Soedyartomo [National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    1990-07-01

    Study on the application of HTRs for the enhanced oil recovery in the Duri oil field (Sumatra, Indonesia) was performed in 1986/1987. The economic and technological advantages over crude burning option were identified. Crude oil prices, HTR capital costs, discount rates and company's income structure represented dominant parameters. Further sensitivity calculations on important economic parameters were obtained to reflect the condition of 1988. This nuclear option was also incorporated in the energy planning study for the whole of Indonesia using the MARKAL model, and resulted in the conditions of its applicability. The scenarios chosen in this MARKAL study were high and low GDP growth rate, whereas the criteria chosen were the minimum cost with and without a predetermined policy of reduced domestic use of oil. In the high scenario the HTRs as well as the natural gas options could not compete against the low cost boilers with crude-oil fuel. But in the case of reduced domestic oil use the HTRs came out to supplement the crudeburning boilers starting in the sixth five year plan (1994-999), even earlier than the natural gas option. The authors further discuss the industrial environment, in relation to the regional development, the possible local participation, as well as the plan to materialize the merits of this novel application. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the Start Programme: Case-Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Shona; Sharp, Caroline; Weaving, Harriet; Smith, Robert; Wheater, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report presents five case studies of long-term partnerships (over three years) between arts organisations and schools. The Start programme enables arts venues and schools to work together to offer disadvantaged young people opportunities to engage in creative activities that inspire them and enhance their experience of the arts. It is…

  12. Drop-out from parenting training programmes: a retrospective study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:Parent training programmes are a well-established treatment approach for children and adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. However, dropout from treatment is a common problem that confounds research on the efficacy of this approach, and wastes important mental health resources. This study ...

  13. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J [Biomass Users Network-Brazil Regional Office, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author`s knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author) 115 refs, figs, tabs

  14. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  15. Indonesia. Adolescent reproductive health forms part of 5th country programme cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia is now entering the Fifth Country Program Cycle of Population. The reproductive health and family well-being of the youth forms part of the country program. In order to translate this component into concrete action program, a project document in its first draft was developed for UNFPA (UN Population Fund) funding by the government and with the assistance of UNFPA CST, Bangkok and UNFPA Field Office in Jakarta. The project aims to raise the level of commitment and degree of participation of families, particularly parents, for developing among their pre-adolescent and adolescent children a better understanding of the concepts/process of adolescent reproductive health and desirable attitudes and values dealing with family well-being. This is to be achieved through family-centered learning approaches that will contribute to the adoption of the small, happy, and prosperous family norm. To achieve this goal, the project will develop national capacity by creating management teams, developing sets of training and counseling materials, delivering key messages through the media, upgrading skills in adolescent counseling and developing better understanding of adolescent reproductive health and family well-being issues among the facilitators. The strategy to be used is to set up small groups of 20-30 families which will regularly meet to discuss adolescent problems and issues with the help of cadres. They will be supported by provincial reproductive health and family well-being counseling centers which will also be set up to handle serious cases difficult for parents to handle. These centers, to be run by NGOs, will provide counseling services to parents and youth, evolve innovative and culturally acceptable counseling techniques, and at the same time serve as material and information collection, development and dissemination centers. The project will be launched in collaboration with seven NGOs in seven selected provinces. It is currently under review by UNFPA and

  16. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  17. Labelled compounds for agrochemical residue studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential applications of stable and radioactive isotopic tracers for assessing undesirable contaminants in agriculture, fisheries and food are discussed as related to developing countries. Sources and types of residues are considered, and their local implications; also, the availability of suitably labelled compounds, including possible international cooperation to facilitate more centralized and economic preparation, and the distribution of labelled intermediates and compounds for use by local scientists. The provision of training courses and their syllabus are reviewed. Experience in the Joint FAO/IAEA chemical residue and pollution programme has indicated a need for longer-lived radioisotopically labelled pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, fumigants, etc.) for studying their behaviour. 15 N-, 13 C- or 2 H-labelled fertilizers and fertilizer additives such as nitrification inhibitors will shortly be needed, for studying the behaviour of fertilizer nitrogen residues, and their regulation and conservation, under conditions prevailing in the developing countries. Compounds labelled with stable isotopes are considered particularly valuable under field conditions. The report reviews the present situation and presents specific recommendations to the Directors General of FAO and IAEA

  18. International Programme for Resource Use in Critical Care (IPOC)--a methodology and initial results of cost and provision in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, D; Sheppard, L; Mills, G H; Jacobs, P; Rapoport, J; Bourne, R S; Guidet, B; Csomos, A; Prien, T; Anderson, G; Edbrooke, D L

    2006-01-01

    A standardized top-down costing method is not currently available internationally. An internally validated method developed in the UK was modified for use in critical care in different countries. Costs could then be compared using the World Health Organization's Purchasing Power Parities (WHO PPPs). This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentre study set in four European countries: France, UK, Germany and Hungary. A total of 329 adult intensive care units (ICUs) participated in the study. The costs are reported in international dollars ($) derived from the WHO PPP programme. The results show significant differences in resource use and costs of ICUs over the four countries. On the basis of the sum of the means for the major components, the average cost per patient day in UK hospitals was $1512, in French hospitals $934, in German hospitals $726 and in Hungarian hospitals $280. The reasons for such differences are poorly understood but warrant further investigation. This information will allow us to better adjust our measures of international ICU costs.

  19. HTA programme response to the challenges of dealing with orphan medicinal products: Process evaluation in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicod, Elena; Annemans, Lieven; Bucsics, Anna; Lee, Anne; Upadhyaya, Sheela; Facey, Karen

    2017-03-28

    Challenges commonly encountered in HTA of orphan medicinal products (OMPs) were identified in Advance-HTA. Since then, new initiatives have been developed to specifically address issues related to HTA of OMPs. This study aimed to understand why these new HTA initiatives in England, Scotland and at European-level were established and whether they resolve the challenges of OMPs. The work of Advance-HTA was updated with a literature review and a conceptual framework of clinical, regulatory and economic challenges for OMPs was developed. The new HTA programmes were critiqued against the conceptual framework and outstanding challenges identified. The new programmes in England and Scotland recognise the challenges identified in demonstrating the value of ultra-OMPs (and OMPs) and that they require a different process to standard HTA approaches. Wider considerations of disease and treatment experiences from a multi-stakeholder standpoint are needed, combined with other measures to deal with uncertainty (e.g. managed entry agreements). While approaches to assessing this new view of value of OMPs, extending beyond cost/QALY frameworks, differ, their criteria are similar. These are complemented by a European initiative that fosters multi-stakeholder dialogue and consensus about value determinants throughout the life-cycle of an OMP. New HTA programmes specific to OMPs have been developed but questions remain about whether they sufficiently capture value and manage uncertainty in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Benjamin; Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B

    2006-04-24

    National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes--printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity--accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities had a surprisingly negative relationship. All equations had

  1. Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans David B

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National and international policy makers have been increasing their focus on developing strategies to enable poor countries achieve the millennium development goals. This requires information on the costs of different types of health interventions and the resources needed to scale them up, either singly or in combinations. Cost data also guides decisions about the most appropriate mix of interventions in different settings, in view of the increasing, but still limited, resources available to improve health. Many cost and cost-effectiveness studies include only the costs incurred at the point of delivery to beneficiaries, omitting those incurred at other levels of the system such as administration, media, training and overall management. The few studies that have measured them directly suggest that they can sometimes account for a substantial proportion of total costs, so that their omission can result in biased estimates of the resources needed to run a programme or the relative cost-effectiveness of different choices. However, prices of different inputs used in the production of health interventions can vary substantially within a country. Basing cost estimates on a single price observation runs the risk that the results are based on an outlier observation rather than the typical costs of the input. Methods We first explore the determinants of the observed variation in the prices of selected "non-traded" intermediate inputs to health programmes – printed matter and media advertising, and water and electricity – accounting for variation within and across countries. We then use the estimated relationship to impute average prices for countries where limited data are available with uncertainty intervals. Results Prices vary across countries with GDP per capita and a number of determinants of supply and demand. Media and printing were inelastic with respect to GDP per capita, with a positive correlation, while the utilities

  2. Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Lampi, Elina; Loefgren, Aasa; Ping Qin; Chung, Susie; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen's willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statements, when compared to the Chinese and Swedes. A larger share of Americans is also pessimistic and believes that nothing can be done to stop climate change. We also find that Sweden has the highest WTP for reductions of CO{sub 2}, while China has the lowest. Thus, even though the Swedes and Chinese are similar to each other in their attitudes toward climate change, they differ considerably in their WTP. When WTP is measured as a share of household income, the willingness to pay is the same for Americans and Chinese, while again higher for the Swedes

  3. Barriers and facilitators for implementing programmes and services to address hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in low and middle income countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Kapur, Anil

    2018-04-21

    An estimated 87.6% of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy cases are in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study is to review the evidence on barriers and facilitators to programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted based on searches in PubMed. A total of 23 qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Barriers and facilitators exist at the health system level, individual level and social and societal levels and are often interacting. At the health system level they relate to capacity in terms of human and material resources; availability of feasible and appropriate guidelines; organisational management and referral pathways. Individual level barriers and facilitators include knowledge; risk perception; illness beliefs; financial condition; work obligations; concerns for the baby and hardship associated with services. At the social and societal level important factors are: perceptions and norms related to women's roles, mobility and health; the knowledge and support of women's social network; and structural aspects. Numerous factors influence programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. Thus, several components are needed to ensure detection, treatment and follow-up of women with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Population-based cancer screening programmes in low-income and middle-income countries: regional consultation of the International Cancer Screening Network in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaram, Sudha; Majumdar, Gautam; Perin, Douglas; Nessa, Ashrafun; Broeders, Mireille; Lynge, Elsebeth; Saraiya, Mona; Segnan, Nereo; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Rajaraman, Preetha; Trimble, Edward; Taplin, Stephen; Rath, G K; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    The reductions in cancer morbidity and mortality afforded by population-based cancer screening programmes have led many low-income and middle-income countries to consider the implementation of national screening programmes in the public sector. Screening at the population level, when planned and organised, can greatly benefit the population, whilst disorganised screening can increase costs and reduce benefits. The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) was created to share lessons, experience, and evidence regarding cancer screening in countries with organised screening programmes. Organised screening programmes provide screening to an identifiable target population and use multidisciplinary delivery teams, coordinated clinical oversight committees, and regular review by a multidisciplinary evaluation board to maximise benefit to the target population. In this Series paper, we report outcomes of the first regional consultation of the ICSN held in Agartala, India (Sept 5-7, 2016), which included discussions from cancer screening programmes from Denmark, the Netherlands, USA, and Bangladesh. We outline six essential elements of population-based cancer screening programmes, and share recommendations from the meeting that policy makers might want to consider before implementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  6. The National Singing Programme for Primary Schools in England: An Initial Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…

  7. The Determinants of International Student Mobility Flows: An Empirical Study on the Erasmus Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Carlos; Bustillo Mesanza, Ricardo; Mariel, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The Erasmus Programme for higher education students is supposed to play an important socio-economic role within Europe. Erasmus student mobility flows have reached a relevant level of two million since 1987, boosted in recent years by the enlargement of the programme to eastern countries. Thereafter, it seems that flows have staggered. In this…

  8. The role of early childhood education programmes in the promotion of child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen

    2014-04-01

    There is growing evidence that early childhood education (ECE) interventions can reduce the loss of developmental potential of disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). Less attention has been paid to the potential of these programmes to prevent child mental health problems and promote child well-being. Peer-reviewed journal articles describing controlled evaluations of ECE interventions in LAMIC were reviewed to identify studies with child mental health outcomes. Studies with proximal outcomes for child mental health including caregiver practices and caregiver mental health were also reviewed. Of 63 studies identified, 21 (33.33%) included child mental health outcomes; 12 of 16 studies with short-term measures showed benefits; 6 studies included a longer-term follow-up and all found benefits; 25 studies included caregiver outcomes: consistent benefits were found for caregiver practices (21 studies) and 6 of 9 studies that measured caregiver mental health reported benefits. Gains to child mental health may be most likely when ECE interventions include three main elements: (i) activities to increase child skills including cognition, language, self-regulation and social-emotional competence; (ii) training caregivers in the skills required to provide a cognitively stimulating and emotionally supportive environment; and (iii) attention to the caregivers' mental health, motivation and self-efficacy. Recommendations for the design and implementation of programmes are provided. ECE interventions are an important component of mental health prevention and promotion in LAMIC, and promoting child and caregiver well-being is a fundamental aspect of interventions to improve child development.

  9. The impact of a faculty development programme for health professions educators in sub-Saharan Africa: an archival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, José M; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Burch, Vanessa C; Mthembu, Sindi; Rowe, Michael; Tan, Christina; Van Wyk, Jacqueline; Van Heerden, Ben

    2015-03-03

    In 2008 the sub-Saharan FAIMER Regional Institute launched a faculty development programme aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of health professions educators working in sub-Saharan Africa. This two-year programme, a combination of residential and distance learning activities, focuses on developing the leadership, project management and programme evaluation skills of participants as well as teaching the key principles of health professions education-curriculum design, teaching and learning and assessment. Participants also gain first-hand research experience by designing and conducting an education innovation project in their home institutions. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of participants regarding the personal and professional impact of the SAFRI programme. A retrospective document review, which included data about fellows who completed the programme between 2008 and 2011, was performed. Data included fellows' descriptions of their expectations, reflections on achievements and information shared on an online discussion forum. Data were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework. Participants (n=61) came from 10 African countries and included a wide range of health professions educators. Five key themes about the impact of the SAFRI programme were identified: (1) belonging to a community of practice, (2) personal development, (3) professional development, (4) capacity development, and (5) tools/strategies for project management and/or advancement. The SAFRI programme has a positive developmental impact on both participants and their respective institutions.

  10. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes population programs in Afghanistan (nonformal, population education literacy program), India (problems in planning/managing population education in higher education), Indonesia (training for secondary/out-of-school inspectors), and Pakistan (integration of population education into school curricula). Programs in China, Korea, Vietnam,…

  11. Violence as a public health problem: an ecological study of 169 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Achim; Gray, Ron; Fazel, Seena

    2014-03-01

    Individual level risk factors for violence have been widely studied, but little is known about country-level determinants, particularly in low and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that income inequality, through its detrimental effects on social cohesion, would be related to an increase in violence worldwide, and in low and middle-income countries in particular. We examined country-level associations of violence with socio-economic and health-related factors, using crime statistics from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and indicators from the Human Development Report published by the United Nations Development Programme. Using regression models, we measured relationships between country-level factors (age, education, measures of income, health expenditure, and alcohol consumption) and four violent outcomes (including measures of violence-related mortality and morbidity) in up to 169 countries. We stratified our analyses comparing high with low and middle-income countries, and analysed longitudinal data on homicide and income inequality in high-income countries. In low and middle-income countries, income inequality was related to homicide, robbery, and self-reported assault (all p's public policy interventions reducing alcohol consumption may contribute to reducing violence rates. Our main finding was that income inequality was related to violence in low and middle-income countries. Public health should advocate for global action to moderate income inequality to reduce the global health burden of violence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Human-centred automation programme: review of experiment related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle; Skjerve, Ann Britt Miberg

    2000-04-01

    Twenty-three empirical studies concerning automation and performance have been reviewed. The purposes of the review are to support experimental studies in the Human-Centred Automation (HCA) programme and to develop a general theory on HCA. Each study was reviewed with regard to twelve study characteristics: domain, type of study, purpose, definition of automation, variables, theoretical basis, models of operator performance, methods applied, experimental design, outcome, stated scope of results, strengths and limitations. Seven of the studies involved domain experts, the rest used students as participants. The majority of the articles originated from the aviation domain: only the study conducted in HAMMLAB considered process control in power plants. In the experimental studies, the independent variable was level of automation, or reliability of automation, while the most common dependent variables were workload, situation awareness, complacency, trust, and criteria of performance, e.g., number of correct responses or response time. Although the studies highlight important aspects of human-automation interaction, it is still unclear how system performance is affected. Nevertheless, the fact that many factors seem to be involved is taken as support for the system-oriented approach of the HCA programme. In conclusion, the review provides valuable input both to the design of experiments and to the development of a general theory. (Author). refs

  13. The provision of accredited higher education on dementia in six European countries: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Jack-Waugh, Anna; Tolson, Debbie; Hellström, Amanda; de Abreu, Wilson; Pesjak, Katja

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization has identified developing the knowledge and skills of healthcare professionals who are involved in dementia care as a priority. Most healthcare professionals lack the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding to provide high quality dementia care. While dementia education amongst most UK university health and social care programmes is inconsistent, we know little about the provision of dementia education in European universities. To examine the provision of accredited higher education on dementia in European countries, to illustrate that it is highly variable despite universities being the major provider of education for healthcare professionals internationally. An exploratory research design was used. The providers of higher education undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the Czech Republic, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. Higher Education Institutions who provide undergraduate and postgraduate education in the fields of nursing, medicine, psychology, social work, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and gerontology in six European countries. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Researchers in each country conducted an internet-based search using the websites of Higher Education Institutions to identify existing accredited dementia education. These searches revealed a lack of dementia education in undergraduate health and social care study programmes. Three of the six countries offered postgraduate study programmes on dementia. There was a significant variation amongst the countries in relation to the provision of dementia education at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral levels. Dementia is a global challenge and educating and upskilling the workforce is a policy imperative. To deliver the best dementia care, investment in interprofessional evidence-based education is required if we are to respond effectively and compassionately to the needs of people living with dementia and their

  14. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  15. Tracking the career development of scientists in low- and middle-income countries trained through TDR's research capacity strengthening programmes: Learning from monitoring and impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpaap, Béatrice; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Certain, Edith; Alvarado, Tini; Saint Martin, Caroline; Merle, Corinne; Mihut, Michael; Launois, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank and WHO has been supporting research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for over 40 years. In order to assess and continuously optimize its capacity strengthening approaches, an evaluation of the influence of TDR training grants on research career development was undertaken. The assessment was part of a larger evaluation conducted by the European Science Foundation. A comprehensive survey questionnaire was developed and sent to a group of 117 trainees supported by TDR who had completed their degree (masters or PhD) between 2000 and 2012; of these, seventy seven (77) responded. Most of the respondents (80%) rated TDR support as a very important factor that influenced their professional career achievements. The "brain drain" phenomenon towards high-income countries was particularly low amongst TDR grantees: the rate of return to their region of origin upon completion of their degree was 96%. A vast majority of respondents are still working in research (89%), with 81% of respondents having participated in multidisciplinary research activities; women engaged in multidisciplinary collaboration to a higher extent than men. However, only a minority of all have engaged in intersectoral collaboration, an aspect that would require further study. The post-degree career choices made by the respondents were strongly influenced by academic considerations. At the time of the survey, 92% of all respondents hold full-time positions, mainly in the public sector. Almost 25% of the respondents reported that they had influenced policy and practice changes. Some of the challenges and opportunities faced by trainees at various stages of their research career have been identified. Modalities to overcome these will require further investigation. The survey evidenced how TDR's research capacity grant programmes made a difference on researchers' career

  16. Tracking the career development of scientists in low- and middle-income countries trained through TDR's research capacity strengthening programmes: Learning from monitoring and impact evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Halpaap

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank and WHO has been supporting research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for over 40 years. In order to assess and continuously optimize its capacity strengthening approaches, an evaluation of the influence of TDR training grants on research career development was undertaken. The assessment was part of a larger evaluation conducted by the European Science Foundation. A comprehensive survey questionnaire was developed and sent to a group of 117 trainees supported by TDR who had completed their degree (masters or PhD between 2000 and 2012; of these, seventy seven (77 responded. Most of the respondents (80% rated TDR support as a very important factor that influenced their professional career achievements. The "brain drain" phenomenon towards high-income countries was particularly low amongst TDR grantees: the rate of return to their region of origin upon completion of their degree was 96%. A vast majority of respondents are still working in research (89%, with 81% of respondents having participated in multidisciplinary research activities; women engaged in multidisciplinary collaboration to a higher extent than men. However, only a minority of all have engaged in intersectoral collaboration, an aspect that would require further study. The post-degree career choices made by the respondents were strongly influenced by academic considerations. At the time of the survey, 92% of all respondents hold full-time positions, mainly in the public sector. Almost 25% of the respondents reported that they had influenced policy and practice changes. Some of the challenges and opportunities faced by trainees at various stages of their research career have been identified. Modalities to overcome these will require further investigation. The survey evidenced how TDR's research capacity grant programmes made a difference on

  17. WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide: a systematic review of evidence from low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne C; Dua, Tarun; Barbui, Corrado; Thornicroft, Graham

    2018-02-01

    Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries. This review aimed to identify evidence to date for mhGAP-IG implementation in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO/Web of Science, Cochrane, Pubmed databases and Google Scholar for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of mhGAP-IG in LMICs, in any language. Data were extracted from included papers, but heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of evidence to date, of mhGAP-IG implementation and evaluation in LMICs. Thirty-three included studies reported 15 training courses, 9 clinical implementations, 3 country contextualisations, 3 economic models, 2 uses as control interventions and 1 use to develop a rating scale. Our review identified the importance of detailed reports of contextual challenges in the field, alongside detailed protocols, qualitative studies and randomised controlled trials. The mhGAP-IG literature is substantial, relative to other published evaluations of clinical practice guidelines: an important contribution to a neglected field. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  19. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Using workshops to develop theories of change in five low and middle income countries: lessons from the programme for improving mental health care (PRIME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Theory of Change (ToC) approach has been used to develop and evaluate complex health initiatives in a participatory way in high income countries. Little is known about its use to develop mental health care plans in low and middle income countries where mental health services remain inadequate. Aims ToC workshops were held as part of formative phase of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) in order 1) to develop a structured logical and evidence-based ToC map as a basis for a mental health care plan in each district; (2) to contextualise the plans; and (3) to obtain stakeholder buy-in in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. This study describes the structure and facilitator’s experiences of ToC workshops. Methods The facilitators of the ToC workshops were interviewed and the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed together with process documentation from the workshops using a framework analysis approach. Results Thirteen workshops were held in the five PRIME countries at different levels of the health system. The ToC workshops achieved their stated goals with the contributions of different stakeholders. District health planners, mental health specialists, and researchers contributed the most to the development of the ToC while service providers provided detailed contextual information. Buy-in was achieved from all stakeholders but valued more from those in control of resources. Conclusions ToC workshops are a useful approach for developing ToCs as a basis for mental health care plans because they facilitate logical, evidence based and contextualised plans, while promoting stakeholder buy in. Because of the existing hierarchies within some health systems, strategies such as limiting the types of participants and stratifying the workshops can be used to ensure productive workshops. PMID:24808923

  1. Area Handbook Series Guatemala, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    o’independencee, the cp tanc general of’ Guatemsala consisted of the present-day republics of’ C;entral Amierica-Guatemnala, El Salvador, (Ionduras, Nicar- agua ...countries that maintained significant political relationships with Guatemala were Chile and Argentina. Both had active military relationships with...1 d somiething tobreak (downi time, coliiitr\\s grossl\\yneItial 204 lburisf maZUrke’t San Anitoni o .Aguasv Cali’n tc. Resvidenats in San Antonio Aguas

  2. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Encompassing almost half the South American conti- nent and bordering every South American country except Ecuador and Chile , Brazil ranks as the fifth largest...and agricultural projects related to the program was slowed. Expansion of the sugarcane acreage was less 184 Construction site, Aguas Claras mine near...Development-OECD) purchased 60 percent of Brazil’s exports. Among Brazil’s 10 largest export markets, only Argentina (US$718 million), Chile (US$363 million

  3. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    toes, and sugar beets. Raising livestock, largely for milk and meat, more important than cropping. Country about 70 percent self- sufficient in foods ...ministries of economics and of food , agriculture, and forests. The FDP lost the powerful ministry of the interior, however. Friedrich Zimmer- man, a...34........................... PALATINATE S k 9:: ANSCAAACH LO RAIN 9 41, - - ( I ) WORTTEMBiRG L 0SUNDGA . .......... .. ............ 0 FRANCHE ::::::::::::. S w I S C 0 N F E D E R A T

  4. Mapping evidence of interventions and strategies to bridge the gap in the implementation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme policy in sub-Saharan countries: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngidi, Wilbroda H; Naidoo, Joanne R; Ncama, Busisiwe P; Luvuno, Zamasomi P B; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P

    2017-05-29

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is a life-saving public health intervention. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries have made significant progress in the programme, but little is known about the strategies used by them to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. To map evidence of strategies and interventions employed by SSA in bridging the implementation gap in the rapidly changing PMTCT of HIV programme policy. Electronic search of the databases MEDLINE, PubMed and SABINET for articles published in English between 2001 and August 2016. Key words included 'Sub-Saharan African countries', 'implementation strategies', 'interventions to bridge implementation gap', 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV' and 'closing implementation gap'. Of a total of 743 articles, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Manual content analysis resulted in the identification of three categories of strategies: (1) health system (referral systems, integration of services, supportive leadership, systematic quality-improvement approaches that vigorously monitors programme performance); (2) health service delivery (task shifting, networking, shared platform for learning, local capacity building, supportive supervision); as well as (3) community-level strategies (community health workers, technology use - mHealth, family-centred approaches, male involvement, culturally appropriate interventions). There are strategies that exist in SSA countries. Future research should examine multifaceted scientific models to prioritise the highest impact and be evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency.

  5. The Professional Value of Temporary Study in Another European Country: Employment and Work of Former ERASMUS Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich; Janson, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Temporary study in another European country supported by the ERASMUS programmes spread from a few thousand participants in the late 1980s to about 150,000 annually in recent years. Such a study period is not only viewed as academically, culturally, and linguistically valuable but is also expected to have a positive impact on subsequent employment…

  6. [Food and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per

  7. A new method for developing compassionate communities and cities movement-"Todos Contigo" Programme (We are All With You): experience in Spain and Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librada Flores, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Todos Contigo (We are All With You) is a programme for social awareness, training, and implementation of care networks for citizens to support, accompany and care for those who face advanced chronic disease and end of life situations. From New Health Foundation this programme collaborates with the Public Health and Palliative Care International Charter of Compassionate Communities. It seeks to promote a new integrated palliative care model in the daily lives of individuals, to make families and health/social professionals the main promoters of compassionate communities and compassionate cities movement. This workshop aims to: (I) describe the methodology of the programme: required tools and steps for building and developing a compassionate city or community; (II) identify stakeholders and organizations to join the compassionate community as networking agents; (III) sharing experiences from the implementation of this project in various contexts while providing specific examples and lessons learned from the perspective of various roles; (IV) explain the process of becoming a part of the project and of getting the official recognition for being a compassionate city. This workshop aims to share a new methodology "Todos Contigo" (We are all with you) Programme for the development of compassionate communities and cities movement. We describe our experiences in Spain and Latin American countries. The method is based on creating community networks, carrying out social awareness and training programmes related to end of life care.

  8. Designing and Developing a Programme-Focused Assessment Strategy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, James; Brown, Mark; Costello, Eamon; Walsh, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the process that the Humanities Programme Team, in Dublin City University's Open Education Unit, has undertaken with regard to developing a systematic, programme-focused assessment strategy. It charts the development of an Assessment Matrix that facilitated the enhancement of programme coherence in the context of a…

  9. Postgraduate Work-Based Learning Programmes in English Higher Education: Exploring Case Studies of Organizational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul; Preece, David

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the paper outlines and discusses the nature of work-based learning (WBL) and WBL programmes, and the overall direction of government strategy towards WBL programmes in Higher Education (HE) in England, with particular reference to postgraduate programmes, policy documents, and the WBL literature. Drawing upon case study research,…

  10. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study protocol for the Cities Changing Diabetes programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napier, A David; Nolan, John J; Bagger, Malene

    2017-01-01

    and management are improving, complications remain common, and diabetes is among the leading causes of vision loss, amputation, neuropathy and renal and cardiovascular disease worldwide. We present a research protocol for exploring the drivers of type 2 diabetes and its complications in urban settings through...... the Cities Changing Diabetes (CCD) partnership programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A global study protocol is implemented in eight collaborating CCD partner cities. In each city, academic institutions, municipal representatives and local stakeholders collaborate to set research priorities and plan...... Assessment explores the urban context in vulnerability to type 2 diabetes and identifies social factors and cultural determinants relevant to health, well-being and diabetes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol steers the collection of primary and secondary data across the study sites. Research ethics...

  12. Effectiveness of community health worker training programmes for cardiovascular disease management in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-All, Marwa; Putica, Barbara; Praveen, Deversetty; Abimbola, Seye; Joshi, Rohina

    2017-11-03

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being tasked to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in underserved populations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, little is known about the required training necessary for them to accomplish their role. This review aimed to evaluate the training of CHWs for the prevention and management of CVD and its risk factors in LMICs. A search strategy was developed in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, and five electronic databases (Medline, Global Health, ERIC, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched to identify peer-reviewed studies published until December 2016 on the training of CHWs for prevention or control of CVD and its risk factors in LMICs. Study characteristics were extracted using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and quality assessed using Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool. The search, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two researchers. The search generated 928 articles of which 8 were included in the review. One study was a randomised controlled trial, while the remaining were before-after intervention studies. The training methods included classroom lectures, interactive lessons, e-learning and online support and group discussions or a mix of two or more. All the studies showed improved knowledge level post-training, and two studies demonstrated knowledge retention 6 months after the intervention. The results of the eight included studies suggest that CHWs can be trained effectively for CVD prevention and management. However, the effectiveness of CHW trainings would likely vary depending on context given the differences between studies (eg, CHW demographics, settings and training programmes) and the weak quality of six of the eight studies. Well-conducted mixed-methods studies are needed to provide reliable evidence about the effectiveness and

  13. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    OpenAIRE

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000–13, and explored the potential determinants. Methods We examin...

  14. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  15. The possibility of establishing a doctoral programme in archive studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Doctor studies have been included into formalised education system as a third cycle studies. In the light of ministerial regulations, the archive studies doctoral program ought to encompass classes on archives, methodology of sciences, didactics of higher education studies, the social role of an academic, conducting student internship. Does this mean, that a doctoral seminar in archive studies is excessive? On the contrary, the seminar seems to be the best place to bequeath knowledge and skills on methodology and the proper attitude of a scholar, in awareness of his or her role in the society.By these standards, the seminar should be understood not solely as a place to forge doctoral theses, but also as a site on which to conduct discussion with one's academic authorities and advisors and guest experts; it also should be the key class, taking up the most of the timetable. The validity of preparing an archivist for the role of a university teacher has been questioned.Both the profile of the doctor courses and observation of their effectiveness has led us to believe informal seminar to be the better way of doctoral education for archive students. Perhaps though, the kind of steps, that must be taken if doctor course on archive studies was to be created, is worth considering. Is there a chance, and, is it worth striving for the archive studies to be an independent department? It would not only mean opening doctor programmes, but also the right confer a PhD degree in Humanities, on the subject of archive studies, and not history, as it has hitherto been done. The archive studies have definite research subject, range and methodology. What is noticeable is a kind of archival sensitivity, that allows for all the users and all the purposes for using the resources to be on equal rights. Archive studies have matured, and it is ready to become an independent academic discipline. Thereby, it can be expected, that at last, it's maturity will be put to good

  16. Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline Adwoa; Schlotheuber, Anne; Betran, Ana Pilar; Moller, Ann-Beth; Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties; Torloni, Maria Regina; Victora, Cesar G; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-24

    To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess change. National caesarean section rates ranged from 0.6% in South Sudan to 58.9% in the Dominican Republic. Within countries, caesarean section rates were lowest in the poorest fifth (median 3.7%) and highest in the richest fifth (median 18.4%). 18 out of 72 study countries reported a difference of 20 percentage points or higher between the richest and poorest fifth. The highest caesarean section rates and greatest levels of absolute inequality were observed in countries from the region of the Americas, whereas countries from the African region had low levels of caesarean use and comparatively lower levels of absolute inequality, although relative inequality was quite high in some countries. 26 out of 28 countries reported increases in caesarean section rates over time. Rates tended to increase faster in the richest fifth (median 0.9 percentage points per year) compared with the poorest fifth (median 0.2 percentage points per year), indicating an increase in inequality over time in most of these countries. Substantial within country economic inequalities in caesarean deliveries remain

  17. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  18. Study findings on evaluation of integrated family planning programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 the United Nations's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific launched a comparative study on integrated family planning programs in a number of countries in the region. In November 1979 the study directors from the participating countries meet in Bangkok to discuss the current status of the studies in their countries. The Korean and Malaysian studies were completed, the Bangladesh study was in the data collecting phase, and the Pakistani research design phase was completed. The meeting participants focused their attention on the findings and policy implications of the 2 completed studies and also discussed a number of theorectical and methodological issues which grew out of their research experience. The Malaysian study indicated that group structure, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of worker-client contact were the most significant variables determining program effectiveness. In the Korean Study, leadership, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of contact between agencies were the key variables in determining program effectiveness. In the Malaysian study there was a positive correlation between maternal and child health service performance measures and family planning service performance measures. This finding supported the contention that these 2 types of service provision are not in conflict with each other but instead serve to reinforce each other. Policy implications of the Korean study were 1) family planning should be an integral part of all community activities; 2) family planning workers should be adequately supported by financial and supply allocations; and 3) adequate record keeping and information exchange procedures should be incorporated in the programs.

  19. Community-based distribution of iron-folic acid supplementation in low- and middle-income countries: a review of evidence and programme implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavle, Justine A; Landry, Megan

    2018-02-01

    The present literature review aimed to review the evidence for community-based distribution (CBD) of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation as a feasible approach to improve anaemia rates in low- and middle-income countries. The literature review included peer-reviewed studies and grey literature from PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILAC and Scopus databases. Low- and middle-income countries. Non-pregnant women, pregnant women, and girls. CBD programmes had moderate success with midwives and community health workers (CHW) who counselled on health benefits and compliance with IFA supplementation. CHW were more likely to identify and reach a greater number of women earlier in pregnancy, as women tended to present late to antenatal care. CBD channels had greater consistency in terms of adequate supplies of IFA in comparison to clinics and vendors, who faced stock outages. Targeting women of reproductive age through school and community settings showed high compliance and demonstrated reductions in anaemia. CBD of IFA supplementation can be a valuable platform for improving knowledge about anaemia, addressing compliance and temporary side-effects of IFA supplements, and increasing access and coverage of IFA supplementation. Programmatic efforts focusing on community-based platforms should complement services and information provided at the health facility level. Provision of training and supportive supervision for CHW on how to counsel women on benefits, side-effects, and when, why, and how to take IFA supplements, as part of behaviour change communication, can be strengthened, alongside logistics and supply systems to ensure consistent supplies of IFA tablets at both the facility and community levels.

  20. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. Zimbabwe country study. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare Maya, R. [Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (Zimbabwe); Muguti, E. [Ministry of Transport and Energy. Department of Energy (Zimbabwe); Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Laboratory. Systems Analysis Department (Denmark)

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB).

  1. 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC. building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective provider-parent communication can improve childhood vaccination uptake and strengthen immunisation services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Building capacity to improve communication strategies has been neglected. Rigorous research exists but is not readily found or applicable to LMICs, making it difficult for policy makers to use it to inform vaccination policies and practice. The aim of this project is to build research knowledge and capacity to use evidence-based strategies for improving communication about childhood vaccinations with parents and communities in LMICs. Methods and design This project is a mixed methods study with six sub-studies. In sub-study one, we will develop a systematic map of provider-parent communication interventions for childhood vaccinations by screening and extracting data from relevant literature. This map will inform sub-study two, in which we will develop a taxonomy of interventions to improve provider-parent communication around childhood vaccination. In sub-study three, the taxonomy will be populated with trial citations to create an evidence map, which will also identify how evidence is linked to communication barriers regarding vaccination. In the project's fourth sub-study, we will present the interventions map, taxonomy, and evidence map to international stakeholders to identify high-priority topics for systematic reviews of interventions to improve parent-provider communication for childhood vaccination. We will produce systematic reviews of the effects of high-priority interventions in the fifth sub-study. In the sixth and final sub-study of the project, evidence from the systematic reviews will be translated into accessible formats and messages for dissemination to LMICs. Discussion This project combines evidence mapping, conceptual and taxonomy development, priority setting, systematic reviews, and knowledge transfer. It will build and share concepts, terms

  2. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurtsen, G J; Martina, J D; Van Heugten, C M; Geurts, A C H

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic n = 18; stroke n = 3, tumour n = 2, encephalitis n = 1). Participants had impaired illness awareness, alcohol and drug problems and/or behavioural problems. A skills-oriented programme with modules related to independent living, work, social and emotional well-being. The Community Integration Questionnaire, CES-Depression, EuroQOL, Employability Rating Scale, living situation and work status were scored at the start (T0), end of treatment (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Significant effects on the majority of outcome measures were present at T1. Employability significantly improved at T2 and living independently rose from 42% to over 70%. Participants working increased from 38% to 58% and the hours of work per week increased from 8 to 15. The Brain Integration Programme led to a sustained reduction in experienced problems and improved community integration. It is concluded that even participants with complex problems due to severe brain injury who got stuck in life could improve their social participation and emotional well-being through a residential community reintegration programme.

  3. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.; James, W.P.T.

    1993-01-01

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  4. Self-transfer and mortality amongst adults lost to follow-up in ART programmes in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lynne S; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Ajose, Olawale; Ford, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    To ascertain estimates of adult patients, recorded as lost to follow-up (LTFU) within antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, who have self-transferred care, died or truly stopped ART in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, IndMed and AIM databases (2003-2013) and IAS/AIDS conference abstracts (2011-2013) were searched for tracing studies reporting the proportion of traced patients found to have self-transferred, died or stopped ART. These estimates were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Twenty eight studies were eligible for inclusion, reporting true outcomes for 10,806 traced patients attending approximately 258 ART facilities. None were from outside sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty three studies reported 4.5-54.4% traced LTFU patients self-transferring care, providing a pooled estimate of 18.6% (95% CI 15.8-22.0%). A significant positive association was found between rates of self-transfer and LTFU in the ART cohort. The pooled estimates for unreported deaths were 38.8% (95% CI 30.8-46.8%; 27 studies) and 28.6% (95% CI 21.9-36.0%; 20 studies) for patients stopping ART. A significant decrease in unreported deaths from 50.0% (95% CI 41.5-58.4%) to 30.0% (95% CI 21.1-38.9%) was found comparing study periods before and after 31 December 2007. Substantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths amongst patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Spectroscopy as a major programme in ASDEX - a discussion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussmann, G.

    1986-03-01

    This report deals with the objectives and possibilities of a spectroscopy programme in ASDEX and provides some basic information on the relevant processes of atomic physics in tokamaks. The spectroscopic analogies found in observation of astrophysical objects are also briefly treated. In addition, the possibilities for conducting investigations in alternative high-Z ion sources are discussed. A first proposal for an appropriate programme is then formulated. (orig.)

  6. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  7. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  8. Extrabudgetary programme on the safety of nuclear installations in South East Asia Pacific and Far East countries. Report of the consultative meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Based on the good experience with the rapid expansion of nuclear utilization in Japan and South Korea, China is planning to significantly expand its nuclear programme, and other countries in the region are likely to follow this example in order to meet their expected high electricity demand growth. The building of NPPs is being considered in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is however recognized that countries in the region are in different stages of nuclear power programme, and that their needs for assistance in nuclear safety will be substantially different. In this situation it would be advantageous for all countries to establish regional co-operation on nuclear safety to learn from each other, use the experience accumulated in the world, and to commonly assess the progress made in nuclear safety matters. The objective of this Consultative Meeting was to discuss co-operation and the needs for assistance by Member States in South-East Asia, Pacific and Far East to strengthen the safety of their nuclear installations. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Meeting Teacher Expectations in a DL Professional Development Programme--A Case Study for Sustained Applied Competence as Programme Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Cornè Gerda; Van Rensburg, Ona Janse; De Witt, Marike W.

    2016-01-01

    Meeting teacher expectations for a professional development programme (PDP) is expected to strengthen sustainable applied competence as programme outcome since teachers will be more motivated to apply the programme content in practice. A revised distance learning (DL) programme was augmented by a practical component comprising a work-integrated…

  10. Disease management programmes for patients with coronary heart disease--an empirical study of German programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Oliver; Schweikert, Bernd; Meisinger, Christa; Holle, Rolf

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate healthcare and outcomes of disease management programmes (DMPs) for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in primary care, and to assess selection of enrollment for these programmes. A cross-sectional survey of 2330 statutorily insured patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was performed in 2006 by the population-based KORA Myocardial Infarction Register from the region of Augsburg, Germany. Patients enrolled in DMP-CHDs receive evidence-based care, with patients not enrolled receiving standard care. To control for selection bias, a propensity score approach was used. Main factors influencing DMP participation were age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99), diabetes (OR 1.56, CI 1.25-1.95) and time since last heart attack (OR 0.98, CI 0.95-0.99). Significantly more patients enrolled in DMP-CHDs stated that they received medical counselling for smoking (OR 3.77, CI 1.07-13.34), nutrition (OR 2.15, 1.69-2.74) and for physical activity (OR 2.58, 1.99-3.35). Furthermore, prescription of statins (OR 1.58, CI 1.24-2.00), antiplatelets (OR 1.96, CI 1.43-2.69) and beta-blockers (not significant) were higher in the DMP group. With respect to outcomes, we did not see relevant differences in quality of life and body mass index, and only a minor reduction in smoking. Enrollment into DMPs for CHD exhibits systematic selection effects. Participants tend to experience--at least on a short to medium term and for AMI patients--better quality of healthcare services. However, since DMP-CHDs were initiated only 2 years ago, we were unable to identify significant improvements in health outcomes. Only the reduction in smoking provides a first indication of better quality outcomes following DMP-CHD. Thus, policy-makers must provide appropriate incentives to sickness funds and physicians in order to ensure initiation and continuation of high quality DMPs.

  11. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Parties. New York: Facts on File, 1983. Dua , Bhagwan D. "A Study in Executive-Judicial Conflict," Asian Survey, 23, No. 4, April 1983, 463-83. Dutt...September 1977, 1-12. Sagar , Imroze. "Indo-Soviet Interest," Naval War College Re- view, 34, No. 1, January-February 1981, 13-33. Sharma, Gautam. "Defence

  12. Mali. Challenges for a Developing Country in Building Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes: Case of Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kone, Nagantie

    2014-01-01

    Present situation: National Regulatory infrastructure of Radiation Protection: • A legislation and regulations, but not adapted to the case of Nuclear Power Programme; • A Regulatory Body as the sole nuclear institution - very few trained persons in the field of safety and security; - No E and T Institutions; - Lack of adopted system for the management of regulatory activities of practices and activities in NPP field

  13. Implementing large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce in low- and middle-income settings: a multicountry case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Unni; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire

    2014-12-01

    To identify factors affecting the implementation of large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a multicountry case study synthesis. Eligible programmes were identified through consultation with experts and using Internet searches. Programmes were selected purposively to match the inclusion criteria. Programme documents were gathered via Google Scholar and PubMed and from key informants. The SURE Framework - a comprehensive list of factors that may influence the implementation of health system interventions - was used to organise the data. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key issues that emerged from the case studies. Programmes from Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Malawi, Venezuela and Zimbabwe were selected. Key system-level factors affecting the implementation of the programmes were related to health worker training and continuing education, management and programme support structures, the organisation and delivery of services, community participation, and the sociopolitical environment. Existing weaknesses in health systems may undermine the implementation of large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce. Changes in the roles and responsibilities of cadres may also, in turn, impact the health system throughout. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan’s vulnerability increased significantly in February 1979, when Shia radicals overthrew Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Iranian...give formal recognition to the PLO’s role. In an abrupt turn- about in policy, Egyptian foreign minister Ismail Fahmi respond- ed by declaring that Egypt... Fahmi , Ismail, 46 modern, 101-3, 110; government Faisal I (son of Hussein Ali Al Hashimi), spending for, 114; students studying 18, 20-23, as king of

  15. Integration of antenatal care services with health programmes in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Thyra E; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Allen, Elizabeth; Zhu, Nina Jiayue; Atun, Rifat

    2016-06-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) presents a potentially valuable platform for integrated delivery of additional health services for pregnant women-services that are vital to reduce the persistently high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited evidence on the impact of integrating health services with ANC to guide policy. This review assesses the impact of integration of postnatal and other health services with ANC on health services uptake and utilisation, health outcomes and user experience of care in LMICs. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, POPLINE and Global Health were searched for studies that compared integrated models for delivery of postnatal and other health services with ANC to non-integrated models. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, depending on the study design. Due to high heterogeneity no meta-analysis could be conducted. Results are presented narratively. 12 studies were included in the review. Limited evidence, with moderate- to high-risk of bias, suggests that integrated service delivery results in improved uptake of essential health services for women, earlier initiation of treatment, and better health outcomes. Women also reported improved satisfaction with integrated services. The reported evidence is largely based on non-randomised studies with poor generalizability, and therefore offers very limited policy guidance. More rigorously conducted and geographically diverse studies are needed to better ascertain and quantify the health and economic benefits of integrating health services with ANC.

  16. Medical engineering at Cardiff University. Part 2: Postgraduate programmes of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P; O'Doherty, D M; Holt, C A; Evans, S L; Jones, M D

    2009-05-01

    The Medical Engineering team within the School of Engineering, Cardiff University, delivers two postgraduate programmes of study. Established over 10 years ago, the part-time MSc programmes in Orthopaedic Engineering and Clinical Engineering offer the opportunity of further study while remaining within full-time employment. Both programmes deliver 120 taught credits over two academic years via a series of residential weekends, with successful completion enabling the student to undertake and then defend a 60-credit research dissertation. Fulfilling a specific role on the career pathway for both student cohorts, the strength of each programme is indicated by the consistent number of applicants.

  17. Impact of social responsibility programmes in stakeholder satisfaction: an empirical study of Portuguese managers' perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, L.; Ramos, A.; Rosa, A.; Sampaio, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between social responsibility programmes of organizations and stakeholder satisfaction. Based on stakeholder theory, an online survey was administered to managers of Portuguese organizations with certified management systems. The findings suggest that stakeholder satisfaction is indeed increased with a social responsibility programme, as suggested by Freeman’s stakeholder theory. The components of social responsibility programmes that we discussed in t...

  18. Methodology for Assessing the Degree of Internationalization of Business Academic Study Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Dan-Cristian Dabija; Cătălin Postelnicu; Nicolae Al. Pop

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the degree of internationalization of undergraduate, Master’s and doctoral business programmes with the aid of complex indicators designed to capture the vast array of characteristics displayed by these programmes and contribute to their promotion in the international academic competition. The methodology should include both general indicators applicable to any study programme and some indicators that are specifically develop...

  19. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across ...... that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-á-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  20. Postgraduate programme in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongyudh Vajaradul

    1999-01-01

    In 1992 in the Project Formulation Meeting of IAEA, the masters degree programme was proposed by Dr. Youngyudh Vajaradul, Thailand to upgrade the personnel of tissue bank and the person who had been working and involving in tissue banking. After The Bangkok Biomaterial Center proposed the degree programme and presented to Mahidol University, this programme was accepted by Ministry of University Affairs in 1998 and the masters degree programme under the name of 'Masters of Science in Biomaterial for Implantation' will be started in April 1999. IAEA will support the fellowship candidates from the region to study in masters degree programme. The programme includes 6 months of course work in Bangkok that is 12 credits and 24 is for the dissertation work which would be done in any country. The time of validity is 5 years

  1. Tobacco control programmes for universities: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, M L

    1997-03-01

    University may be a good time for smoking cessation, because younger, lighter smokers are more successful at stopping. An initial survey of 4141 students at Cambridge and Anglia Polytechnic universities identified the prevalence of smoking; questionnaires were given to smokers asking about desire to stop. Some respondents were invited to a discussion, but very few came. Those wanting to quit were sent a second questionnaire about what help they wanted. On National No Smoking Day, 101 students were interviewed about "stop smoking' advertisements, and those wanting to stop smoking were offered different forms of help. Lastly, student union welfare officers at 54 universities in the United Kingdom were interviewed over the telephone, about what motivation and support they provide for students to stop smoking, and what more they would consider providing. Prevalence of smoking varied according to university, subject studied and sex. Desire to quit varied with subject studied, duration of habit and amount smoked. Some "stop smoking' TV adverts were widely remembered, but their motivational impact remains unclear. Most of those wanting to stop found it difficult, but few requested help unless approached directly. Only books were widely used, and innovative ones seemed most popular. Few student unions provided effective encouragement or help for students to stop smoking. Most said they would consider doing more. There is a need for smoking cessation programmes at universities. More research is needed on ways of motivating those who do not want to stop. "Direct marketing' of books seems the best way of reaching those who want to stop. The effectiveness of different books needs to be evaluated. There is great potential for improving the quality, quantity and availability of cessation aids through student unions.

  2. The influence of programme of study in the use of library by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate use of university libraries is essential for students offering different programmes in order to achieve their academic pursuits. This paper, therefore, assessed the extent to which the programme of study influences the undergraduate students' use of Federal University libraries in Nigeria. The study also investigated ...

  3. Evaluating the Impact of an Environmental Education Programme: An Empirical Study in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on information from 11 in-depth interviews, two focus groups and 72 written questionnaires to evaluate an extra-curricular environmental education programme on forestry designed for preparatory school students from a small rural community in Mexico. Specifically, the study assessed the impact of the programme on the ecological…

  4. Research capacity building in midwifery: Case study of an Australian Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Lewis, Lucy; Bayes, Sara; Keyes, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Having the research capacity to identify problems, create new knowledge and most importantly translate this knowledge into practice is essential within health care. Midwifery, as well as other health professions in Australia, is challenged in building its research capacity to contribute evidence to inform clinical practice. The aim of this project was to evaluate an innovative Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme offered at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Western Australia, to determine what was working well and how the programme could be improved. A case study approach was used to gain feedback from graduate midwives within a Graduate Research Intern (GRI) Programme. In addition outcomes were compiled of all projects the GRI midwives contributed to. Six GRI midwives participated in a survey comprising of four open ended questions to provide feedback about the programme. Findings confirm that the GRI programme increased the graduates understanding of how research works, its capacity to define a problem, generate new knowledge and inform clinical practice. The GRI midwives' feedback suggested the programme opened their thinking to future study and gave them enhanced insight into women's experiences around childbirth. To grow our knowledge as a professional group, midwives must develop and promote programmes to build our pool of research capable midwives. By sharing our programme evaluation we hope to entice other clinical settings to consider the value in replicating such a programme within their context. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of common cultural competence in country studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in country studies classes (based on Turkish language teaching practice) ... the acquisition of common cultural competence in foreign language education. ... analysis of methodological frameworks offered by Russian and foreign specialists.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of female human papillomavirus vaccination in 179 countries: a PRIME modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc; Portnoy, Allison; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in settings with the highest burden of HPV is not universal, partly because of the absence of quantitative estimates of country-specific effects on health and economic costs. We aimed to develop and validate a simple generic model of such effects that could be used and understood in a range of settings with little external support. We developed the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to assess cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccination of girls against HPV before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical cancer and mortality. PRIME models incidence according to proposed vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18, vaccine coverage, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and HPV type distribution. It assumes lifelong vaccine protection and no changes to other screening programmes or vaccine uptake. We validated PRIME against existing reports of HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness, projected outcomes for 179 countries (assuming full vaccination of 12-year-old girls), and outcomes for 71 phase 2 GAVI-eligible countries (using vaccine uptake data from the GAVI Alliance). We assessed differences between countries in terms of cost-effectiveness and health effects. In validation, PRIME reproduced cost-effectiveness conclusions for 24 of 26 countries from 17 published studies, and for all 72 countries in a published study of GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccination of a cohort of 58 million 12-year-old girls in 179 countries prevented 690,000 cases of cervical cancer and 420,000 deaths during their lifetime (mostly in low-income or middle-income countries), at a net cost of US$4 billion. HPV vaccination was very cost effective (with every disability-adjusted life-year averted costing less than the gross domestic product per head) in 156 (87%) of 179 countries. Introduction of the vaccine in countries without national HPV vaccination at present would prevent substantially more cases

  7. A study to analyze IAEA planning of 2004-2005 programme and to establish cooperation directions with the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, T. J.; Kim, M. R

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study is to utilize the IAEA effectively through reflecting Korea's opinion fully for the planning of the Agency's 2004{approx}2005 Programme. This study first analyzed the current status of the IAEA Programme and Budget and reviewed the issues relevant to Korea. Second, this study assessed the IAEA 2004{approx}2005 Programme and drew up Korea's opinion for it. The official document including the opinions was submitted to the Secretariat. In reviewing the Programme, this study considered the strengths of Korea related to the Programme. Also some projects and CRPs, which can be lead by Korea, were proposed. The IAEA 2004{approx}2005 Programme reflected well the technical and social changes and its structure seems to be proper. The budget was proposed to be increased over 10%, violating the zero-real growth principle. This seems to be inevitable considering the increase of safeguards activities. However, there should be prepared some measures to avoid rapid increase of the burdens of the Member States. In the process of the planning of the IAEA 2004{approx}2005 Programme, the following points should be emphasized. First, SMR activities should be given a high priority considering the high interests of developing countries and be set up as a separate project as in the 2002{approx}2003 Programme. Second, more budget should be allocated for Project A.4.04(Support for demonstration of nuclear seawater desalination), considering the highest priority of the project in Program A. Third, it's better to change the title of Subprogram C.3 to 'Nuclear knowledge Preservation' to stick to the original rationale of the subprogram. There is a need for further activities such as establishing and implementing the concept of international nuclear school based on the result of the feasibility study done in 2002{approx}2003. Fourth, further activities needs to be added to the Project D.2.03 for the efficient conversion to high density

  8. A study to analyze IAEA planning of 2004-2005 programme and to establish cooperation directions with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, T. J.; Kim, M. R.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study is to utilize the IAEA effectively through reflecting Korea's opinion fully for the planning of the Agency's 2004∼2005 Programme. This study first analyzed the current status of the IAEA Programme and Budget and reviewed the issues relevant to Korea. Second, this study assessed the IAEA 2004∼2005 Programme and drew up Korea's opinion for it. The official document including the opinions was submitted to the Secretariat. In reviewing the Programme, this study considered the strengths of Korea related to the Programme. Also some projects and CRPs, which can be lead by Korea, were proposed. The IAEA 2004∼2005 Programme reflected well the technical and social changes and its structure seems to be proper. The budget was proposed to be increased over 10%, violating the zero-real growth principle. This seems to be inevitable considering the increase of safeguards activities. However, there should be prepared some measures to avoid rapid increase of the burdens of the Member States. In the process of the planning of the IAEA 2004∼2005 Programme, the following points should be emphasized. First, SMR activities should be given a high priority considering the high interests of developing countries and be set up as a separate project as in the 2002∼2003 Programme. Second, more budget should be allocated for Project A.4.04(Support for demonstration of nuclear seawater desalination), considering the highest priority of the project in Program A. Third, it's better to change the title of Subprogram C.3 to 'Nuclear knowledge Preservation' to stick to the original rationale of the subprogram. There is a need for further activities such as establishing and implementing the concept of international nuclear school based on the result of the feasibility study done in 2002∼2003. Fourth, further activities needs to be added to the Project D.2.03 for the efficient conversion to high density, low enriched uranium in Member States; for instance, review

  9. Netherlands export country for electricity? New developments in power plants and the impact on the Clean and Efficient programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Daniels, B.W.

    2008-07-01

    This report explores part of the effects of the Dutch Climate Programme 'Clean and Efficient - Opportunities for Tomorrow' on the emissions of air pollutants, as included in the National Emissions Ceilings. The starting point for the analysis is the ex ante evaluation of Clean and Efficient as published in September 2007. Specifically for the Netherlands, the role of the power generation sector is important. For the near future (up to 2015), about 11 to 15 GW of new fossil generation capacity is being planned. In combination with the Clean and Efficient Programme, this will have a large impact on the resulting national emissions of air pollutants. Strong climate policies and high CO2 prices are likely to result in a lower electricity demand than the original reference projection (the Global Economy High Oil Price scenario). In addition, more renewable electricity generation and more cogeneration are expected. These changes are likely to improve the international competitiveness of the Dutch electricity generation. As a result, electricity exports rise and part of the emission reductions materialize outside the Netherlands, rather than within its borders [nl

  10. Cluster randomized evaluation of Adolescent Girls Empowerment Programme (AGEP: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Hewett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents in less developed countries such as Zambia often face multi-faceted challenges for achieving successful transitions through adolescence to early adulthood. The literature has noted the need to introduce interventions during this period, particularly for adolescent girls, with the perspective that such investments have significant economic, social and health returns to society. The Adolescent Girls Empowerment Programme (AGEP was an intervention designed as a catalyst for change for adolescent girls through themselves, to their family and community. Methods/design AGEP was a multi-sectoral intervention targeting over 10,000 vulnerable adolescent girls ages 10–19 in rural and urban areas, in four of the ten provinces of Zambia. At the core of AGEP were mentor-led, weekly girls’ group meetings of 20 to 30 adolescent girls participating over two years. Three curricula ― sexual and reproductive health and lifeskills, financial literacy, and nutrition ― guided the meetings. An engaging and participatory pedagogical approach was used. Two additional program components, a health voucher and a bank account, were offered to some girls to provide direct mechanisms to improve access to health and financial services. Embedded within AGEP was a rigorous multi-arm randomised cluster trial with randomization to different combinations of programme arms. The study was powered to assess the impact across a set of key longer-term outcomes, including early marriage and first birth, contraceptive use, educational attainment and acquisition of HIV and HSV-2. Baseline behavioural surveys and biological specimen collection were initiated in 2013. Impact was evaluated immediately after the program ended in 2015 and will be evaluated again after two additional years of follow-up in 2017. The primary analysis is intent-to-treat. Qualitative data are being collected in 2013, 2015 and 2017 to inform the programme implementation and the

  11. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Shenderovich, Yulia; Ward, Catherine L; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Redfern, Alice; Lombard, Carl; Doubt, Jenny; Steinert, Janina; Catanho, Ricardo; Wittesaele, Camille; De Stone, Sachin; Salah, Nasteha; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Lachman, Jamie; Loening, Heidi; Gardner, Frances; Blanc, Daphnee; Nocuza, Mzuvekile; Lechowicz, Meryn

    2016-07-19

    An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Sinovuyo Teen compared to an attention-control group of a water hygiene programme. This is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, with stratified randomisation of 37 settlements (rural and peri-urban) with 40 study clusters in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Settlements receive either a 14-session parenting support programme or a 1-day water hygiene programme. The primary outcomes are child abuse and parenting practices, and secondary outcomes include adolescent behavioural problems, mental health and social support. Concurrent process evaluation and qualitative research are conducted. Outcomes are reported by both primary caregivers and adolescents. Brief follow-up measures are collected immediately after the intervention, and full follow-up measures collected at 3-8 months post-intervention. A 15-24-month follow-up is planned, but this will depend on the financial and practical feasibility given delays related to high levels of ongoing civil and political violence in the research sites. This is the first known trial of a parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in a low- or middle-income country. The study will also examine potential mediating pathways and moderating factors. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201507001119966. Registered on 27 April 2015. It can be found by searching for the key word 'Sinovuyo' on their website or via the following link: http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm

  12. Acculturation and school adjustment of immigrant youth in six European countries : Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachner, M.K.; He, J.; Heizmann, B.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’

  13. Tourism and Management Study Programme through Blended Learning: Development and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a tourism and management study programme at the Faculty of Informatics and Management (FIM), University of Hradec Králové. It begins with description of the programme, along with a summary of its history and is considered in the light of changes in accreditation requirements. Students' interest in the programme…

  14. Coming to Know about the Body in Human Movement Studies Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Valeria; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of undergraduate Human Movement Studies (HMS) students learnt to know about the body during their four-year academic programme at an Australian university. When students begin an undergraduate programme in HMS they bring with them particular constructions, ideas and beliefs about their own bodies and about the body…

  15. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, L; Meinck, F; Shenderovich, Y; Ward, CL; Herrero Romero, R; Lombard, C; Doubt, JS; Steinert, J; Catanho, R; Wittesaele, C; DeStone, S; Salah, N; Mpimilashe, P; Lachman, J; Loening, H

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aim...

  16. Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Proceedings document some of the trials and tribulations involved in setting up nuclear medicine facilities in general and specifically as regards nuclear medicine applications for the diagnosis of the diseases prevalent in the less developed countries. Most of the 51 papers deal with various clinical applications of dynamic functional studies. However, there was also a session on quality control of the equipment used, and a panel discussion critically looked at the problems and potential of dynamic studies in developing countries. This book will be of interest and use not only to those practising nuclear medicine in the developing countries, but it may also bring home to users in developed countries how ''more can be done with less''. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... of statistical sources on men's practices in the ten countries, are presented. This is the second of four articles reviewing critical studies on men in the ten countries through different methods and approaches....

  18. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  19. The Adoption of Social Media in Nonprofit Organizations : The Case Study of the United Nations Country Team in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Panyam, Sinta

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the role of social media in non-profit organizations using the case study from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand Country office. As Social media become a significant channel to raise the visibility and promote the work of the organization. The focus of this research examines what drives organizations adopting social media through a model built round four key factors, 1.) The importance of social media, 2.) The impact to image of the organization, 3...

  20. EDZ programme, EDZ studies in ONKALO 2007- 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellanen, S. (ed.) (Genpro Solutions Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Hellae, P. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)); Loefman, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)) (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The report introduces viewpoints of EDZ (Excavation Damage Zone) in terms of long term safety, modelling and calculation results to assess the significance of EDZ within ONKALO and documentation of various experiments to develop characterization methods of EDZ. The programme had the objectives to develop a reliable and proven methodology for characterization of EDZ, to enhance management of rock excavation methods for better control of development of EDZ, and to assess the impact of EDZ as a flow path and possible passage of radionuclide migration. The EDZ along the ONKALO may impact the long term safety basically in two ways; by increasing the flow of surface and near surface waters to deeper depths and thus potentially disturbing the geochemical stability at the repository depth and by inducing changes in transport paths and properties. The impact of these changes was studied by means of numerical groundwater flow modeling using EPM (equivalent porous medium) and DFN (discrete fracture network) modelling methods. According to the modelling results, the excavation damaged zone along ONKALO causes only minor changes in groundwater flow rates at the repository depth, transport routes and transport resistance. From the long term safety perspective, the impact of EDZ in the vicinity of the deposition holes is more important and further studies should concentrate on that. The impact of EDZ needs to be assessed relative to other possible flow routes, e.g. connected, transmissive fractures providing fast flow paths and emerging connections to such flow paths through EDZ, other phenomena like spalling potentially increasing the hydraulic conductivity at the buffer/rock or backfill/rock interface, the properties of the tunnel backfill and on the achieved tightness of the interface of the rock and the backfill. Viability of different investigation techniques for the verification and characterization of EDZ as well as for Quality Control purposes was tested. Ground

  1. EDZ programme, EDZ studies in ONKALO 2007- 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellanen, S.; Hellae, P.; Loefman, J.

    2009-03-01

    The report introduces viewpoints of EDZ (Excavation Damage Zone) in terms of long term safety, modelling and calculation results to assess the significance of EDZ within ONKALO and documentation of various experiments to develop characterization methods of EDZ. The programme had the objectives to develop a reliable and proven methodology for characterization of EDZ, to enhance management of rock excavation methods for better control of development of EDZ, and to assess the impact of EDZ as a flow path and possible passage of radionuclide migration. The EDZ along the ONKALO may impact the long term safety basically in two ways; by increasing the flow of surface and near surface waters to deeper depths and thus potentially disturbing the geochemical stability at the repository depth and by inducing changes in transport paths and properties. The impact of these changes was studied by means of numerical groundwater flow modeling using EPM (equivalent porous medium) and DFN (discrete fracture network) modelling methods. According to the modelling results, the excavation damaged zone along ONKALO causes only minor changes in groundwater flow rates at the repository depth, transport routes and transport resistance. From the long term safety perspective, the impact of EDZ in the vicinity of the deposition holes is more important and further studies should concentrate on that. The impact of EDZ needs to be assessed relative to other possible flow routes, e.g. connected, transmissive fractures providing fast flow paths and emerging connections to such flow paths through EDZ, other phenomena like spalling potentially increasing the hydraulic conductivity at the buffer/rock or backfill/rock interface, the properties of the tunnel backfill and on the achieved tightness of the interface of the rock and the backfill. Viability of different investigation techniques for the verification and characterization of EDZ as well as for Quality Control purposes was tested. Ground

  2. Fisheries credit programmes and revolving loan funds: case studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietze, U; Merrikin, P

    1992-01-01

    While it is widely acknowledged that the availability of institutional credit is an important pre-condition for the further development of the small-scale fisheries sector of many developing countries...

  3. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  4. Methodology for Assessing the Degree of Internationalization of Business Academic Study Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Cristian Dabija

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the degree of internationalization of undergraduate, Master’s and doctoral business programmes with the aid of complex indicators designed to capture the vast array of characteristics displayed by these programmes and contribute to their promotion in the international academic competition. The methodology should include both general indicators applicable to any study programme and some indicators that are specifically developed for business study programmes. No consensus exists in the internationalization literature and practice over the actual scope and the indicators to be considered in the implementation of such a study. Researchers rather propose methods for assessing and prioritizing universities and/or faculties and lay down a lot of criteria according to which rankings are developed. These rankings are mainly focused on the level of internationalization of socioeconomic and engineering study programmes. Being aware of the limits of theory and practice, the authors develop a scoring model that measures the degree of internationalization of business education curricula according to stringent criteria. The research originality lies in the attempt to describe the avenues of a new methodology for measuring and assessing realistically the economic study programmes so that these may be better positioned on the educational market and become more attractive to the future candidates. Based on a synergistic approach to indicators, the model may contribute to creating competitive advantage in relation to other programmes from the same university or from partner institutions.

  5. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  6. Compilation of anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics for a Reference Asian Man. Volume 2: Country reports. Results of a co-ordinated research programme 1988-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man has been conducted as a programme of the IAEA Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and the Pacific. The CRP was conducted to provide data for radiation protection purposes that is relevant to the biokinetic and dosimetric characteristics of the ethnic populations in the Asian region The radiological protection decisions that had to be made in the RCA member States following the Chernobyl accident were a significant motivation for establishing the CRP. Funding for the RCM by the Government of Japan is gratefully acknowledged. The IAEA wishes to thank S. Kobayashi for his efforts in support of the CRP. The IAEA extends its appreciation to the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences for acting as the technical secretariat to co-ordinate the work of data compilation. Specifically, the IAEA acknowledges the contributions of H. Kawamura, G. Tanaka and T. Koyanagi. Appreciation is also extended to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences for the valuable contribution they made to the CRP as hosts for the RCMS. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were A. Moiseev and R.V. Griffith of the Division of Radiation and Waste Safety. This publication is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains a summary of the data and conclusions from the project and Volume 2 the reports from participating countries

  7. Assessment of international mitigation costing studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the Framework Convention on Climate change has motivated a large number of mitigation costing studies of developing countries. A variety of modelling approaches and input assumptions have been employed, and studies have been carried out by a range of institutions, including international research institutions, consultants and national organisations. This paper attempts to bring together the main results and characteristics of some of the major recent studies. In spite of the diversity of teams involved in the studies, the similarities in scenario definitions and in the bottom-up approach used for the energy sector analysis, enable some key macro indicators and results of the studies to be compared. Two main coordinated country study efforts have been carried out: by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and by UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE). The results and methodological framework of these country studies are assessed in relation to similar country study activities for China, West Africa and South East Asia in order to evaluate possible common conclusions. (au) 13 refs

  8. Research within the coordinated programme on investigation of maintenance of nuclear instrumentation in developing countries. Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Acevedo, C.

    1980-06-01

    The situation in Peru with regard to the maintenance and repair of instruments used in nuclear medicine is presented. On the basis of responses to questionnaires it appears that 56 instruments for nuclear medicine are in use in the country, almost exclusively in the capital Lima. The average age of the instruments is 9.5 years. They are in use about 16.4% of the possible time. The development of nuclear medicine in Peru is in its initial stages and difficulties encountered arise both from the lack of training and experience in nuclear medicine on the part of the medical personnel as well as lack of experience of the technicians responsible for instrument maintenance. Practically no preventive maintenance ever takes place; action is only taken when an instrument breaks down. Various suggestions are made in order to attempt an improvement of the situation

  9. A study of work injuries in eight Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Tan, T C; Jeyaratnam, J; Cho, S C; Suma'mur, P K; Mahathevan, R; Reverente, B R; Wongphanich, W; Kogi, K

    1984-04-01

    This study is based on a survey conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand on occupational injuries during the years 1975-1980. The number of work accidents have risen rapidly during this period in all of the 8 countries studied. In the case of Thailand, the total number of work injuries increased four fold from 1975-1978, whereas, in Singapore it has almost doubled in 6 years. The number of permanent disablement nearly trebled in Korea, and the Philippines for the year 1967-1980. The largest percentage of accidents are lost-time injuries in all of the 8 countries. Thailand had a three fold increase in lost-time injuries whilst in Hong Kong the figure doubled. Six out of the 8 countries indicated that the building construction industry had the largest number of fatal accidents, followed by the manufacturing industry.

  10. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  11. Status of India's population education programme--the subject of tripartite projects review and annual country review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    A 3-step monitoring of India's population education program was undertaken in 1981 in order to determine the level of implementation and progress of the program. This monitoring program, conducted by the Unesco Mobile Team in collaboration with other institutions, followed 3 procedures: Project Progress Report (PPR); Tripartite Project Review (TPR); and Annual Country Review (ACR). The review meetings of the 10 state population education projects were organized at Chandigarh and Madras during August. The states covered in the review were Bihar, Haryana, Madhaya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Chandigarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. The Tripartite Review identified the following as problems which were hindering the smooth implementation of the population education program: 1) difficulty in spending funds unless certain formalities were completed by the governments of the states; 2) administrative problems such as getting printing paper for instructional materials, waiving the sales tax for equipment to be purchased under the project, and uncertainty regarding the admissible rates of per diem to be paid to the participants in various training programs; 3) the lack of experience of project staff; 4) problems created by having more than 1 cell in a state such as Rajasthan; and 5) an inadequate time frame within which the project should complete all its activities and make population education an integral part of the school system. The following were among the recommendations made: 1) the Project should be made coterminous with the 6th Five-Year Plan up to March 31, 1985; and 2) there should be only 1 Population Education Cell in every state. Among the points discussed at the annual country review, held during October, were the following: rephasing of the program from a 3 to 5 year project to synchronize it with the 6th plan; and the need for additional funds in view of inflation.

  12. 3D-Flow processor for a programmable Level-1 trigger (feasibility study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetto, D.

    1992-10-01

    A feasibility study has been made to use the 3D-Flow processor in a pipelined programmable parallel processing architecture to identify particles such as electrons, jets, muons, etc., in high-energy physics experiments

  13. Experiences of instructors delivering the Mental Health First Aid training programme: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J

    2010-09-01

    Mental health literacy among the public is often poor, and although people frequently encounter others experiencing mental distress in their workplace, families and communities, they may be ill-equipped to provide appropriate support. 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA), a 12-h mental health promotion programme seeks to address this, training people in the knowledge and skills needed to engage with someone experiencing mental health problems. Research relating to the MHFA programme has centred on course attendees, with a paucity of research surrounding the delivery of basic mental health training programmes. Understanding experiences of instructors delivering such programmes is key to the success of future delivery. This study sought to identify the views and experiences of instructors delivering the MHFA programme in Wales. Fourteen MHFA instructors participated in semi-structured audio-recorded interviews, with the transcripts analysed to identify key themes. This paper explores two of the identified themes namely prerequisite skills and support required by instructors. The study highlighted that because of the ensuing emotional labour experienced by instructors, universal mental health training programmes must put in place a clear infrastructure to train, support and monitor those delivering them, for programme roll-out to be effective.

  14. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  15. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S. H.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.; Park, C. H.; Park, S. P.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system

  16. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Work Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. H. [LINE Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Park, S. P. [Ahnlab Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system.

  17. Digital mammography in a screening programme and its implications for pathology: a comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Most studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with conventional screen-film mammography (SFM) have been radiology-based. The pathological implications of FFDM have received little attention in the literature, especially in the context of screening programmes. The primary objective of this retrospective study is to compare FFDM with SFM in a population-based screening programme with regard to a number of pathological parameters.

  18. Overview of the Kenya country studies on Climate Change Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacuhi, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The general objective of the Kenya country study on climate change was to make a contribution to the global efforts of finding a solution to climatic change problem.The specific objectives were, Contribute to the development of national capacity to handle climatic changes issues, Assess the country's contribution to the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG's), Evaluate the vulnerability of various sensitive sectors to impacts of climate change, Generate information useful to the development of an overall national policy on climate change, Lay a foundation for development of national action plans and national communication required under the UNFCCC

  19. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  20. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: systematic tools to address the "black box" of health systems and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha S; Huicho, Luis; Afnan-Holmes, Hoviyeh; John, Theopista; Moran, Allisyn C; Colbourn, Tim; Grundy, Chris; Matthews, Zoe; Maliqi, Blerta; Mathai, Matthews; Daelmans, Bernadette; Requejo, Jennifer; Lawn, Joy E

    2016-09-12

    Evaluating health systems and policy (HSP) change and implementation is critical in understanding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) progress within and across countries. Whilst data for health outcomes, coverage and equity have advanced in the last decade, comparable analyses of HSP changes are lacking. We present a set of novel tools developed by Countdown to 2015 (Countdown) to systematically analyse and describe HSP change for RMNCH indicators, enabling multi-country comparisons. International experts worked with eight country teams to develop HSP tools via mixed methods. These tools assess RMNCH change over time (e.g. 1990-2015) and include: (i) Policy and Programme Timeline Tool (depicting change according to level of policy); (ii) Health Policy Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing 11 selected RMNCH policies over time); (iii) Health Systems Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing four selected systems indicators over time); and (iv) Programme implementation assessment. To illustrate these tools, we present results from Tanzania and Peru, two of eight Countdown case studies. The Policy and Programme Timeline tool shows that Tanzania's RMNCH environment is complex, with increased funding and programmes for child survival, particularly primary-care implementation. Maternal health was prioritised since mid-1990s, yet with variable programme implementation, mainly targeting facilities. Newborn health only received attention since 2005, yet is rapidly scaling-up interventions at facility- and community-levels. Reproductive health lost momentum, with re-investment since 2010. Contrastingly, Peru moved from standalone to integrated RMNCH programme implementation, combined with multi-sectoral, anti-poverty strategies. The HSP Tracer Indicators Dashboards show that Peru has adopted nine of 11 policy tracer indicators and Tanzania has adopted seven. Peru costed national RMNCH plans pre-2000, whereas Tanzania developed a national RMNCH plan in 2006 but

  1. Should I stay or should I go? A systematic review of factors that influence healthcare students' decisions around study abroad programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary; Boateng, Edward Appiah; Evans, Catrin

    2016-04-01

    Study abroad programmes have been shown to have significant benefits for participating healthcare students such as promoting cultural awareness and understanding of different healthcare settings, policies and practices. Healthcare students are encouraged to undertake elective or Erasmus placements overseas to enhance personal and professional development and to broaden horizons through lived cultural experience. However, there is a relatively low uptake of such opportunities amongst this student group. This systematic review aimed to explore factors that influence healthcare students' decision making around study abroad opportunities within undergraduate training programmes. A systematic review was undertaken utilising a narrative synthesis approach. A comprehensive literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, and ERIC databases. Key institutions were contacted for grey literature. Studies that reported on factors that influence healthcare students' decisions regarding study abroad programmes were included in the review. Ten studies were identified for inclusion (5 qualitative studies, 5 surveys), indicating a paucity of research in this area. Data synthesis indicates that factors that influence healthcare students' decisions to participate in study abroad programmes are similar across different geographic locations and different professional groups. Factors that support decisions to study overseas include having sufficient information about study abroad programmes, especially early in an academic programme, having an interest in other cultures/countries and having academic staff and family as positive role models who motivate them to study abroad. Key barriers are cost and language issues. Language remains a significant barrier even when generous bursaries are available, as with the Erasmus scheme, when students are not proficient with the language spoken in host countries. Students tend to prefer destinations where language is not

  2. Improving the well-being of elderly patients via community pharmacy-based provision of pharmaceutical care - A multicentre study in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsten, C; Bjorkman, [No Value; Caramona, M; Crealey, G; Frokjaer, B; Grundberger, E; Gustafsson, T; Henman, M; Herborg, H; Hughes, C; McElnay, J; Magner, M; van Mil, F; Schaeffer, M; Silva, S; Sondergaard, B; Sturgess, [No Value; Tromp, D; Vivero, L; Winterstein, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to measure the outcomes of a harmonised, structured pharmaceutical care programme provided to elderly patients: (greater than or equal to 65 years of age) by community pharmacists in a multicentre international study performed in 7 European countries. Design and setting:

  3. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Safreed-Harmon

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID. We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat.Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country.Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly.The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national

  5. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Hetherington, Kristina L; Aleman, Soo; Alho, Hannu; Dalgard, Olav; Frisch, Tove; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Weis, Nina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2018-01-01

    In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs) in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country. Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly. The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national public health

  6. Evaluation of three sampling methods to monitor outcomes of antiretroviral treatment programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassie, Jean-Michel; Malateste, Karen; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar; Poulet, Elisabeth; Bennett, Diane; Harries, Anthony; Mahy, Mary; Schechter, Mauro; Souteyrand, Yves; Dabis, François

    2010-11-10

    Retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time is a proxy for quality of care and an outcome indicator to monitor ART programs. Using existing databases (Antiretroviral in Lower Income Countries of the International Databases to Evaluate AIDS and Médecins Sans Frontières), we evaluated three sampling approaches to simplify the generation of outcome indicators. We used individual patient data from 27 ART sites and included 27,201 ART-naive adults (≥15 years) who initiated ART in 2005. For each site, we generated two outcome indicators at 12 months, retention on ART and proportion of patients lost to follow-up (LFU), first using all patient data and then within a smaller group of patients selected using three sampling methods (random, systematic and consecutive sampling). For each method and each site, 500 samples were generated, and the average result was compared with the unsampled value. The 95% sampling distribution (SD) was expressed as the 2.5(th) and 97.5(th) percentile values from the 500 samples. Overall, retention on ART was 76.5% (range 58.9-88.6) and the proportion of patients LFU, 13.5% (range 0.8-31.9). Estimates of retention from sampling (n = 5696) were 76.5% (SD 75.4-77.7) for random, 76.5% (75.3-77.5) for systematic and 76.0% (74.1-78.2) for the consecutive method. Estimates for the proportion of patients LFU were 13.5% (12.6-14.5), 13.5% (12.6-14.3) and 14.0% (12.5-15.5), respectively. With consecutive sampling, 50% of sites had SD within ±5% of the unsampled site value. Our results suggest that random, systematic or consecutive sampling methods are feasible for monitoring ART indicators at national level. However, sampling may not produce precise estimates in some sites.

  7. The role of intermediaries in delivering an occupational health and safety programme designed for small business - a case study of an insurance incentive programme in the agriculture sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kirsten Bendix; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to the transformation and dissemination of a national OHS programme for small business that built on an Insurance incentive scheme – the New Zealand Workplace Safety Discount scheme. It is a case study of this scheme implementation in the agriculture sector. Data was collected from scheme documentation and semi......-structured interviews with the scheme owner, representatives from intermediary groups and the targeted small businesses. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed in relation to the scheme’s programme theory. The intermediaries introduced new programme mechanisms and recruitment...

  8. Conduct of a meta review of programme evaluations : a case study of the SEARCH Program

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Rumona; Tight, Malcolm; Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a retrospective case study that critically examines the evaluations that were undertaken as part of a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for health care professionals. The case is the SEARCH Program, an innovative CPD programme, which was designed to promote the implementation of evidence based practice (EBP) within the existing health care system in Alberta, Canada. Two approaches from the ‘using’ branch of Alkin and Chrisite’s evaluation theory tree are...

  9. Price-structure of electricity and district-heating. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present report deals with the pricing and price-structure of electricity and district-heating with their effects on energy saving. It constitutes part of the groundwork for the new Government Energy Conservation Programme. The report describes principles for the pricing of electricity and district-heating in Finland, and gives some examples of tariffs in foreign countries, which are interesting from the point of view of energy saving. Different utilities apply quite similar pricing principles but there are big differences in price levels between the utilities. The difference in consumer prices can be almost 100 % in the case of electricity and over 150 % as concerns district-heating. The change in retail prices in the last ten years has not had a big general impact on the consumption of electricity or on energy saving. On the other hand, when the price increases of individual utilities are studied, the impact on energy saving at least in the short term can be seen. It seems that an increase of the fixed charges in relation to energy rates has been as a general trend after 1990. To promote energy saving the changing energy rates should be given special emphasis in determining electricity and district-heating tariffs. The opening of the electricity market means that the electricity suppliers face a new situation also when pricing their products. Customers and their expectations will play an increasingly role. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear proliferation in developing countries: A comparative study for selected countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Woong.

    1991-01-01

    This study explores major conditions conducive to nuclear proliferation to project possible proliferation trends in the future and, hopefully, to suggest some effective strategies to address the problem of nuclear proliferation. It attempts to provide a qualitative analysis of the causes and trends of nuclear proliferation by presenting generalizations of the causes of proliferation. While a variety of factors can be considered as causes of proliferation, three primary factors appear to influence the prospects for proliferation: (1) the technical capabilities and constraints; (2) motivation: incentives and disincentives; and (3) particular domestic and international situations. It is generally hypothesized that in order for a country to go nuclear, two basic conditions - some minimum level of indigenous national capability and strong motivations - must be simultaneously satisfied. It is concluded that while technology is, of course, one element necessary for the nuclear-proliferation process, the fundamental conditions of nuclear proliferation appear to be motivational factors

  11. Adapting a generic coping skills programme for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlachius, A; Northam, E; Frydenberg, E; Cameron, F

    2012-04-01

    Few qualitative studies have examined the views of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) regarding psychosocial programme development and content. We conducted focus groups with 13 adolescents with T1DM to explore stressors and gain feedback on adapting a generic coping skills programme. The following prevalent stressors were identified: parental/adolescent conflict, balancing self-management and daily life, and health concerns. Prevalent views on programme adaptation included enhancing social support and adding diabetes-specific information and skills. Based on these data, the programme was adapted to address stressors and support self-management, thus better meeting the needs of, and appeal to, adolescents with T1DM.

  12. A pilot study evaluating a support programme for parents of young people with suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley Sinead

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm (DSH is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. Methods Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32 of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme and 37% (N = 17 of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme. A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children's difficulties. Results Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  13. A pilot study evaluating a support programme for parents of young people with suicidal behaviour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health concern and has increased among young people in Ireland. While DSH is undoubtedly the result of interacting factors, studies have identified an association between DSH and family dysfunction as well as the protective role of positive family relationships. Following a focus group meeting held to identify the needs of parents and carers of young people with DSH, a support programme (SPACE) was developed. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPACE programme in decreasing parental psychological distress, reducing parental report of young peoples\\' difficulties, increasing parental satisfaction and increasing parents\\' ratings of their own defined challenges and goals. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Mental Health Service within a paediatric hospital, Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Teams and family support services. All services were located within the greater Dublin area in Ireland. Forty-six parents of children who had engaged in or expressed thoughts of self harm attended the programme and participated in the evaluation study. The programme ran once a week over an 8-week period and included topics such as information on self harm in young people, parenting adolescents, communication and parental self-care. Seventy percent (N = 32) of the original sample at Time 1 completed measures at Time 2 (directly following the programme) and 37% (N = 17) of the original sample at Time 1 completed them at Time 3 (6 months following the programme).A repeated measures design was used to identify changes in parental wellbeing after attendance at the programme as well as changes in parental reports of their children\\'s difficulties. RESULTS: Participants had lower levels of psychological distress, increased parental satisfaction, lower ratings of their own defined challenges and higher ratings of their goals directly after the programme. These

  14. Programmable CCD imaging system for synchrotron radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time imaging system for x-ray detection has been developed. The CAMAC-based system has a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as its active detection element. The electronics consist of a CAMAC-crate-based dedicated microprocessor coupled to arbitrary waveform generators, programmable timing, and ADC modules. The hardware flexibility achievable through this system enables one to use virtually any commercially available CCD. A dedicated CAMAC-based display driver allows for real-time imaging on a high-resolution color monitor. An optional front end consisting of a fiber-optic taper and a focusing optical lens system coupled to a phosphor screen allows for large area imaging. Further, programming flexibility, in which the detector can be used in different read-out modes, enables it to be exploited for time-resolved experiments. In one mode, sections of the CCD can be read-out with millisecond time-resolution and, in another, the use of the CCD as a storage device is exploited resulting in microsecond time-resolution. Three different CCDs with radically different read-out timings and waveforms have been tested: the TI 4849, a 39Ox584 pixel array; TC 215, a 1024x1O24 pixel array; and the TH 7883, a 576x384 pixel array. The TC 215 and TI 4849 are single-phase CCDs manufactured by Texas Instruments, and the TH 7883 is a four-phase device manufactured by Thomson-CSF. The CCD characterized for uniformity, charge transfer efficiency (CTE), linearity, and sensitivity is the TC215

  15. The 'Hothaps' programme for assessing climate change impacts on occupational health and productivity: an invitation to carry out field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Gabrysch, Sabine; Lemke, Bruno; Dear, Keith

    2009-11-11

    The 'high occupational temperature health and productivity suppression' programme (Hothaps) is a multi-centre health research and prevention programme aimed at quantifying the extent to which working people are affected by, or adapt to, heat exposure while working, and how global heating during climate change may increase such effects. The programme will produce essential new evidence for local, national and global assessment of negative impacts of climate change that have largely been overlooked. It will also identify and evaluate preventive interventions in different social and economic settings.Hothaps includes studies in any part of the world where hourly heat exposure exceeds physiological stress limits that may affect workers. This usually happens at temperatures above 25 degrees C, depending on humidity, wind movement and heat radiation. Working people in low and middle-income tropical countries are particularly vulnerable, because many of them are involved in heavy physical work, either outdoors in strong sunlight or indoors without effective cooling. If high work intensity is maintained in workplaces with high heat exposure, serious health effects can occur, including heat stroke and death.Depending on the type of occupation, the required work intensity, and the level of heat stress, working people have to slow down their work in order to reduce internal body heat production and the risk of heat stroke. Thus, unless preventive interventions are used to reduce the heat stress on workers, their individual health and productivity will be affected and economic output per work hour will be reduced. Heat also influences other daily physical activities, unrelated to work, in all age groups. Poorer people without access to household or workplace cooling devices are most likely to be affected.The Hothaps programme includes a pilot study, heat monitoring of selected workplaces, qualitative studies of perceived heat impacts and preventative interventions

  16. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  17. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  18. Practicums as part of study programmes in library and information studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Južnič

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Library and Information Science (LIS courses, practicums serve as a specific bond between theory on the one hand and practical work and the profession on the other. In seeking to prepare graduates for the profession and for professional work, LIS programmes use practicums as a model to enhance the library school curriculum. During the traditional LIS practicum, one already makes use of the many advantages online tools provide, building online portfolios or keeping student work diaries online while undertaking the practical part of one’s practicum. This enables easy and constant communication among all three stakeholders: host institutions, educational institutions, and students. Whilst it is important to engage actively with industry to provide students with opportunities to participate in ‘experiential learning’ and in building practical skills and knowledge, it is also important to ensure this is done in a systematic manner, and with a genuine desire on the part of the employers for a collaborative partnership. Striking similarities regarding practicums and placements between geographically distant countries such as Australia and Slovenia, and the opinions and attitudes that all three stakeholders – students, host institutions and educational institutions – share, indicates that traditional practicums, undertaken in a physical workplace, are still a key component of an LIS education.In Library and Information Science (LIS courses, practicums serve as a specific bond between theory onthe one hand and practical work and the profession on the other. In seeking to prepare graduates for theprofession and for professional work, LIS programmes use practicums as a model to enhance the libraryschool curriculum. During the traditional LIS practicum, one already makes use of the many advantagesonline tools provide, building online portfolios or keeping student work diaries online while undertakingthe practical part of one’s practicum. This

  19. 'The Anglo-Saxon disease': a pilot study of the barriers to and facilitators of the use of randomised controlled trials of social programmes in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Helen; Petticrew, Mark; Liabo, Kristin; Macintyre, Sally

    2012-11-01

    There appears to be considerable variation between different national jurisdictions and between different sectors of public policy in the use of evidence and particularly the use of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate non-healthcare sector programmes. As part of a wider study attempting to identify RCTs of public policy sector programmes and the reasons for variation between countries and sectors in their use, we carried out a pilot study which interviewed 10 policy makers and researchers in six countries to elicit views on barriers to and facilitators of the use of RCTs for social programmes. While in common with earlier studies, those interviewed expressed a need for unambiguous findings, timely results and significant effect sizes, users could, in fact, be ambivalent about robust methods and robust answers about what works, does not work or makes no difference, particularly where investment or a policy announcement was planned. Different national and policy sector cultures varied in their use of and support for RCTs. In order to maximise the use of robust evaluations of public programmes across the world it would be useful to examine, systematically, cross-national and cross-sectoral variations in the use of different methods including RCTs and barriers to and facilitators of their use. Sound research methods, whatever their scientific value, are no guarantee that findings will be useful or used. 'Stories' have been shown to influence policy; those advocating the use of RCTs may need to provide convincing narratives to avoid repetition about their value.

  20. Funding AIDS programmes in the era of shared responsibility: an analysis of domestic spending in 12 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Stephen; Ryckman, Theresa; Hecht, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As the incomes of many AIDS-burdened countries grow and donors' budgets for helping to fight the disease tighten, national governments and external funding partners increasingly face the following question: what is the capacity of countries that are highly affected by AIDS to finance their responses from domestic sources, and how might this affect the level of donor support? In this study, we attempt to answer this question. We propose metrics to estimate domestic AIDS financing, using methods related to national prioritisation of health spending, disease burden, and economic growth. We apply these metrics to 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, generating scenarios of possible future domestic expenditure. We compare the results with total AIDS financing requirements to calculate the size of the resulting funding gaps and implications for donors. Nearly all 12 countries studied fall short of the proposed expenditure benchmarks. If they met these benchmarks fully, domestic spending on AIDS would increase by 2·5 times, from US$2·1 billion to $5·1 billion annually, covering 64% of estimated future funding requirements and leaving a gap of around a third of the total $7·9 billion needed. Although upper-middle-income countries, such as Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, would become financially self-reliant, lower-income countries, such as Mozambique and Ethiopia, would remain heavily dependent on donor funds. The proposed metrics could be useful to stimulate further analysis and discussion around domestic spending on AIDS and corresponding donor contributions, and to structure financial agreements between recipient country governments and donors. Coupled with improved resource tracking, such metrics could enhance transparency and accountability for efficient use of money and maximise the effect of available funding to prevent HIV infections and save lives. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2015 Hecht et

  1. The Varied Educational Effects of Parent-Child Communication: A Comparative Study of Fourteen Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the ways in which parent-child communication--a major indicator of parental involvement--influences children's educational achievement across 14 countries. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the author examines the extent to which social class differences in the effect of…

  2. Using GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) to analyze data collected from artificial insemination programmes for cattle in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Clayton, M.; Bennett, T.; Eisele, C.; Garcia, M.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) and its companion GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) are to address two major problems in on-farm research on livestock production. The first is the quality of the data collected and the second is the intellectual rigor of the analyses and their associated results when statistically testing causal hypotheses. The solution is to develop a data management system such as AIDA and an analysis system such as GAIDA to estimate parameters that explain biological mechanisms for on-farm application. The system uses epidemiological study designs in the uncontrolled research environment of the farm, uses a database manager (Microsoft Access) to handle data management issues encountered in preparing data for analysis, and then uses a statistical program (SYSTAT) to do preliminary analyses. These analyses enable the researcher to have better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in the data contained within the AIDA database. Using GAIDA as a guide, this preliminary analysis helps to determine the strategy for further in-depth analyses. (author)

  3. Cross-country learning in public procurement : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Kimberly; Senden, Shirin; Telgen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    All countries use public procurement to some degree to further policy objectives such as sustainability, innovation, fighting fraud and corruption, value for taxpayers’ money etc. Countries may learn from past successes and failures in other countries while implementing these policies: cross-country

  4. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  5. Service impact of a national clinical leadership development programme: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The study reported here was part of a larger study, which evaluated a national clinical leadership development programme with reference to resources, participant experiences, participant outcomes and service impact. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the programme's service impact. Clinical leadership development develops competencies that are expressed in context. The outcomes of clinical leadership development occur at individual, departmental and organisational levels. The methods used to evaluate the service impact were focus groups, group interviews and individual interviews. Seventy participants provided data in 18 separate qualitative data collection events. The data contained numerous accounts of service development activities, initiated by programme participants, which improved service and/or improved the culture of the work setting. Clinical leadership development programmes that incorporate a deliberate service impact element can result in identifiable positive service outcomes. The nuanced relationship between leader development and service development warrants further investigation. This study demonstrates that clinical leadership development can impact on service in distinct and identifiable ways. Clinical leadership development programmes should focus on the setting in which the leadership competencies will be demonstrated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of country of study on student responsiveness to the H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S M; Wong, A H; Kim, J H; Yung, T K C; Lau, J T F

    2010-08-01

    University students, both travelling abroad on holiday or exchange students entering a country, can serve as mobile carriers of infectious diseases during a pandemic, and thus require special attention when considering preventive measures. The objectives of this study were to evaluate student compliance and opinions on preventive measures of a university before and during an H1N1 influenza pandemic, and to explore environmental and behavioural factors that might contribute towards compliance. Cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire. Local and foreign students attending an international summer school programme were invited to participate in a self-administered survey. Respondents complied with most of the preventive measures, excluding website viewing and mask wearing. Significant differences in compliance and perceived necessity were found amongst students from Singapore, Hong Kong and the USA. Singaporean students were significantly more likely to comply with all measures and consume antiviral medication in response to the pandemic than students studying in the US. Students' responses towards university pandemic measures were largely positive, but sensitivity towards these measures varied between groups by country of study. This should be considered in further comparative studies. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  8. Feasibility studies of safety assessment methods for programmable automation systems. Final report of the AVV project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Pulkkinen, U.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.; Tuulari, E.

    1995-10-01

    Feasibility studies of two different groups of methodologies for safety assessment of programmable automation systems has been executed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The studies concerned the dynamic testing methods and the fault tree (FT) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methods. In order to get real experience in the application of these methods, an experimental testing of two realistic pilot systems were executed and a FT/FMEA analysis of a programmable safety function accomplished. The purpose of the studies was not to assess the object systems, but to get experience in the application of methods and assess their potentials and development needs. (46 refs., 21 figs.)

  9. Therapeutic patient education in heart failure: do studies provide sufficient information about the educational programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Mishra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment.In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation of the undergraduate Physics programme at IGNOU. The evaluation, the first of its type for this programme, adapted the major tenets of the CIPP model. The findings are based on the responses from a randomly chosen sample of 509 learners across India. The methods employed for the study include records, document, and database analysis, surveys, and case studies.Although the University has enhanced access to higher science education, the attrition rate is high (73%, and the success rate is low. The authors recommend that the University review and reorient its strategies for providing good quality, learner-centred higher education in science subjects. The programme should address the concerns of the learners about the effectiveness of the student support systems, the difficulty level, and the learner-friendliness of study materials with the goal of achieving long-term sustainability while maintaining parity with the conventional system. The need for improving the presentation of the courses and simplifying the mathematical details is emphasised.

  11. Stakeholders' Cooperation in the Study Programme Quality Assurance: Theory and Practice in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileicikiene, Nora

    2011-01-01

    The cooperation of various stakeholders' groups is a prerequisite to develop and realise high-quality study programmes, i.e. during studies to develop skills that are relevant to the labour market and social life. In order to achieve effective stakeholders' cooperation, it is necessary to identify stakeholder's groups relevant to a study programme…

  12. The effect of a short integrated study skills programme for first-year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, K.M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Themmen, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for outcome-based studies on strategies for supporting at-risk medical students that use long-term follow-up and contemporaneous controls. AIM: To measure the effect of a short integrated study skills programme (SSP) on the study progress of at-risk medical students.

  13. Integrating ICT in Kenyan Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Case Study of a Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Krug, Don; Bill, Mike; Smulders, Maaike; Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Kenyan secondary schools. Specifically, it is a case study of four schools with no previous access to ICT. The professional development programme from which data for this study were drawn was designed to support teachers learning to integrate ICT in the…

  14. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  15. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  16. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Rute

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%, Leadership (61,03%, Customer results (58,46 and People (51,28% had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%, People results (41,03%, Policy and strategy (37,91%, Key performance results (19,23% and Society results (19,23% had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement.

  17. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  18. Co-ordinated research programme on isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of essential micronutrients (particularly of iron, but also of zinc and selenium) are known to affect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world, mainly in developing countries. Such deficiencies can lead to significant deficits in mental development, growth, work performance, immune competence and other biological parameters. In many of the population groups that are affected, the deficiencies are thought to be due not to an absolute lack of the element in the diet but rather to is poor bioavailability. Much work has already been done on this subject, particularly in some developed countries and particularly with respect to iron. However, there is still appears to be a need for more research on factors affecting bioavailability and the means to improve it by simple dietary modification and fortification using food products of the kind that may be locally available in developing countries. Isotope techniques potentially have a large role to play in studies of the bioavailability of iron and other trace elements. To support work in this area, the IAEA initiated a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) at the end of 1990 on ''Isotope-Aided Studies of the Bioavailability of Iron and Zinc from Human Diets''. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of participants in this CRP is the subject of the present report. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. The relative roles of ANC and EPI in the continuous distribution of LLINs: a qualitative study in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss-Nyland, Katherine; Koné, Diakalia; Karema, Corine; Ejersa, Waqo; Webster, Jayne; Lines, Jo

    2017-05-01

    The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries. In a qualitative evaluation of continuous distribution through the ANC and EPI, semi-structured, individual and group interviews were conducted in Kenya, Malawi, Mali, and Rwanda. Respondents included national, sub-national, and facility-level health staff, and were selected to capture a range of roles related to malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. Policies, guidelines, and data collection tools were reviewed as a means of triangulation to assess the structure of LLIN distribution, and the methods of data collection and reporting for malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. In the four countries visited, distribution of LLINs was more effectively integrated through ANC than through EPI because of a) stronger linkages and involvement between malaria and reproductive health programmes, as compared to malaria and EPI, and b) more complete programme monitoring for ANC-based distribution, compared to EPI-based distribution. Opportunities for improving the distribution of LLINs through these channels exist, especially in the case of EPI. For both ANC and EPI, integrated distribution of LLINs has the potential to act as an incentive, improving the already strong coverage of both these essential services. The collection and reporting of data on LLINs distributed through the ANC and EPI can provide insight into the performance of LLIN distribution within these programmes. Greater attention to data collection and use, by both the global malaria community, and the integrated programmes, can improve

  20. Investigating the Effectiveness of a Study Skills Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikhwari, T. D.; Pillay, J.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the school system in South Africa is continually producing learners who are inadequately prepared for higher education studies, particularly schools in disadvantaged environments. The University of Venda (UNIVEN) is situated in an educationally disadvantaged environment. Most of the students who enroll at this…

  1. Roles, tasks and educational functions of postgraduate programme directors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydén, Hanna; Ponzer, Sari; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Kihlström, Lars; Nordquist, Jonas

    2015-10-01

    A programme director is often required to organise postgraduate medical education. This leadership role can include educational as well as managerial duties. Only a few published studies have explored programme directors' own perceptions of their role. There is a need to explore the use of theoretical frameworks to improve the understanding of educational roles. To explore programme directors' own perceptions of their role in terms of tasks and functions, and to relate these roles to the theoretical framework developed by Bolman and Deal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 programme directors between February and August 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis using a deductive approach. The various roles and tasks included by participants in their perceptions of their work could be categorised within the framework of functions described by Bolman and Deal. These included: structuring the education (structural function); supporting individuals and handling relations (human resource function); negotiating between different interests (political function); and influencing the culture at the departmental level (symbolic function). The functions most often emphasised by participants were the structural and human resource functions. Some tasks involved several functions which varied over time. Programme directors' own perceptions of their roles, tasks and functions varied widely. The theoretical framework of Bolman and Deal might be helpful when explaining and developing these roles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply.

  3. The European Union and UN Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria: A Study of the Micro Projects Programmes (MPPs in the Niger Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi O. Nwaodu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present Cotonou Accord was signed by the EU, 77, African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP countries towards halving poverty as prescribed by the UN Declaration by 2015. The EU's interventionin the rural communities of the oil producing states of Nigeria (Niger Delta clearly shows her commitment towards the above stated global drive for the eradication of poverty especially in the Third World. Bringing about the establishment of the Micro ProjectProgrammes (MPP3, MPP6 and MPP9 for the nine states of the region between 1999 and 2012 and expended over €210 million on the programmes. Four years after theimplementation of the programmes, arising questions include: to what extent did the EU-MPPs achieve the set goals of poverty reduction in the region? And how sustainable are the achievements of the programmes? Using ex post facto research design, it was found out that amidst numerous challenges the MPPs actually reduced the level of poverty in the region through the provision of over 20,000 micro projects to more than 4000 rural communities in the nine states it covered. It therefore recommended that similar programmes be initiated by all other international development agencies as to speed up the reduction of poverty in the UN targeted areas though behind the originally target period of 2015. The study contends that an effective administrative institutional framework of the EU- MPPs should serve as model to other development agencies not only in Nigeria but across the developing economies of the world.

  4. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  5. Separating civil and military nuclear programmes in the UK and France; a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable concern shown by the general public and the trade unions over the connection between the civil and military nuclear programmes. This paper is the result of research to determine the feasibility of separating the two in the UK and France. The result of the study is that it is technically and economically feasible to adopt a policy of separation. The costs are not overwhelming, rather the difficulty lies in assessing the intangible benefits of such a programme, and in overcoming any political impediments to its adoption. The major political fear is that adopting a separation programme would put that nation at a disadvantage with respect to other nuclear weapon states. (author)

  6. Study of radiological risk in breast cancer screening programme at Comunidad Valenciana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaescusa, J.I.; Leon, A.; Verdu, G.; Cuevas, M.D.; Salas, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk being the most important late somatic effect the induction of cancer. This study is made in order to evaluate the risk produced into the population by the Cimadon Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriment are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X-ray equipment. And on the other hand, radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains into the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography unit's doses and average compression breast thickness. (author)

  7. Study on predictors of health outcome in patients attending hypertension intervention programme in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Rasidah Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore predictor of health outcomes among Malaysian hypertensive patients attending a standard hypertension intervention programme. Among the psychological predictors studied are illness perception, health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Quality of life, anxiety and depression and demographic variables are among the predictors included in the study. Two series of studies were conducted to answer the research question formulated for each study. Study 1 aims to...

  8. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  9. Pilot Study on Harmonisation of Reactor Safety in WENRA Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Most of the objectives, set for the Pilot Study, were met. It can be concluded that the methodology was adequate for its purpose. National requirements on selected safety issues have been systematically compared and the major gaps and differences have been identified. Convenient overviews have been provided of differences and similarities between the countries. Furthermore, the conclusions are based on a safety justification and are detailed enough to provide input to a further more detailed analysis on the national level. It was not possible, however, to provide fully verified conclusions about the implementation of the reference levels in the different countries. This has to do with the following constraints on the study: In line with the Terms of Reference, the comparison of formal requirements did not address the more detailed use of criteria and methods to verify compliance. The same requirement could be enforced differently in different regulatory systems, and hence lead to different implementation. The Pilot Study also assessed the implementation, but it was not possible to do this in sufficient detail to identify such differences. The implementation was assessed on the basis of current knowledge of the respective regulatory body, but it was not possible to provide the panels with evidence of the implementation. For these reasons, conclusions about implemented safety provisions in the different countries should be drawn with precaution. The introduction of the panel assessments greatly improved the quality and consistency of the comparison assessments. Uncertainties in the assessments are mainly connected with lack of time to make a detailed analysis in some cases. The reliability of the assessments seems to be sufficient for the objectives of the Pilot Study. The introduction of the IAEA safety standards in the study proved to be helpful and provided confidence in the scope and strictness of the reference levels. This Pilot Study has contributed to

  10. Withdrawing low risk women from cervical screening programmes: mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlaw-Johnson, C; Gallivan, S; Jenkins, D

    1999-02-06

    To evaluate the impact of policies for removing women before the recommended age of 64 from screening programmes for cervical cancer in the United Kingdom. A mathematical model of the clinical course of precancerous lesions which accounts for the influence of infection with the human papillomavirus, the effects of screening on the progression of disease, and the accuracy of the testing procedures. Two policies are compared: one in which women are withdrawn from the programme if their current smear is negative and they have a recent history of regular, negative results and one in which women are withdrawn if their current smear test is negative and a simultaneous test is negative for exposure to high risk types of human papillomavirus. United Kingdom cervical screening programme. The incidence of invasive cervical cancer and the use of resources. Early withdrawal of selected women from the programme is predicted to give rise to resource savings of up to 25% for smear tests and 18% for colposcopies when withdrawal occurs from age 50, the youngest age considered in the study. An increase in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer, by up to 2 cases/100 000 women each year is predicted. Testing for human papillomavirus infection to determine which women should be withdrawn from the programme makes little difference to outcome. This model systematically analyses the consequences of screening options using available data and the clinical course of precancerous lesions. If further audit studies confirm the model's forecasts, a policy of early withdrawal might be considered. This would be likely to release substantial resources which could be channelled into other aspects of health care or may be more effectively used within the cervical screening programme to counteract the possible increase in cancer incidence that early withdrawal might bring.

  11. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  13. Bangladesh. National Studies. Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This study examines the work of the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) since its 1987 inception. Efforts to assess educational achievement at the local, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh are examined with a view to achieving universal primary education; eradicating illiteracy; and providing continuing education in…

  14. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Teaching in an Australian Accounting Programme--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace; Cooper, Barry J.; Dellaportas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to elicit and understand the views of Mainland Chinese students concerning their learning experience in an Australian accounting education programme. The article contributes to the literature by investigating the issues and implications associated with international students' perceptions of teaching, as little…

  15. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  16. India. National Studies. Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This study examines the work of the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) since its 1987 inception. Efforts to assess educational achievement at the local, regional, and national levels in India are examined with a view to achieving universal primary education (UPE); eradicating illiteracy; and providing continuing education in…

  17. Studying Computer Science in a Multidisciplinary Degree Programme: Freshman Students' Orientation, Knowledge, and Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Kofoed, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    Teachers at universities are facing an increasing disparity in students' prior IT knowledge and, at the same time, experience a growing disengagement of the students with regard to involvement in study activities. As computer science teachers in a joint programme in computer science and business administration, we made a number of similar…

  18. Cultural Capital Theory: A Study of Children Enrolled in Rural and Urban Head Start Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojczyk, Kathryn E.; Rogers-Haverback, Heather; Pae, Hye; Davis, Anna E.; Mason, Rihana S.

    2015-01-01

    Children from different backgrounds have disparate access to cultural capital, which may influence their academic success. The purpose of this study was to examine the links between family background, home literacy experiences, and emergent literacy skills among preschoolers enrolled in Head Start programmes. The background characteristics studied…

  19. The personal value of being part of a Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) links programme to develop a palliative care degree programme in Sub Saharan Africa: a descriptive study of the views of volunteer UK health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, B A; Kirton, J A; Downing, J; Frame, K

    2015-12-14

    There is a global need to expand palliative care services to reach the increasing number requiring end of life care. In developing countries where the incidences of cancer are rising there is an urgent need to develop the palliative care workforce. This paper reports on a UK Department for international development (DFID) initiative funded through the Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) where palliative care staff, both clinical and academic, volunteered to help to develop, support and deliver a degree in palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the study was to explore the personal impact on the health care professionals of being part of this initiative. An evaluation approach using a confidential electronic survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions was distributed to all 17 volunteers on the programme, three months after completion of the first cohort. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content thematic analysis. Ethical review deemed the study to be service evaluation. 82 % (14) responded and several themes emerged from the data including the positive impact on teaching and educational skills; clinical practice and finally personal development. Using a score of 1-10 (1-no impact, 10 maximum impact) 'Lifestyle choices - life work balance' (rating 7.83) had the most impact. This approach to supporting the development of palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa through skill sharing in supporting the delivery of a degree programme in palliative care was successful in terms of delivery of the degree programme, material development and mentorship of local staff. Additionally, this study shows it provided a range of positive impacts on the volunteer health care professionals from the UK. Professional impacts including increased management skills, and being better prepared to undertake a senior role. However it is the personal impact including lifestyle choices which the volunteers reported as the highest impact

  20. Study of the Factors Responsible for the Dropouts from the BSc Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Inder Fozdar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a report on students who decided to drop out of the BSc programme offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU. This study was designed to determine the reasons leading to students’ decisions to withdraw from the programme. Identified in this study are nine major reasons for dropouts. Results of this study lead to several suggestions for improving current instructional and delivery strategies of IGNOU’s BSc Programme. Following such suggestions could help to reduce students’ dropout rate for this particular programme through implementation of timely interventions at different critical stages of their learning journey.

  1. Medical Publications (2002-2009 of Islamic Countries; A Medline-Based Study Compared To Non-Islamic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Majidi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of scientific publication by a countryis an important indication of its science generation and development.The aim of this study was to compare the publicationsin medical sciences of Islamic countries from 2002-2009with those of a number of developed countries.Methods: The PubMed and CIA World Fact Book were used toextract the number of publications and socioeconomic status oftarget countries, respectively. The number of publications, publicationsper million population, gross domestic product (GDPper capita, population below poverty line (PBP and type ofpublications of the countries were compared.Results: The publications of Islamic countries increased from6906 in 2002 to 21656 in 2009. There was a positive correlationbetween GDP per capita and publication per million. However,publication productivity did not decrease significantly with theincrease of PBP. Turkey and Iran were top two among Islamiccountries in terms of the number of publications and growth ofthe rate of scientific publication, respectively. Islamic countriesdo lag behind developed countries in terms of the number ofpublication and the rate of growth.Conclusion: There is a wide gap between developed and Islamiccountries and among Islamic countries themselves interms of the number and the rate of growth of publication inmedical sciences.

  2. Country Report: Economics as a Social Science in French lycées :A Programme Shaped by the Evolution of a School Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Chatel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1960s, courses in economics have become established in French lycées for pupils aged approximately 16 to 18 as part of both the general and technological (services streams. There are no other specific programmes in economics at the other levels of the school system. In lower secondary schools (collèges, which cater for children aged between 11 and 15, economic phenomena are presented in a somewhat descriptive manner during history and geography lessons. These descriptions introduce children to an economic vocabulary that includes terms such as GDP, productivity, inflation, growth and development. However, the acquisition of this vocabulary does not lead on to the teaching of any real economic arguments, nor of economic concepts or theories in the strict sense. Economics as just defined in not taught in the vocational streams either. The aim of this article is to characterise the teaching of economics that is provided in the general streams of French upper secondary schools as part of a subject called Economic and Social Sciences (ESS. It is here that economics teaching is most heavily concentrated; furthermore, it is the only one of the two economics programmes in French lycées for which curriculum studies exist. The article will show that, despite the considerable changes it has undergone, this programme has retained the critical and socially aware approach that has been present since it was first established. It was by no means evident that such an approach, inspired originally by the work of historians of the Annales school, would be adopted, even less retained, since it goes against the grain of developments in economics at university level, both in French universities and internationally, during the two decades between 1980 and the year 2000 (LeVan Lemesle 1983; Le Merrer 1990. During this period, the economics taught in universities became less descriptive and more formalised and moved away from the other social

  3. Creating a blended learning module in an online master study programme in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Benjamin; Ring, Christina; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Schmidt-Strassburger, Uta

    2015-01-01

    The medical faculty of Ulm University has launched the postgraduate master online study programme Advanced Oncology (AO) in 2010. We describe the challenges in developing an e-learning module using the example of a medical biometry course, focusing the implementation of the course material and our single-loop learning experience after the first students have finished and evaluated the lecture. Programme participants are qualified medical doctors and researchers in biomedical areas related to the field of oncology. The study programme provides the majority of lectures online via didactic videos accompanied by one-week attendance seminars. Supplementary learning materials include review articles, supportive reading material, multiple choice questions, and exercises for each unit. Lecture evaluations based on specific questions concerning learning environment and information learned, each measured on a five-point Likert scale. Lecture videos were implemented following the classical triad of the didactic process, using oncological examples from practice to teach. The online tutorial support offered to students was hardly used, thus we enhanced faculty presence during the face-to-face seminars. Lecture evaluations improved after revising the learning material on the basis of the first AO student cohort's comments. Developing and implementing an online study programme is challenging with respect of maximizing the information students learn due to limited opportunities for personal contact between lecturers and students. A more direct interaction of lecturers and students in a blended learning setting outperforms a mere web-based contact in terms of learning advantage and students' satisfaction, especially for complex methodological content.

  4. The effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on intravenous medication errors : a controlled before and after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Huong; Pham, Hong-Tham; Vo, Dang-Khoa; Nguyen, Tuan-Dung; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Taxis, Katja

    Background Little is known about interventions to reduce intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Objective To assess the effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on clinically relevant errors during intravenous

  5. Assessing quality of a worksite health promotion programme from participants’ views: findings from a qualitative study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow‐Yen; Hassali, Mohamed‐Azmi A.; Shafie, Asrul A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed‐Izham M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background  An assessment of the process and outcomes of a health promotion programme is necessary for the continuous improvement of a programme. Objective  To explore the participants’ perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of the ‘Love Your Heart Programme’. Design  A qualitative study using semi‐structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants of the ‘Love Your Heart’ programme. Interviews were based on an interview guide that grouped questions into four main subgroups: structure, process, immediate outcomes and impact. The interviews were audio‐recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of grounded theory. Results  A total of 17 interviews were conducted. The participants were satisfied with the structural aspects of the programme. Different opinions arose regarding the ideal frequency and duration of the programme. The content of the seminars was thought to be too general. There was also a lack of interest in the ‘Road to a Healthy Heart’ booklet. All of the respondents had positive opinions about the communication skills and attitude of the health educator. The potential advantages and disadvantages of participating in the programme were discussed. Finally, the respondents expressed their satisfaction with the programme and the impact it had on them. Discussion and conclusions  In general, the participants who were interviewed held the programme, and the health educator conducted the programme in high regard. The suggestions that were received can be used to further improve the acceptability and feasibility of the programme. PMID:22050457

  6. Area Handbook Series: South Korea: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    also coordinated and often directed the economic fanc - tions of other government ministries, including the Ministry of Finance. The board was... Gene D. "U.S. Military Co-Production Programmes: A Case of Skewing the Americans?" Asian DefenceJournal [Kuala Lumnur], 19, No. 8, August 1989, 50-59

  7. Determinants of timely completion : the impact of Bachelor's degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Torenbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely completion of university degree programmes is a topic of growing concern to higher education institutions and their students. This paper reports on a study about the impact of degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress. The setting for the study is a Dutch law

  8. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key…

  9. Undergraduate medical education programme renewal: a longitudinal context, input, process and product evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzazadeh, Azim; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Golestani, Abolfazl; Jafarian, Ali; Jalili, Mohammad; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Saleh, Narges; Shahi, Farhad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a comprehensive framework to guide initiating, planning, implementing and evaluating a revised undergraduate medical education programme. The eight-year longitudinal evaluation study consisted of four phases compatible with the four components of the CIPP model. In the first phase, we explored the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional programme as well as contextual needs, assets, and resources. For the second phase, we proposed a model for the programme considering contextual features. During the process phase, we provided formative information for revisions and adjustments. Finally, in the fourth phase, we evaluated the outcomes of the new undergraduate medical education programme in the basic sciences phase. Information was collected from different sources such as medical students, faculty members, administrators, and graduates, using various qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups, questionnaires, and performance measures. The CIPP model has the potential to guide policy makers to systematically collect evaluation data and to manage stakeholders' reactions at each stage of the reform in order to make informed decisions. However, the model may result in evaluation burden and fail to address some unplanned evaluation questions.

  10. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  11. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors' confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders' participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  12. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors’ confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders’ participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators

  13. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors’ confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders’ participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  14. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berg Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.

  15. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the Agency in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques being used in this programme include neutron activation analysis (NAA), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes. The main outcome of the meeting was agreement to include a ''core'' programme comprising studies of (1) aerosols collected from areas of low and high pollution, (2) coal fly ash composition, and (3) leaching of toxic elements from coal fly ash

  16. Nutrition Education in Australian Midwifery Programmes: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Arrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has explored how nutrition content in midwifery education prepares midwives to provide prenatal nutrition advice. This study examined the nature and extent of nutrition education provided in Australian midwifery programmes. A mixed-methods approach was used, incorporating an online survey and telephone interviews. The survey analysis included 23 course coordinators representing 24 of 50 accredited midwifery programmes in 2012. Overall, the coordinators considered nutrition in midwifery curricula and the midwife’s role as important. All programmes included nutrition content; however, eleven had only 5 to <10 hours allocated to nutrition, while two had a designated unit. Various topics were covered. Dietitians/other nutrition experts were rarely involved in teaching or reviewing the nutrition content. Interviews with seven coordinators revealed that nutrition education tended to be problem-oriented and at times based on various assumptions. Nutrition content was not informed by professional or theoretical models. The development of nutrition assessment skills or practical training for midwifery students in providing nutrition advice was lacking. As nutrition is essential for maternal and foetal health, nutrition education in midwifery programmes needs to be reviewed and minimum requirements should be included to improve midwives’ effectiveness in this area. This may require collaboration between nutrition experts and midwifery bodies.

  17. Dissemination of solar photovoltaics: a study on the government programme to promote solar lantern in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velayudhan, S.K. [Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad (India)

    2003-11-01

    The study examines the reasons for the limited dissemination of solar lanterns in India. It uses ''diffusion of innovation'' framework to examine the dissemination process. The impact of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and also the communication within the community about the product are examined. To understand the influence of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and the information source used by adopters, a survey of 188 users across 15 locations is carried out. The study shows that the benefits promoted by the government programme for disseminating solar lantern are not the reasons for purchase in most cases. The results suggest that the emphasis on subsidy by the support programme shifts the focus to the cost of the solar lantern than its benefits. Contrary to expectation there is no significant difference in the profile of early and late adopters. The subsidy for solar lanterns and the targets set for government officials are the possible influence on the observed profile for adopter categories. The early majority who can afford the solar lantern and take up the innovation on its merits are expected to disseminate the innovation. The programme on the contrary not only fails to identify and promote to the early adopters, but focus on the disadvantaged groups. There are therefore no champions for the innovation and an absence of word-of-mouth communication. The information source is restricted to government agencies, while the potential user looks for evaluative information on the product from existing users. The application of ''diffusion of innovation'' framework to understand the dissemination process of solar lantern suggests reworking the support programmes designed to promote solar lanterns. The lessons can be extended to programmes designed for dissemination of other solar photovoltaic products. (author)

  18. Dissemination of solar photovoltaics: a study on the government programme to promote solar lantern in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velayudhan, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The study examines the reasons for the limited dissemination of solar lanterns in India. It uses 'diffusion of innovation' framework to examine the dissemination process. The impact of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and also the communication within the community about the product are examined. To understand the influence of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and the information source used by adopters, a survey of 188 users across 15 locations is carried out. The study shows that the benefits promoted by the government programme for disseminating solar lantern are not the reasons for purchase in most cases. The results suggest that the emphasis on subsidy by the support programme shifts the focus to the cost of the solar lantern than its benefits. Contrary to expectation there is no significant difference in the profile of early and late adopters. The subsidy for solar lanterns and the targets set for government officials are the possible influence on the observed profile for adopter categories. The early majority who can afford the solar lantern and take up the innovation on its merits are expected to disseminate the innovation. The programme on the contrary not only fails to identify and promote to the early adopters, but focus on the disadvantaged groups. There are therefore no champions for the innovation and an absence of word-of-mouth communication. The information source is restricted to government agencies, while the potential user looks for evaluative information on the product from existing users. The application of 'diffusion of innovation' framework to understand the dissemination process of solar lantern suggests reworking the support programmes designed to promote solar lanterns. The lessons can be extended to programmes designed for dissemination of other solar photovoltaic products

  19. Patients' experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-09-09

    To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be undertaken to address these. Published by the BMJ

  20. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cardenas, Juan; Defaz, Maria Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telon, Flaviano; Garcia Aguilar, Juan; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D G (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  1. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  2. Teacher Experiences of Delivering an Obesity Prevention Programme (The WAVES Study Intervention) in a Primary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tania L; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Pallan, Miranda J; Passmore, Sandra; Adab, Peymane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been a wealth of childhood obesity prevention studies in school-based settings. However, few have investigated the experiences of school staff charged with delivery of such programmes. This study aimed to elicit teachers' experiences of delivering a childhood obesity prevention programme for children aged 6-7 years. Design:…

  3. Assessing Quranic Reading Proficiency in the j-QAF Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarif, Muhammad Mustaqim Mohd; Mohamad, Nurfadilah; Bakar, Bhasah Abu

    2014-01-01

    In its effort to provide solid religious foundation for Muslim students, the Ministry of Education Malaysia has launched a national religious literacy initiative known as the j-QAF Programme in 2004. This programme has since been implemented in public primary schools throughout the country and incorporated as a part of the curriculum of studies.…

  4. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  5. Teaching of reading to school beginners : a study of reading programmes in primary one in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kemizano, Rosert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The study examines reading programmes with the reference to the teaching/learning of reading to school beginners. The teaching of reading at the early stages is important because it is the quality of the experiences that children get that affect or lay the foundation for reading development (Chall, 1996).Therefore, the phenomenon, “teaching of reading to school beginners” studied is of great importance. The theoretical background used includes reading and its importance, Languag...

  6. The use of reflective diaries in end of life training programmes: a study exploring the impact of self-reflection on the participants in a volunteer training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Alison; Nolan, Kate; Doyle, Rita; Mason, Stephen; Gambles, Maureen; Chen, Hong; Smeding, Ruthmarijke; Ellershaw, John

    2016-03-05

    A training programme was developed and delivered to a cohort of volunteers who were preparing for a unique role to provide companionship to dying patients in the acute hospital setting. This comprehensive programme aimed to provide an opportunity for participants to fully understand the nature and responsibilities of the role, whilst also allowing sufficient time to assess the qualities and competencies of participants for their ongoing volunteering role. Participants completed reflective diaries throughout the training course to record their ongoing thoughts and feelings. The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological analysis of these entries to understand participants' experiences, perceptions and motivations. The wider study was structured into three phases. Phase 1 was the delivery of a 12 week, bespoke training programme; Phase 2 involved a 26 week pilot implementation of the Care of the Dying Volunteer Service and Phase 3 was the research evaluation of the training and implementation which would inform the further development of the training programme. Self-reflection is a common component of End of Life training programmes and volunteers in this study completed a reflective diary after participation in each of the training sessions. A thematic analysis was undertaken to explore and understand the participants' experience, perceptions and motivations in relation to their participation in the training. All 19 volunteers completed the reflective diaries. From a potential 228 diary entries over the 12 week training programme, 178 diary entries were submitted (78 %). The following key themes were identified: Dying Alone and the importance of being present, Personal loss and the reconstruction of meaning, Self-Awareness and Personal growth, Self-preservation and Coping strategies and group unity/cohesion. The participants in this study demonstrated that they were able to use the diaries as an appropriate medium for reflection. Their reflections were

  7. Age in antiretroviral therapy programmes in South Africa: a multi-centre observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Morna; Johnson, Leigh F; Schomaker, Michael; Tanser, Frank; Maskew, Mhairi; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Stinson, Kathryn; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew; Myer, Landon

    2015-01-01

    Background As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands, increasing numbers of older patients will start treatment and require specialised long-term care. However the impact of age in ART programs in resource-constrained settings is poorly understood. South Africa has the second largest population of older (≥50 years) people in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV epidemic is also ageing rapidly and the country has one of the highest HIV population prevalences worldwide. This study explored the effect of age on mortality on ART in South Africa and whether this effect was mediated by baseline immunologic status. Methods IeDEA-SA is a regional collaboration which combines routine observational data from large ART programmes across Southern Africa. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis of adults starting ART from 2004-2013 in six large South African cohorts: two primary care clinics, three hospitals and a large rural cohort. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF), immunologic and virologic responses. Patients' vital status was ascertained through linkage to the National Population Register. Inverse probability weighting was used to correct mortality for LTF. Mortality was estimated using Cox's proportional hazards and competing risks regression. The interaction between baseline CD4+ cell count and age was tested. Immunologic responses were graphed by age and duration on ART. Findings 83 566 patients were followed for 174 640 patient-years. Patients were predominantly female, especially in the younger age groups: 81% (18 819/23 258) of patients 16-29 years and 66% (12 812/19 372) of those aged 30-34. Mortality increased with age in a dose response, mediated by baseline immunologic status. Patients with CD4 counts <50 cells/μL were a particularly high risk group, comprising 14% of all older patients starting ART. The percentage of older patients enrolling increased with successive calendar years from 6% (290/4 999) in

  8. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises twenty-three participants from twenty-one countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the second research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the third research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  11. Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julián

    2004-01-01

    We live in a service economy, but the extent of development of service employment differs across developed countries. This paper assesses the role of structural factors and institutions in explaining the common patterns and main di?erences in the recent expansion of service employment in OECD countries. It finds that GDP per capita, the size of the government sector and the extent of urbanization are positively associated with the service employment share. However, the evidence suggests that ...

  12. Konference Nineteenth-Century Programme Music, Centro Studi Opera Omnia Luigi Boccherini, Lucca 25.-27. listopadu 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva; Zapletal, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-420 ISSN 0018-7003. [Nineteenth-Century Programme Music . Lucca, 25.11.2016-27.11.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Programme Music * Nineteenth-Century Music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  13. "Crazy? So what!": A School Programme to Promote Mental Health and Reduce Stigma--Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Dietrich, Sandra; Heider, Dirk; Blume, Anne; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the health-promoting and stigma-reducing effect of the German school-based programme "Crazy? So what!". Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental longitudinal control-study was carried out with assessments one week prior to the school programme, immediately after it and three…

  14. Re-Imagining School Health in Education and Health Programmes: A Study across Selected Municipal Schools in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in municipal…

  15. Comparative Study of the Housing Industry Performance in country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sepehrdoust

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of housing construction in Iran and also to define current status of the housing industry system and its future in the country. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the input based model of CCR with fixed return to scale have been used to evaluate housing industry performance in different states of Iran during the years 2006-2009. The complementary BCC approach with assumption of variable return to scale has been used for dividing technical efficiency to management and scale efficiencies. The findings imply that the average efficiency score obtained by all the states is 0.94 and only 37 percent of the states operate technically efficient. On the other hand, about 63 percent of the states are found as relatively inefficient and mostly present decreasing return to scale. Also, it has been found that the inefficient states have management inefficiency in utilizing construction inputs. Without any doubt, managerial and supportive assistance of the government to inefficient states, motivating construction employees to proper jobs and knowledge development in optimum assignment of construction factors could be appropriate solutions for the problems of the housing sector.

  16. Does Cyberbullying Prevalence Among Adolescents Relate With Country Socioeconomic and Development Indicators? An Ecological Study of 31 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara; Brochado, Sandra; Barros, Henrique; Fraga, Sílvia

    2017-10-01

    In addition to individual characteristics, it is also important to evaluate how the environment may influence the dynamics of cyberbullying. We aim to study the correlation between cyberbullying prevalence among adolescents and selected country-level indicators. We used two different data sources: data from a previously published literature review, to identify information on cyberbullying prevalence across countries, and data from the World Bank databases, to extract information on country-level indicators. A correlation matrix was used to present the association between the selected country-level indicators and the prevalence of cyberbullying. We observed a statistically significant negative correlation between cyberbullying victimization (cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, respectively) and gross domestic product (r = -.474 and -.842), gross national income (r = -.485 and -.758), enrollment in secondary (r = -.446 and -.898) and tertiary education (r = -.222 and -.881), the number of secure Internet servers (r = -.118 and -.794), and the number of Internet users (r = -.190 and -.818). A country's educational level seems to be an important contributor to the occurrence of cyberbullying.

  17. Impact of Social Responsibility Programmes in Stakeholder Satisfaction: An Empirical Study of Portuguese Managers’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Luis; Ramos, Amílcar; Rosa, Álvaro; Braga, Ana Cristina; Sampaio, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Investigação no âmbito do Projeto de Doutoramento(PhD), especialidade de Gestão Global, Estratégia e Desenvolvimento Empresarial (ISCTE-IUL - 2012, classificação de “Aprovado com Muito Bom”). This study investigates the relationship between social responsibility programmes of organizations and stakeholder satisfaction. Based on stakeholder theory, an online survey was administered to managers of Portuguese organizations with certified management systems. The findings suggest that sta...

  18. Qualitative study of peer workers within the 'Partners in Recovery' programme in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, John; Cashin, Andrew; Mills, Jem; Hutchinson, Marie; Kozlowski, Desiree; Graham, Iain

    2018-02-01

    In Australia and internationally, Peer Workers are increasingly being incorporated into the mental health workforce. Underpinning this trend is the conviction that the inclusion of workers with lived experience in overcoming mental health challenges is central to transforming service delivery. Given there are few identified Australian studies into the experiences of Peer Workers, this paper reports findings from qualitative interviews conducted in a Partners In Recovery programme in one regional area in Australia. The interviews formed part of a larger mixed-method study evaluating Peer Worker roles in the programme. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts with Peer Workers and other staff employed in the programme (n = 22) was undertaken. Central to the five themes that emerged was the concept of lived experience expertise in overcoming mental health challenges. The themes were: (i) role variance, (ii) the challenges and opportunities for Peer Worker, (iii) the processes Peer Workers employed as they attempted to shape an identify and language, (iv) the inconsistencies and challenges of employing lived experience as a defining feature of the peer worker role, and (v) the nature of trust arising from lived experience relationships. From this study, it is evident that the Peer Worker role remains underdeveloped. The difficulties experienced by Peer Workers in establishing a homogenous identity and role is not unique. The process and lack of clarity around role identity revealed from the narratives, parallels the experiences of Mental Health Nursing. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Does the Company Programme Have the Same Impact on Young Women and Men? A Study of Entrepreneurship Education in Norwegian Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether a European entrepreneurship programme called the "Company Programme" (CP) has an impact on young women and men with regard to career preferences, and perceptions of business skills and the likelihood of having a company. CP is taught to 270,000 students in 39 European countries, and approximately 15% of Norwegian…

  20. Note On Research Design For The Study Of Community Participation In Health Care Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Susan B

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available After describing types of research designs for the study of community participation in health care programmes, this paper examines one methodology, the quantitative methodology, the quantitative methodology, in detail. It presents some of the major attractions and limitations of this approach. The attractions include the need for evaluation of success and failure and of cost effectiveness of programmes. The limitations include the inability of the approach to deal with definitions and interventions that cannot be quantitified and the difficulty of identifying casual relationship between interventions and outcomes. These characteristics are illustrated by a case by a medical school in Asia. Research design, research developments and research outcomes are described and analysed. The paper concludes that an alternative analysis which examines the linkages between participation and health improvements would be more useful as it would allow the political, social and economic dimensions of community participation to be examined.

  1. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  2. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH, many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective: To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH, gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution. Design: In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results: For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data

  3. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  4. On PAR: A feasibility study of the Promoting Adult Resilience programme with mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kim; Shochet, Ian; Wurfl, Astrid; Roche, Michael; Maybery, Darryl; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Furness, Trentham

    2018-02-27

    Mental health settings are recognized as complex, unpredictable environments, and challenging interpersonal situations are common for nurses in acute adult mental health services. Occupational stressors include verbal aggression and physical assault and are correlated with poor physical and mental health outcomes for nurses. There is a clear need for proactive approaches that address the negative impacts of stressors on the mental health nursing workforce. Resilience interventions are a preventive approach to strengthening skills for addressing workplace stress, improving health and well-being, and preventing adverse outcomes associated with occupational stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a workplace resilience education programme for nurses in high-acuity adult mental health settings. The outcomes were measured using a single-group pretest post-test design with follow-up at 3 months postintervention. The feasibility and acceptability of the programme were identified with descriptors of mental health, well-being, resilience, facilitator fidelity checklists, and participant satisfaction questionnaires. The programme was found to be feasible for nurses working in high-acuity inpatient settings. There were significant changes to mental health, well-being, and workplace resilience. The programme was delivered with fidelity by facilitators and accepted with high levels of satisfaction by participants. The study findings indicated that nurses can benefit from resilience education that equips them with cognitive, emotion regulation, and relational skills, in conjunction with available external supports and resources, to address workplace challenges. There is a need for comprehensive organizational approaches that include individual, work unit, and organizational-level strategies to support staff well-being. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  6. How close are countries of the WHO European Region to achieving the goal of vaccinating 75% of key risk groups against influenza? Results from national surveys on seasonal influenza vaccination programmes, 2008/2009 to 2014/2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Pernille; Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Johansen, Kari; Tsolova, Svetla; Brown, Caroline

    2018-01-25

    Influenza vaccination is recommended especially for persons at risk of complications. In 2003, the World Health Assembly urged Member States (MS) to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among older persons by 2010. To assess progress towards the 2010 vaccination goal and describe seasonal influenza vaccination recommendations in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Data on seasonal influenza vaccine recommendations, dose distribution, and target group coverage were obtained from two sources: European Union and European Economic Area MS data were extracted from influenza vaccination surveys covering seven seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) published by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. For the remaining WHO European MS, a separate survey on policies and uptake for all seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) was distributed to national immunization programmes in 2015. Data was available from 49 of 53 MS. All but two had a national influenza vaccination policy. High-income countries distributed considerably higher number of vaccines per capita (median; 139.2 per 1000 population) compared to lower-middle-income countries (median; 6.1 per 1000 population). Most countries recommended vaccination for older persons, individuals with chronic disease, healthcare workers, and pregnant women. Children were included in < 50% of national policies. Only one country reached 75% coverage in older persons (2014/2015), while a number of countries reported declining vaccination uptake. Coverage of target groups was overall low, but with large variations between countries. Vaccination coverage was not monitored for several groups. Despite policy recommendations, influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. Low levels of vaccination is not only a missed opportunity for preventing influenza in vulnerable groups, but could negatively affect pandemic preparedness. Improved understanding of barriers to

  7. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Liesbeth ADM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previous scores in order to give feedback about potential changes. The (difference in effectiveness of the different versions of the programme will be tested and compared to a control group, in which respondents only receive a short health risk appraisal. Programme evaluations will assess satisfaction with and appreciation and personal relevance of the intervention among the respondents. Finally

  8. Development of a competency mapping tool for undergraduate professional degree programmes, using mechanical engineering as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David W.; Sheehan, Madoc; Birks, Melanie; Smithson, John

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the curriculum of a professional degree to the associated competency standard ensures graduates have the competence to perform as professionals. Existing approaches to competence mapping vary greatly in depth, complexity, and effectiveness, and a standardised approach remains elusive. This paper describes a new mapping software tool that streamlines and standardises the competency mapping process. The available analytics facilitate ongoing programme review, management, and accreditation. The complete mapping and analysis of an Australian mechanical engineering degree programme is described as a case study. Each subject is mapped by evaluating the amount and depth of competence development present. Combining subject results then enables highly detailed programme level analysis. The mapping process is designed to be administratively light, with aspects of professional development embedded in the software. The effective competence mapping described in this paper enables quantification of learning within a professional degree programme, and provides a mechanism for holistic programme improvement.

  9. Child, Teacher and Parent Perceptions of the FRIENDS Classroom-Based Universal Anxiety Prevention Programme: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryabina, Elena; Morris, Joanna; Byrne, Danielle; Harkin, Nicola; Rook, Sarah; Stallard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health prevention programmes can be effective but their adoption within schools will depend on their social acceptability. We report a qualitative evaluation summarising the views of children (115), parents (20) and school staff (47) about a universal school-based anxiety prevention programme FRIENDS. This study was conducted as part of a large scale randomised controlled trial ( n  = 1362) involving 40 schools in the UK providing primary education to children aged 7-11. Reported overall experience of the programme was very positive, with all three major components of the cognitive behaviour therapy programme (emotional, cognitive, and behavioural) being accepted well and understood by children. The programme was considered to be enjoyable and valuable in teaching children important skills, particularly emotional regulation and coping. Children provided examples of using the skills learned during FRIENDS to manage their emotions and solve problems. However, teachers were concerned that the programme overlapped with the current school curriculum, required additional time and almost half were unable to identify any tangible changes in the children's behaviour. Whilst this paper provides evidence to support the social validity of the FRIENDS anxiety prevention programme, the concerns raised by teachers question the longer-term sustainability of the programme.

  10. Identifying effective pathways in a successful continuous quality improvement programme: the GEDAPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodicoat, Danielle H; Mundet, Xavier; Gray, Laura J; Cos, Xavier; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Cano, Juan-Franciso

    2014-12-01

    Continuous quality improvement programmes often target several aspects of care, some of which may be more effective meaning that resources could be focussed on these. The objective was to identify the effective and ineffective aspects of a successful continuous quality improvement programme for individuals with type 2 diabetes in primary care. Data were from a series of cross-sectional studies (GEDAPS) in primary care, Catalonia, Spain, in 55 centres (2239 participants) in 1993, and 92 centres (5819 participants) in 2002. A structural equation modelling approach was used. The intervention was associated with improved microvascular outcomes through microalbuminuria and funduscopy screening, which had a direct effect on microvascular outcomes, and through attending 2-4 nurse visits and having ≥1 blood pressure measurement, which acted through reducing systolic blood pressure. The intervention was associated with improved macrovascular outcomes through blood pressure measurement and attending 2-4 nurse visits (through systolic blood pressure) and having ≥3 education topics, ≥1 HbA1c measurement and adequate medication (through HbA1c). Cholesterol measurement, weight measurement and foot examination did not contribute towards the effectiveness of the intervention. The pathways through which a continuous quality improvement programme appeared to act to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications were driven by reductions in systolic blood pressure and HbA1c, which were attained through changes in nurse and education visits, measurement and medication. This suggests that these factors are potential areas on which future quality improvement programmes should focus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cry the Beloved Country. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Peters, Frances

    Based on the novel and motion picture "Cry, the Beloved Country," this filmstrip program is a re-creation of the story of a black minister and a white farmer in South Africa whose lives are bound together in mutual tragedy. The three filmstrips examine the people, problems, laws, and institutions of South Africa and expose the evils of…

  12. Developing countries and incipient industrialization: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana's small and large towns offer good examples of incipient industrialization and enterprise clustering in a developing economy. Using data from Lobatse, a small industrial centre in Botswana, this brief paper shows that clustering in developing countries does not necessarily induce high inter-firm relationships as is ...

  13. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  14. Research within the coordinated programme on practices for the radiation sterilization of medical supplies in countries of Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of a four year coordinated research programme related to: effects of gamma radiation on chloramphenicol and hydrocortisone acetate mixture eye ointment, methodology of biological dosimetry, radiation sterilization dose setting using fraction positive and most resistant microbes, effects of gamma radiation on neomycin sulphate and procaine penicillin G in solid state, and calibration of panoramic batch irradiation using Ceric dosemeter

  15. International survey of environmental programmes - a compilation of information from twelve countries received in response to a questionnaire distributed in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyllander, C.; Karlberg, O.; Luening, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Johansson, G.

    1995-11-01

    The report compiles information from Cuba, Finland, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, relevant to the organisation and execution of programmes for environmental surveillance of nuclear facilities (source and environmental monitoring). 28 refs, 19 tabs

  16. Presence, characteristics and equity of access to breast cancer screening programmes in 27 European countries in 2010 and 2014. Results from an international survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deandrea, S; Molina-Barceló, A; Uluturk, A

    2016-01-01

    The European Union Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening suggests the implementation of organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on mammography every other year for women aged 50 to 69years, ensuring equal access to screening, taking into accoun...

  17. International survey of environmental programmes - a compilation of information from twelve countries received in response to a questionnaire distributed in 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllander, C; Karlberg, O; Luening, M; Larsson, C M; Johansson, G

    1995-11-01

    The report compiles information from Cuba, Finland, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, relevant to the organisation and execution of programmes for environmental surveillance of nuclear facilities (source and environmental monitoring). 28 refs, 19 tabs.

  18. Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Haritha; Pramya, N; Prabhu, Karthiga; Mascarenhas, Mariano; Reddi Rani, P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India. Girls aged ≤ 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes in women aged > 19 years who delivered in the same hospital during the study period. A total of 620 teenage pregnancies were compared with 14,878 non-teenage women. The obstetric and perinatal outcome was compared in the study and control groups using t test with Yates correction. We calculated Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals(CI) and p values; p teenage pregnancy in the study was 4%. A signicant proportion of teenage mothers were in their first pregnancies and their mean age was 18.04 years. Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of anaemia, past dates, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), normal vaginal delivery, episiotomy, low birth weight, and a significantly lower incidence of caesarean sections/perineal tears in teenage mothers compared to other mothers. In contrast, the incidence of hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction of fetus, pre-term labour and postpartum haemorrhage were similar in both the groups. The data in our study should throw more light on the current thinking of the obstetrical problems facing teenage mothers, in which some of our results support and others refute several long held beliefs about the risks in teenage pregnancy. Early booking, adequate antenatal care and delivery by trained people should improve the obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage pregnancies, which is still an unresolved problem inspite of various government programmes in developing countries.

  19. Report of studies programme of CME (Energy World Committee) from 1992 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.

    1995-01-01

    Here is a forecasting in the energy area for the world. The increasing energy demand for developing countries, the situation of Eastern Europe going to a market economy are such factors which give some ideas how the demand in energy can evolve. The low prices of energy do not oblige to look after an efficiency of energy, the important needs for developing countries can make forget the environment problem with greenhouse effect, the increasing of energy demand for transport in developed and developing countries will make the demand grow up. The incertitudes about nuclear power future do not help to have ideas. All these questions and incertitudes make clear that the market cannot answer itself to solve all problems: financing, efficiency, transport, long term studies and rural energy development in developing countries are such priority themes

  20. A study of the National Physical Laboratory microdosimetry research programme in collaboration with the University of Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.G.

    1987-11-01

    A study of the present programme of work carried out by the National Physical Laboratory and the University of Leeds, has been carried out. The study is based on the use of the tissue-equivalent proportional counter in microdosimetic techniques in radiation protection for monoenergetic neutrons or reference radionuclide neutron sources. This report comments on the programme as a whole and provides recommendations for future research work, taking into account the research programmes carried out at other institutions. It also attempts to summarise the present state of knowledge and experience associated with the application of this technique to radiation fields met in routine radiation protection. (author)

  1. Mechanisms of change of a novel weight loss programme provided by a third sector organisation: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Naoimh E; Visram, Shelina; Connell, Louise A

    2016-05-10

    There is a need for theory-driven studies that explore the underlying mechanisms of change of complex weight loss programmes. Such studies will contribute to the existing evidence-base on how these programmes work and thus inform the future development and evaluation of tailored, effective interventions to tackle overweight and obesity. This study explored the mechanisms by which a novel weight loss programme triggered change amongst participants. The programme, delivered by a third sector organisation, addressed both diet and physical activity. Over a 26 week period participants engaged in three weekly sessions (education and exercise in a large group, exercise in a small group and a one-to-one education and exercise session). Novel aspects included the intensity and duration of the programme, a competitive selection process, milestone physical challenges (e.g. working up to a 5 K and 10 K walk/run during the programme), alumni support (face-to-face and online) and family attendance at exercise sessions. Data were collected through interviews with programme providers (n = 2) and focus groups with participants (n = 12). Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo10. Published behaviour change frameworks and behaviour change technique taxonomies were used to guide the coding process. Clients' interactions with components of the weight loss programme brought about a change in their commitment, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and social and environmental contexts. Intervention components that generated these changes included the competitive selection process, group and online support, family involvement and overcoming milestone challenges over the 26 week programme. The mechanisms by which these components triggered change differed between participants. There is an urgent need to establish robust interventions that can support people who are overweight and obese to achieve a healthy weight and maintain this change. Third

  2. Mechanisms of change of a novel weight loss programme provided by a third sector organisation: a qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoimh E. McMahon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for theory-driven studies that explore the underlying mechanisms of change of complex weight loss programmes. Such studies will contribute to the existing evidence-base on how these programmes work and thus inform the future development and evaluation of tailored, effective interventions to tackle overweight and obesity. This study explored the mechanisms by which a novel weight loss programme triggered change amongst participants. The programme, delivered by a third sector organisation, addressed both diet and physical activity. Over a 26 week period participants engaged in three weekly sessions (education and exercise in a large group, exercise in a small group and a one-to-one education and exercise session. Novel aspects included the intensity and duration of the programme, a competitive selection process, milestone physical challenges (e.g. working up to a 5 K and 10 K walk/run during the programme, alumni support (face-to-face and online and family attendance at exercise sessions. Methods Data were collected through interviews with programme providers (n = 2 and focus groups with participants (n = 12. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo10. Published behaviour change frameworks and behaviour change technique taxonomies were used to guide the coding process. Results Clients’ interactions with components of the weight loss programme brought about a change in their commitment, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and social and environmental contexts. Intervention components that generated these changes included the competitive selection process, group and online support, family involvement and overcoming milestone challenges over the 26 week programme. The mechanisms by which these components triggered change differed between participants. Conclusions There is an urgent need to establish robust interventions that can support people who are overweight and

  3. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: systematic tools to address the “black box” of health systems and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating health systems and policy (HSP change and implementation is critical in understanding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH progress within and across countries. Whilst data for health outcomes, coverage and equity have advanced in the last decade, comparable analyses of HSP changes are lacking. We present a set of novel tools developed by Countdown to 2015 (Countdown to systematically analyse and describe HSP change for RMNCH indicators, enabling multi-country comparisons. Methods International experts worked with eight country teams to develop HSP tools via mixed methods. These tools assess RMNCH change over time (e.g. 1990–2015 and include: (i Policy and Programme Timeline Tool (depicting change according to level of policy; (ii Health Policy Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing 11 selected RMNCH policies over time; (iii Health Systems Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing four selected systems indicators over time; and (iv Programme implementation assessment. To illustrate these tools, we present results from Tanzania and Peru, two of eight Countdown case studies. Results The Policy and Programme Timeline tool shows that Tanzania’s RMNCH environment is complex, with increased funding and programmes for child survival, particularly primary-care implementation. Maternal health was prioritised since mid-1990s, yet with variable programme implementation, mainly targeting facilities. Newborn health only received attention since 2005, yet is rapidly scaling-up interventions at facility- and community-levels. Reproductive health lost momentum, with re-investment since 2010. Contrastingly, Peru moved from standalone to integrated RMNCH programme implementation, combined with multi-sectoral, anti-poverty strategies. The HSP Tracer Indicators Dashboards show that Peru has adopted nine of 11 policy tracer indicators and Tanzania has adopted seven. Peru costed national RMNCH plans pre-2000, whereas

  4. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  5. Insurance market development: An empirical study of African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays a very crucial role in an economy by fostering intermediation and by its mechanism of risk bearing. As such it could be argued that the insurance industry fosters economic growth. In this article we analyse the global insurance market development trends, particularly focusing on Africa. Our sample comprise of the 10 African countries namely—South Africa, Angola, Nigeria, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. We employ three insurance market development metrics namely; premium volumes, insurance density and insurance penetrations ratios to establish trends in the level of development of global insurance markets. Our results document that the African countries (excluding South Africa have the least developed insurance markets. For most of the countries in our sample, the non-life insurance industry dominates the life-insurance industry. As such, it is imperative that their respective governments put in place measures that will grow their economies inorder to stimulate the development of insurance markets in Africa.

  6. Gas pricing in developing countries: A case study of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, H.M.; Abid, M.S.; Ansari, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pakistan, a developing country, has gone through various phases of formulating gas pricing policies during its 40-year history of natural gas production and consumption. This paper identifies critical factors that influenced gas pricing policies in Pakistan and adverse effects experienced when any of these factors was not given proper consideration. For instance, on the producer's side, discounted pricing formulas discouraged further exploration and development, leaving high-potential areas unexplored and discovered fields dormant for more than a decade. On the consumer's side, subsidized gas prices encouraged consumption to rise steeply without new discoveries to offset additional surplus consumption. The paper also discusses various short- and long-term variables that should go into a gas pricing policy for developing countries. References to recent policies are also given, indicating how these variables were incorporated in real terms. The conclusions and recommendations, based on Pakistan's long experience with the gas industry, should be useful for other oil-importing countries rich in indigenous gas resources

  7. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahimsa, Djali

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  8. New vaccine adoption: qualitative study of national decision-making processes in seven low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, H E D; Mounier-Jack, S; Griffiths, U K; Biellik, R; Ongolo-Zogo, P; Chavez, E; Sarma, H; Uddin, J; Konate, M; Kitaw, Y; Molla, M; Wakasiaka, S; Gilson, L; Mills, A

    2012-05-01

    As more new and improved vaccines become available, decisions on which to adopt into routine programmes become more frequent and complex. This qualitative study aimed to explore processes of national decision-making around new vaccine adoption and to understand the factors affecting these decisions. Ninety-five key informant interviews were conducted in seven low- and middle-income countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Kenya, Mali and South Africa. Framework analysis was used to explore issues both within and between countries. The underlying driver for adoption decisions in GAVI-eligible countries was the desire to seize GAVI windows of opportunity for funding. By contrast, in South Africa and Guatemala, non-GAVI-eligible countries, the decision-making process was more rooted in internal and political dynamics. Decisions to adopt new vaccines are, by nature, political. The main drivers influencing decisions were the availability of funding, political prioritization of vaccination or the vaccine-preventable disease and the burden of disease. Other factors, such as financial sustainability and feasibility of introduction, were not as influential. Although GAVI procedures have established more formality in decision-making, they did not always result in consideration of all relevant factors. As familiarity with GAVI procedures increased, questioning by decision-makers about whether a country should apply for funding appeared to have diminished. This is one of the first studies to empirically investigate national processes of new vaccine adoption decision-making using rigorous methods. Our findings show that previous decision-making frameworks (developed to guide or study national decision-making) bore little resemblance to real-life decisions, which were dominated by domestic politics. Understanding the realities of vaccine policy decision-making is critical for developing strategies to encourage improved evidence-informed decision-making about new

  9. Effects of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme on participation of the visually impaired elderly : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To pilot test the newly developed multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme Visually Impaired elderly Persons Participating (VIPP). Method: A single group pretest-posttest design pilot study included 29 visually impaired persons (>= 55 years). The intervention (20 weekly meetings)

  10. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  11. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  12. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparative Study of Costumes for Religious Festivals in ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jaruphan Supprung

    2014-01-01

    Aims of this research were to study the major religious festivals of merit making and joyful celebrations (nationwide) in each country of ASEAN countries and to compare the costumes for these major religious festivals among these countries. This documentary research employed qualitative research methodology. The findings of the research disclosed that there are 28 main religious festivals in ASEAN countries: 3 Islamic festivals in Brunei Darussalam such as Hari Raya Aidiladha Festival, Maulud...

  14. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  15. An impressive proceeding for the seven-year Finnish Tekes fuel cell programme : how a small country can be strong in developing emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojapalo, A.; Saari, J.; Kotila, H.; Korkiakoski, M. [Tekes, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Finland's national Fuel Cell strategy was created in 2006 in an effort to reduce air pollution and promote the use of renewable energy sources. The Fuel Cell Programme, which was launched in 2007 by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation has already funded 26 projects involving fuel cells for vehicles, as well as for stationary, portable and utility purposes. Total funding for the projects is over 12 million Euros. Industry partners have also invested in fuel cell development because of Tekes' promotion of consortium research projects that involve collaboration between public research organizations, universities, and companies. An essential feature of the Programme's activities is the cooperation between projects developing stationary SOFC, PEMFC, and hybrid solutions which enables synergy in component development. The corporate projects have resulted in successful demonstrations and commercial products. Finland is particularly strong in fuel cell system integration worldwide, and its technical research center (VTT) specializes in supporting industrial needs. Wartsila's integrated stationary system has proceeded to the field test phase with a fuel cell operated power unit in a housing area. Other commercial products are also being marketed, such as an alkaline fuel cell for cottage and leisure use. Other research projects involve telecommunications, nanotechnology, the printed enzymatic reel-to-reel fuel cell tag for RFID or medical applications, and hybridization for fuel cell vehicles. The programme encourages international collaboration through researcher exchange and coordinated research projects.

  16. Reflection on key competencies for lifelong learning: A structural analysis of teachers' study programmes in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Karamatić Brčić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Educating teachers on the initial level of the teachers' studies programmes' compulsory and elective courses allows these educators to acquire the competencies they need to transmit and teach the same information to children. In the realm of contemporary educational practices, acquiring competency in teaching work is part of a process of lifelong learning. This paper will analyse the structure of Croatian teachers' studies programmes, focusing on the name of the course and the teaching workload of the same, with an emphasis on the concept of key competencies for lifelong learning according to the European Framework of Reference. In this paper, compulsory and elective courses were classified according to the following competencies for lifelong learning: communication in the mother tongue, communication in foreign languages, mathematical competencies, basic competencies in science and technology, and digital competency. The results reveal that there are no statistically significant differences among Croatian teachers' studies programmes in terms of teaching workload, taking into account how competent the teacher is considered to be; there are statistically significant differences among the Croatian teachers' studies programmes in the possible teaching workload for elective courses because of teacher's perceived competency level. Despite the fact that all of the teachers' studies programmes bestow the same title upon graduates, the analysis of access to teacher studies in the  Republic of Croatia shows that the screening criteria are different in study programmes at different universities.

  17. Improving the participation in the Erasmus Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.; Beerkens-Soo, M.; Beerkens, Maarja; Cremonini, Leon; Besançon, Barbara; Focken, Noor; Leurs, Bart; McCoshan, Andrew; Huisman, Jeroen; Mozuraityte, Neringa; Souto-Otero, Manuel; de Wit, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which European students experience financial and other barriers to participation in the ERASMUS programme. The evidence indicates that the main barriers to participation vary significantly between countries, with the exception of financial issues, which are an

  18. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...... spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy....

  20. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Childhood Sexual Violence Against Boys: A Study in 3 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Buluma, Robert; Mwangi, Mary W.; Marcelin, Louis H.; Kheam, They; Lea, Veronica; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Globally, little evidence exists on sexual violence against boys. We sought to produce the first internationally comparable estimates of the magnitude, characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of sexual violence against boys in 3 diverse countries. METHODS We conducted nationally representative, multistage cluster Violence Against Children Surveys in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia among males aged 13 to 24 years. Differences between countries for boys experiencing sexual violence (including sexual touching, attempted sex, and forced/coerced sex) before age 18 years were examined by using χ2 and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS In Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, 1459, 1456, and 1255 males completed surveys. The prevalence of experiencing any form of sexual violence ranged from 23.1% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 20.0–26.2) in Haiti to 14.8% (95% CI: 12.0–17.7) in Kenya, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0–7.2) in Cambodia. The largest share of perpetrators in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, were friends/neighbors (64.7%), romantic partners (37.2%), and relatives (37.0%). Most episodes occurred inside perpetrators’ or victims’ homes in Haiti (60.4%), contrasted with outside the home in Kenya (65.3%) and Cambodia (52.1%). The most common time period for violence in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia was the afternoon (55.0%), evening (41.3%), and morning (38.2%), respectively. Adverse health effects associated with violence were common, including increased odds of transactional sex, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, anxiety/depression, suicidal ideation/ attempts, and violent gender attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Differences were noted between countries in the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of sexual violence, yet associations with adverse health effects were pervasive. Prevention strategies tailored to individual locales are needed. PMID:27244799

  2. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  3. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  4. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    the Independent Party (Partido Independiente -PI) to support his own candidacy, waged a campaign against the government’s financial irresponsi- bility...range Photo by James D. Rudolph ley, chiefly by small farmers, began only in the 1920s. The open- ing of the Inter-American Highway in the post -World...the country (see The Calder6n Era, ch. 1). In the post -World War 11 era, anticlericalism was no longer a major issue, in prt because many of the

  5. Quality of care in patients with psoriasis: an initial clinical study of an international disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, J; Van Onselen, J; Kownacki, S; Sprangers, M A G; Bos, J D

    2005-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have to cope with their disease for many years or even throughout their entire life. To provide optimal care, a disease management programme was developed. This programme consisted of disease education, disease management training, and psychological support, together with topical treatment. To test a disease management programme in dermatological practice, to assess patients' satisfaction with this programme, and adherence to topical treatment. Additionally, disease severity and quality of life were assessed. An initial clinical investigation was conducted in 10 European treatment centres. A total of 330 patients were included. Patient satisfaction, adherence, disease severity and quality of life were measured with study-specific and standardized self-report questionnaires. Patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with the programme, and a high degree of adherence to topical treatment. Disease severity and quality of life significantly improved. The programme was well received by the participating professionals. The disease management programme was found to be a useful tool in the management of psoriasis, providing patients with relief from the burden of psoriasis in everyday life. A full-scale evaluation is recommended.

  6. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Edwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1 the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2 the growing need for comprehensive care, (3 patient empowerment, (4 and defaulter tracing; and (5 the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a

  7. The impact of mass deworming programmes on schooling and economic development: an appraisal of long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Sophie; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Documents from advocacy and fund-raising organizations for child mass deworming programmes in low- and middle-income countries cite unpublished economic studies claiming long-term effects on health, schooling and economic development. Methods: To summarize and appraise these studies, we searched for and included all long-term follow-up studies based on cluster-randomized trials included in a 2015 Cochrane review on deworming. We used Cochrane methods to assess risk of bias, and appraised the credibility of the main findings. Where necessary we contacted study authors for clarifications. Results: We identified three studies (Baird 2016, Ozier 2016 and Croke 2014) evaluating effects more than 9 years after cluster-randomized trials in Kenya and Uganda. Baird and Croke evaluate short additional exposures to deworming programmes in settings where all children were dewormed multiple times. Ozier evaluates potential spin-off effects to infants living in areas with school-based deworming. None of the studies used pre-planned protocols nor blinded the analysis to treatment allocation. Baird 2016 has been presented online in six iterations. The work is at high risk of reporting bias and selective reporting, and there are substantive changes between versions. The main cited effects on secondary school attendance and job sector allocation are from post hoc subgroup analyses, which the study was not powered to assess. The study did not find any evidence of effect on nutritional status, cognitive tests or school grades achieved, but these are not reported in the abstracts. Ozier 2016 has been presented online in four iterations, without substantive differences between versions. Higher cognitive test scores were associated with deworming, but the appropriate analysis was underpowered to reliably detect these effects. The size of the stated effect seems inconsistent with the short and indirect nature of the exposure to deworming, and a causal pathway for this

  8. Transmutation studies in France, R and D programme on fuels and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidron, M.; Chauvin, N.; Garnier, J.C.; PIllon, S.; Vambenepe, G.

    2001-01-01

    For the management of high level and long-lived radioactive waste, a large and continuous research and development effort is carried out in France, to provide a wide range of scientific and technical alternatives along three lines, partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations and long term interim surface or subsurface storage. For the line one, and in close link with the partitioning studies, research is carried out to evaluate the transmutation potential of long-lived waste in appropriate reactors configurations (scenarios) relying on current technologies as well as innovative reactors. Performed to evaluate the theoretical feasibility of the Pu consumption and waste transmutation from the point of view of the reactor cores physics to reach the equilibrium of the material fluxes (i.e. consumption = production) and of the isotopic compositions of the fuels, these studies insure the 'scientific' part of the transmutation feasibility. For the technological part of the feasibility of waste transmutation in reactors, a large programme on fuel development is underway. This includes solutions based on the advanced concepts for plutonium fuels in PWR and the development of specific fuels and targets for transmutation in fast reactors in the critical or sub-critical state. For the waste transmutation in fast reactors, an important programme has been launched to develop specific fuels and targets with experiments at various stages of preparation in different experimental reactors including Phenix. Composite fuels as well as particle fuels are considered. This programme is presented and recent results concerning the preparation of the experiments, the characterisation of the compounds properties, the thermal and mechanical modelling and the behaviour of U free fuels are given. (author)

  9. Evaluation of European energy behavioural change programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gynther, L.; Mikkonen, I. [Motiva Oy, Urho Kekkosenkatu 4-6 A, 00100 Helsinki (Finland); Smits, A. [NL Agency, Swentiboldstraat 21, 6137 AE Sittard (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    This article is based on the findings of the BEHAVE Project (Evaluation of Energy Behavioural Change Programmes) which was supported by the European Commission under the EU Intelligent Energy-Europe (IEE) Programme. The project started with a review of behavioural theories and their applicability in the development and evaluation of energy-related behavioural change programmes, progressed to a case study analysis and finished with a publication of guidelines for programme developers and policy makers. This paper concentrates on the results of the case study analysis and the recommendations arising from it. In the case study analysis, information was collected on almost 100 cases aiming at behavioural change in energy use from 11 European countries. More detailed information was collected on 41 cases which were subject to meta-analysis to identify success factors and weak points and to gather information on the current evaluation practices in such programmes. The meta-analysis was carried out in five phases: context (pre-planning), planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Planning and evaluation were recognised as two of the most critical phases. Many of the programmes operated with quite formal plans but were typically not based on scientific theories or evidence. In many cases, there was lack of market segmentation; the goals were not targeted and the programmes tried to offer 'everything to everybody'. A multitude of ex-post evaluation methods for programme impacts were reported ranging from participant surveys, testing and comparison with control groups to top-down method evaluating the impact of several programmes focusing on the same target group. Process evaluation (25 cases) was slightly less common than impact evaluation (29 cases). Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the programmes was a rarity, most likely due to difficulties in quantitative impact evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of a nurse-led social rehabilitation programme for neurological patients and carers: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Mari Carmen; Corchón, Silvia; López-Dicastillo, Olga; Cowley, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    Very few neurological rehabilitation programmes have successfully dealt with patients' and relatives' social needs. Furthermore, the nurses' contribution in those programmes is poor or unclear. To determine the rationale, effectiveness and adequacy of a nurse-led social rehabilitation programme implemented with neurological patients and their carers. In this action research study Hart and Bond's experimental and professionalizing typologies were applied through Lewinian cycles. A social rehabilitation programme was planned, based on the results of an in-depth baseline assessment of the context and individual needs. The programme focused on increasing the level of acceptance/adaptation of the disease through verbal and written education, easing the discharge planning, and offering social choices based on the social assessment of individual needs and possibilities at home. Two neurological wards of a hospital in Spain. The programme evaluation included 27 nurses, and two groups of patients and relatives (control group=18 patients and 19 relatives, intervention group=17 patients and 16 relatives). The two groups of patients and relatives were compared before and after discharge to determine the effectiveness of the programme. Socio-demographic forms, semi-structured interviews, participant observations, and validated scales to measure activities of daily living and social life were used, and data were analysed using content (QSR Nudist Vivo, v.2.0) and statistical (SPSS v. 13.0) analyses. The new programme resulted in social care being integrated in daily practice and developed knowledge about social rehabilitation. This had a positive impact on nurses' attitudes. Patients and relatives had more realistic expectations and positive attitudes towards social life, and developed a wider variety of choices for social changes. Better adaptation, and more coping skills and satisfaction were achieved. This rehabilitation programme was feasible and effective. Patients and

  11. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  12. Soft System Methodology as a Tool to Understand Issues of Governmental Affordable Housing Programme of India: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukanya; Roy, Souvanic; Sanyal, Manas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a case study, the article has explored current practices of implementation of governmental affordable housing programme for urban poor in a slum of India. This work shows that the issues associated with the problems of governmental affordable housing programme has to be addressed to with a suitable methodology as complexities are not only dealing with quantitative data but qualitative data also. The Hard System Methodologies (HSM), which is conventionally applied to address the issues, deals with real and known problems which can be directly solved. Since most of the issues of affordable housing programme as found in the case study are subjective and complex in nature, Soft System Methodology (SSM) has been tried for better representation from subjective points of views. The article explored drawing of Rich Picture as an SSM approach for better understanding and analysing complex issues and constraints of affordable housing programme so that further exploration of the issues is possible.

  13. Missed opportunities in the evaluation of public health interventions: a case study of physical activity programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hanson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based approaches are requisite in evaluating public health programmes. Nowhere are they more necessary than physical activity interventions where evidence of effectiveness is often poor, especially within hard to reach groups. Our study reports on the quality of the evaluation of a government funded walking programme in five ‘Walking Cities’ in England. Cities were required to undertake a simple but robust evaluation using the Standard Evaluation Framework (SEF for physical activity interventions to enable high quality, consistent evaluation. Our aim was not to evaluate the outcomes of this programme but to evaluate whether the evaluation process had been effective in generating new and reliable evidence on intervention design and what had worked in ‘real world’ circumstances. Methods Funding applications and final reports produced by the funder and the five walking cities were obtained. These totalled 16 documents which were systematically analysed against the 52 criteria in the SEF. Data were cross checked between the documents at the bid and reporting stage with reference to the SEF guidance notes. Results Generally, the SEF reporting requirements were not followed well. The rationale for the interventions was badly described, the target population was not precisely specified, and neither was the method of recruitment. Demographics of individual participants, including socio-economic status were reported poorly, despite being a key criterion for funding. Conclusions Our study of the evaluations demonstrated a missed opportunity to confidently establish what worked and what did not work in walking programmes with particular populations. This limited the potential for evidence synthesis and to highlight innovative practice warranting further investigation. Our findings suggest a mandate for evaluability assessment. Used at the planning stage this may have ensured the development of realistic objectives and

  14. Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Bruyneel, Luk; Van den Heede, Koen; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Diomidous, Marianna; Kinnunen, Juha; Kózka, Maria; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; McHugh, Matthew D; Moreno-Casbas, M T; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schwendimann, Rene; Scott, P Anne; Tishelman, Carol; van Achterberg, Theo; Sermeus, Walter

    2014-05-24

    Austerity measures and health-system redesign to minimise hospital expenditures risk adversely affecting patient outcomes. The RN4CAST study was designed to inform decision making about nursing, one of the largest components of hospital operating expenses. We aimed to assess whether differences in patient to nurse ratios and nurses' educational qualifications in nine of the 12 RN4CAST countries with similar patient discharge data were associated with variation in hospital mortality after common surgical procedures. For this observational study, we obtained discharge data for 422,730 patients aged 50 years or older who underwent common surgeries in 300 hospitals in nine European countries. Administrative data were coded with a standard protocol (variants of the ninth or tenth versions of the International Classification of Diseases) to estimate 30 day in-hospital mortality by use of risk adjustment measures including age, sex, admission type, 43 dummy variables suggesting surgery type, and 17 dummy variables suggesting comorbidities present at admission. Surveys of 26,516 nurses practising in study hospitals were used to measure nurse staffing and nurse education. We used generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of nursing factors on the likelihood of surgical patients dying within 30 days of admission, before and after adjusting for other hospital and patient characteristics. An increase in a nurses' workload by one patient increased the likelihood of an inpatient dying within 30 days of admission by 7% (odds ratio 1·068, 95% CI 1·031-1·106), and every 10% increase in bachelor's degree nurses was associated with a decrease in this likelihood by 7% (0·929, 0·886-0·973). These associations imply that patients in hospitals in which 60% of nurses had bachelor's degrees and nurses cared for an average of six patients would have almost 30% lower mortality than patients in hospitals in which only 30% of nurses had bachelor's degrees and nurses cared

  15. Study Programme On Contemporary Cultures In Colima, Mexico. Shortcuts And Long Ways Round To Plenitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Galindo Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta la historia aparentemente irrepetible del Programa de Estudios sobre las Culturas Contemporáneas de Colima, México. El autor presenta a lo largo de seis distintos apartados un relato que relaciona elementos de trayectorias individuales, grupales y colectivas, con una historia de la ciencia social en México a lo largo de más de tres décadas. El Programa Cultura fue posible por una combinación de accidentes y visiones luminosas. Emergió en el medio con menos condiciones posibles para un proyecto de altos estudios, desde ahí creció, se desarrolló, llegó a su plenitud, y después decayó y se fue retrayendo a la inercia de la vida institucional universitaria común. Esta es la historia de un programa de investigación ejemplar, una historia para ser conocida, disfrutada, y divulgada. This work describes the seemingly unrepeatable story of the Study Programme on Contemporary Cultures in Colima, Mexico. In six sections, the author describes the relation between individual, group and collective paths in a Mexican social science narrative spanning more than three decades. The Programa Cultura [Culture Programme] was made possible thanks to a combination of coincidences and brilliant visions. Despite the precarious conditions for conducting a top research project, It came into being, developed, and reached its plenitude, before flagging and falling victim of the inertia of everyday institutional life at university. This is the story of an exemplary research programme, a story that should be known, enjoyed and disseminated.

  16. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koyanagi

    Full Text Available Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China to 17.0% (Poland. After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78, arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46, and depression (OR 1.75-5.12 were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI for 1,2,3, and ≥ 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82, 2.55 (1.99-3.27, 3.22 (2.52-4.11, and 7.62 (5.88-9.87 respectively in the overall sample.Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies

  17. Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals.

  18. Time spent studying on a pre-registration nursing programme module: an exploratory study and implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C; Lipscomb, Martin; Lockyer, Lesley; Yates, Sue; Young, Pat

    2010-11-01

    European Union (EU) regulations require that university programmes are of specified duration. Additional EU regulations apply specifically to university based nurse education, enacted in the UK by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). However, little is known about how much time student nurses spend on their studies. In this exploratory study, students undertaking a single module in the pre-registration diploma programme at an English university were asked to keep a log of learning activity for the duration of the module. Twenty-six students completed the log. These students achieved higher grades and attended more lectures than the average for the module. The mean study time was 128.4 h against a regulatory assumption that the module should take 200 h. More than half of the 26 students undertook paid work during the module run, though this work was not associated with poorer performance. Problems in regulation for course duration are discussed and it is suggested that undertaking a 4600 h course in 3 years is problematic. More research is required so that patterns of study can be better understood and student centred programmes meeting regulatory requirements developed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.

  20. Income, egalitarianism and attitudes towards healthcare policy: a study on public attitudes in 29 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, A; Maldonado, L; Castillo, J C; Atria, J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between income and egalitarian values and attitudes towards healthcare policy. Cross-sectional and cross-national study. Data for 29 countries from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2011 were used. The dependent variables are a general attitude towards government involvement in healthcare provision and two attitudes regarding specific policies (taxes and public funding). Income and egalitarianism were also measured by using ISSP. Data were analysed using regression models that account for individual and country-level characteristics, and country-fixed effects. The effect of income is small and non-significant for attitudes towards government involvement and public funding. For willingness to pay (WTP) taxes to improve healthcare services, we find a positive association with income. Results for egalitarianism suggest a positive association with government involvement in healthcare provision and significant interactions with WTP taxes. The distinction of dimensions and mechanisms underlying policy attitudes appears as relevant. Citizens across socioeconomic groups are motivated to support state-funded healthcare, favouring the design of non-selfish policies. These findings suggest that there is space for policymakers who seek to increase healthcare spending encouraging either policies for specific groups or broader institutional changes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Islamic Banking Existence and Domestic Credit: Study at Seven Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Yuafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the determinants of domestic credit across a wide range of 7 countries; these are United Kingdom, Malaysia, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Indonesia. We use dynamic panel estimation to examine effects of exchange rate, inflation, lending interest rate, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking on domestic credit. We obtain several notable empirical results. First, the lending interest rate, banking crisis negatively and insignificantly contribute to domestic credit. The existence of Islamic bank has positive and insignificant contribution to domestic credit, while exchange rate positively and significantly contributes to domestic credit.  Inflation negatively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Second, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking show insignificant effect on domestic credit. Third, we find that today’s domestic credit is depended on domestic credit in the previous year.DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4906

  2. Criticality accidents in solution (CRAC and SILENE programmes) and complementary studies of accidents; radiation dosimetry in human organism during the CRAC programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, M.; Dousset, M.

    C.R.A.C. (CRiticality occurring ACcidentally) programme is intended to study experimentally the development of a criticality accident as it could occur when handling solutions of fissile material as well as the radiological consequences of such an accident. The fissile matter solutions have been chosen (a) for practical considerations of use and (b) because the probability of an accident occurring seems greater with this type of environment, as the known accidents have shown. The programme is twofold: study of accident physics: form of the evolution (peak, plateau, oscillations, boil up of solutions) the most probable maximum power, minimal power, flux and radiation spectra emitted, freed energy, associated effects, radiolysis, constraints, etc., study of radiological consequences: area dosimetry, individual dosimetry, radiobiological studies, etc. Additional criticality Accident experiments have been and continue to be made on the SILENE reactor in the following principal domains: determination of the emission rate of gaseous fission products and aerosols, area dosimetry and health dosimetry in the presence of shields around the core to vary the neutron and gamma components of the radiation field. Improvement in the knowledge of certain particular aspects of the power excursion, radiolysis gas and pressure wave, experiments of the ''boiling'' type [fr

  3. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: a 2-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus impairs the possibility of leading a normal life in 0.5–1% of the population. While neither medical nor surgical treatment appears effective, counselling may offer some relief. An intervention combining counselling and hearing devices is offered to clients referred to the Centre for Help Aids and Communication (CHC in southern Denmark. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine i the characteristics of CHC's clients and their tinnitus, ii the effectiveness of the treatment, and iii whether particular client groups benefit more than others. Methods One hundred new clients presenting with tinnitus completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI three times – before their first consultation, after one month and after 1–2 years. The scores were tested for significant differences over time using tests for paired data. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with a clinically important difference (i.e. THI score improvement of at least 20 points. Results At final follow-up, total THI score was significantly lower than baseline, i.e. 29.8 (CI 25.5–34.2 vs. 37.2 (CI 33.1–37.2, p Conclusion The tinnitus management programme appeared to provide significant benefit to many clients at a relatively low cost. It would be useful to conduct a randomised controlled study comparing the current programme with alternative forms of combination counselling/sound therapy approaches.

  4. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  5. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  6. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  7. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  8. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs.

  9. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Implementing a Health and Wellbeing Programme for Children in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Munday

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children attending a decile two (low socio-economic kindergarten and to address food insecurity issues, an educational health and wellness initiative, in conjunction with a free lunch programme, was introduced. The impact of the lunches and the effectiveness of the programme were evaluated. Baseline and end-intervention 24-h modified dietary recall questionnaire data and a vegetable- and fruit-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were collected. A follow-up FFQ was administered six months after the end of the intervention. The nutrient composition of the foods recorded in the 24-h recall questionnaires were analysed using FoodWorks8™. Whilst no significant differences were observed with the intakes of individual nutrients, there was a significant decrease in the consumption of ultra-processed snack foods (p = 0.015. The results of the follow-up FFQ, including the comments collected from the parents, suggested that the intervention had a longer-term positive impact on not only the children involved in the study but also on their whānau (wider family members

  11. Being normal, not vulnerable: case study of a 2-day residential programme for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Taylor, Rachel M; Morgan, Sue; Fern, Lorna A

    2017-07-13

    To identify and describe the outcomes and facilitating processes of participation at 'Find Your Sense of Tumour' (FYSOT), a 2-day residential programme/conference for young people with cancer, from the perspective of professionals attending and patient representatives. Case study. Observation of the 'Find Your Sense of Tumour' over 18s residential programme and face-to-face interviews in hospital and phone interviews. Twenty-six participants - 19 professionals from hospitals across the UK who accompanied young people to FYSOT; 3 programme organisers; and 4 young people from the programme steering committee. Participant observation and semistructured interviews. This process evaluation of an educational, social and peer-to-peer support residential weekend for young people with cancer identified key outcomes for young people - positive attitudes (increased sociability, confidence), belonging (feeling accepted, understood), recreation (trying new activities, having fun) and increased knowledge (balance between educational talks and interactions with other young people); and three overarching facilitating processes - being with other young people, the professionals accompanying young people to the event for support and guidance, and the conference/intentional programming. Being in a safe, relaxed and fun environment with other young people facilitates the development of peer support networks and increases young people's confidence and knowledge. Although the focus of the residential programme is on young people, interviewees acknowledge the impact of attending on professionals' motivation, learning and changes in practice. This study has extended our understanding of the role of residential programmes by identifying outcomes and facilitating mechanisms. We have shown that residential programmes have an important role in providing participants with social, emotional and informational support, as well as play an important role in redefining normality. Longitudinal

  12. Objectives and limitations of scientific studies with reference to the Swedish R ampersand D programme 1992 for handling and final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.; Dverstorp, B.; Wingefors, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has recently concluded its evaluation of the Swedish programme for the development of a system for the management of nuclear waste. The programme was compiled and issued by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). In this process of programme formulation and review, considerable attention has been paid to the question of how scientific studies should be directed and performed in order to provide the support needed in the programme

  13. Student supervision as educational method in faculties of social work. A study in seven European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godelieve van Hees

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Student supervision as educational method in faculties of social work. A study in seven European countries Supervision Meets Education (Van Hees & Geiβler-Piltz, 2010 is the title of a comparative study on the use of supervision in training social workers as part of the Bachelor degree programmes at seven European universities and universities of applied sciences. It is the first research project to be carried out by the Supervision in Social Work Education in Europe (SSWEE network. Supervision is seen as an educational method and to indicate this specific form of supervision, the term “student supervision” has been used. The results of the study are based on seven case studies and a comparative analysis to answer the question: how is supervision integrated into the curriculum and why is it done in this way? The second part of the study concerns a comparative analysis of the case studies. This article details the main results of the differences and similarities not only regarding the way that “supervision” is understood in various settings but also the variety of organizational approaches to supervision within the study programmes themselves. In conclusion, we can say that this description of “the current state of play” provides common ground from which one go on to develop student supervision methodology in the context of European Higher Education and the challenges of a changing profession. Opleidingssupervisie als didactische methode in opleidingen Sociaal Werk. Een zoektocht in zeven Europese landen Dit artikel doet verslag van een vergelijkende studie naar de praktijk van supervisie in de Bachelor Social Work aan zeven verschillende Europese universiteiten en hogescholen, genaamd Supervision Meets Education (Van Hees & Geiβler-Piltz, 2010. Het betreft een onderzoeksproject van het “Network Supervision in Social Work Education in Europe (SSWEE”. Supervisie wordt hier besproken als een didactische methode waarvoor in

  14. Study programme on safety for environmental radioactivity during the period from 1986 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The study programme is divided into four topics. The first topic is a study on environmental doses, which was designed to identify levels of radioactivity, and characteristics and behavior of radiation sources in the ambient air, and to elucidate population dose estimates. The second topic concerning biological effects of radiation focusses on the elucidation for mechanism whereby radiation acts on the living body, for effects of low dose radiation using experimental animals, and for radiation effects on the human body using epidemiological approaches. The aim of the third topic is to study incorporation of alpha radiators, including transuranic elements, and tritium in the human body. The last topic is the safety evaluation, for which it is required to establish methods of evaluating human risk of environmental radiation and to prepare data base. An outline of these topics is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Radioecological studies tied to the French nuclear power station programme: aims, nature and mode of execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delile, G.

    1980-01-01

    Under present French practice, assessing the effects of radioactive discharges due to the various likely accident situations comes under 'L'Analyse de Surete Nucleaire' (Nuclear Safety Analysis). The assessment of radioactive discharges relating to normal working comes within the framework of radioecologic studies. Radioecology studies are undertkaen for every power station project. They consist in: - studying what is to be done with radioelements discharged as liquids or gases, - estimating their impact on the populations in the areas of influence of the power station and checking that this impact is permissible, - establishing a surveillance measuring programme for checking against the predictions made and, if required, determining the modifications to be made to the facilities or to their method of operation [fr

  16. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  17. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  18. Nurse- and peer-led self-management programme for patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator; a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk Jacques

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing. Improved treatment options increase survival after an acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac arrest, although patients often have difficulty adjusting and regaining control in daily life. In particular, patients who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD experience physical and psychological problems. Interventions to enhance perceived control and acceptance of the device are therefore necessary. This paper describes a small-scale study to explore the feasibility and the possible benefits of a structured nurse- and peer-led self-management programme ('Chronic Disease Self-Management Program' – CDSMP among ICD patients. Methods Ten male ICD patients (mean age = 65.5 years participated in a group programme, consisting of six sessions, led by a team consisting of a nurse specialist and a patient with cardiovascular disease. Programme feasibility was evaluated among patients and leaders by measuring performance of the intervention according to protocol, attendance and adherence of the participating ICD patients, and patients' and leaders' opinions about the programme. In addition, before and directly after attending the intervention, programme benefits (e.g. perceived control, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and quality of life were assessed. Results The programme was conducted largely according to protocol. Eight patients attended at least four sessions, and adherence ranged from good to very good. On average, the patients reported to have benefited very much from the programme, which they gave an overall report mark of 8.4. The leaders considered the programme feasible as well. Furthermore, improvements were identified for general self-efficacy expectancies, symptoms of anxiety, physical functioning, social functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, and pain. Conclusion This study suggests that a self-management programme led by a

  19. Country report - Turkey: Brief description of feasibility study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power first appeared in Turkish development plans in 1968. Turkey’s first FS for nuclear power was launched in the early 1960s. Two suitable sites (Akkuyu and Sinop) were identified for building NPPs, and the Akkuyu site was licensed in 1976. Several more attempts were made to build a nuclear reactor at the Mediterranean site of Akkuyu Bay, but they did not get beyond the planning stage. The political commitment to having greater nuclear power in the energy mix was reiterated in an electricity energy market and supply security strategy document issued in May 2009 by the Prime Minister’s office, which set out a goal of 5% nuclear power generation by 2020. Hence, the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) negotiated with some countries in order to construct a NPP. Nuclear efforts have proceeded in the form of an intergovernmental agreement (IGA) between the Turkish and Russian Federation governments. The IGA was signed in May 2010. Akkuyu Nuclear Generating Station Elektrik Üretim A.Ş (or Akkuyu Electricity Generation JSC) was incorporated in Turkey in December 2010

  20. Study of Ethical Values and Practices in Academic Programmes at a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Kogilah; Shetty, M. V.

    The study on ethical values in academic programmes has attracted the attention of many researchers throughout the world especially in view of its important role today. Many academic programmes today focus on how to make profit both for the individual and the organization and on how to increase the firm`s market share and shareholders value and in the process may compromise on their ethical values and have unethical practices. Thus, this study is undertaken to evaluate the extent of integration of ethical values in the academic programmes of the higher learning operating institution involved with post graduate and higher level programs. The impact of demographics and race of the lecturer and students have been separately ascertained. The sample has been taken from one college, rated to be high in ethical values and practices, a sample of 120 students and 31 lecturers from a leading college (reputed for ethical values) have been collated and analyzed for validation of the objectives. The explanation on ethics has been done to a large extent in the study. The study also indicates the number of higher learning institutions to indicate the extent of impact if these issues are appropriately addressed. Government policy in this regard also needs to be reviewed and improved to avoid deterioration of ethical values and practices in the dynamic market place of today. This study review that, the level at which lecturers at the institutions have high ethical values and do incorporate it in their lectures and discussions in the classroom. The impact of demographic factors on the ethical values and practice of the lecturers have useful insights for academic staff recruitment and staff training. On the other hand, students` ethical values and behavior is a cause for concern to everyone as these future pillars of the nation have been found to have their ethical values and practices at low levels. The implications for the college management as to consider further emphasis on the