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Sample records for country studies program

  1. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  2. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  3. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  4. Country prototypes and translation of health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2008-06-01

    This article introduces the topic of international translation of health programs. Different perspectives toward the study of national-level variables that are relevant to translation of evidence-based programming developed outside of or in a country are discussed. Concepts including national prototypes, national stereotypes, country clusters, knowledge incompatibility, and absorptive capacity are introduced. The ideas expressed in this article serve to provide direction when considering developing a health behavior program for a country, using previous programmatic knowledge from elsewhere.

  5. Archives Educational Programs in Librarianship Schools : A Compression Study Between Algeria and Some Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheba Gheriamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the training of archivists in Algeria, specially of the origin and aims of archival studies programme in librarianship institute at the university of Algiers and comparing its experience with some Arabic contries like Egypt,Tunisia and Arabic Golf countries.

  6. Harmonization of community health worker programs for HIV: A four-country qualitative study in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Walter De Neve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Community health worker (CHW programs are believed to be poorly coordinated, poorly integrated into national health systems, and lacking long-term support. Duplication of services, fragmentation, and resource limitations may have impeded the potential impact of CHWs for achieving HIV goals. This study assesses mediators of a more harmonized approach to implementing large-scale CHW programs for HIV in the context of complex health systems and multiple donors.We undertook four country case studies in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland between August 2015 and May 2016. We conducted 60 semistructured interviews with donors, government officials, and expert observers involved in CHW programs delivering HIV services. Interviews were triangulated with published literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed based on 3 priority areas of harmonization (coordination, integration, and sustainability and 5 components of a conceptual framework (the health issue, intervention, stakeholders, health system, and context to assess facilitators and barriers to harmonization of CHW programs. CHWs supporting HIV programs were found to be highly fragmented and poorly integrated into national health systems. Stakeholders generally supported increasing harmonization, although they recognized several challenges and disadvantages to harmonization. Key facilitators to harmonization included (i a large existing national CHW program and recognition of nongovernmental CHW programs, (ii use of common incentives and training processes for CHWs, (iii existence of an organizational structure dedicated to community health initiatives, and (iv involvement of community leaders in decision-making. Key barriers included a wide range of stakeholders and lack of ownership and accountability of non-governmental CHW programs. Limitations of our study include subjectively selected case studies, our focus on decision-makers, and limited

  7. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  8. Methodological and Conceptual Issues Confronting a Cross-Country Delphi Study of Educational Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Although the Delphi is widely used, research on certain methodological issues is somewhat limited. After a brief introduction to the strengths, limitations, and methodological challenges of the technique, we share our experiences (as well as problems encountered) with an electronic Delphi of educational program evaluation (EPE) in the Asia-Pacific…

  9. China: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Appendix A). From the Plateau of Tibet other less elevated highlands, rugged east-west trending mountains and plateaus interrupted by deep depresions ...China: A Country Study Table 3. Continued Coavmtiomal Convmtioto y Pinyr to Form of Referenc Form of Ream to nn Turpan Pendi Turfan Depresion Sungari

  10. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  11. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  12. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  13. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  14. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  15. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  16. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  17. Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  18. Venezuela, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    relations with all 17 western hemisphere nations including Cuba , and joined the Adean Common Market. Internally Caldera permitted communist and other...mounted from within the country and by communist supported ( Cuba ) small units conducting guerrilla activities with the intent of producing a military...1973), pp. 14-26. 25Blutstein, op.cit., pp. 39-41. 26Ibid. pp. 41-44. 27Philip B. Taylor, Jr., The Venezuelan Golpe de Estado of 1958: The Fall of

  19. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    the Shandong terr-itorv alreadyv in its possession. Beijing also recognized Tokyo’s authority oVer Southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In...stretching from Harbin in the northeast through the Beijing area and south to China’s largest city, the huge industrial metropoli- tan complex of...country. Nearly all counties and towns had one or more machine factories. Major machinery centers were Shanghai, Tianjin, Shen- yang, Beijing, Harbin

  20. A Hybrid Genetic Programming Method in Optimization and Forecasting: A Case Study of the Broadband Penetration in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Salpasaranis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a hybrid genetic programming method (hGP in fitting and forecasting of the broadband penetration data is proposed. The hGP uses some well-known diffusion models, such as those of Gompertz, Logistic, and Bass, in the initial population of the solutions in order to accelerate the algorithm. The produced solutions models of the hGP are used in fitting and forecasting the adoption of broadband penetration. We investigate the fitting performance of the hGP, and we use the hGP to forecast the broadband penetration in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The results of the optimized diffusion models are compared to those of the hGP-generated models. The comparison indicates that the hGP manages to generate solutions with high-performance statistical indicators. The hGP cooperates with the existing diffusion models, thus allowing multiple approaches to forecasting. The modified algorithm is implemented in the Python programming language, which is fast in execution time, compact, and user friendly.

  1. Teamwork and program organization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen N; Castillo, Sergio Hernandez; Claro, Carlos Duarte; Novick, William M

    2011-04-01

    Establishment of congenital heart surgery programs in developing countries is often impeded by competition among providers for scarce resources and opportunities. To avoid this problem, the authors have sought to focus program development on a domestic medical team that includes a visiting North American surgeon. A leadership group was formed consisting of a domestic cardiologist and surgeon, the visiting surgeon, and leading local benefactors. Surgery was initiated beginning with closed cases, and the volume and complexity were gradually increased. The team was mentored by the visiting surgeon, and full medical brigades visited periodically. All members of the leadership group interacted with local health care providers, missionary groups, and visiting medical teams from international organizations, aiming to develop a single congenital heart surgery center. Over a period of 3 years, 185 children have been operated on and the team has progressed to do more complex open and closed cases. Overall mortality is 6.5%. Actively working with the program are 3 of the 5 local pediatric cardiologists, 2 of 4 pediatric intensivists, the only pediatric perfusionist, and the only active pediatric heart surgeon. Three additional international organizations currently participate in program development. Fundraising by the domestic nonprofit organization has increased approximately 20-fold in 5 years, and the program has been evaluated and approved by the government-based health insurance program. Focusing program development around a domestic leadership team allows coordination of patient referrals and resources, which contributes to excellent patient care and program sustainability.

  2. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  3. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  4. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of the Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa de Retana Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez Perez, Álvaro; Martinez Carazo, Catalina; Arbonies Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Rua Portu, Maria Angeles; Piñera Elorriaga, Koldo; Zenarutzabeitia Pikatza, Amaya; Urquiza Bengoa, Miren Nekane; Méndez Sanpedro, Tomás; Oses Portu, Ana; Gorostidi Fano, Lourdes; Aguirre Sorondo, Miren Bakarne; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Rotaeche Del Campo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) in the primary care setting of the Basque Health Service and offer initial estimations of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) effects. Methods. Ten health centers (HCs) participated in a single-arm pilot study with a 6-month follow-up period between February 2011 and June 2012. Recruitment was performed via invitation letters, health professionals, and the local media. Each intervention group consisted of 8–15 people. The ability of each HC in forming up to 2 groups, participants' compliance with the course, and coordination and data collection issues were evaluated. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was the main outcome variable. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk factors, drugs consumption, medical visits, quality of life, self-efficacy, physical exercise, and diet. Results. Two HCs did not organize a course. A total of 173 patients initiated the program, 2 dropped out without baseline data, and 90% completed it. No pre-post HbA1c differences existed. Certain improvements were observed in blood pressure control, self-efficacy, physical activity, and some dietary habits. Conclusion. The SDSMP is feasible in our setting. Our experience can be of interest when planning and conducting this program in similar health settings. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394. PMID:28119932

  5. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  6. The Introduction of Data Processing in Middle-Level Accountancy Training Programs in Developing Countries: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Examines the impact of introducing data processing in middle-level accountancy training programs in Botswana. Hardware and software considerations for the program are also examined. Since the beginning of the program, some 300 students have been trained in accounting. (JN)

  7. The Introduction of Data Processing in Middle-Level Accountancy Training Programs in Developing Countries: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Examines the impact of introducing data processing in middle-level accountancy training programs in Botswana. Hardware and software considerations for the program are also examined. Since the beginning of the program, some 300 students have been trained in accounting. (JN)

  8. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  9. An Educational Program for Mental Health Nurses and Community Health Workers from Pacific Island Countries: Results from a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Trueman, Scott; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Casella, Evan; Woods, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of mental health care relies upon professionals with the latest evidence upon which to base their care. This research reports on a pre-test/post-test evaluation of a four-week education program delivered to Pacific Island participants (n = 18) to enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). The education program used a combination of formal lectures, tutorials, clinical visits, simulations, and laboratory sessions. The measure used was the Nurse Self Report (NSR) questionnaire. R...

  10. An educational program for mental health nurses and community health workers from pacific island countries: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Trueman, Scott; Redman-Maclaren, Michelle; Casella, Evan; Woods, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    Delivery of mental health care relies upon professionals with the latest evidence upon which to base their care. This research reports on a pre-test/post-test evaluation of a four-week education program delivered to Pacific Island participants (n = 18) to enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). The education program used a combination of formal lectures, tutorials, clinical visits, simulations, and laboratory sessions. The measure used was the Nurse Self Report (NSR) questionnaire. Results indicate an education intervention can be an effective tool for improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of Pacific Island people who care for persons experiencing mental health problems.

  11. Intelligent physical blocks for introducing computer programming in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the evaluation of a novel affordable system that incorporates intelligent physical blocks to introduce illiterate children in developing countries to the logical thinking process required in computer programming. Both...

  12. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP) among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Moy, Foong; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Mohd Ali, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants’ mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, pHRQOL for both physical component (PCS) by 6.51 points (5.21 to 7.80, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, pHRQOL. Collaboration with existing community partners demonstrated a promising channel for the wide-scale dissemination of

  13. Promoting North-South partnership in space data use and applications: Case study - East African countries space programs/projects new- concepts in document management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlimandago, S.

    This research paper have gone out with very simple and easy (several) new concepts in document management for space projects and programs which can be applied anywhere both in the developing and developed countries. These several new concepts are and have been applied in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda and found out to bear very good results using simple procedures. The intergral project based its documentation management approach from the outset on electronic document sharing and archiving. The main objective of having new concepts was to provide a faster and wider availability of the most current space information to all parties rather than creating a paperless office. Implementation of the new concepts approach required the capturing of documents in an appropriate and simple electronic format at source establishing new procedures for project wide information sharing and the deployment of a new generation of simple procedure - WEB - based tools. Key success factors were the early adoption of Internet technologies and simple procedures for improved information flow new concepts which can be applied anywhere both in the developed and the developing countries.

  14. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  15. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  16. Study protocol of European Fans in Training (EuroFIT): a four-country randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle program for men delivered in elite football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Abrahamsen, Frank; Andersen, Eivind; Anderson, Annie S; Bosmans, Judith E; Bunn, Christopher; Chalmers, Matthew; Clissmann, Ciaran; Gill, Jason M R; Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Jelsma, Judith G M; La Guardia, Jennifer G; Lemyre, Pierre N; Loudon, David W; Macaulay, Lisa; Maxwell, Douglas J; McConnachie, Alex; Martin, Anne; Mourselas, Nikos; Mutrie, Nanette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Ria; O'Brien, Kylie; Pereira, Hugo V; Philpott, Matthew; Roberts, Glyn C; Rooksby, John; Rost, Mattias; Røynesdal, Øystein; Sattar, Naveed; Silva, Marlene N; Sorensen, Marit; Teixeira, Pedro J; Treweek, Shaun; van Achterberg, Theo; van de Glind, Irene; van Mechelen, Willem; Wyke, Sally

    2016-07-19

    Lifestyle interventions targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours have the potential to initiate and support behavioural change and result in public health gain. Although men have often been reluctant to engage in such lifestyle programs, many are at high risk of several chronic conditions. We have developed an evidence and theory-based, gender sensitised, health and lifestyle program (European Fans in Training (EuroFIT)), which is designed to attract men through the loyalty they feel to the football club they support. This paper describes the study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the EuroFIT program in supporting men to improve their level of physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour over 12 months. The EuroFIT study is a pragmatic, two-arm, randomised controlled trial conducted in 15 football clubs in the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the UK (England). One-thousand men, aged 30 to 65 years, with a self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) will be recruited and individually randomised. The primary outcomes are objectively-assessed changes in total physical activity (steps per day) and total sedentary time (minutes per day) at 12 months after baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes are weight, BMI, waist circumference, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardio-metabolic blood biomarkers, food intake, self-reported physical activity and sedentary time, wellbeing, self-esteem, vitality and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed and a process evaluation conducted. The EuroFIT program will be delivered over 12 weekly, 90-minute sessions that combine classroom discussion with graded physical activity in the setting of the football club. Classroom sessions provide participants with a toolbox of behaviour change techniques to initiate and sustain long-term lifestyle changes. The coaches will receive two days of training to enable them to create a positive social

  17. Analysis of National Forest Programs for REDD+ Implementation in six South and Southeast Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A.J.; Inoue, M.; Shivakoti, G.P.; Nath, T.K.; Jashimuddin, M.; Zoysa, M.D.; Kaskoyo, H.; Pulhin, J.M.; Peras, R.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To facilitate REDD+ implementation and identify relevant attributes for robust REDD+ policies, this study evaluated and synthesized information from national forest programs in South and Southeast Asian countries. Area of study: Data was collected from six countries: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Philippines, India and Thailand. Methods: The data sources for the evaluation was an in-depth desk review of relevant documents and focus group discussion among experts from each study country. Main Results: We found out that diverse factors may influence program feasibility and the ability to achieve ‘triple benefits’: the nature of the forest targeted by the policy, the characteristics of the population affected by the policy, attributes of the policy instrument and the different actors involved. Research highlights: We argue that national policies and programs targeted for REDD+ implementation should focus on the identified features to achieve REDD+ goals. (Author)

  18. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients’ smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. Methods This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. Results To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students’ training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative

  19. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients' smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants' attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students' training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative evaluation and the other about the summative

  20. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  1. International Monetary Fund programs and tuberculosis outcomes in post-communist countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stuckler

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that International Monetary Fund (IMF economic programs have influenced health-care infrastructure in recipient countries. The post-communist Eastern European and former Soviet Union countries experienced relatively similar political and economic changes over the past two decades, and participated in IMF programs of varying size and duration. We empirically examine how IMF programs related to changes in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates among these countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed multivariate regression of two decades of tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality data against variables potentially influencing tuberculosis program outcomes in 21 post-communist countries for which comparative data are available. After correcting for confounding variables, as well as potential detection, selection, and ecological biases, we observed that participating in an IMF program was associated with increased tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates by 13.9%, 13.2%, and 16.6%, respectively. Each additional year of participation in an IMF program was associated with increased tuberculosis mortality rates by 4.1%, and each 1% increase in IMF lending was associated with increased tuberculosis mortality rates by 0.9%. On the other hand, we estimated a decrease in tuberculosis mortality rates of 30.7% (95% confidence interval, 18.3% to 49.5% associated with exiting the IMF programs. IMF lending did not appear to be a response to worsened health outcomes; rather, it appeared to be a precipitant of such outcomes (Granger- and Sims-causality tests, even after controlling for potential political, socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related confounders. In contrast, non-IMF lending programs were connected with decreased tuberculosis mortality rates (-7.6%, 95% confidence interval, -1.0% to -14.1%. The associations observed between tuberculosis mortality and IMF

  2. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  3. A Review Of Nutritional Guidelines And Menu Compositions For School Feeding Programs In 12 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzky eAliyar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives: To analyze the nutritional guidelines and menu compositions of school meal provision in various different countries.Background: School feeding is the provision of food on-site or to take home, which aims to increase school enrolment, attendance and retention, and exist as a social safety net for households with very low income. Home-grown school feeding (HGSF, additionally, aims to stimulate local economies by providing a source of income for local smallholder farmers. Methods: Literature searches using the Ovid MEDLINE databases, gathered information from in-country stakeholders, and accessed the programme websites of various countries. Nutrient composition of these menus was calculated from nutritional guidelines and menu compositions using a nutrition linear programming tool (NUTVAL.Country comparisons: School feeding aims differ between countries of each income group. The implementation, delivery of service and nutritional content of foods also differ considerably between countries and income groups. In high-income countries, guidelines and standards have been recommended in an attempt to combat rising levels of overweight and obesity, and to model healthier lifestyle habits. In low-income countries there is a gap in terms of guidance on nutrition standards and menu composition.Conclusions: Provision of evidence-based guidance on nutrition standards to middle and low income countries who have recently established or are planning to establish school feeding has the potential to greatly enhance and improve the quality of service and improve the life of millions of children worldwide.

  4. Mitigating Negative Externalities Affecting Access and Equity of Education in Low-Resource Countries: A Study Exploring Social Marketing as a Potential Strategy for Planning School Food Programs in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magreta-Nyongani, Martha

    2012-01-01

    School feeding programs enhance the efficiency of the education system by improving enrollment, reducing dropouts and increasing perseverance. They also have the potential to reach the poor, directly making them an effective social safety net. In many low-resource countries, school feeding programs are designed to protect children from the effects…

  5. Mitigating Negative Externalities Affecting Access and Equity of Education in Low-Resource Countries: A Study Exploring Social Marketing as a Potential Strategy for Planning School Food Programs in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magreta-Nyongani, Martha

    2012-01-01

    School feeding programs enhance the efficiency of the education system by improving enrollment, reducing dropouts and increasing perseverance. They also have the potential to reach the poor, directly making them an effective social safety net. In many low-resource countries, school feeding programs are designed to protect children from the effects…

  6. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    processes of change. Socioeconomic statistical information has been systematically published by Argentina’s Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos in...Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos Estima- 353 Argentina: A Country Study clones y proyecdones de poblaciion, 1950-2025. Buenos Aires: 1982...Aires: Institute Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, 1983. Argentina. Ministerio de Educaciön. Departamento de Estadis- tica. Estadisticas de la

  7. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    strengthen the cultural ties of the Singapore Chinese to China by establishing a cultural club, a debating society, Singapore’s first Chinese-language...break up ethnic en- claves and resettle kampong dwellers in Housing and Development Board apartment complexes had a great effect on the Malays. Evi- dence...for Communications and Information 201 Singapore: A Country Study ineffective in the 1980s. The major issues were economic, involv- ing debate over the

  8. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1972. Kundera , Milan . "The Czech Wager," New York Review of Books, 27, Nos. 21 and 22, January 21, 1981, 21-22. 369 Czechoslovakia.: A Country Study...1916, together with Eduard Bene§ and Milan Steffinik (a Slovak war hero), Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council. Masaryk in the United...Czechoslovakia’s aid only if French assistance came first. In 1935 Beneg succeeded Masaryk as president, and Prime Minister Milan Hod.a took over the Ministry

  9. Influenza in Thailand: a case study for middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, James Mark; Thawatsupha, Pranee; Kingnate, Darika; Fukuda, Keiji; Chaising, Arunee; Dowell, Scott F

    2004-11-25

    Recent studies in Hong Kong and Singapore suggest that the annual impact of influenza in these wealthy tropical cities may be substantial, but little is known about the burden in middle-income tropical countries. We reviewed the status of influenza surveillance, vaccination, research, and policy in Thailand as of January 2004. From 1993 to 2002, 64-91 cases of clinically diagnosed influenza were reported per 100,000 persons per year. Influenza viruses were isolated in 34% of 4305 specimens submitted to the national influenza laboratory. Vaccine distribution figures suggest that less than 1% of the population is immunized against influenza each year. In January 2004, Thailand reported its first documented outbreak of influenza A H5N1 infection in poultry and the country's first human cases of avian influenza. Thailand's growing economy, well-developed public health infrastructure, and effective national immunization program could enable the country to take more active steps towards influenza control.

  10. Need for closer interaction between Space Science Education and Exploration programs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. N.

    Space science has become a subject of prime interest. Important issue is the involvement of major expenditures. For overcoming this problem a global co-operation has developed and is proving to be successful. Space programs in developing countries have not yet started in the true sense. India is very well known as one of the pioneering countries for its contribution to upper atmospheric research that was initiated and grew on University campuses. With the advent of space research, the rocket launching facilities were developed and it was used by various scientists groups from many countries. India has developed capability of rocket and satellite launching. With development of space commission, the ground-based study programs spread all over India have decayed slowly. The space research programs are run by governmental agencies only. Universities that initiated space research programs using ground-based radio waves are out of business. Space research has not yet entered the teaching curricula in Indian Universities. It is high time that the teaching and laboratory work in space research be initiated in Indian universities. Development of such a system is emphasized. Its development would enable university's scientists to participate in Indian space research programs on equal footing as commonly seen in American, European, Russian and Japanese programs.

  11. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    left in Bas-Zaire. 69 I- ________________________ Zaire: A Country Study In the east, the appropriation of land for ranching and planta - tions in the...tests positive for the AIDS virus ) in Kinshasa for the general popula- tion in 1987 were 6 to 8 percent; among prostitutes the figure was as high as 30...56 Kenya 550-77 Chile 550-81 Korea, North 550-60 China 550-41 Korea, South 550-26 Colombia 550-58 Laos 550-33 Commonwealth Caribbean, 550-24 Lebanon

  12. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladner Joël

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervix cancer, preventable, continues to be the third most common cancer in women worldwide, especially in lowest income countries. Prophylactic HPV vaccination should help to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to describe the results of and key concerns in eight HPV vaccination programs conducted in seven lowest income countries through the Gardasil Access Program (GAP. Methods The GAP provides free HPV vaccine to organizations and institutions in lowest income countries. The HPV vaccination programs were entirely developed, implemented and managed by local institutions. Institutions submitted application forms with institution characteristics, target population, communication delivery strategies. After completion of the vaccination campaign (3 doses, institutions provided a final project report with data on doses administered and vaccination models. Two indicators were calculated, the program vaccination coverage and adherence. Qualitative data were also collected in the following areas: government and community involvement; communication, and sensitization; training and logistics resources, and challenges. Results A total of eight programs were implemented in seven countries. The eight programs initially targeted a total of 87,580 girls, of which 76,983 received the full 3-dose vaccine course, with mean program vaccination coverage of 87.8%; the mean adherence between the first and third doses of vaccine was 90.9%. Three programs used school-based delivery models, 2 used health facility-based models, and 3 used mixed models that included schools and health facilities. Models that included school-based vaccination were most effective at reaching girls aged 9-13 years. Mixed models comprising school and health facility-based vaccination had better overall performance compared with models using just one of the methods. Increased rates of program coverage and

  13. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  14. Action-oriented support for occupational safety and health programs in some developing countries in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2001-01-01

    Action-oriented support programs have been increasingly playing vital roles in promoting safety and health in developing countries in Asia. This paper studied achievements of 3 action-oriented support programs: the WISE program for small enterprises, the WIND program for farmers, and the POSITIVE program for workers and trade unions. Special attention was paid to how the programs have strengthened local efforts for sustainable actions in safety and health improvements. The results showed that there were significant achievements in action-oriented support programs in the region, including a large number of improvement examples, integration into government policies, and network support through employers' and workers' organizations. Participatory, action-oriented training tools such as action-checklists, local good example photos, and group work methods played key roles in the effective implementation of the programs. It was of note that there were a number of local efforts to extend the coverage of action-oriented support even to hard-to-reach workers such as home-based workers, rural workers, and ethnic minorities. The efforts included the equal participation in the training by female and male farmers, shortened and weekend training programs, photo sheets showing local good examples, and reasonable fee collection for better sustainability. In conclusion, action-oriented support programs provided local people with concrete means to promote safety and health improvements. The successful programs commonly focused on local initiatives and were built on local wisdom and resources.

  15. Implementation of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, A.

    1982-01-01

    The current state of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries is discussed. Sensors being utilized and results obtained are described. Requirements are presented for the research of resources in developing countries. It is recommended that a work procedure be developed for the use of satellite remote sensing data tailored to the necessities of the different countries.

  16. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  17. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, Ralph A., E-mail: SkipLuken@yahoo.com [UNIDO, PO Box 300 (Library), A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Piras, Stefano [UNIDO (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: > We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. > These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. > The two successful on-going programs share three common features. > These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. > The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  18. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  19. Tuberculosis in Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballif, Marie; Renner, Lorna; Claude Dusingize, Jean;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global burden of childhood tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to be 0.5 million new cases per year. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at high risk for TB. Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge. METHODS: We describe TB diagnosis...... and screening practices of pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. We used web-based questionnaires to collect data on ART programs and patients seen from March to July 2012. Forty-three ART programs treating children in 23 countries...... participated in the study. RESULTS: Sputum microscopy and chest Radiograph were available at all programs, mycobacterial culture in 40 (93%) sites, gastric aspiration in 27 (63%), induced sputum in 23 (54%), and Xpert MTB/RIF in 16 (37%) sites. Screening practices to exclude active TB before starting ART...

  20. Deferred Cost Recovery for Higher Education: Student Loan Programs in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Douglas; Ziderman, Adrian

    This study analyzes the experience of existing higher education student loan programs in developing countries in order to understand their role in fostering cost recovery. Detailed financial analyses of 24 loan programs shows that present value of the repayments collected constitutes a small percentage of the loan value disbursed. In general,…

  1. Strengthening prevention programs to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, L.; Pagliusi, S.; Bray, F.

    2008-01-01

    to protect young populations from HPV-associated cancers need to be strengthened, and hence organized implementation of vaccination and better screening programs are being considered. In this context, randomized large-scale policy evaluations will be instrumental in accelerating disease control and improve......Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies...... effective prevention programs. This report shares experiences from Nordic countries with examples of prevention strategies through vaccination and cervical screening. The same principles as set up for organized programs and new HPV technologies may apply for screening and vaccination as key tools...

  2. Systematic review research on needle/syringe programs and opiate substitution programs in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlais, Don Des

    2013-12-01

    Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at an elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In many high-income countries, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) have been associated with reductions in blood-borne infections. However, we do not have a good understanding of the effectiveness of NSP in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. A systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines was utilized to collect primary study data on coverage of NSP programs and changes in HIV and HCV infection over time among PWID in low- and middle-income and transitional countries (LMICs). Included studies reported laboratory measures of either HIV or HCV and at least 50% coverage of the local injecting population (through direct use or through secondary exchange). We also included national reports on newly reported HIV cases for countries that had national level data for PWID in conjunction with NSP scale-up and implementation. Studies of 11 NSPs with high-coverage from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Estonia, Iran, Lithuania, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam were included in the review. In five studies, HIV prevalence decreased (range -3% to -15%) and in three studies HCV prevalence decreased (range -4.2% to -10.2%). In two studies, HIV prevalence increased (range +5.6% to +14.8%). HCV incidence remained stable in one study. Of the four national reports of newly reported HIV cases, three reported decreases during NSP expansion, ranging from -30% to -93.3%, whereas one national report documented an increase in cases (+37.6%). Estimated incidence among new injectors decreased in three studies, with reductions ranging from -11/100 person years at risk to -16/100 person years at risk. While not fully consistent, the data generally support the effectiveness of NSP in reducing HIV and HCV infection in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. If high coverage is achieved, NSP appear to be as effective in LMICs

  3. Cross Country Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The last of five booklets on specific sports instruction in Special Olympics presents information on teaching cross country skiing to mentally retarded persons. The approach uses goals, short term objectives, task analyzed activities, assessments and teaching suggestions for individualizing and integrating the sports skills instruction with other…

  4. Building evidence for sustainability of food and nutrition intervention programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny S; Rogers, Beatrice L; Coates, Jennifer; Gilligan, Daniel O; Sarriot, Eric

    2013-09-01

    After making large investments to put in place effective health and nutrition interventions, researchers, program implementers, policy makers, and donors all expect lasting effects. However, it is uncertain whether this is the case, and there is less certainty on how to approach the study of program sustainability. This symposium, "Building Evidence for Sustainability of Food and Nutrition Intervention Programs in Developing Countries," provided not only frameworks for conceptualizing sustainability but concrete evidence about the approaches and methods used as well as lessons on how they do or do not work in particular contexts. We presented the following findings: 1) sustainability of activities and impacts of Title II food aid programs in Bolivia and Kenya, 2) sustainability of impact in terms of adoption and consumption of a biofortified orange sweet potato in Uganda, and 3) lessons from incorporating pro-sustainability investment strategies in child survival programs in Guinea. Our symposium introduced a new important body of research on program sustainability to provide insights and stimulate innovative thinking in the design and planning of further applied research and future prosustainability intervention programs.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was the Tijaniyah, a sect begun by Ahmad at Tijani in Morocco, which eventually penetrated Sudan in about 1810 via the western Sahel (see Glossary...rainfall in the usually productive regions of the Sahel (see Glossary) and southern Sudan added to the country’s economic problems. Refugees, both Sudanese...be irrigated for the first time. Heavy silting as well as serious problems of drainage and salinity occurred. As a result, by the late 1970s the

  6. Area Handbook Series: Libya, a Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    only true mountains, Tibesti Massif, rise in southern desert. Country has several saline lakes but no peren- nial watercourses. Less than 5 percent of...facilitate expanded Sanusi missionary activities in the Sahel and in sub-Saharan Africa. The Grand Sanusi’s son, Muhammad, succeeded him as the order’s...Groundwater was in short supply in the agricultural areas. In some locations it had been so excessively drawn upon that it had become brackish or saline

  7. Sustainability of ARV provision in developing countries: challenging a framework based on program history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Santos-Pinto, Cláudia Du Bocage; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2017-08-01

    The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited. Key informants were identified and interviewed. Investigation of sustainability related to ARV provision involved implementation and routinization events of provision schemes. Evidence of greater sustainability potential was observed in Peru, where provision is implemented and routinized by the National HIV/AIDS program and expenditures met by the government. In Mozambique, provision is dependent on donations and external aid, but the country displays a great effort to incorporate ARV provision and care in routine healthcare activities. Bolivia, in addition to external dependence on financing and management of drug supply, presents problems regarding implementation and routinization. The conceptual framework was useful in recognizing events that influence sustainable ARV provision in these countries.

  8. An analysis of government immunization program expenditures in lower and lower middle income countries 2006-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Alice Abou; de Quadros, Ciro; Politi, Claudio; McQuestion, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Financing is becoming increasingly important as the cost of immunizing the world's children continues to rise. By 2015, that cost will likely exceed US$60 per infant as new vaccines are introduced into national immunization programs. In 2006, 51 lower and lower middle income countries reported spending a mean US$12 per surviving infant on routine immunization. By 2012, the figure had risen to $20, a 67% increase. This study tests the hypothesis that lower and lower middle income countries will spend more on their routine immunization programs as their economies grow. A panel data regression approach is used. Expenditures reported by governments annually (2006-12) through the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form are regressed on lagged annual per capita gross national income (GNI), controlling for prevailing mortality levels, immunization program performance, corruption control efforts, geographical region and correct reporting. Results show the expenditures increased with GNI. Expressed as an elasticity, the countries spent approximately $6.32 on immunization for every $100 in GNI increase from 2006 to 2012. Projecting forward and assuming continued annual GNI growth rates of 10.65%, countries could be spending $60 per infant by 2020 if national investment functions increase 4-fold. Given the political will, this result implies countries could fully finance their routine immunization programs without cutting funding for other programs.

  9. Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad.

  10. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  11. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower…

  12. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  13. Crime Prevention Programs: Evidence for a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vergara

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of two anti-crime programs implemented in Chile in the late 1990s. The first (Quadrant Plan) is related to enhancing the quality of police work and the second one (Secure County Plan) to the involvement of the community in designing specific projects aimed at reducing the crime rate. It is found that only the Quadrant Plan has been successful in terms of reducing crime rates and has caused its impact through the effect of arrests in deterring crime. The Secure C...

  14. Evaluation of an international faculty development program for developing countries in Asia: the Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Sung, Minsun; Yoo, Dong-Mi; Hwang, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Seunghee; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2015-12-18

    The issue of collaboration in medical education is becoming prominent. Some faculty development programs have suggested an approach for promoting collaboration on a global level. However, non-English-speaking developing countries in Asia, especially in Southeast Asia, do not take advantage of them due to their unique context, such as language and culture. To address these issues, Seoul National University College of Medicine initiated a 6-week international faculty development program called the "Seoul Intensive Course for Medical Educators" for 16 fellows from five Asian countries (Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, and Vietnam). The aim of this study is to report the evaluation results of the outcome of the program and discuss better ways of collaborating with developing countries. Three levels of collaboration-intraorganizational, intranational, and international-were central initiatives of the program. Prior to setting up the program details, we first established four design principles, following which the contents, materials, and facilitators were determined to maintain consistency with the design principles. The evaluation of the program was done with Kirkpatrick's four-level model. Most of the evaluation data for level 1 were collected by two questionnaires, the post-module survey and the post-program survey. Portfolios and progress reports were mainly used to collect outcome data for levels 2 and 3, respectively. The reaction was generally positive throughout the program and there was a significant correlation between satisfaction and relevance to one's job or needs. Despite the fellows' propensity for overestimating themselves, both the evaluators and fellows reported that there was significant improvement in learning. Opinions on the impact or urgency of the topics were slightly different from country to country; however, the answers regarding feasibility were fairly similar. Moreover, we could observe from the post-program progress reports that the

  15. Situation des PU in Deutschsprachigen Landern (The Status of Programed Instruction in German-Speaking Countries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermaier, R.

    A survey of programmed materials in the German language up to January 1970 has recently been completed. It can be seen that the number of teaching programs developed within German speaking countries has increased dramatically during the last few years. The present report gives a brief statistical survey of the situation with comments on some major…

  16. Structural process and implementation programs of pharmaceutical care in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Calero, M J; Machuca, M; Murillo, M D; Cansino, J; Gastelurrutia, M A; Faus, M J

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical care started in the nineties in the United States and has rapidly extended in many other countries. Although there are different trends, such as clinical pharmacy services, cognitive services, medication management, medication review, they all share the same philosophy and objectives, namely "the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient's quality of life". To attain these objectives, a pharmaceutical care process has to be followed point-by-point in order to detect possible medication-related problems. Furthermore, pharmacists have to work together with patients, and ultimately with physicians to establish a care plan. This methodology requires basic skills of documentation and communication and therefore, it is important to establish implementation programs aimed at community-, hospital-, and consultant pharmacists, and to consider PC as a basic element of University teaching programs and postgraduate studies. Moreover, there are still barriers that hinder the provision of this service and have to be overcome. In this article, we have revised the implementation process and the existing projects in many countries and we conclude that despite the enormous amount of work, there is still much to be done from sides of Administration and pharmacists themselves.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF GRADUATE ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITIES IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rolim Ensslin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates there is a shortage of professors of accounting. For some researchers this lack is related to the high price paid to obtain an advanced degree in this area. According to the American Accounting Association (AAA, graduate programs need to be more attractive, less stressful and less expensive for students. Therefore, the objective of this study is to map the characteristics of the selection process, the courses offered and the requirements to obtain a master’s degree in accounting from universities located in English-speaking. This study can be classified as descriptive, with a theoretical-conceptual nature and a qualitative approach. We rely on secondary sources and apply inductive logic. The main results are that in the United States, 71% of the programs require candidates to have knowledge of accounting, finance, economics, taxes, statistics and mathematics; 75% of Australian universities require a minimum score on the TOEFL for foreign students, 20% have a minimum GPA and 10% require taking the GMAT; and no Canadian university requires a letter of recommendation. Regarding the purpose of the courses, 88% of the institutions that offer master programs in accounting focus on improved professional qualification of accountants. In Australia, 30% of the programs last 18 months, while in Canada this figure is 66% and in New Zealand, 50% of the programs last at least two years. With respect to the graduation requirements, 82% of the universities require between 4 and 9 mandatory disciplines. In conclusion, the master programs in the United States and United Kingdom are relatively more demanding with respect to the degree requirements than in the other countries investigated.

  18. Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Wirth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A supplementation (VAS programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006, which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made.

  19. Promoting anti-corruption reforms. Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study begi

  20. Promoting anti-corruption reforms : Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, Carolien Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study begin

  1. Demand for programs for key populations in Africa from countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owen Ryan, John Macom, and Michelle Moses-Eisenstein

    2012-11-28

    Nov 28, 2012 ... gender dynamics of the epidemic, especially for female sex workers (FSW) (The ... Europe), recent surveillance studies have shown that these groups bear an ..... Fund (2008). The Gender Equality Strategy. http://www.google.

  2. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Southeast Asian Studies, 1987. Villanueva , Honesto A. "The Independence Mission 1919: In- dependence Lies Ahead," Asian Studies [Manila], 9, No. 3...26, No. 5, May 1986, 501-17. Majul, Cesar Abid. "The Moros of the Philippines," Conflict, 8. Nos. 2-3, 1988, 169-84. Malajacan, Marcelino Q., Jr

  3. Area Handbook Series: Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    urea fertilizer, and in 1987 Iraq continued to import fertilizer as an emergency measure. Meanwhile, additional fertilizer plants were 151 Iraq: A...Study 1980 and 1985; 1985 production totaled almost 150,000 tons. Iraq also produced maize , millet, and oil seeds in smaller quantities. A number of

  4. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Yugoslavia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Center Press, 1988. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and Prospects for Economic Re- form in Yugoslavia," Eastern European Politics and Societies, 2, Winter...1988, 94-114. 312 Bibliography Bukowski , Charles J., and Mark A. Cichock (eds.). Prospects for Change in Socialist Systems. New York: Praeger, 1987...67. Biberaj, Elez. "Yugoslavia: A Continuing Crisis?" Conflict Studies [London], 225, October 1989, 1-22. Bukowski , Charles J. "Politics and

  6. Area Handbook Series: Paraguay: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    University of New Mexico Press, 1978. Wilgus, A. Curtis. Historical Atlas of Latin America: Political, Geo- graphic, Economic, Cultural . New York...34 Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35, No. 3, April 1987, 601-27. Benftez, Luis G. Historia de la educacin paraguaya. Asunci6n: In- dustrial... cultural factors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the

  7. 25 CFR 12.42 - Do Indian country law enforcement programs share information with their own communities or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Indian country law enforcement programs share..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.42 Do Indian country law enforcement programs share information with their own communities or other agencies...

  8. What drives donor funding in population assistance programs? Evidence from OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Hendrik P; Reuser, Mieke

    2006-09-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) established goals for the expansion of population assistance. To date, the financial promises made by donor countries in 1994 have not been met. To unravel the gap between ambitions and contributions, we use panel estimation methods to see what lies behind the level of donor contributions and the sharing of burdens across the various categories of population and HIV/AIDS assistance in 21 donor countries for the years 1996-2002. Contributions by donors depend heavily on the economic wealth and subjective preferences of donor countries. The sharing of the ICPD burden within the group of OECD/DAC countries is in line with the countries' ability to pay, although within the aggregate we observe a specialization in channels for aid: small countries predominantly use multilateral aid agencies, whereas large countries rely more on bilateral aid channels. Catholic countries are averse to donating unrestricted funds (flowing primarily to multilateral agencies) or restricted funds targeted at family planning programs.

  9. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking: a successful program for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Jorge Morales

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception the IAEA program in radiation and tissue banking supported the establishment of twenty five tissue banks in different countries. Now more than 103 tissue banks are now operating in these countries. The production of sterilized tissues has grown in an exponential mode within the IAEA program. From 1988 until the end of 2000 the production of sterilized tissues was 224,706 grafts, with an estimated value of at least $51,768,553 million dollars at the mean current charge rate in non-commercial banks in Europe and USA. During the period 1997-2002 several countries from Asia and the Pacific region produced more than 155,000 grafts, with an estimated value of about $36.7 million dollars. Training was considered to be one of the most important tasks to be supported. A total of 192 students were registered in the training program and 146 students graduated with a University Diploma. For many developing countries an additional benefit is not having to import expensive sterilized tissues from developed countries, but the exposure of orthopedic and plastic surgeons working, to new methods of using allografts in specific surgical treatments.

  10. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  11. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  12. Public-private partnerships to build human capacity in low income countries: findings from the Pfizer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connelly Patrick

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of health organizations in developing countries to expand access to quality services depends in large part on organizational and human capacity. Capacity building includes professional development of staff, as well as efforts to create working environments conducive to high levels of performance. The current study evaluated an approach to public-private partnership where corporate volunteers give technical assistance to improve organizational and staff performance. From 2003 to 2005, the Pfizer Global Health Fellows program sent 72 employees to work with organizations in 19 countries. This evaluation was designed to assess program impact. Methods The researchers administered a survey to 60 Fellows and 48 Pfizer Supervisors. In addition, the team conducted over 100 interviews with partner organization staff and other key informants during site visits in Uganda, Kenya, Ghana, South Africa and India, the five countries where 60% of Fellows were placed. Results Over three-quarters of Fellowships appear to have imparted skills or enhanced operations of NGOs in HIV/AIDS and other health programs. Overall, 79% of Fellows reported meeting all or most technical assistance goals. Partner organization staff reported that the Fellows provided training to clinical and research personnel; strengthened laboratory, pharmacy, financial control, and human resource management systems; and helped expand Partner organization networks. Local staff also reported the Program changed their work habits and attitudes. The evaluation identified problems in defining goals of Fellowships and matching Organizations with Fellows. Capacity building success also appears related to size and sophistication of partner organization. Conclusion Public expectations have grown regarding the role corporations should play in improving health systems in developing countries. Corporate philanthropy programs based on "donations" of personnel can help build

  13. Costs of vaccine programs across 94 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Gorham, Katrin M; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-05-07

    While new mechanisms such as advance market commitments and co-financing policies of the GAVI Alliance are allowing low- and middle-income countries to gain access to vaccines faster than ever, understanding the full scope of vaccine program costs is essential to ensure adequate resource mobilization. This costing analysis examines the vaccine costs, supply chain costs, and service delivery costs of immunization programs for routine immunization and for supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) for vaccines related to 18 antigens in 94 countries across the decade, 2011-2020. Vaccine costs were calculated using GAVI price forecasts for GAVI-eligible countries, and assumptions from the PAHO Revolving Fund and UNICEF for middle-income countries not supported by the GAVI Alliance. Vaccine introductions and coverage levels were projected primarily based on GAVI's Adjusted Demand Forecast. Supply chain costs including costs of transportation, storage, and labor were estimated by developing a mechanistic model using data generated by the HERMES discrete event simulation models. Service delivery costs were abstracted from comprehensive multi-year plans for the majority of GAVI-eligible countries and regression analysis was conducted to extrapolate costs to additional countries. The analysis shows that the delivery of the full vaccination program across 94 countries would cost a total of $62 billion (95% uncertainty range: $43-$87 billion) over the decade, including $51 billion ($34-$73 billion) for routine immunization and $11 billion ($7-$17 billion) for SIAs. More than half of these costs stem from service delivery at $34 billion ($21-$51 billion)-with an additional $24 billion ($13-$41 billion) in vaccine costs and $4 billion ($3-$5 billion) in supply chain costs. The findings present the global costs to attain the goals envisioned during the Decade of Vaccines to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all

  14. Structural adjustment and public spending on health: evidence from IMF programs in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Stubbs, Thomas H; King, Lawrence P

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between health policy in low-income countries (LICs) and structural adjustment programs devised by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been the subject of intense controversy over past decades. While the influence of the IMF on health policy can operate through various pathways, one main link is via public spending on health. The IMF has claimed that its programs enhance government spending for health, and that a number of innovations have been introduced to enable borrowing countries to protect health spending from broader austerity measures. Critics have pointed to adverse effects of Fund programs on health spending or to systematic underfunding that does not allow LICs to address health needs. We examine the effects of Fund programs on government expenditures on health in low-income countries using data for the period 1985-2009. We find that Fund programs are associated with higher health expenditures only in Sub-Saharan African LICs, which historically spent less than any other region. This relationship turns negative in LICs in other regions. We outline the implications of these findings for health policy in a development context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Obesity related programming statements in infant feeding policies in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Bokor, Szilvia; von Rosen-von Hoewel, Julia; Laitinen, Kirsi; Schmid, Martina A; Morgan, Jane; Gage, Heather; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know how the early nutrition programming concept and its relation with long-term diseases such as obesity is reflected in policy recommendations on infant nutrition in five European countries (Finland, Germany, Hungary, Spain and England). After collating and evaluating infant nutrition policy documents, statements about early nutrition programming, as the origin of diseases such as obesity, were analysed. The number of policy documents analysed were 38 (England: 10, Finland: 2, Germany: 11, Hungary: 8, Spain: 7) with a total of 455 statements identified and categorized into 53 different health outcomes. Obesity was mentioned in 5.5% (n = 25) of the statements, the third most frequent outcome after allergy (14.1%, n = 64) and health in general (5.7%, n = 26). Twenty six percent (n = 6) of the obesity related statements referred to short-term duration of the effects, 48% (n = 12) to medium-term, 24% (n = 6) to long-term effects and the rest were not identified. Only 22% of the obesity statements were evidence based. The link between infant feeding and obesity is integrated into policy documents, but most of the statements did not fully specify the short, medium and long term health implications. Action may be required to keep documents up to date as new evidence emerges and to ensure the evidence base is properly recorded.

  16. [Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan.

  17. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  18. Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a case study of 5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huppatz Clare

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic Filariasis (LF is an important Neglected Tropical Disease, being a major cause of disability worldwide. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to eliminate LF as a public health problem by the year 2020, primarily through repeated Mass Drug Administration (MDA. The Pacific region programme commenced in 1999. By June 2007, five of the eleven countries classified as endemic had completed five MDA campaigns and post-MDA prevalence surveys to assess their progress. We review available programme data and discuss their implications for other LF elimination programs in developing countries. Methods Reported MDA coverage and results from initial surveys and post-MDA surveys of LF using the immunochromatographic test (ICT from these five Pacific Island countries (Tonga, Niue, Vanuatu, Samoa and Cook Islands were analysed to provide an understanding of their quality and programme progress towards LF elimination. Denominator data reported by each country programme for 2001 was compared to official sources to assess the accuracy of MDA coverage data. Results Initial survey results from these five countries revealed an ICT prevalence of between 2.7 and 8.6 percent in individuals tested prior to commencement of the programme. Country MDA coverage results varied depending on the source of denominator data. Of the five countries in this case study, three countries (Tonga, Niue and Vanuatu reached the target prevalence of Conclusion Accurate and representative baseline and post-campaign prevalence data is crucial for determining program effectiveness and the factors contributing to effectiveness. This is emphasised by the findings of this case study. While three of the five Pacific countries reported achieving the target prevalence of

  19. The assessment of the readiness of five countries to implement child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Power, Mick; Raleva, Marija; Makoae, Mokhantso; Al Eissa, Majid; Cheah, Irene; Cardia, Nancy; Choo, Claire; Almuneef, Maha

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to systematically assess the readiness of five countries - Brazil, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa - to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. To this end, it applied a recently developed method called Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment based on two parallel 100-item instruments. The first measures the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning child maltreatment prevention of key informants; the second, completed by child maltreatment prevention experts using all available data in the country, produces a more objective assessment readiness. The instruments cover all of the main aspects of readiness including, for instance, availability of scientific data on the problem, legislation and policies, will to address the problem, and material resources. Key informant scores ranged from 31.2 (Brazil) to 45.8/100 (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and expert scores, from 35.2 (Brazil) to 56/100 (Malaysia). Major gaps identified in almost all countries included a lack of professionals with the skills, knowledge, and expertise to implement evidence-based child maltreatment programs and of institutions to train them; inadequate funding, infrastructure, and equipment; extreme rarity of outcome evaluations of prevention programs; and lack of national prevalence surveys of child maltreatment. In sum, the five countries are in a low to moderate state of readiness to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. Such an assessment of readiness - the first of its kind - allows gaps to be identified and then addressed to increase the likelihood of program success.

  20. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Emilio Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service, in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients. The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals. The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Method/design Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care. For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index, and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative

  1. A Review of Parenting Programs in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Many children in developing countries are at risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, which are likely to be elevated due to the effects of poverty. Parenting programs have shown to be effective preventative strategies in high-income countries, but to date the research on their effectiveness in lower-income countries is limited.…

  2. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  3. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  4. Friendly and Hostile Country Perceptions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Beytullah; Topçu, Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Peace education requires that students have a correct and academic perception regarding other countries. These perceptions of students, who acquire certain perceptions starting from primary school to university, need to be based on real facts and should not contain extravagance. This study aims to determine whether 3rd year Prospective Social…

  5. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  6. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  7. Pay-for-Performance Incentives in Low- and Middle-Income Country Health Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Miller; Kimberly Singer Babiarz

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys experience with performance pay in developing country health programs. In doing so, it focuses on four key conceptual issues: (1) What to reward, (2) Who to reward, (3) How to reward, and (4) What unintended consequences might performance incentives create. We highlight that the use of performance pay has outpaced growth in corresponding empirical evidence. Moreover, very little research on performance incentives focuses on the underlying conceptual issues that we outline...

  8. Public works programs in developing countries have the potential to reduce poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Public works programs in developing countries can reduce poverty in the long term and help low-skilled workers cope with economic shocks in the short term. But success depends on a scheme’s design and implementation. Key design factors are: properly identifying the target population; selecting the right wage; and establishing efficient implementation institutions. In practice, rationing, corruption, mismanagement, and other implementation flaws often limit the effectiveness of public works pr...

  9. Current state of ESCO activities in Asia: ESCO industry development programs and future tasks in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi (Jyukankyo Research Inst. (Japan))

    2009-07-01

    In Japan and other Asian countries, ESCO markets are under formation. Introduction of ESCOs to Asia took place in the 1990s. A vigorous ESCO market is already forming in Japan, South Korea, China, and Thailand. Also, in Malaysia, and the Philippines, ESCO market development is proceeding. How did these countries introduce ESCO industries? What kind of activities are being carried out, and what are future tasks? As a first step in implementing ESCO development programs, developed countries have used government support, while emerging countries have co-operated with international organisations. By classifying the types of programs and examining activities currently under way, we can understand necessary conditions for developing an ESCO industry. When we classify programs of various countries, we see that most countries implement the same kinds of measures. However, the results vary. Some countries are progressing with market development, while others have not reached the point of market formation. Analysis of factors leading to these variations is important to the future development of ESCO industries. In this paper, we describe the current state of ESCO activities in Japan and emerging countries, and we examine ESCO development programs of each country. In particular, by comparing measures taken in countries with successful ESCO market development, such as Japan, China, Thailand and India with those still trying to develop ESCO markets, such as Malaysia, and the Philippines, we analyse factors leading to success, and we illuminate future tasks for each country.

  10. School-based "Shokuiku" program in Japan: application to nutrition education in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Miki; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the overview of "Shokuiku" in Japan, and discusses the future perspective on application of its concepts to nutrition education in other Asian countries. In Japan, there has been a growing concern on increase of obesity and the metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men. Additionally, child obesity has also become one of the important health problems. The increased obesity among them is possibly associated with inappropriate dietary habits (eg skipping breakfast, excessive fat intake and insufficient vegetable). Under this circumstance, the "Basic Law on Shokuiku" was enacted in 2005, which was the first law that regulates one's diets and eating habits. For effective implementation of Shokuiku program, dietitians and registered dietitians would play important roles in various settings. Japan has a long history of dietitian system as well as school-lunch programs. Later, in order to further enhance the school-based Shokuiku programs, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System was established in April 2007. From an international point of view, "nutrition education" programs aim to improve dietary practices so as to ensure adequate energy or nutrient intake and also to reduce obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, whereas the concepts of Shokuiku have very wide approaches. Shokuiku's efforts expand to support food culture, especially through school-based programs, as well as to improve food environment by providing information on appropriate diets. These approaches can be introduced in nutrition education in other Asian countries, not only to improve one's health and nutritional status but also to secure food culture and food safety in each country.

  11. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  12. Systematic review of abstinence-plus HIV prevention programs in high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abstinence-plus (comprehensive interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10, community facilities (24, both schools and community facilities (2, health care facilities (2, and family homes (1. Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819. No trial found adverse program effects on any

  13. Scaling up of breastfeeding promotion programs in low- and middle-income countries: the "breastfeeding gear" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Curry, Leslie; Minhas, Dilpreet; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) promotion is one of the most cost-effective interventions to advance mother-child health. Evidence-based frameworks and models to promote the effective scale up and sustainability of BF programs are still lacking. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature reports was conducted to identify key barriers and facilitators for scale up of BF programs in low- and middle-income countries. The review identified BF programs located in 28 countries in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia. Study designs included case studies, qualitative studies, and observational quantitative studies. Only 1 randomized, controlled trial was identified. A total of 22 enabling factors and 15 barriers were mapped into a scale-up framework termed "AIDED" that was used to build the parsimonious breastfeeding gear model (BFGM). Analogous to a well-oiled engine, the BFGM indicates the need for several key "gears" to be working in synchrony and coordination. Evidence-based advocacy is needed to generate the necessary political will to enact legislation and policies to protect, promote, and support BF at the hospital and community levels. This political-policy axis in turn drives the resources needed to support workforce development, program delivery, and promotion. Research and evaluation are needed to sustain the decentralized program coordination "gear" required for goal setting and system feedback. The BFGM helps explain the different levels of performance in national BF outcomes in Mexico and Brazil. Empirical research is recommended to further test the usefulness of the AIDED framework and BFGM for global scaling up of BF programs.

  14. High coverage needle/syringe programs for people who inject drugs in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Jarlais Don C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons who inject drugs (PWID are at an elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. In many high-income countries, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP have been associated with reductions in blood-borne infections. However, we do not have a good understanding of the effectiveness of NSP in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. Methods A systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines was utilized to collect primary study data on coverage of NSP programs and changes in HIV and HCV infection over time among PWID in low-and middle-income and transitional countries (LMICs. Included studies reported laboratory measures of either HIV or HCV and at least 50% coverage of the local injecting population (through direct use or through secondary exchange. We also included national reports on newly reported HIV cases for countries that had national level data for PWID in conjunction with NSP scale-up and implementation. Results Studies of 11 NSPs with high-coverage from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Estonia, Iran, Lithuania, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam were included in the review. In five studies HIV prevalence decreased (range −3% to −15% and in three studies HCV prevalence decreased (range −4.2% to −10.2%. In two studies HIV prevalence increased (range +5.6% to +14.8%. HCV incidence remained stable in one study. Of the four national reports of newly reported HIV cases, three reported decreases during NSP expansion, ranging from −30% to −93.3%, while one national report documented an increase in cases (+37.6%. Estimated incidence among new injectors decreased in three studies, with reductions ranging from −11/100 person years at risk to −16/100 person years at risk. Conclusions While not fully consistent, the data generally support the effectiveness of NSP in reducing HIV and HCV infection in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. If

  15. Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael R; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Maeda, Akiko; Cashin, Cheryl; Araujo, Edson C; Takemi, Keizo; Evans, Timothy G

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, many countries have adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a national aspiration. In response to increasing demand for a systematic assessment of global experiences with UHC, the Government of Japan and the World Bank collaborated on a 2-year multicountry research programme to analyse the processes of moving towards UHC. The programme included 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam), representing diverse geographical, economic, and historical contexts. The study identified common challenges and opportunities and useful insights for how to move towards UHC. The study showed that UHC is a complex process, fraught with challenges, many possible pathways, and various pitfalls--but is also feasible and achievable. Movement towards UHC is a long-term policy engagement that needs both technical knowledge and political know-how. Technical solutions need to be accompanied by pragmatic and innovative strategies that address the national political economy context.

  16. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  17. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  18. Applying the system engineering approach to devise a master’s degree program in space technology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebizadeh, Hooman; Tabeshian, Maryam; Taheran Vernoosfaderani, Mahsa

    2010-11-01

    Although more than half a century is passed since space technology was first developed, developing countries are just beginning to enter the arena, focusing mainly on educating professionals. Space technology by itself is an interdisciplinary science, is costly, and developing at a fast pace. Moreover, a fruitful education system needs to remain dynamic if the quality of education is the main concern, making it a complicated system. This paper makes use of the System Engineering Approach and the experiences of developed countries in this area while incorporating the needs of the developing countries to devise a comprehensive program in space engineering at the Master's level. The needs of the developing countries as regards space technology education may broadly be put into two categories: to raise their knowledge of space technology which requires hard work and teamwork skills, and to transfer and domesticate space technology while minimizing the costs and maximizing its effectiveness. The requirements of such space education system, which include research facilities, courses, and student projects are then defined using a model drawn from the space education systems in universities in North America and Europe that has been modified to include the above-mentioned needs. Three design concepts have been considered and synthesized through functional analysis. The first one is Modular and Detail Study which helps students specialize in a particular area in space technology. Second is referred to as Integrated and Interdisciplinary Study which focuses on understanding and development of space systems. Finally, the third concept which has been chosen for the purpose of this study, is a combination of the other two, categorizing the required curriculum into seven modules, setting aside space applications. This helps students to not only specialize in one of these modules but also to get hands-on experience in a real space project through participation in summer group

  19. Investment in HIV/AIDS programs: Does it help strengthen health systems in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Joan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing debate about whether the scaled-up investment in HIV/AIDS programs is strengthening or weakening the fragile health systems of many developing countries. This article examines and assesses the evidence and proposes ways forward. Discussion Considerably increased resources have been brought into countries for HIV/AIDS programs by major Global Health Initiatives. Among the positive impacts are the increased awareness of and priority given to public health by governments. In addition, services to people living with HIV/AIDS have rapidly expanded. In many countries infrastructure and laboratories have been strengthened, and in some, primary health care services have been improved. The effect of AIDS on the health work force has been lessened by the provision of antiretroviral treatment to HIV-infected health care workers, by training, and, to an extent, by task-shifting. However, there are reports of concerns, too – among them, a temporal association between increasing AIDS funding and stagnant reproductive health funding, and accusations that scarce personnel are siphoned off from other health care services by offers of better-paying jobs in HIV/AIDS programs. Unfortunately, there is limited hard evidence of these health system impacts. Because service delivery for AIDS has not yet reached a level that could conceivably be considered "as close to Universal Access as possible," countries and development partners must maintain the momentum of investment in HIV/AIDS programs. At the same time, it should be recognized that global action for health is even more underfunded than is the response to the HIV epidemic. The real issue is therefore not whether to fund AIDS or health systems, but how to increase funding for both. Summary The evidence is mixed – mostly positive but some negative – as to the impact on health systems of the scaled-up responses to HIV/AIDS driven primarily by global health partnerships

  20. Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male height in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male height are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male height in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature.

  1. Newspaper articles as a tool for cardiovascular prevention programs in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Mirza, Yasir Abbas; Jehan, Saulat; Hadi, Yasmin; Badar, Asma; Yusuf, Shazia; Shahab, Saqib

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in knowledge and attitudes as intermediate measures of community impact of a health education campaign using newspaper articles. The intervention involved prominently placed, illustrated newspaper articles by Heartfile (heartfile.org) with nationwide urban outreach, posted regularly in the largest English newspaper in Pakistan using newspaper donated space for a period of 130 consecutive weeks. The post intervention evaluation involved a cross sectional telephone survey in a major city. In the total sample, 26.5% were readers of the newspaper and majority of them (72%) stated that they were regular readers. These 500 persons were eligible for the interview; of these, 93% remembered having seen the Heartfile articles. In this group, 87% of the respondents stated that the articles significantly supplemented their knowledge about diet, and in 5% they were the sole source of information. With respect to exercise, these articles supplemented the knowledge of 77% of the respondents and were the sole source of information for 9% whereas in the case of smoking, knowledge was supplemented in 85% and the articles were the sole source of information in 4% of the cases. Of those interviewed, 40% reported that they had made some dietary changes, 39% made some changes in their exercise habits and 8% reduced the amount of tobacco consumption as a result of reading these articles. In relation to newspaper articles, the per article production cost was US$ 169 and the articles were read regularly by an estimated 0.66 million and occasionally by 0.79 million individuals all over the country. Newspaper articles are a useful supplement to other health education activities as part of cardiovascular disease prevention programs. Lessons from the Heartfile experience in Pakistan could be useful for other similar initiatives in low resource settings.

  2. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  3. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  4. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  5. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  6. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion.

  7. New perspectives on the pedagogy of programming in a developing country context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiola, Mikko; Tedre, Matti

    2012-09-01

    Programming education is a widely researched and intensely discussed topic. The literature proposes a broad variety of pedagogical viewpoints, practical approaches, learning theories, motivational vehicles, and other elements of the learning situation. However, little effort has been put on understanding cultural and contextual differences in pedagogy of programming. Pedagogical literature shows that educational design should account for differences in the ways of learning and teaching between industrialized and developing countries. However, the nature and implications of those differences are hitherto unclear. Using group interviews and quantitative surveys, we identified several crucial elements for contextualizing programming education. Our results reveal that students are facing many similar challenges to students in the west: they often lack deep level learning skills and problem-solving skills, which are required for learning computer programming, and, secondly, that from the students' viewpoint the standard learning environment does not offer enough support for gaining the requisite development. With inadequate support students may resort to surface learning and may adopt extrinsic sources of motivation. Learning is also hindered by many contextually unique factors, such as unfamiliar pedagogical approaches, language problems, and cultural differences. Our analysis suggests that challenges can be minimized by increasing the number of practical exercises, by carefully selecting between guided and minimally guided environments, by rigorously monitoring student progress, and by providing students timely help, repetitive exercises, clear guidelines, and emotional support.

  8. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  9. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  10. Phase III Program Study Report. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynell; and Others

    Fourth in a series of Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) evaluation reports, this document is devoted to the program study component, designed to illustrate CFRP operations across the country and to establish a descriptive context for statistical and analytic findings. Chapter 1 describes the process of building a network of linkages with…

  11. Pilot Study on Harmonisation of Reactor Safety in WENRA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Most of the objectives, set for the Pilot Study, were met. It can be concluded that the methodology was adequate for its purpose. National requirements on selected safety issues have been systematically compared and the major gaps and differences have been identified. Convenient overviews have been provided of differences and similarities between the countries. Furthermore, the conclusions are based on a safety justification and are detailed enough to provide input to a further more detailed analysis on the national level. It was not possible, however, to provide fully verified conclusions about the implementation of the reference levels in the different countries. This has to do with the following constraints on the study: In line with the Terms of Reference, the comparison of formal requirements did not address the more detailed use of criteria and methods to verify compliance. The same requirement could be enforced differently in different regulatory systems, and hence lead to different implementation. The Pilot Study also assessed the implementation, but it was not possible to do this in sufficient detail to identify such differences. The implementation was assessed on the basis of current knowledge of the respective regulatory body, but it was not possible to provide the panels with evidence of the implementation. For these reasons, conclusions about implemented safety provisions in the different countries should be drawn with precaution. The introduction of the panel assessments greatly improved the quality and consistency of the comparison assessments. Uncertainties in the assessments are mainly connected with lack of time to make a detailed analysis in some cases. The reliability of the assessments seems to be sufficient for the objectives of the Pilot Study. The introduction of the IAEA safety standards in the study proved to be helpful and provided confidence in the scope and strictness of the reference levels. This Pilot Study has contributed to

  12. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  13. Cervical cancer screening programs and guidelines in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brody; Gribble, Beth; Dias, Jasmyni; Curryer, Cassie; Vo, Kha; Kowal, Paul; Byles, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Screening reduces cervical cancer incidence and mortality. To describe cervical cancer epidemiology and screening guidelines in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) participating in the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Incidence, mortality, and screening-rate data were obtained for six LMICs and three higher-income comparator countries (Australia, USA, and UK). SCOPUS and PubMed were used to identify literature published after 2000 in English, using several screening-linked terms. Literature describing the use of cervical cancer screening guidelines in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa were included. Incidence, mortality trends, and screening rates were graphed and screening recommendations were summarized. Higher rates of cervical cancer incidence, mortality, and 5-year prevalence were found in LMICs compared with the comparator countries. LMICs with absent or newly implemented screening guidelines had the lowest rates of crude and effective cervical cancer screening, with high cancer incidence and mortality. Countries with established guidelines had higher screening rates and lower disease burden. Cost, inadequate knowledge, geographical location, and cultural views were common barriers to effective screening coverage. Work must continue to improve the implementation of affordable, relevant, and achievable methods to improve screening coverage in LMICs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Temperature Variability and Mortality: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G.; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D.; Bell, Michelle L.; Overcenco, Ala; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Saldiva, Paulo; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    G, Tong S. 2016. Temperature variability and mortality: a multi-country study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1554–1559; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP149 PMID:27258598

  15. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  16. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  17. An Examination of the Special Education Teacher Training Programs in Turkey and European Union Member Countries in Terms of Language Development and Communication Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav; Kayhan, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The academic terms and the periods of the courses related to the language development and communication differs considerably in the programs of the countries which train teachers for the special education department. The aim of this study is to examine the contents and credits of the communication and the language development courses in Teacher…

  18. Population and country: Actuality of Rudolf Kjellen's study

    OpenAIRE

    Stepić Milomir; Srećković Jelena

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine relation between population and country in the meaning of Sweden scientist Rudolf Kjellén. In the introduction population as an agent of power was determined. It is presented that it's necessary to use modern approach in a science of the country. The analysis of the case at Kjellén's biologistics conception at the country has been determined, too. Two sub-systems in relation to population agent at the country have been analyzed: demo-politics and socio-p...

  19. Welfare program organization and legitimacy. A comparison of eleven OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada, Inés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the institutionalisation of the Welfare State (WS and its legitimacy, that is, until what extent the way of organising welfare programs have an impact on citizen’s perceptions of these programs and, hence, on the size and composition of the legitimacy basis of the WS. In order to comply with this objective the paper is organised as follows: first we will present data showing the cross-country variation in support for three main welfare programs (health care, old-age pensions, unemployment benefits; then we will analyse until what extent high levels of legitimacy are achieved through cross-class coalitions or cross-ideology coalitions. Finally we evaluate the impact of different program characteristics on the aggregate level of popular support each program achieves.

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar la relación entre la institucionalización del estado del bienestar (eb y su legitimidad, es decir, hasta qué punto la forma de organizar el eb afecta a las percepciones que los ciudadanos desarrollan sobre el mismo y, de esta manera, modifica el tamaño y composición de sus bases de apoyo. A fin de cumplir con este objetivo el artículo se estructura de la siguiente forma: en primer lugar presentamos un panorama de la variación internacional en las actitudes hacia tres programas de bienestar (sanidad, pensiones y desempleo. Seguidamente estudiaremos de dónde proviene el apoyo extra que algunos programas consiguen, centrándonos específicamente en comprobar si una alta legitimidad se logra mediante la construcción de consensos inter-clases o inter-ideologías. terminaremos evaluando qué características organizativas concretas son las que correlacionan con el nivel de apoyo popular que un programa recibe.

  20. Culture and Economic Growth——Cross Country Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薇

    2015-01-01

    The folowing paper aims to analyze the relationship of cultural factors for economic growth, using Penn world table data and Hofstede's five dimension data from 96 countries and regions. We provide strong evidence that cultures (extremely uncertainty avoidance), together with human resource and capital stock, play an important part in a country's economic. While including standard neo-classical growth model variables such as investment rates and a substitute for human capital, the impact of cultural variables like power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence are investigated. In particular, we find that uncertainty avoidance is always robust to the gross economic growth across countries.

  1. Peace education in countries in crisis case study : Primary school curriculum in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Masri, Shaza

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Master Universitari en Cooperació al Desenvolupament (Pla de 2011). Codi: Universitari en Cooperació al Desenvolupament (Pla de 2011). Curs: 2014/2015 The focus of this research is the role of Peace Education in spreading a culture of peaces in a country in crisis. A primary school in Syria has cooperated in a study to analyze the need for an educational program that uses Peace Education to influence and encourage peaceful approaches to live and survive in these unstable ...

  2. Population and country: Actuality of Rudolf Kjellen's study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepić Milomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine relation between population and country in the meaning of Sweden scientist Rudolf Kjellén. In the introduction population as an agent of power was determined. It is presented that it's necessary to use modern approach in a science of the country. The analysis of the case at Kjellén's biologistics conception at the country has been determined, too. Two sub-systems in relation to population agent at the country have been analyzed: demo-politics and socio-politics. It has been referred on actuality at Kjellén's ideas as well as on certain deficiencies at his ideas. Conclusion at this paper has been dedicated to wide influences at Kjellén's ideas.

  3. Daily reference evapotranspiration modeling by using genetic programming approach in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri, J.; Kisi, O.; Landeras, G.; Lopez, J.J.; Nazemi, A.H.; Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration, as a major component of the hydrological cycle, is of importance for water resources management and development, as well as for estimating the water budget of irrigation schemes. This study presents a Gene Expression Programming (GEP) approach, for estimating daily reference evap

  4. Daily reference evapotranspiration modeling by using genetic programming approach in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri, J.; Kisi, O.; Landeras, G.; Lopez, J.J.; Nazemi, A.H.; Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration, as a major component of the hydrological cycle, is of importance for water resources management and development, as well as for estimating the water budget of irrigation schemes. This study presents a Gene Expression Programming (GEP) approach, for estimating daily reference

  5. Daily reference evapotranspiration modeling by using genetic programming approach in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri, J.; Kisi, O.; Landeras, G.; Lopez, J.J.; Nazemi, A.H.; Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration, as a major component of the hydrological cycle, is of importance for water resources management and development, as well as for estimating the water budget of irrigation schemes. This study presents a Gene Expression Programming (GEP) approach, for estimating daily reference evap

  6. School feeding programs in developing countries: impacts on children's health and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis H; McDonnell, Elaine; Probart, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    School feeding programs (SFPs) are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and transfer income to families. The present review explores the impact of SFPs on nutritional, health, and educational outcomes of school-aged children in developing countries. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews published in the past 20 years were identified and screened for inclusion. Analysis of the articles revealed relatively consistent positive effects of school feeding in its different modalities on energy intake, micronutrient status, school enrollment, and attendance of the children participating in SFPs compared to non-participants. However, the positive impact of school feeding on growth, cognition, and academic achievement of school-aged children receiving SFPs compared to non-school-fed children was less conclusive. This review identifies research gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in the design and implementation of SFPs and calls for theory-based impact evaluations to strengthen the scientific evidence behind designing, funding, and implementing SFPs. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  8. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  9. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  10. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    given age cohort. Many poor, developing countries have a broad base and steadily taper - ing higher levels, which reflects a large number of births and...as running, gymnastics, volleyball , ice skating, and traditional Korean games. Group gym- nastic exercises are considered an art form as well as a form

  11. Area Handbook Series. Uganda: A Country Study, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    climate provides plentiful sunshine , moder- ated by the relatively high altitude of most areas of the country. Mean annual temperatures range from...spring water they called "the water of Yakan." To those who drank it, they promised restored health, eternal life, and the return of the ancestors and

  12. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, James C.; Pearson, Andrew D.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; LeDuc, James W.; Hirschberg, David L.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  13. Can Computers Increase Human Capital in Developing Countries? An Evaluation of Nepal’s One Laptop per Child Program

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative in Nepal’s primary and lower-secondary schools. This evaluation of the OLPC program in Nepal uses a pre-post test quasi-experimental design that consists of 26 program schools and 39 control schools that are spread across six different districts of the country. A low-cost laptop was provided to each student in grades two, three and six of the program schools at the beginning of the Nepali academic year (May 2...

  14. Infant feeding and the concept of early nutrition programming: a comparison of qualitative data from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Martina A; von Rosen-von Hoewel, Julia; Martin-Bautista, Elena; Szabó, Eva; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Morgan, Jane; Gage, Heather; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The concept of early nutrition programming is appearing in policy documents, leaflets and magazine articles with different types of statements. However, the level of representation and influence of this concept is unknown in the area of infant nutrition. We established the degree of reflection and the impact of the concept of nutrition programming among the different government stakeholders of infant nutrition in four European countries. In each country, a list of stakeholders in the area of infant feeding was established and key persons responsible for the remit of infant nutrition were identified. We conducted standardised face-to-face or phone interviews from January 2006 to January 2007. The interview guide included questions about the concept of nutrition programming. All interviews were digitally recorded and qualitative data analysis was done using QRS NVivo V2. In total, we analyzed 17 interviews from government organizations in England (5 interviews), Germany (4 interviews), Hungary (3 interviews) and Spain (5 interviews). The concept of nutrition programming was recognized from 4/5 English and 3/4 German interviewees, whereby one organisation reflected the concept in their documents in both countries. In Hungary, 1/3 interviewees recognised the concept and reflected it in their documents. All interviewed Spanish governmental bodies (5/5) recognised the concept of nutrition programming and three of them reflected the concept in their documents. The concept of early nutrition programming was widely recognized among the key persons of government bodies in all four European countries. However, the concept was not necessarily represented in the produced documents.

  15. Area Handbook Series. Cote D’Lvoire; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). By the end of that year, it had reports...level to be defended. Coffee Cte d’Ivoire ranked third in world coffee production after Brazil and Colombia . Introduced as a cash crop during the...substantially higher salaries, Through- out the country, there were French mechanics, foremen, planta - tion’owners, storekeepers, clerical workers, and

  16. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  17. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  18. Tax burden in EU countries – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the overall tax burden and tax policy of European countries. The theoretical part of the paper explains the term of tax burden and summarizes its measuring possibilities. It especially deals with the tax quota as the most generally applied indicator but some alternative indicators, such as the tax freedom day or tax misery index, are also mentioned. The empirical part of the paper is aimed on the comparison of tax burden of “old” and “new” EU member states following mentioned indicators. Certain tax policy recommendations are formulated on the basis of performed comparison.

  19. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koyanagi

    Full Text Available Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China to 17.0% (Poland. After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78, arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46, and depression (OR 1.75-5.12 were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI for 1,2,3, and ≥ 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82, 2.55 (1.99-3.27, 3.22 (2.52-4.11, and 7.62 (5.88-9.87 respectively in the overall sample.Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies

  20. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  1. HIV prevention costs and program scale: data from the PANCEA project in five low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Nicci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is critical to project the cost of global HIV prevention efforts and to allocate prevention resources efficiently. Methods The "Prevent AIDS: Network for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis" (PANCEA project collected 2003 and 2004 cost and output data from 206 HIV prevention programs of six types in five countries. The association between scale and efficiency for each intervention type was examined for each country. Our team characterized the direction, shape, and strength of this association by fitting bivariate regression lines to scatter plots of output levels and unit costs. We chose the regression forms with the highest explanatory power (R2. Results Efficiency increased with scale, across all countries and interventions. This association varied within intervention and within country, in terms of the range in scale and efficiency, the best fitting regression form, and the slope of the regression. The fraction of variation in efficiency explained by scale ranged from 26% – 96%. Doubling in scale resulted in reductions in unit costs averaging 34.2% (ranging from 2.4% to 58.0%. Two regression trends, in India, suggested an inflection point beyond which unit costs increased. Conclusion Unit costs decrease with scale across a wide range of service types and volumes. These country and intervention-specific findings can inform projections of the global cost of scaling up HIV prevention efforts.

  2. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  3. [Study of names and folklore associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in various endemic countries in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibadi, K; Aujoulat, I; Meyers, W M; Mokassa, L; Muyembe, T; Portaels, F

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to present names used for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) and explain their meanings in various African languages. Representations associated with the disease were also studied. The study approach involved qualitative analysis of information from interviews and literature. Interviews were conducted with the directors of various programs and management centers. Findings from 9 African countries where Buruli ulcer is known to be endemic, i.e., Benin, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Southern Sudan and Togo, showed that the names used for the disease could be classified into three categories based on the geographical origin of infection, the features of the observed lesions, and aspects of ost often associated with belief in witch-craft, i.e., bad luck, fetishes, and curses. Representation of the disease in different African languages were similar and appear to demonstrate a good understanding of the disease in the countries where Buruli ulcer is prevalent. The impact of the representations of the disease on therapeutic choices and itineraries is also discussed.

  4. Pattern and levels of spending allocated to HIV prevention programs in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to spread at an estimated 2.6 new million infections per year, making the prevention of HIV transmission a critical public health issue. The dramatic growth in global resources for AIDS has produced a steady scale-up in treatment and care that has not been equally matched by preventive services. This paper is a detailed analysis of how countries are choosing to spend these more limited prevention funds. Methods We analyzed prevention spending in 69 low- and middle-income countries with a variety of epidemic types, using data from national domestic spending reports. Spending information was from public and international sources and was analyzed based on the National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA methods and classifications. Results Overall, prevention received 21% of HIV resources compared to 53% of funding allocated to treatment and care. Prevention relies primarily on international donors, who accounted for 65% of all prevention resources and 93% of funding in low-income countries. For the subset of 53 countries that provided detailed spending information, we found that 60% of prevention resources were spent in five areas: communication for social and behavioral change (16%, voluntary counselling and testing (14%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (13%, blood safety (10% and condom programs (7%. Only 7% of funding was spent on most-at-risk populations and less than 1% on male circumcision. Spending patterns did not consistently reflect current evidence and the HIV specific transmission context of each country. Conclusions Despite recognition of its importance, countries are not allocating resources in ways that are likely to achieve the greatest impact on prevention across all epidemic types. Within prevention spending itself, a greater share of resources need to be matched with interventions that approximate the specific needs and drivers of each country's epidemic.

  5. Country Image and the Study Abroad Destination Choice of Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on the issue of country image in destination choice. To examine the relationship between these two variables, the study tests whether mainland Chinese who favor a destination as their ideal first choice for study abroad have a significantly more positive view of that destination's country image than their…

  6. The College of Tropical Agriculture at the University of Hawaii: A Case Study in the U.S. Application of Science and Technology to Development in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlie, Theodore W.; And Others

    Presented is a case study of a college program focused upon the application of science and technology to development in less developed countries. The activities described are those of the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture. This program's history, components, problems, and future prospects are discussed in an attempt to learn…

  7. A Comparative Study on Poverty Alleviation Between Moslem and Non Moslem Populated Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hudaifah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore the problems and roots of poverty, the poverty alleviation progress, programs and policies between selected Moslem populated-countries in Asia and selected non-Moslem populated-countries in Latin America. By conducting comparative analysis on statistical data, literature surveys, several journals, official reports and reliable research findings, all sources have been examined to construct comprehensive findings in the present article. Three important aspects are concluded. Firstly, by definition, a person who earns below 2,00 USD per day is considered “poor” according to the World Bank, and they are mostly living in rural areas and suburban slums. Second, poverty alleviation efforts in both particular groups of countries have resulted in a better outcome, whereby the number of poor decreased gradually according to statistical data reported by the World Bank. Other economic indicators such as GNI per capita and income inequality graphic have shown better patterns. Third, there have been different strategic policies and programs implemented between the two groups of countries. Islamic economic notions such as zakah, infaq, and sadaqah play a very significant role in Moslem populated countries, on the other hand, non Moslem populated countries tend to create more radical and creative strategies such as agendas of land reform and tourism industry development. DOI: 10.15408/aiqv9i1.3222

  8. Cooperation between socialist countries in space biology and medicine within the framework of the Interkosmos program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovskiy, N. N.

    1974-01-01

    Upon the proposal of the Soviet Union, experts from the socialist countries accepted the following scientific problems for cooperation in space biology and medicine: (1) the effect on the body of extreme space flight factors (space physiology); (2) radiation safety of space flights and search for pharmaco-chemical means of antiradiation protection; and (3) medico-biological aspects of closed ecological systems.

  9. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  10. Cross Country, Rodeo, Archery: Navajo Athletic Programs Give Students Running Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha Kaye

    2009-01-01

    While tribal college athletic programs were not designed to market the colleges, there is no denying they have generated positive attention and have perhaps even helped to highlight the colleges' purpose. Dine College and Navajo Technical College are among a handful of tribal colleges who have made athletic programs a priority. They have since…

  11. Performance of HIV Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Longitudinal Assessment of 64 Nevirapine-Based Programs Implemented in 25 Countries, 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Ladner

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance and to identify predictive factors of performance in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs (PMTCT in sub-Saharan African countries.From 2000 to 2011, PMTCT programs included in the Viramune Donation Programme (VDP were prospectively followed. Each institution included in the VDP provided data on program implementation, type of management institution, number of PMTCT sites, key programs outputs (HIV counseling and testing, NVP regimens received by mothers and newborns. Nevirapine Coverage Ratio (NCR, defined as the number of women who should have received nevirapine (observed HIV prevalence x number of women in antenatal care, was used to measure performance. Included programs were followed every six months through progress reports.A total of 64 programs in 25 sub-Saharan African countries were included. The mean program follow-up was 48.0 months (SD = 24.5; 20,084,490 women attended in antenatal clinics were included. The overall mean NCR was 0.52 (SD = 0.25, with an increase from 0.37 to 0.57 between the first and last progress reports (p<.0001; NCR increased by 3.26% per year-program. Between the first and the last report, the number of women counseled and tested increased from 64.3% to 86.0% (p<.0001, the number of women post-counseled from 87.5% to 91.3% (p = 0.08. After mixed linear regression analysis, type of responsible institution, number of women attended in ANC, and program initiation in 2005-2006 were significant predictive factors associated with the NCR. The effect of the time period increased from earlier to later periods.A longitudinal assessment of large PMTCT programs shows that scaling-up of programs was increased in sub-Saharan African countries. The PMTCT coverage increased throughout the study period, especially after 2006. Performance may be better for programs with a small or medium number of women attended in ANC. Identification of factors that predict PMTCT program

  12. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Bartholomew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need, and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to solve the issues. The Republics Georgia, formerly part of the Soviet Union provides a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR Program together with the Georgian government, have worked diligently to improve the capabilities in this region to guard against the potential future risk from especially dangerous pathogens. This effort culminated in the construction of a modern containment laboratory, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research in Tbilisi to house both especially dangerous pathogens as well as the research to be conducted on these agents. The need now is to utilize and sustain the investment made by CTR by establishing strong public and animal health science programs tailored to the needs of the region and the goals for which this investment was made. Here we provide the analysis and recommendations of an international panel of expert scientists to provide advice to the stakeholders on the scientific path for the future. The emphasis is on an implementation strategy for decision makers and

  13. Physical activity programs for refugee Somali women: working out in a new country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Pauline B; Diiriye, Roda Omar; Corrigan, Callie; Guerin, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Islamic refugee women from non-westernized countries face a number of challenges in adapting to their new country, especially when that new country is westernized and is not Islamic. Refugees are primarily women and children, so it is important that women be in their best health because they usually bear the responsibility of caring for each other and children, often in very difficult situations. Maintaining or obtaining good levels of physical activity contributes to good health: mentally, physically and socially. At the request of women in the local Somali community, a number of initiatives were taken to increase their opportunities for physical activity. Through interviews, observations and conversations we explored barriers to fitness and exercise, the social, physical, and cultural effects of physical activity, and solutions to facilitate Somali women's access to fitness and exercise opportunities. Physical activity interventions included exercise classes in a community center used by the Somali community, trial memberships at a local women-only fitness center, and walking and sports groups. We discuss the procedural issues relating to setting-up these physical activity opportunities, the results of interviews with 37 of the women about their health and perceptions and issues relating to the physical activity options, and our recommendations for setting up similar classes with other Somali or Islamic communities.

  14. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  15. Satisfaction with Knowledge and Competencies: A Multi-Country Study of Employers and Business Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study critically discusses findings from a research project involving four European countries. The project had two main aims. The first was to develop a systematic procedure for assessing the balance between knowledge and competencies acquired in higher, further and vocational education and the specific needs of the labor market. The second aim was to develop and test a set of meta-level quality indicators aimed at evaluating the linkages between education and employment. The project was designed to address the lack of employer input concerning the requirements of business graduates for successful workplace performance and the need for more specific industry-driven feedback to guide administrative heads at universities and personnel at quality assurance agencies in curriculum development and revision. Approach: The project was distinctive in that it combined different partners from higher education, vocational training, industry and quality assurance. Project partners designed and implemented an innovative approach, based on literature review, qualitative interviews and surveys in the four countries, in order to identify and confirm key knowledge and competency requirements. This study presents this step-by-step approach, as well as survey findings from a sample of 900 business graduates and employers. In addition, it introduces two Partial Least Squares (PLS path models for predicting satisfaction with work performance and satisfaction with business education. Results: Survey findings revealed that employers were not very confident regarding business graduates’ abilities in key knowledge areas and in key generic competencies. In subsequent analysis, these graduate abilities were tested and identified as important predictors of employers’ satisfaction with graduates’ work performance. Conclusion: The industry-driven approach introduced in this study can serve as a guide to assist different types of educational

  16. Task shifting from physicians to nurses in primary care in 39 countries: a cross-country comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Claudia B; Aiken, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Primary care is in short supply in many countries. Task shifting from physicians to nurses is one strategy to improve access, but international research is scarce. We analysed the extent of task shifting in primary care and policy reforms in 39 countries. Cross-country comparative research, based on an international expert survey, plus literature scoping review. A total of 93 country experts participated, covering Europe, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (response rate: 85.3%). Experts were selected according to pre-defined criteria. Survey responses were triangulated with the literature and analysed using policy, thematic and descriptive methods to assess developments in country-specific contexts. Task shifting, where nurses take up advanced roles from physicians, was implemented in two-thirds of countries (N = 27, 69%), yet its extent varied. Three clusters emerged: 11 countries with extensive (Australia, Canada, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and USA), 16 countries with limited and 12 countries with no task shifting. The high number of policy, regulatory and educational reforms, such as on nurse prescribing, demonstrate an evolving trend internationally toward expanding nurses' scope-of-practice in primary care. Many countries have implemented task-shifting reforms to maximise workforce capacity. Reforms have focused on removing regulatory and to a lower extent, financial barriers, yet were often lengthy and controversial. Countries early on in the process are primarily reforming their education. From an international and particularly European Union perspective, developing standardised definitions, minimum educational and practice requirements would facilitate recognition procedures in increasingly connected labour markets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  18. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  19. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  20. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  1. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  2. Social science teachers on citizenship education: A comparative study of two post-communist countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with

  3. A pilot study on acoustic regulations for schools – Comparison between selected countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Guigou-Carter, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic regulations for schools exist in most countries in Europe, the main reasons being improving learning conditions for pupils and work conditions for teachers. As a pilot study, comparison between requirements in selected countries in Europe has been carried out. The findings show a diversi...

  4. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  5. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  6. Country of origin effect on luxury brands evaluation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kassouf Pizzinatto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the country of origin effect in luxury brands evaluation, theory that concerns the stereotype developed in the mind of consumers from a negative or positive image of the country where the product was manufactured, influencing product brand evaluation image. The methodological process was conducted with experiments, involving manipulation of variables thought printed advertisings, stimulus, as developed especially for the research, in three different situations: first the negative country of origin effect (with bad manufacture quality stereotyped image; second the positive country of origin effect (with good manufacture quality stereotyped image; e a third without any mention of the country of origin. Data were collected through printed questionnaires, answered by 330 people. Results indicated that luxury brand evaluation is not affected by positive country of origin stimulus, but it can influence positively the non luxury brands. The negative country of origin affects both, luxury and non luxury brands, however the effect is superior in non luxury brands. In the stimulus without mention regarding the country of origin, the brand luxury evaluation was not highly affected. However it improved the evaluation of non luxury brands, when compared with the negative country of origin stimulus.

  7. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  8. Astronomy for a Better World: IAU OAD Task Force-1 Programs for Advancing Astronomy Education and Research in Universities in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Kolenberg, Katrien

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the IAU Commission 46 and Office for Astronomy Development (OAD) programs that support advancing Astronomy education and research primarily in universities in developing countries. The bulk of these operational activities will be coordinated through the OAD's newly installed Task Force 1. We outline current (and future) IAU/OAD Task Force-1 programs that promote the development of University-level Astronomy at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Among current programs discussed are the past and future expanded activities of the International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA) and the Teaching Astronomy for Development (TAD) programs. The primary role of the ISYA program is the organization of a three week School for students for typically M.Sc. and Ph.D students. The ISYA is a very successful program that will now be offered more frequently through the generous support of the Kavli Foundation. The IAU/TAD program provides aid and resources for the development of teaching, education and research in Astronomy. The TAD program is dedicated to assist countries that have little or no astronomical activity, but that wish to develop or enhance Astronomy education. Over the last ten years, the ISYA and TAD programs have supported programs in Africa, Asia, Central America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, South East and West Asia, and South America. Several examples are given. Several new programs being considered by OAD Task Force-1 are also discussed. Other possible programs being considered are the introduction of modular Astronomy courses into the university curricula (or improve present courses) as well as providing access to ``remote learning`` courses and Virtual Astronomy labs in developing countries. Another possible new program would support visits of astronomers from technically advanced countries to spend their sabbatical leaves teaching and advising University Astronomy programs in developing countries. Suggestions for new Task Force -1

  9. Comparative study of career development and training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Improvement of human capital has been identified as the key to any further increase of productivity for any country engaged in the global economic competition. The same can be said of any organization seeking to enhance its overall performance. This study is aimed at: (1) surveying the current practices of career development and training programs at major corporations and government research organizations; (2) presenting the distributions of various program features among survey respondents; (3) identifying the profile of the training program of a typical research organization, against which each organization can check and identify its relative strengths as well as areas needing further strengthening; (4) conducting an economic analysis of the effectiveness of the training programs at Langley Research Center; and (5) making recommendations as to how to enhance existing training programs.

  10. Evaluation for program decision making: a case study of the Oportunidades program in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Steta, Concepción; Rivera, Juan; Valle, Adolfo Martinez; Grados, Rogelio; Uriega, Sara; López, Victor Hugo

    2011-11-01

    Although evaluation is now an integral part of the design and implementation of public programs in many countries, there is growing recognition that the utilization of evaluation results for improving implementation and decision making, particularly in developing countries, is limited. The objective of this paper is to describe the process by which the external impact evaluation has been used to increase the potential of Oportunidades to improve nutritional outcomes of the beneficiary population through modifications to its design and operation. We will summarize a series of studies that have guided this process and focus on key aspects that have facilitated the utilization of evaluation results for decision making in the program. Implementation of research to document the impact of programs and the publication of such findings in peer reviewed journals, although vital for improving our evidence base and for the advancement of researchers within the current academic system, is not enough to ensure that the program itself will benefit from the evaluation. The use of evaluation results as a basis for modifications to the design and implementation of the nutrition component of Oportunidades was favored by open dialogue among all sectors involved in the program and the evaluation team and a long-term commitment on the part of all those involved. We think that the lessons learnt from this process are relevant for other programs, even where resources may be limited.

  11. Routine Immunization Consultant Program in Nigeria: A Qualitative Review of a Country-Driven Management Approach for Health Systems Strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Meghan; Wonodi, Chizoba

    2016-03-01

    Since 2002, the Nigerian government has deployed consultants to states to provide technical assistance for routine immunization (RI). RI consultants are expected to play a role in supportive supervision of health facility staff, capacity building, advocacy, and monitoring and evaluation. We conducted a retrospective review of the RI consultant program's strengths and weaknesses in 7 states and at the national level from June to September 2014 using semi-structured interviews and online surveys. Participants included RI consultants, RI program leaders, and implementers purposively drawn from national, state, and local government levels. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data from the interviews, which were triangulated with results from the quantitative surveys. At the time of data collection, 23 of 36 states and the federal capital territory had an RI consultant. Of the 7 states visited during the study, only 3 states had present and visibly working consultants. We conducted 84 interviews with 101 participants across the 7 states and conducted data analysis on 70 interviews (with 82 individuals) that had complete data. Among the full sample of interview respondents (N = 101), most (66%) were men with an average age of 49 years (±5.6), and the majority were technical officers (63%) but a range of other roles were also represented, including consultants (22%), directors (13%), and health workers (2%). Fifteen consultants and 44 program leaders completed the online surveys. Interview data from the 3 states with active RI consultants indicated that the consultants' main contribution was supportive supervision at the local level, particularly for collecting and using RI data for decision making. They also acted as effective advocates for RI funding. In states without an RI consultant, gaps were highlighted in data management capacity and in monitoring of RI funds. Program design strengths: the broad terms of reference and autonomy of the consultants

  12. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  13. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  14. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  15. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    national et les concessions entre les différents aspects du développement durable qui doivent être abordés. Les secteurs de l'énergie et du transport sont couverts dans maintes études, et un certain degré d'attention est aussi porté au secteur de l'infrastructure et de l'approvisionnement en eau. La....... The energy and transportation sectors are covered in many studies, but some attention is also given to the infrastructure sector and water supply. Most existing development policies will not lead to a sustainable development pattern, since they insufficiently address climate change. However, good...... opportunities exist for integrated policies to achieve development goals while engaging with climate change. The energy and transportation sector studies identified many alternative national low-cost policies with much lower GHG emissions than the business-as-usual policy. Opportunities are identified...

  16. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boso CM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Makafui Boso,1 Janet J Gross2,31School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, USA; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, GhanaAbstract: The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators’ perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3% of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses’ training colleges (P=0.007. The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.Keywords: nurse educators, critical thinking, perceptions, Ghana, developing countries

  17. Distribution of country of origin in studies used in Cochrane Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inclusion in systematic reviews is one important component in judging the potential impact of clinical studies upon practice and hence the 'value for money' of spending for clinical research. This study aims to quantify the distribution of countries of origin of clinical studies used in Cochrane Reviews (CRs, and to link these data to the size of a country and to its spending on research. METHODS: Random sample of publications used for CRs published in Issue 1 2008 and of publications used in CRs in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Publications without original data were excluded. Likely countries of origin determined based on abstracts/full texts. CIA World Factbook (population data and OECD database (economic data were used. RESULTS: 1,000 random entries out of 140,005 references available in all specialities. In 876 (91.4% of 959 eligible studies, country of origin was determined. The USA was the leading contributor (36.0% of the studies, followed by UK (13.4%, Canada (5.3%, Australia and Sweden (3.7%. In the CAM sample, country of origin was determined in 458 (93.5% of 497 assessed studies. Again, the USA was the leading contributor (24.9%, with China also emerging as a significant contributor (24.7% in this field. For both samples, the contribution of smaller countries (especially Scandinavian countries, Greece, and Ireland became more noteworthy when considered in relation to population size and research spending. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the leading roles of both the USA and the UK in publishing clinical papers. The emerging role of China can be seen, particularly related to CAM studies. Taking into account size of population and economic power, countries like France, Germany, Italy, and Spain provide small contributions. In contrast, smaller countries like Australia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Sweden also play major roles.

  18. Identifying Barriers to Study Abroad Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    University administrators, industry professionals, and government leaders encourage college students to participate in study abroad programs. Despite an increase in the number of students going abroad, the percentage of students participating in global programs remain low. This study identified barriers to study abroad program participation at a…

  19. Sustainability of health information systems: a three-country qualitative study in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Schwitters, Amee; Boudreaux, Chantelle; Giles, Denise; Kilmarx, Peter H; Ntolo, Ntolo; Bangani, Zwashe; St Louis, Michael E; Bossert, Thomas J

    2017-01-10

    Health information systems are central to strong health systems. They assist with patient and program management, quality improvement, disease surveillance, and strategic use of information. Many donors have worked to improve health information systems, particularly by supporting the introduction of electronic health information systems (EHIS), which are considered more responsive and more efficient than older, paper-based systems. As many donor-driven programs are increasing their focus on country ownership, sustainability of these investments is a key concern. This analysis explores the potential sustainability of EHIS investments in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, originally supported by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Using a framework based on sustainability theories from the health systems literature, this analysis employs a qualitative case study methodology to highlight factors that may increase the likelihood that donor-supported initiatives will continue after the original support is modified or ends. Findings highlight commonalities around possible determinants of sustainability. The study found that there is great optimism about the potential for EHIS, but the perceived risks may result in hesitancy to transition completely and parallel use of paper-based systems. Full stakeholder engagement is likely to be crucial for sustainability, as well as integration with other activities within the health system and those funded by development partners. The literature suggests that a sustainable system has clearly-defined goals around which stakeholders can rally, but this has not been achieved in the systems studied. The study also found that technical resource constraints - affecting system usage, maintenance, upgrades and repairs - may limit EHIS sustainability even if these other pillars were addressed. The sustainability of EHIS faces many challenges, which could be addressed through systems' technical design, stakeholder

  20. Professional Preparation in School Psychology: A Summary of Information from Programs in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes prominent themes found in descriptions of school psychology programs in Estonia (Kikas, 2014), Greece (Hatzichristou & Polychroni, 2014), Hong Kong (Lam, 2014), Romania (Negovan & Dinca, 2014), Sweden (Schad, 2014), United Kingdom (Wood, 2014), and United States (Joyce & Rossen, 2014). This paper summarizes…

  1. Professional Preparation in School Psychology: A Summary of Information from Programs in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes prominent themes found in descriptions of school psychology programs in Estonia (Kikas, 2014), Greece (Hatzichristou & Polychroni, 2014), Hong Kong (Lam, 2014), Romania (Negovan & Dinca, 2014), Sweden (Schad, 2014), United Kingdom (Wood, 2014), and United States (Joyce & Rossen, 2014). This paper summarizes…

  2. Instructional Support Materials and Programs Offered by German-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrichtspraxis, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Lists and describes the types of support services, available for students and teachers, provided by the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Austria, including brochures, books, exchange programs, schools, and scholarships. Information is compiled from reports given at the 1982 Modern Language…

  3. [Bibliometrics study of the development trend of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of MEDLINE and EMBASE database, through bibliometrics, the quantitative research was conducted on the published literatures on the acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trial abroad. The situation of published articles in each continent, country and institution was analyzed statistically. It was found that the number of published articles was higher in Germany, America, England, Sweden, Austria, Japan, South Korea, etc. In Europe, the clinical trial of acupuncture and moxibustion was in the tendency of more country participants, wider distribution and larger amount of research. In North America, America was the main country for the study. In Asia, Japan and South Korea played the leading role. Of those countries, some institutions in Germany America, and South Korea were on the top of the list. In future, the above-mentioned countries and institutions should be monitored specifically so as to launch the active cooperation and strategic project.

  4. An examination of the special education teacher training programs in turkey and european union member countries in terms of language development and communication education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piştav Akmeşe, Pelin; Kayhan, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    he academic terms and the periods of the courses related to the language development and communication differs considerably in the programs of the countries which train teachers for the special education department...

  5. Implementing Global Fund programs: a survey of opinions and experiences of the Principal Recipients across 69 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Francis; Marwa, Charles; McCoy, David

    2014-03-24

    Principal Recipients (PRs) receive money from the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) to manage and implement programs. However, little research has gone into understanding their opinions and experiences. This survey set out to describe these, thereby providing a baseline against which changes in PR opinions and experiences can be assessed as the recently introduced new funding model is rolled out. An internet based questionnaire was administered to 315 PRs. A total of 115 responded from 69 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The study was conducted between September and December 2012. Three quarters of PRs thought the progress update and disbursement request (PU/DR) system was a useful method of reporting grant progress. However, most felt that the grant negotiation processes were complicated, and that the grant rating system did not reflect performance.While nearly all PRs were happy with the work being done by sub-Recipients (92%) and Fund Portfolio Managers (86%), fewer were happy with the Office of the Inspector General (OIG). Non-government PRs were generally less happy with the OIG's work compared to government PRs.Most PRs thought the Global Fund's Voluntary Pooled Procurement system made procurement easier. However, only 29% said the system should be made compulsory.When asked which aspects of the Global Fund's operations needed improvement, most PRs said that the Fund should re-define and clarify the roles of different actors, minimize staff turnover at its Secretariat, and shorten the grant application and approval processes. All these are currently being addressed, either directly or indirectly, under a new funding model. Vigorous assessments should nonetheless follow the roll-out of the new model to ensure the areas that are most likely to affect PR performance realize sustained improvement. Opinions and experiences with the Global Fund were varied, with PRs having good communication with Fund

  6. Solar Cell Fabrication Studies Pertinent to Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Joseph Henry

    That there is a need in the world today, and in the Third World in particular, for developing renewable energy sources is a proposition without question. Toward that end, the harnessing of solar energy has attracted much attention recently. In this thesis, we have addressed the question of Photovoltaics among the many approaches to the problem as being of poignant relevance in the Third World. Based on our studies, which involved the physics of solar cells, various solar cell configurations, the materials for their fabrication and their fabrication sequences, we arrived at the conclusion that silicon homojunction solar cells are best suited to the present needs and environment of, and suitable for development in the Third World, though Cadmium Sulphide-Cuprous Sulphide solar cell could be considered as a viable future candidate. Attendant with the adoption of photovoltaics as electric energy supply, is the problem of technology transfer and development. Towards that goal, we carried out in the laboratory, the fabrication of solar cells using very simple fabrication sequences and materials to demonstrate that tolerable efficiencies are achievable by their use. The view is also presented that for a thriving and viable solar cell industry in the Third World, the sine qua non is an integrated national policies involving all facets of solar cell manufacture and application, namely, material processing and fabrication, basic research, and development and socio -economic acceptance of solar cell appliances. To demonstrate how basic research could benefit solar cell fabrication, we undertook a number of experiments, such as varying our fabrication sequences and materials, finding their radiation tolerance, and carrying out Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) studies, in an attempt to understand some of the fabrication and environmental factors which limit solar cell performance. We thus found that subjecting wafers to preheat treatments does not improve solar cell

  7. Exploring substance use normalization among adolescents: a multilevel study in 35 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Kolobov, Tanya; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Walsh, Sophie D; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2013-11-01

    The substance use normalization thesis predicts that adolescent substance users are less likely to report substance use risk factors in high than in low prevalence countries. This study tests whether national population-level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis prevalence rates moderate the strength of the relationship between individual level social and behavioral risk factors and individual level alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use. Data from 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (N = 68,045, age = 15) from 35 countries was analyzed using logistic Hierarchical Linear Modeling. As expected based on low cannabis prevalence rates in all countries studied, no evidence of normalization was found for recent cannabis use. Also in line with the normalization thesis, results show that for substance use that reaches above 40% in at least some of the countries studied (drunkenness, alcohol and cigarette use), adolescents who reported use are less likely to report social and behavioral risk factors in high prevalence countries than in low prevalence countries. However, support for the normalization thesis was only partial in that results show that in models where evidence for normalization was found, there are risk factors that predict substance use to an equal degree regardless of country level prevalence rates. The current research shows that the normalization thesis is a useful framework for understanding the contextual aspects of adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. The study has implications for drug prevention as it suggests that selective prevention efforts may be particularly useful in low prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors may usefully identify adolescents at most risk for developing drug use problems. This approach may be less useful in high prevalence countries where screening based on risk factors is less likely to satisfactorily identify those at risk for developing drug use problems.

  8. Construction Safety Assessment Framework for Developing Countries: A Case Study of Sri Lanka

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanchana Priyadarshani; Gayani Karunasena; Sajani Jayasuriya

    2013-01-01

    ... management in developing countries. [...]the aim of this study is to develop a method for measuring safety management on construction sites by identifying factors that affect construction safety performance...

  9. Comparative study of disability-free life expectancy across six low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinda, Witness; Chen, He

    2017-04-01

    There is a knowledge gap about the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to compute and compare DFLE in six such countries, and examine sex differences in DFLE in each country. Based on data from the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health wave 1 survey, we used the Sullivan method to estimate DFLE among persons aged years 50 years and older. Disability was divided into moderate disability and severe disability during the calculation. Of the six countries, China had the highest DFLE and lowest expected average lifetime with disability. India had the lowest DFLE and highest life years with moderate and severe disability. In each country, women live longer than men, but with more disabilities in both absolute and proportional terms. The huge sex difference in Russia requires special attention. In addition, most of the life expectancy lived with disability was spent with severe disability, rather than moderate disability. The study has shed some light on the disparities across the six countries with regard to DFLE at old ages. The low percentage of DFLE in life expectancy in some countries, such as India, calls for effective policies on healthy aging. The "sex disability-survival paradox" in DFLE is supported by our results. To differentiate the severity of disability should be routine in calculating DFLE. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 637-644. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. TWINNING between Institutions in developed and less developed countries: an ideal way to set-up an astrophysics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-03-01

    It is very difficult to start from scratch a new Astrophysics program in a country with very little or no researchers in the field. In 2007, we began to set-up an Astrophysics program by TWINNING the Université de Ouagadougou with the Université de Montréal in Canada, the Université de Provence in France and the University of Cape Town in South Africa. Already, courses are given at the undergraduate and Master levels and a teaching Observatory has been built. A 1m research telescope was also moved from the La Silla Observatory in Chile to Burkina Faso and the infrastructure is being built at the moment on mount Djaogari in the north-eastern part of the country. In the meantime, 6 students are doing their PhD in Astrophysics overseas (Canada, France and South Africa) and will become the core of the research group at the Université de Ouagadougou. An engineer is also doing his PhD in Astronomical Instrumentation to help with the maintenance of the equipment on the Research Telescope.

  11. Self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among people with a mental illness in six countries: Pan European stigma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Christin; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

    2013-12-30

    A cross-sectional study including 796 individuals with a psychiatric disorder was conducted in Croatia, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Sweden in 2010 aiming to assess correlates of self-stigma. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) was used to measure self-stigma, whereas the Boston University Empowerment Scale was used to measure the self-efficacy/self-esteem (SESE) and sense of power/powerlessness (PP). Perceived discrimination and devaluation was measured with the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) Scale. Thirty three percent of participants had moderate-to-high ISMI scores. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, significant 'predictors' of high ISMI scores were: age-group of 50-59 years, current employment, lower social contacts, and minimal-to-low SESE and PP scores. Remarkably, no significant association between ISMI and PDD was evident. Furthermore, there was evidence of a significant interaction between SESE and country. Study participants might not be representative to all individuals with mental disorders in countries included in this survey. Our findings indicate that people with psychiatric diseases suffer both self-stigma and perceived discrimination and devaluation. This is one of the very few reports highlighting country differences and diagnosis disparities of self-stigma among individuals with mental illnesses. Between-country differences should be considered and carefully addressed in the process of policy formulation and interventional programs against stigma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study Abroad Programs: Making Safety a Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddan, Michael Craig; Budden, Connie B.; Juban, Rusty; Baraya, Aristides

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, students are participating in study abroad programs. Such programs provide participants a variety of learning experiences. Developing cross-cultural appreciation, communication skills, maturity and a less ethno-centric mindset are among the impacts study abroad programs offer. However, care must be taken to assure student safety and…

  13. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowles Heather R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity.

  14. Study on the ocean drilling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Han, Hyun Chul; Chin, Jae Wha; Lee, Sung Rok; Park, Kwan Soon; Lee, Young Joo; Park, Young Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Geoscience research trend of the world nations is focusing on the study of climate changes and preventing people from the natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic activities. For this study, it is necessary for scientists to interpret ancient climate changes preserved in ocean sediments, and to observe plate motions. Thus, geological and geophysical studies should be proceeded for the core samples recovered from the deep sea sediments and basement. It is essential to join the ODP(Ocean Drilling Program) that drills ocean basins and crusts using the drilling vessel with the ability of deploying almost 9 km of drilling string. The first year (1995) was focused on the analyzing the appropriateness Korea to join the ODP. The second year (1996) has been stressed on being an ODP member country based on results of the first year study, and planning the future activities as a member. The scope of study is joining the ODP as a Canada-Australia Consortium member and to set up the Korean ODP organization and future activities. The results and suggestions are as follows. 1) Necessities of Korea joining the ODP: If Korea becomes a member of the ODP, the benefits could be obtained based on the activities of other ODP members through academic, social and economic sectors. 2) Korean membership of ODP: Korea becomes a member of the Australia-Canada Consortium for ODP. AGSO (Austrian Geological Survey Organization), GSC (Geological Survey of Canada), and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials) on behalf of their own countries will each pay a share of the full member financial contribution to the ODP. AGSO and GSC will pay one third of the full member financial contribution, and KIGAM will pay one twelfth. 3) Korean ODP structure and future activities: To enhance the efficiency of initial activities after joining the ODP, it has been decided to have a relatively simple organization. The primary governing arm of the Korean ODP organizations is the Korean ODP

  15. [HIV/AIDS screening program in community pharmacies in the Basque Country (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiza, Iñigo; Elizondo López de Landache, Isabel; Braceras Izagirre, Leire

    2013-01-01

    To describe the outcomes of the pilot program of a rapid HIV antibody screening test offered at Basque pharmacies, the socio-demographic characteristics of users and their acceptance of the test. Users of a rapid HIV antibody screening test (20 pharmacies) were surveyed. A random sample of 3514 tests (N = 806) performed in 1 year was taken. Statistical analyses included exact tests. There were 806 valid questionnaires. Seven tests were positive (0.85%; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-1.75); five of the users with positive tests were men. The mean age was 36.2 years (standard deviation = 11.0; range: 16-82 years; 70.7% men). Users' risk behavior was predominantly heterosexual and half of the users (58.6%) had no previous HIV tests. The main reasons for choosing this test were its speed, and the convenience and accessibility of community pharmacies. This new rapid HIV antibody screening test in community pharmacies could supplement other HIV screening programs currently in operation. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brod Meryl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country. There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

  17. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  18. Stakeholders' Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta; Sicińska Ewa; Wit Liesbeth de; Ruprich Jiří; Řehůřková Irena; Brown Kerry A.; Timotijevic Lada; Sonne Anne-Mette; Haugaard Pernille; Guzzon Antonella; Garcia Noé Brito; Alevritou Eleni; Hermoso Maria; Sarmant Yuliya; Lähteenmäki Liisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify the main factors infl uencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants...

  19. The Effect of Product Country of Origin: An Empirical Study Using Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowsar, Ali Mohammad; Ishii, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This article extends cue utilization theory with the help of the idea of cue diagnosticity. Themain objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of country of origin (COO) effect asa high scope cue during consumer choice decision for personal computers. Two conjointanalyses were done on the data collected by a questionnaire survey of 65 respondents. Fromthe data we found that the influence of the cues, like-price, brand name, country of origin,product character and warranty, on the bra...

  20. Country of origin effect on luxury brands evaluation: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Kassouf Pizzinatto; Nadia Kassouf Pizzinatto; Evandro Luiz Lopes; Antonio Carlos Giuliani

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the country of origin effect in luxury brands evaluation, theory that concerns the stereotype developed in the mind of consumers from a negative or positive image of the country where the product was manufactured, influencing product brand evaluation image. The methodological process was conducted with experiments, involving manipulation of variables thought printed advertisings, stimulus, as developed especially for the research, in three different situations: first t...

  1. Waste a necessary evil for economically impoverished communities in least developed countries (LCDc): a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available , waste harvesters, job creation, least developed countries, Lesotho 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Setting the scene Developing countries are faced with a multitude of inter-related social, economic and environmental problems and challenges... guideline by UNCHS (1995) and Whittington (1998) which is based on confidentiality, reliability, neutrality, accuracy, objectivity and honesty. The major source of the study was Ha Tsosane dumpsite in Maseru (where 36 harvesters wereinterviewed...

  2. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  3. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  4. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  5. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants...... was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths...

  6. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona KOSTELECKÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additionalinformation about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specificcharacteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  7. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    samples of schools in 37 countries in Europe and North America. The outcome measure was prevalence of at least two daily health complaints, measured by the HBSC Symptom Check List. We included three independent variables at the individual level (sex, age group, family affluence measured by the Family......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries......' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...

  8. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey included...... 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and North America in 1997-98.The main outcome measures were physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of students being bullied varied enormously across countries....... The lowest prevalence was observed among girls in Sweden (6.3%, 95% CI: 5.2-7.4), the highest among boys in Lithuania (41.4%, 95% CI 39.4-43.5). The risk of high symptom load increased with increasing exposure to bullying in all countries. In pooled analyses, with sex stratified multilevel logistic models...

  9. Spirituality, Happiness, and Psychological Well-being in 13- to 15-year olds: A Cross-country Longitudinal RCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P

    2017-03-01

    Based on a study of 5339 adolescents from 60 schools across 15 countries, this paper reports on the effect of spirituality on their happiness and psychological well-being. A customized spiritual program was administered and post-treatment outcome variable scores of the experimental group were higher. Adolescents from relatively affluent nations, boys, Christians, and those who self-practiced scored higher post-test. This makes a case for nominating spirituality as an important developmental variable for 13- to 15-year olds.

  10. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes.

  11. NEDO`s solar energy program in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru NEDO no taiyo energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper describes the solar energy program promoted in developing countries by NEDO. Research of photovoltaic power generation systems for middle-scale villages has been conducted in Indonesia between FY 1984 and FY 1989. International cooperative demonstration development for photovoltaic power generation systems has been conducted in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand and Malaysia for five to six years since FY 1994. For the research of solar heat, air heat collection type drying systems using solar heat has been promoted between FY 1993 and FY 1998. Employment of solar micro hydraulic power hybrid systems is planned in regions with rainy and dry seasons. In FY 1997, photovoltaic power generation systems were constructed in Gansu, Sinkiang Uighur, and Hopeh in China for operation researches. Durability tests have been conducted in Oman. A plan of construction of photovoltaic power generation systems with a capacity from a few MW to 1 GW at maximum in deserts is to be promoted as international cooperative activities with PVPS of IEA and CTI. Japan will play a major role on the activities as a proposal country based on the achievement of PVTEC. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Importance of structured training programs and good role models in hand hygiene in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Ozturk, A.; Guven, M.; Celik, I.; Doganay, M.; Voss, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the beliefs and perceptions associated with hand hygiene performance in two different institutions with limited resources and recently established infection control programme later than developed institutions. The study was conducted in two different hospitals

  13. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  14. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Peykari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes′ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were "effect," "woman," and "metabolic syndrome." Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEALTH STATUS BETWEEN COUNTRIES ALONG THE NEW SILK ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju’e Yan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using World Statistics Data from the year 2012, health status differences between countries along the “New Silk Road” were compared and analyzed. Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 60, healthy life expectancy, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, as well as certain disease incidence rates were used. The study indicated that the 12 countries along the New Silk Road had longer life expectancy at birth. Females had longer life expectancy at birth than males, but life expectancy at age 60 was shorter than the global average, and healthy life expectancy at birth was also shorter. Maternal health status was generally good in each country. China, Russia, and 4 other countries had better children’s health status than India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Non-communicable diseases caused higher mortality than communicable diseases and accidental injuries. However, the age standardized mortality rates of communicable diseases in India, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were still relatively high. Communicable diseases were also the leading cause of reduction in life expectancy. Tuberculosis had a more significant impact on health status. In conclusion, health status varies among the New Silk Road countries. Countries including China and Iran have relatively better health status, and non communicable diseases were the predominant risk factor impacting health. However, in countries such as India and Afghanistan, mortality caused by communicable diseases is still prominent. Under the current trend of globalization, New Silk Road countries are supposed to collaborate to expand their healthcare systems, and improve the health conditions for their people.

  16. Human Poverty: a practical and analytical study on Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Mohamed Ahmed, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The poverty problem is no longer a problem embodied in only one country, or bounded by a certain geographic area. It has become a problem with heavily international concerns. Poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that outreaches low or no incomes to the so called human poverty. Human poverty is one of the major obstacles to development particularly in the so called least developing countries (LDCs. In this paper, efforts were concentrating on defining the problem of human poverty, its measurement methods and the underlying causes of it in these countries. Empirically and by the use of OLS regression method and cross-sectional data from some poor countries (Human Development Report, 2005, three models tried to tackle the research problem. The first model was a combination of both low and medium income poor countries, the second was medium income and the third was low income poor countries. Among the results of this research is that variables of general expenditure on education and health and the growth rate in total domestic product are major causes of human poverty. Significantly, the results showed that there were very low growth rates levels in total domestic product, very low general expenditures on education and health which indicate serious symptoms of higher human poverty indices. Finally, the study recommends that governments might better concentrate on more expenditure on education and health as a main priority to eradicate all types of poverty particularly the human poverty.

  17. Addressing the implementation gap in global road safety: exploring features of an effective response and introducing a 10-country program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-06-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries.

  18. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high schools offering the Ontario curriculum under the auspice of the Ontario Ministry of Education. All teachers completed the Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised (Jerabeck, Burnout Test Form 1 - Revised, 2001) online. The study found that international teachers had a statistically lower level of burnout than teachers working in their country of origin.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  20. The Situation of Top Universities\\\\\\' Websites in the Islamic World Countries: a Webometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Goltaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With regards to important role of universities’ websites, this article aimed to study top universities of the Islamic countries using webometrics methods. Research data were extracted from AltaVista search engine and WEBOMETRICS website. In this study, top universities of the Islamic countries were ranked with some indexes such as number of links, web impact factor, world rank, size, visibility, rich files and scholar. Results showed that there was a significant relation between web impact factor with some indicators such as world rank, size, rich files and scholar, but there was not any significant relation between web impact factor and visibility of the website. Strong significant correlation between top universities of the Islamic world countries websites’ world rank and their ranks based on GDP was another result that we can mention in this study.

  1. The IMF programs that practised developing countries and welfare state perceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Çelik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study IMF policies have examined with different aspects and policy practisies are analyzed. IMF policies putting into practise for long-term stability but in the long and short term income distribution/welfare are damaged.

  2. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  3. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  4. A Study of Burnout in International and Country of Origin Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Mary Ann; Abney, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which burnout levels of teachers working in international schools differed from the burnout level of teachers working in their country of origin. All participants of the study were Canadian citizens who were educated in Canada, held Ontario College of Teachers certification and were teaching credit courses in high…

  5. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  6. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, Chung-hong; Ip, Patrick

    2014-07-30

    Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child's online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries' prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered.

  7. Paralegal Studies Program. Curriculum Utilization. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Doris D.

    A program developed a paralegal studies program for Delaware County Community College in the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) metropolitan area. Activities included gathering of information on paralegal studies as it related to curriculum content; advisory group establishment; curriculum development; training/educational material development; and…

  8. Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Leonie

    This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is…

  9. How is Family Centered Care Perceived by Healthcare Providers from Different Countries? An International Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Paraszczuk, Ann Marie; Çavuşoğlu, Hicran; Shields, Linda; Pars, Hatice; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) is a healthcare delivery model in which planning care for a child incorporates the entire family. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare how healthcare providers from three countries with varied cultural and healthcare systems perceive the concept FCC by measuring attitudes, and to psychometrically identify a measure that would reflect "family-centeredness." The Working with Families questionnaire, translated when appropriate, was used to capture participants' perceptions of caring for hospitalized children and their parents from pediatric healthcare providers in the United States, Australia and Turkey (n=476). The results indicated significantly more positive attitudes reported for working with children than parents for all countries and individual score differences across countries: the U.S. and Turkey child scores were significantly higher than Australia, whereas the U.S. and Australia parent scores were both significantly higher than Turkey. Perceptions of working with families were different for nurses from the three countries that call for a clearer understanding about perceptions in relation to delivery systems. Further analyses revealed FCS scores to be significantly different between nurses and physicians and significantly correlated with age, number of children and education. The results of this study add to our understanding of influences on practice from different countries and healthcare systems. The FCS score may be useful to determine baseline beliefs and ascertain effectiveness of interventions designed to improve FCC implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  11. Can cross country differences in return-to-work after chronic occupational back pain be explained? An exploratory analysis on disability policies in a six country cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Schellart, A J M; Cassidy, J D; Loisel, P; Veerman, T J; van der Beek, A J

    2009-12-01

    There are substantial differences in the number of disability benefits for occupational low back pain (LBP) among countries. There are also large cross country differences in disability policies. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) there are two principal policy approaches: countries which have an emphasis on a compensation policy approach or countries with an emphasis on an reintegration policy approach. The International Social Security Association initiated this study to explain differences in return-to-work (RTW) among claimants with long term sick leave due to LBP between countries with a special focus on the effect of different disability policies. A multinational cohort of 2,825 compensation claimants off work for 3-4 months due to LBP was recruited in Denmark, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Relevant predictors and interventions were measured at 3 months, one and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The main outcome measure was duration until sustainable RTW (i.e. working after 2 years). Multivariate analyses were conducted to explain differences in sustainable RTW between countries and to explore the effect of different disability policies. Medical and work interventions varied considerably between countries. Sustainable RTW ranged from 22% in the German cohort up to 62% in the Dutch cohort after 2 years of follow-up. Work interventions and job characteristics contributed most to these differences. Patient health, medical interventions and patient characteristics were less important. In addition, cross-country differences in eligibility criteria for entitlement to long-term and/or partial disability benefits contributed to the observed differences in sustainable RTW rates: less strict criteria are more effective. The model including various compensation policy variables explained 48% of the variance. Large cross-country differences in sustainable RTW after chronic LBP are mainly

  12. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  13. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  15. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  16. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  17. Opportunities, constraints and constrained opportunities - A study on mothers' working time patterns in 22 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Salin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze mothers’ working time patters across 22 European countries. The focu was on three questions: how much mothers prefer to work, how much they actually work, and to what degree their preferred and actual working times are (in)consistent with each other. The focus was on cross-national differences in mothers’ working time patterns, comparison of mothers’ working times to that of childless women and fathers, as well as on individual- and country-level factors t...

  18. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  19. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  20. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  1. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  2. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The labour force participation rate of married women varies considerably between the European countries. There may be several explanations for this evidence. In this study, the effect of the different income tax schemes on female labour force participation is investigated and compared. A common...... labour supply function is estimated on cross-section household samples for each of the countries Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and East and West Germany. Based on the estimated labour supply functions, we calculate for each of the countries the hypothetical part time and full time participation rates...... of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  3. Mania in the Nordic countries: patients and treatment in the acute phase of the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Knud; Porsdal, Vibeke; Aarre, Trond F

    2009-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics have a central role in pharmacotherapy. There are, however, substantial differences in how the treatment is realized in different countries. The aim of this paper was to compare the treatment of acute mania in the Nordic...... countries with other European countries during the first 12 weeks of the EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) study. Adult patients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated/changed oral medication...... status, functional status and pharmacological treatment. Psychiatric status at inclusion measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) were similar in the Nordic and European patient groups, which is surprising as 73% of the Nordic patients...

  4. Impact of oral cholera vaccines in cholera-endemic countries: A mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vittal; Burgess, Colleen; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2016-04-19

    Impact evaluation of vaccination programs is necessary for making decisions to introduce oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in cholera-endemic countries. We analyzed data to forecast the future global burden of cholera. We developed a mathematical model of cholera transmission in three countries as examples: Nigeria, Uganda, and Indonesia. After fitting the model, we evaluated the impact of OCVs delivered in four vaccination strategies varying by target age group and frequency of vaccination over the period of 2015-2030. Data suggest that the global annual incidence of cholera will increase from 3046238 in 2015 to 3787385 in 2030 with the highest burden in Asia and Africa where overall population size is large and the proportion of population with access to improved sanitation facilities is low. We estimate that OCV will reduce the cumulative incidence of cholera by half in Indonesia and >80% in Nigeria and Uganda when delivered to 1+ year olds every three years at a coverage rate of 50%, although cholera may persist through higher coverage rates (i.e., >90%). The proportion of person-to-person transmission compared to water-to-person transmission is positively correlated with higher vaccination impact in all three countries. Periodic OCV vaccination every three or five years can significantly reduce the global burden of cholera although cholera may persist even with high OCV coverage. Vaccination impact will likely vary depending on local epidemiological conditions including age distribution of cases and relative contribution of different transmission routes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  6. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  7. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  8. Social Science Teachers on Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Two Post-Communist Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Jeliazkova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the results of a comparative study of high school social science teachers in two post-communist European countries: Bulgaria and Croatia. In both countries, citizenship education was implemented as a part of the EU accession efforts. I discuss the ways teachers deal with the everyday dilemmas of teaching in a field which is by definition controversial and loaded with diverse political meanings. The study involved teachers in the two countries using Q-methodology, a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Five distinct ways of dealing with these questions, five types of views were found in Bulgaria: Pragmatic Conservatives, Deliberative Liberals, Local Social Guardians, Personal Growth Facilitators, and Global Future Debaters. In Croatia, the types of views were: Patriotic Conservatives, Liberal Democracy Mentors, Reflective Humanists, and Personal Growth Coaches. The differences and similarities between the teachers’ views in both countries are compared. The study highlights the crucial role of teachers, of their beliefs and experiences in shaping national and European citizenship education policies. The implications of the study findings for citizenship education policy, curriculum development, and teacher training are briefly discussed.

  9. Attitudes toward Wife Beating: A Cross-Country Study in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Bonu, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Using demographic and health surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 from seven countries (Armenia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal, and Turkey), the study found that acceptance of wife beating ranged from 29% in Nepal, to 57% in India (women only), and from 26% in Kazakhstan, to 56% in Turkey (men only). Increasing wealth predicted…

  10. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  11. Do the Media set the Parliamentary Agenda? A Comparative Study in Seven Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vliegenthart, Rens; Walgrave, Stefaan; Baumgartner, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of work has examined the relationship between media and politics from an agenda-setting perspective: is attention for issues initiated by political elites with the media following suit, or is the reverse relation stronger? A long series of single-country studies has suggested a num...

  12. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  13. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  14. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  15. Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDRON STEPHANE; LAGAE KAAT

    2015-01-01

    Key findings of the JRC's research Young Children (0-8) and Digital Technology : A qualitative exploratory study across seven countries for the Research Highlights series on behalf of the Evidence Group (EG) of the UK Council on Child Internet Safety

  16. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  17. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  18. Trans fatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amaral, E.; Kestesloot, H.; Rimestad, A.; Thamm, M.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from fast

  19. The right to health : A multi-country study of law, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Ferguson, Rhonda; Markovic, Milan; Nnamuchi, Obi

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study engages with the fields of human rights law, health law, and public health. It analyses how the internationally guaranteed human ‘right to health’ is realized by States at a national level. It brings together scholars from more than ten different countries, with each of

  20. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  1. Trans fatty acids in French fries, soups, and snacks from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amaral, E.; Kestesloot, H.; Rimestad, A.; Thamm, M.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    In the TRANSFAIR study, foods contributing to 95% of total fat intake were collected in 14 European countries. In addition to edible fats, dairy, meat, and bakery products some specific food items with relatively high amounts oftransfatty acids were found. French fried potatoes, both those from

  2. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  3. Drivers of Socially Responsible Investing : A Case Study of Four Nordic Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Sievanen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we try to establish what determines the substantial differences in the Nordic countries' size and composition of socially responsible investing (SRI). We investigate if these differences between Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden can be associated with key characteristics in economi

  4. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  5. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient -0.039; 95% CI: -0.058, -0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.035, -0.003), GNI (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.055, -0.015), and both EI and GNI (-0.017; 95% CI: -0.033, -0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.

  6. Comparison of medicines management strategies in insurance schemes in middle-income countries: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A; Ashigbie, Paul G; Brooks, Mohamad I; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2017-01-01

    Many middle-income countries are scaling up health insurance schemes to provide financial protection and access to affordable medicines to poor and uninsured populations. Although there is a wealth of evidence on how high income countries with mature insurance schemes manage cost-effective use of medicines, there is limited evidence on the strategies used in middle-income countries. This paper compares the medicines management strategies that four insurance schemes in middle-income countries use to improve access and cost-effective use of medicines among beneficiaries. We compare key strategies promoting cost-effective medicines use in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in China, National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana, Jamkesmas in Indonesia and Seguro Popular in Mexico. Through the peer-reviewed and grey literature as of late 2013, we identified strategies that met our inclusion criteria as well as any evidence showing if, and/or how, these strategies affected medicines management. Stakeholders involved and affected by medicines coverage policies in these insurance schemes were asked to provide relevant documents describing the medicines related aspects of these insurance programs. We also asked them specifically to identify publications discussing the unintended consequences of the strategies implemented. Use of formularies, bulk procurement, standard treatment guidelines and separation of prescribing and dispensing were present in all four schemes. Also, increased transparency through publication of tender agreements and procurement prices was introduced in all four. Common strategies shared by three out of four schemes were medicine price negotiation or rebates, generic reference pricing, fixed salaries for prescribers, accredited preferred provider network, disease management programs, and monitoring of medicines purchases. Cost-sharing and payment for performance was rarely used. There was a lack of performance monitoring strategies in all

  7. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  8. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  9. Effective ABE Programming: Nine Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Douglas; Jacobson, Larry

    The document presents an indepth study of nine selected exemplary adult basic education (ABE) programs in Region 8: Volunteers Clearing House, Fort Collins, Colorado; Utah Navajo Development Council, Blanding, Utah; Adult Education Tutorial Program, Denver, Colorado; Project SAVE, Lemmon, South Dakota; Gates Rubber Company, Denver, Colorado;…

  10. Neonatal death in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Global Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizán, José M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Pasha, Omrana; Esamai, Fabian; Patel, Archana; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Moore, Janet; Althabe, Fernando; Kodkany, Bhala S; Sami, Neelofar; Manasyan, Albert; Derman, Richard J; Liechty, Edward A; Hibberd, Patricia; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hambidge, K Michael; Buekens, Pierre; Jobe, Alan H; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine population-based neonatal mortality rates in low and middle income countries and to examine gestational age, birth-weight and timing of death to assess the potentially preventable neonatal deaths. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in communities in five low-income countries (Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala, India, and Pakistan) and one mid-income country (Argentina). Over a two-year period, all pregnant women in the study communities were enrolled by trained study staff and their infants followed to 28 days of age. Results Between October 2009 and March 2011, 153,728 babies were delivered and followed through day 28. Neonatal death rates ranged from 41 per 1000 births in Pakistan to 8 per 1000 in Argentina. 54% of the neonatal deaths were >37 weeks and 46% weighed 2500 grams or more. Half the deaths occurred within 24 hours of delivery. Conclusions In our population-based low and middle income country registries, the majority of neonatal deaths occurred in babies >37 weeks gestation and almost half weighed at least 2500 grams. Most deaths occurred shortly after birth. With access to better medical care and hospitalization, especially in the intrapartum and early neonatal period, many of these neonatal deaths might be prevented. PMID:22644832

  11. Impact of a community-based lifestyle intervention program on blood pressure and salt intake of normotensive adult population in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effect of lifestyle intervention programs on salt intake and blood pressure in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the impact of a healthy lifestyle community-based trial on salt intake and blood pressure among a representative sample of normotensive Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: We compared the data for salt intake, urinary sodium levels and blood pressure from three cross-sectional surveys in time points of 1999, 2001-2002 (beginning of the community interventions, and 2007 (after the community trial for normotensive adult population of Isfahan, Iran in the framework of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, one of the family members at each household was randomly selected with Iranian adult population as a target. Dietary salt intake was estimated based on 24 hour urinary sodium levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured according to standard methods. Results: Dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased during the 9-year study period. Unlike systolic and diastolic blood pressures that had a consistent decrement between 1999 and 2007, dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels were slightly raised from 1999 to 2000-2001 and then reduced between 2001-2 and 2007 evaluations. The same findings were reached when data were analyzed separately by gender or weight status. Conclusions: A lifestyle community trial was effective in controlling the escalating trend of blood pressure and salt intake in Iranian population. It can be considered as a model to be adopted in other developing countries.

  12. Impact of a community-based lifestyle intervention program on blood pressure and salt intake of normotensive adult population in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Boshtam, Maryam; Nouri, Fatemeh; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Data on the effect of lifestyle intervention programs on salt intake and blood pressure in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the impact of a healthy lifestyle community-based trial on salt intake and blood pressure among a representative sample of normotensive Iranian adults. We compared the data for salt intake, urinary sodium levels and blood pressure from three cross-sectional surveys in time points of 1999, 2001-2002 (beginning of the community interventions), and 2007 (after the community trial) for normotensive adult population of Isfahan, Iran in the framework of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, one of the family members at each household was randomly selected with Iranian adult population as a target. Dietary salt intake was estimated based on 24 hour urinary sodium levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured according to standard methods. Dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased during the 9-year study period. Unlike systolic and diastolic blood pressures that had a consistent decrement between 1999 and 2007, dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels were slightly raised from 1999 to 2000-2001 and then reduced between 2001-2 and 2007 evaluations. The same findings were reached when data were analyzed separately by gender or weight status. A lifestyle community trial was effective in controlling the escalating trend of blood pressure and salt intake in Iranian population. It can be considered as a model to be adopted in other developing countries.

  13. An Investigation of Determinants Global Entrepreneurship: Multi-Country Panel Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznaldi Akbar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of governmental supports and policies; and financing for entrepreneurs in the context of global entrepreneurial activities. Our studies are based on the rich datasets of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database covering 108 countries from 2001 to 2014. In this study, we examine whether countries with more favorable policies and supports towards entrepreneurship and availability of financing for entrepreneurs would result in the higher country’s entrepreneurial activities. We use total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA, a percentage of 18 - 64 year old population who are either a nascent entrepreneur or an owner manager of a new business, as our dependent variable to represent country’s entrepreneurial activities. There are two main explanatory variables used in the study: governmental supports and financing for entrepreneurs. The governmental supports represents the extent to which public policies support entrepreneurship as a relevant economic issue, while financing for entrepreneurs indicates the availability of financial resources for small and medium enterprises (SMEs including grants and subsidies. We also include three control variables of basic school entrepreneurial education and training; physical and services infrastructure; and cultural and social norms to test the significance of these factors to the country’s entrepreneurial activities. This study adopts panel regression model augmented with control variables. We favor Random Effect model as opposed to Fixed Effect or Pooled OLS model as Hausman and Breusch–Pagan test suggest. Our results suggest that there is no evident that government supports have significant contribution to country’s entrepreneurial activities.  In other words, entrepreneurial activities are more flourished in a country that has not set entrepreneurship as relevant economic issues as it might be the case for many emerging countries. The availability of

  14. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  15. Poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries: a multi-national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Kupek, Emil

    2010-10-01

    The importance of reducing childhood undernutrition has been enshrined in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the relationship between alternative indicators of poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries within the context of a multi-national cohort study (Young Lives). Approximately 2000 children in each of four countries - Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam - had their heights measured and were weighed when they were aged between 6 and 17 months (survey one) and again between 4.5 and 5.5 years (survey two). The anthropometric outcomes of stunted, underweight and wasted were calculated using World Health Organization 2006 reference standards. Maximum-likelihood probit estimation was employed to model the relationship within each country and survey between alternative measures of living standards (principally a wealth index developed using principal components analysis) and each anthropometric outcome. An extensive set of covariates was incorporated into the models to remove as much individual heterogeneity as possible. The fully adjusted models revealed a negative and statistically significant coefficient on wealth for all outcomes in all countries, with the exception of the outcome of wasted in India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam (survey one) and the outcome of underweight in Vietnam (surveys one and two). In survey one, the partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of stunting, being underweight and wasting was to reduce them by between 1.4 and 5.1 percentage points, 1.0 and 6.4 percentage points, and 0.3 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, with each unit (10%) increase in wealth. The partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of anthropometric outcomes were larger in the survey two models. In both surveys, children residing in the lowest wealth quintile households had significantly increased probabilities of being stunted in all four study countries and of being underweight in

  16. Towards Measuring and Visualizing Sustainable National Power—A Case Study of China and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new perspective of national power—sustainable national power (SNP—emphasizing both the traditional comprehensive national power (CNP and social and environmental sustainability. We propose a measurement to quantify the SNP based on the measurement of comprehensive national power and a sustainable adjusted index. In addition, density-equalizing maps are adopted to visualize the sustainable national power of countries in order to gain a better understanding for its current state and future development from a cartographic perspective. China and its neighboring countries are selected as a case study area. The results show that China outperforms other countries in most of the CNP dimensions but performs poorly in various SNP-adjusted dimensions within the study area. The composite score shows that China is with the highest regional SNP, followed by Japan, Russia, South Korea and India. Furthermore, time series of cartograms reveal evidence showing power transitions among countries. In addition, the effectiveness of cartograms for cartographic communication is discussed.

  17. First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlands Robyn L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a range of Asian countries. Methods A Delphi consensus study was carried out with a panel of 28 Asian mental health clinicians drawn from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The panel was given a 211 item questionnaire about possible first aid actions and asked to rate whether they thought these should be included in guidelines. Panel members were invited to propose additional items. Results After three Delphi rounds, there were 128 items that were rated as "essential" or "important" by 80% or more of the panel members. These items covered: recognition of psychosis, encouraging and assisting the person to seek help, how to interact with the person, responding to acute psychosis, responding to aggression, and what to do if the person refuses to get professional help. Conclusion Despite the diversity of the countries involved, there was consensus on a core set of first aid items that were considered as suitable for assisting a psychotic person. Future work is needed to develop guidelines for specific countries.

  18. Cataract surgery rates in latin america: a four-year longitudinal study of 19 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansingh, Van C; Resnikoff, Serge; Tingley-Kelley, Kimberly; Nano, María E; Martens, Marion; Silva, Juan C; Duerksen, Rainald; Carter, Marissa J

    2010-03-01

    To collect cataract surgery rates data in 19 Latin American countries over a 4-year period as data published to date have been limited. Cataract surgery rates were obtained from National Society of Ophthalmology, National VISION 2020/Prevention of Blindness Committee and Ministry of Health representatives for each country for 2005 to 2008. Economic (gross national income per capita) and other data were collected from publicly available databases. Linear and power correlations between gross national incomes and cataract surgery rates were calculated. Over the study period, most countries increased their cataract surgery rates, with the largest increases observed for Venezuela (186%), Nicaragua (183%), Costa Rica (100%), Uruguay (97%), and Peru (88%). Mean cataract surgery rates for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 for the ensemble of countries were 1545, 1684, 1660, and 1822 per million population, respectively, with a growth over the study period of 17.9%, concurrent with an increase of 57 million (11.5%) in the population. A good correlation between cataract surgery rate and gross national income per capita was found (P < .001). Although progress is being made in the region, the cataract surgery rates represent only one parameter. When they are examined in the context of cataract surgical coverage it is clear that substantial proportions of bilaterally blind persons are still not receiving surgery.

  19. STUDY ON THE WORDS AND MUSICAL PATTERNS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Filiz ONAL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthems are poetic verses sung in a melodic harmony expressing a nation’s feelings, enthusiasm, hopes, joy of coexistence and determination to survive. Thanks to anthems, people reflect their national values, historical background of their countries, and their way of thinking. In this direction national anthems have a unifying power creating a common ground for individuals that sustain continuity and the sense of belonging to a country. This study deals with the national anthems of the Middle Eastern countries where major conflicts have taken place for years in terms of music and lyrics. The random method was used to form the sample group. The sample group is composed of the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Some basic musical elements of the national anthems of the countries involved in the study have been investigated (tone, tempo, meter signatures and rhythm patterns. It has been found that four of them are composed in major tones, while two of them are composed in minor tones. All of these anthems are in 4/4 meter with walking pace tempo. As for the rhythm patterns; 3 different patterns are used in one anthem, while 4 different patterns are used in two, 5 different patterns in one, and 6 different patterns in two. The words of these anthems as literary verses focus on many topics, mainly soldiers, flags, and homelands as well as political developments, national heroes...

  20. Country Program Evaluation: Guyana (2008-2012) Title: Evaluación del Programa de País: Guyana (2008-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The 2008-2012 Country Program Evaluation for Guyana concludes that the Bank's strategy was aligned with the development objectives and economic priorities of the government. Nevertheless, its program has produced mixed results. In infrastructure, progress was achieved by consolidating the primary road network and extending the electrical grid to unserved areas; however, efforts to reduce losses in the electricity sector did not meet their target. In competitiveness, the financial and judicial...

  1. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk Among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    Radiation protection standards are based mainly on risk estimates from studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The validity of extrapolations from the relatively high-dose acute exposures in this population to the low-dose, protracted or fractionated environmental and occupational exposures...... effect was observed in most countries. This study provides the largest body of direct evidence to date on the effects of low-dose protracted exposures to external photon radiation....... of primary public health concern has long been the subject of controversy. A collaborative retrospective cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposures. The study included nearly 600,000 workers employed in 154 facilities in 15 countries. This paper...

  2. Patterns of Long Term Care in 29 European countries: evidence from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population, and the increased preponderance of disabled people in this group, coupled with the rising level of public expenditure required to service the complex organization of long term care (LTC delivery are causing increased pressure on LTC systems in Europe. A pan-European survey was carried out to evaluate whether patterns of LTC can be identified across Europe and what are the trends of the countries along them. Methods An ecological study was conducted on the 27 EU Member States plus Norway and Iceland, referring to the period 2003-2007. Several variables related to organizational features, elderly needs and expenditure were drawn from OECD Health Data and the Eurostat Statistics database and combined using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Results Two global Principal Components were taken into consideration given that their expressed total variance was greater than 60%. They were interpreted according to the higher (more than 0.5 positive or negative correlation coefficients between them and the original variables; thus patterns of LTC were identified. High alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs characterizes Nordic and Western European countries, the former also having a higher level of formal care than the latter. Mediterranean as well as Central and South Eastern European countries show lower alignment between old age related expenditure and elderly needs, coupled with a level of provision of formal care that is around or slightly above the average European level. In the dynamic comparison, linear, stable or unclear trends were shown for the studied countries. Conclusions The analysis carried out is an explorative and descriptive study, which is an attempt to reveal patterns and trends of LTC in Europe, allowing comparisons between countries. It also stimulates further researches with lower aggregated data useful to gain meaningful policy

  3. Asian Mussel Watch Program: contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorines in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ueno, Daisuke; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Viet, Pham Hung; Prudente, Maricar; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-07-01

    Mussel samples were used in this study to measure the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) in the coastal waters of Asian countries like Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. PBDEs were detected in all the samples analyzed, and the concentrations ranged from 0.66 to 440 ng/g lipid wt. Apparently higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in mussels from the coastal waters of Korea, Hong Kong, China, and the Philippines, which suggests that significant sources of these chemicals exist in and around this region. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 were the dominant congeners in most of the samples. Among the OCs analyzed, concentrations of DDTs were the highest followed by PCBs > CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Total concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, and HCHs in mussel samples ranged from 21 to 58 000, 3.8 to 2000, 0.93 to 900, and 0.90 to 230 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. High levels of DDTs were found in mussels from Hong Kong, Vietnam, and China; PCBs were found in Japan, Hong Kong, and industrialized/urbanized locations in Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India; CHLs were found in Japan and Hong Kong; HCHs were found in India and China. These countries seem to play a role as probable emission sources of corresponding contaminants in Asia and, in turn, may influence their global distribution.

  4. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  5. Innovation Systems and Knowledge-Intensive Enterpreneurship: a Country Case Study of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Richard; Wojnicka, Elçzbieta; Pander, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys the current state of affairs in Poland with regard to the development of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship (KIE), or new firm creation in industries considered to be science-based or to use research and development (R&D) intensively. We place KIE in Poland in the larger institutional context, outlining the key features of the country's National Innovation System, and then focus on KIE itself. Our findings are perhaps more optimistic than many previous studies of knowledg...

  6. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  7. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Strand, Bjørn Heine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on a...

  8. 34 CFR 477.1 - What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE AND POLICY STUDIES PROGRAM General § 477.1 What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program? The State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and...

  9. Development of harmonised food and sample lists for total diet studies in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dofkova, Marcela; Nurmi, Tanja; Berg, Katharina; Reykdal, Ólafur; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Vasco, Elsa; Dias, Maria Graça; Blahova, Jitka; Rehurkova, Irena; Putkonen, Tiina; Ritvanen, Tiina; Lindtner, Oliver; Desnica, Natasa; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Oliveira, Luísa; Ruprich, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    A total diet study (TDS) is a public health tool for determination of population dietary exposure to chemicals across the entire diet. TDSs have been performed in several countries but the comparability of data produced is limited. Harmonisation of the TDS methodology is therefore desirable and the development of comparable TDS food lists is considered essential to achieve the consistency between countries. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility of a method for establishing harmonised TDS food and sample lists in five European countries with different consumption patterns (Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Iceland and Portugal). The food lists were intended to be applicable for exposure assessment of wide range of chemical substances in adults (18-64 years) and the elderly (65-74 years). Food consumption data from recent dietary surveys measured on individuals served as the basis for this work. Since the national data from these five countries were not comparable, all foods were linked to the EFSA FoodEx2 classification and description system. The selection of foods for TDS was based on the weight of food consumed and was carried out separately for each FoodEx2 level 1 food group. Individual food approach was respected as much as possible when the TDS samples were defined. TDS food lists developed with this approach represented 94.7-98.7% of the national total diet weights. The overall number of TDS samples varied from 128 in Finland to 246 in Germany. The suggested method was successfully implemented in all five countries. Mapping of data to the EFSA FoodEx2 coding system was recognised as a crucial step in harmonisation of the developed TDS food lists.

  10. Implementation of e-commerce in developing countries: impact and its limitations-Albanian Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genti Çela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred to as "e-Commerce" in developed countries has been proven as an indisputable potential to ameliorate the efficiency and productivity in different areas, therefore, its implementation is attracting significant attention in developing countries. Despite its opportunities established in developed countries, there were many doubts about the e-commerce implementation in developing countries. That reluctance is heightened by the limited number of studies on e-commerce and the lack of legislation. This paper aims to contribute on filling the research gap by highlighting the e-commerce implementation in Albania as a developing country, its importance, the level of trust, its benefits, its positive or negative impacts and its limitations. This study will be continuously and accordingly updated with new evidence based on research results, along with future developments of Albania’s economic, political, social and demographic environment. This is because different areas represent different infrastructure and different social and economic characteristics, different levels of trust on transactions, different attitudes towards institutions. We have also take into consideration that different communities have different attitudes toward the acceptance and developments of e-Commerce system. In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to e-commerce, concentrating specifically on Albanian case. Firstly we analyze the current situation of e-Commerce. Secondly we pay attention to the benefits and legal strategies for its implementation. The third step consists in presenting the relevant objectives. We believe and insist that the development of e-commerce in developing nations, - including Albania, has a positive perspective, if the government, companies and the public can better understand and implement e-Commerce.

  11. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  12. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  13. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as, notably, into the informal void of skill mismatches in the labor market. Still, for some specific voids, clusters do at least implicitly assume a bridging role. While the cluster policies examined do not explicitly target the institutional voids identified, cluster management can—in the course of time—align its service offering more closely with these voids. Bottom-up designed cluster policies can play an especially important role in such an evolution towards bridging institutional voids.

  15. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M. [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth - thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem. (author)

  16. Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M., E-mail: nmbaya99@yahoo.co [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in three sub-Saharan African countries, namely South Africa, Kenya and Congo (DRC). We incorporate prices as an intermittent variable in a bivariate setting between energy consumption and economic growth-thereby creating a simple trivariate framework. Using the ARDL-bounds testing procedure, we find that the causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies significantly across the countries under study. The results show that for South Africa and Kenya there is a unidirectional causal flow from energy consumption to economic growth. However, for Congo (DRC) it is economic growth that drives energy consumption. These findings have important policy implications insofar as energy conservation policies are concerned. In the case of Congo (DRC), for example, the implementation of energy conservation policies may not significantly affect economic growth because the country's economy is not entirely energy dependent. However, for South Africa and Kenya there is a need for more energy supply augmentations in order to cope with the long-run energy demand. In the short-run, however, the two countries should explore more efficient and cost-effective sources of energy in order to address the energy dependency problem.

  17. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  18. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run.

  19. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, Dominic; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Duvall, Susan; Ratcliffe, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social franchising spreads beyond family planning

  20. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2007-08-01

    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison.

  1. Adoption of the HPV vaccine: a case study of three emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro Martínez, Araceli; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Lemgruber, Alexandre; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García-Mochón, Leticia; Lessa, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has recently attracted considerable attention in emerging countries, due to its potential to reduce the impact of HPV-related diseases. This case study sheds new light about the variety of HTA arrangements, methods and processes involved in the adoption and use of HPV vaccines in a selected sample of central, eastern and southern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean, all of them emerging in the use of HTA. A multi-country case study was designed. Mixed methods, document review, semi-structured surveys and personal communication with experts, were used for data collection and triangulation. This study shows that common elements of good practice exist in the processes and methods used, with all countries arriving at the same appraisal recommendations. However, the influence of socio-politico-economic factors appears to be determinant on the final decisions and restrictions to access made. This case study intends to draw useful lessons for policymakers in emerging settings interested in the adoption of the HPV vaccine supported by evidence-informed processes, such as those offered by institutionalized HTA. Future studies are also recommended to elucidate the specific roles that social values and uncertainties play in vaccine decision-making across different societies.

  2. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391. Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19, DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway, while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs.

  3. The dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: Design and study methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Pisoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international prospective cohort study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD care practices and HD patient outcomes. The DOPPS began in 1996, in the United States, and has since expanded to 21 countries, collecting detailed data from >75,000 HD patients, with >200 scientific publications, focused on describing HD practices associated with improved HD patient outcomes. The goal of DOPPS is to help HD patients "live better and live longer." Starting in 2012, the DOPPS was able to expand to all six of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The DOPPS study design consists of selecting HD facilities for study participation in each country to represent the different types of HD facilities and geographic regions within each GCC country. Within each study site, HD patients were randomly selected for detailed data collection to represent the HD practices within each participating HD facility. Altogether, 41 HD facilities have participated in the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study including 20 facilities from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates, four each from Kuwait and Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the study design and methods, data collection, study management, scientific investigator oversight and guidance, and study governance and support for the GCCDOPPS Phase 5 study.

  4. Effects of physical tracing on estimates of loss to follow-up, mortality and retention in low and middle income country antiretroviral therapy programs: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H McMahon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in low and middle income countries (LMICs have unknown treatment outcomes and are classified as lost to follow-up (LTFU. Physical tracing of patients classified as LTFU is common; however, effects of tracing on outcomes remains unclear. The objective of this systematic review is to compare estimates of LTFU, mortality and retention in LMIC in cohorts of patients with and without physical tracing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically identified studies in LMIC programmatic settings using MEDLINE (2003-2011 and HIV conference abstracts (2009-2011. Studies reporting the proportion LTFU 12-months after ART initiation were included. Tracing activities were determined from manuscripts or by contacting study authors. Studies were classified as "tracing studies" if physical tracing was available for the majority of patients. Summary estimates from the 2 groups of studies (tracing and non-tracing for LTFU, mortality, stop of ART, transfers out, and retention on ART were determined. 261 papers and 616 abstracts were identified of which 39 studies comprising 54 separate cohorts (n = 187,666 met inclusion criteria. Of those, physical tracing was available for 46% of cohorts. Treatment programs with physical tracing activities had lower estimated LTFU (7.6% vs. 15.1%; p<.001, higher estimated mortality (10.5% vs. 6.6%; p = .006, higher retention on ART (80.0 vs. 75.8%; p = .04 and higher retention at the original site (80.0% vs. 72.9%; p = .02. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of patient tracing is critical when interpreting program outcomes of LTFU, mortality and retention. The reduction of the proportion LTFU in tracing studies was only partially explained by re-classification of unknown outcomes. These data suggest that tracing may lead to increased re-engagement of patients in care, rather than just improved classification of unknown outcomes.

  5. Literature Education in Ten Countries: An Empirical Study. International Studies in Evaluation II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    It is the purpose of this volume to present some of the highlights of the literature survey inaugurated by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement which was undertaken in nine countries: Belgium, Chile, England, Finland, Iran, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United States. Information was sought concerning…

  6. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD, or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1 To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2 To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3 To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35 with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7, India (33.2, Peru (39.4. Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest

  7. Comparison of interventional cardiology in two European countries: a nationwide Internet based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, T; Gudnadottir, G S; Lagerqvist, B; Eyjolfsson, K; Nilsson, T; Thorgeirsson, G; Thorgeirsson, G; Andersen, K; James, S

    2013-09-30

    The practice of interventional cardiology differs between countries and regions. In this study we report the results of the first nation-wide long-term comparison of interventional cardiology in two countries using a common web-based registry. The Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) was used to prospectively and continuously collect background-, quality-, and outcome parameters for all coronary angiographies (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in Iceland and Sweden during one year. The rate of CA per million inhabitants was higher in Iceland than in Sweden. A higher proportion of patients had CA for stable angina in Iceland than in Sweden, while the opposite was true for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Left main stem stenosis was more commonly found in Iceland than in Sweden. The PCI rate was similar in the two countries as was the general success rate of PCI, achievement of complete revascularisation and the overall stent use. Drug eluting stents were more commonly used in Iceland (23% vs. 19%). The use of fractional flow reserve (0.2% vs. 10%) and the radial approach (0.6% vs. 33%) was more frequent in Sweden than in Iceland. Serious complications and death were very rare in both countries. By prospectively comparing interventional cardiology in two countries, using a common web based registry online, we have discovered important differences in technique and indications. A discovery such as this can lead to a change in clinical practice and inspire prospective multinational randomised registry trials in unselected, real world populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Undercover careseekers: simulated clients in the study of health provider behavior in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J M; Quick, J D; Ross-Degnan, D; Kafle, K K

    1997-11-01

    The simulated client method (SCM) has been used for over 20 years to study health care provider behavior in a first-hand way while minimizing observation bias. In developing countries, it has proven useful in the study of physicians, drug retailers, and family planning services. In SCM, research assistants with fictitious case scenarios (or with stable conditions or a genuine interest in the services) visit providers and request their assistance. Providers are not aware that these clients are involved in research. Simulated clients later report on the events of their visit and these data are analyzed. This paper reviews 23 developing country studies of physician, drug retail, and family planning services in order to draw conclusions about (1) the advantages and limitations of the methods; (2) considerations for design and implementation of a simulated client study; (3) validity and reliability; and (4) ethical concerns. Examples are also drawn from industrialized countries, related methodologies, and non-health fields to illustrate the issues surrounding SCM. Based on this review, we conclude that the information gathered through the use of simulated clients is unique and valuable for managers, intervention planners and evaluators, social scientist, regulators, and others. Areas that need to be explored in future work with this method include: ways to ensure data validity and reliability; research on additional types of providers and health care needs; and adaptation of the technique for routine use.

  9. A Study on Logistics Cluster Competitiveness among Asia Main Countries using the Porter's Diamond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and discussions of logistics cluster competitiveness with a national approach are required to boost agglomeration effects and potentially create logistics efficiency and productivity. This study developed assessment criteria of logistics cluster competitiveness based on Porter's diamond model, calculated the weight of each criterion by the AHP method, and finally evaluated and discussed logistics cluster competitiveness among Asia main countries. The results indicate that there was a large difference in logistics cluster competitiveness among six countries. The logistics cluster competitiveness scores of Singapore (7.93, Japan (7.38, and Hong Kong (7.04 are observably different from those of China (5.40, Korea (5.08, and Malaysia (3.46. Singapore, with the highest competitiveness score, revealed its absolute advantage in logistics cluster indices. These research results intend to provide logistics policy makers with some strategic recommendations, and may serve as a baseline for further logistics cluster studies using Porter's diamond model.

  10. Prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus infection in various countries: a WHO Collaborative Study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soběslavský, O.

    1980-01-01

    A WHO collaborative study on viral hepatitis B in which 21 laboratories in 20 countries participated is described. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), its subtypes, and its antibody (anti-HBs) by age and sex and urban or rural residence in normal populations in different parts of the world. High-risk groups in the populations and patients with various diseases were also investigated. The results of the study confirmed that HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence rates were higher in African and Asian countries than in the Americas, Australia, and northern and central Europe. Some eastern and southern European countries, however, were also shown to have high HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence rates, comparable with those in Africa and Asia. In countries with low HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence, there seems to be a gradual build-up during late childhood or early adolescence, whereas in countries with high HBsAg and its antibody prevalence, they were frequently detected in preschool children. Although the trend was towards a higher frequency of HBsAg and anti-HBs in urban than in rural and in male than in female populations, the differences were in most cases not significant. On the other hand, a significantly higher prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus infection was seen in high-risk population groups than in normal populations. This was, however, clearly defined only in areas with low HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence in the normal population. The geographical distribution of HBsAg subtypes showed a higher prevalence of the ad subdeterminant over ay in central European countries, whereas in eastern and southern Europe the ay subtype predominated. In West Africa, ayw was the only variant found, whereas in East Africa ad occurred more frequently than ay. In Australia, both adw and ayw subtypes were detected, whereas in the Far East and South-east Asia only adw and adr were seen. PMID:6969134

  11. Pattern of hospitalized-stroke patients in ASEAN countries an ASNA stroke epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Misbach

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understanding the demographic characteristics, admission time, clinical pattern, risk factors, stroke type, length of stay, and discharge outcome of hospitalized acute stroke patients in ASEAN member countries, ASEAN   Neurological Association (ASNA formed a Standing Commiltee for Stroke in 1996 and this is the first ASNA Stroke Epidemiological Study using the same stroke protocol. This prospective hospital based study was conducted in seven ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam by participating neurologists from October 1996 to March 1997. Of the 3723 consecutive hospitalized stroke patients (2030 males and 1660 females from 44 participating hospitals in this study ie Brunei (n=53, Indonesia (n=2065, Malaysia (n=300,Philippines (n=545,Singapore (n=232, Thailand (n=244 and Vietnam (n=284, the mean age was 59.0 ± 13,8 years 16% of patients were younger than 45 years and 37% of patients were older than 65 years. There were no significant differences in age at onset among stroke subjects except in Vietnam (younger and Singapore (older. The sex distribution showed a slight higher prevalence of women in Singapore and in the age group > 64 years. The mean adrnission time was 41.5 ± 87.0 hours, 19% of patients were admitted within 3 hours, 29% within 6 hours and 66% more than 6 hours (delayed admission especially in Malaysia and Singapore (80% and 77% respectively. Motor disability was the most prevalent clinical feature in all countries and carotid bruit was the rarest (1%. Hypertension was the most common risk factor (68% in all countries, followed by TIA (35%, smoking, diabetes mellitus, ischnemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia. CT scan was performed on 76% of subjects. The diagnostic classification was non lacunar anterior circulation (32%, lacunar infarction (14%, hemorrhagic stroke (26%, SAH (4%. Mean length of stay was 11.4 ± 11.8 days. Most of the patients

  12. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Allender, Steven; Scarborough, Peter; West, Douglas

    2012-07-20

    Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban-rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents' occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was

  13. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  14. Communicating Ethical Arguments to Organic Consumers: A Study Across Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Naspetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Additional ethical claims were tested with mock organic egg labels in five EU countries. The attitudes towards the advertising labels were assessed by multiple copy testing measures. A total of 156 individual responses were analysed. The study confirms the difficulty of conducting advertising research in a multicultural framework, and shows that additional local/ regional claims can reinforce the appeal of organic products.

  15. Effects of Trade and Financial Liberalization on Financial Development (Case Study: MENA Countries)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Hosseininasab; Kazem Yavari; Vajihe Afzali Abarguee; Mahdi Basakha

    2012-01-01

    Financial sector is one of the most influential sectors in economic activities. Empirical and theoretical studies conducted in recent years have also confirmed the significant role of financial institutions in economic growth. Additionally, trade and financial liberalization policies have been particular concerned with strategic policies in developed and developing countries. According to dynamic panel data (DPD) and by means of generalized method of moments (GMM) during 1990 to 2008, this st...

  16. Use of a Comprehensive HIV Care Cascade for Evaluating HIV Program Performance: Findings From 4 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Lamb, Matthew R.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Elul, Batya; Sahabo, Ruben; Hawken, Mark P.; Mussa, Antonio; Zwede, Ayele; Justman, Jessica; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional HIV treatment cascade has been noted to have limitations. A proposed comprehensive HIV care cascade that uses cohort methodology offers additional information as it accounts for all patients. Using data from 4 countries, we compare patient outcomes using both approaches. Methods Data from 390,603 HIV-infected adults (>15 years) enrolled at 217 facilities in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Tanzania from 2005 to 2011 were included. Outcomes of all patients at 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment were categorized as optimal, suboptimal, or poor. Optimal outcomes included retention in care, antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and documented transfer. Suboptimal outcomes included retention in care without ART initiation among eligible patients or those without eligibility data. Poor outcomes included loss to follow-up and death. Results The comprehensive HIV care cascade demonstrated that at 3, 6 and 12 months, 58%, 51%, and 49% of patients had optimal outcomes; 22%, 12%, and 7% had suboptimal outcomes, and 20%, 37% and 44% had poor outcomes. Of all patients enrolled in care, 56% were retained in care at 12 months after enrollment. In comparison, the traditional HIV treatment cascade found 89% of patients enrolled in HIV care were assessed for ART eligibility, of whom 48% were determined to be ART-eligible with 70% initiating ART, and 78% of those initiated on ART retained at 12 months. Conclusions The comprehensive HIV care cascade follows outcomes of all patients, including pre-ART patients, who enroll in HIV care over time and uses quality of care parameters for categorizing outcomes. The comprehensive HIV care cascade provides complementary information to that of the traditional HIV treatment cascade and is a valuable tool for monitoring HIV program performance. PMID:26375466

  17. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  18. Report on: "The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in ASEAN Countries, April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattasingh, Weerawan; Pengsaa, Krisana; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2016-03-04

    The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries Group (WNIPVC-ASEAN) held a meeting on April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand under the auspices of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the World Health Organization (WHO). Reports on the current status and initiatives of the national immunization program (NIP) in each ASEAN countries that attended were presented. These reports along with survey data collected from ministries of health in ASEAN countries NIPs demonstrate that good progress has been made toward the goal of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). However, some ASEAN countries have fragile health care systems that still have insufficient vaccine coverage of some basic EPI antigens. Most ASEAN countries still do not have national coverage of some new and underused vaccines, and raising funds for the expansion of NIPs is challenging. Also, there is insufficient research into disease burden of vaccine preventable diseases and surveillance. Health care workers must advocate NIPs to government policy makers and other stakeholders as well as improve research and surveillance to achieve the goals of the GVAP.

  19. The Missing Link: Deficits of Country-Level Studies. A Review of 22 Articles Explaining Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Alexandra; Friedrichs, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    To explain country differences in an analytical or structural dependent variable, the application of a macro-micro-model containing contextual hypotheses is necessary. Our methodological study examines whether empirical studies apply such a model. We propose that a theoretical base for country differences is well described in multilevel studies,…

  20. Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of Origin Analysis across Black Sea:Studies on Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali R; za Apil

    2006-01-01

    ...) as the most important cue to assess the quality. This study analyses approaches toward foreign products, country of origin effect and the ethnocentric behavior of consumers of the selected countries. The study is a literature review of related studies in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia and Turkey.

  1. Biographical notes on Ancel Keys and Salim Yusuf: origins and significance of the seven countries study and the INTERHEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ancel Keys and Salim Yusuf are both pioneers in preventive cardiology. Each overcame significant obstacles to demonstrate, through large international studies, how culture and environment influence cardiovascular disease. This paper will explore the origins and outcomes of their landmark studies: the Seven Countries Study, a prospective cohort model, and the INTERHEART Study, a case-control model. Each study advanced our understanding of the interplay between lifestyle, culture, and heart disease.

  2. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  3. Setting Up an ECMO Program in a South American Country: Outcomes of the First 104 Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Claudia X; Bermon, Anderson; Castillo, Victor R; Salazar, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    Less than 1% of the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) registry patients are from South America. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an expensive therapy not only in terms of direct financial cost but also with respect to technical and human resources. Finding a successful ECMO model that developing countries can afford is critical to the expansion of therapy to include the availability of this technology for patients in the developing world. We retrospectively studied the first 104 pediatric ECMO patients in the Fundacion Cardiovascular de Colombia between May 2007 and May 2013. We collected the ELSO registry data from electronic medical records to determine the survival rate, mortality risk factors, and complications in pediatric patients who received ECMO support for cardiac failure, respiratory failure, or ECMO for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the setting of refractory cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We describe our model of ECMO care regarding staff, training process, care protocol, ECMO circuit, and costs. Of 104 patients, 82 were diagnosed with congenital heart disease. Of those, 50 had biventricular and 32 had univentricular physiology, with a significantly higher survival rate at discharge in the biventricular group (44% vs 18.7%, odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-10.52, P = .01). Pediatric patients with a cardiac indication had survival rates of 76.3% at weaning and 52.6% at discharge, which is roughly comparable to those reported by the ELSO in 2013. Univentricular physiology, ECPR, severe pre-ECMO acidosis, ECMO-associated renal failure, and duration of ECMO support were factors associated with increased mortality. Despite limited availability of technical and economic resources, ECMO therapy can be done successfully in a developing country. A model of care based on nurses as ECMO specialists, supported by a multidisciplinary team, is cost-effective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries

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    Deogaonkar Rohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent

  5. The challenges of military medical education and training for physicians and nurses in the Nordic countries - an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Linda; Boffard, Kenneth; Lundberg, Lars; Rydmark, Martin; Karlgren, Klas

    2017-04-11

    Development and use of e-learning has not taken place to the same extent in military medicine in the Nordic countries. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences in education and training in military medicine for health professionals in the Nordic countries, and more specifically to identify the specific challenges regarding education and training of military medicine, and how e-learning is used at present and the opportunities for the future. Key educators within military medicine in the Nordic countries, as approved by the respective Surgeons General, were interviewed and the interviews were analyzed using content analysis. The data showed that all Nordic countries cooperate in the field of military medical training to some extent. The models of recruitment and employment of health professionals differed as well as the degree of political support. These differences affected the ability for health professionals to gain actual experience from the military environment. To improve the quality of medical education and training, attempts were made to recruit physicians. The recruitment of physicians was considered a challenge which had resulted in disruptions of courses, training programs and maintenance of accreditation. The Nordic countries were described as having commonalities in the military medical systems and common needs for international collaboration within training, but differing in the range of education and training. Gaps were identified in methods for transferring outcomes from education into practice, as well as regarding evaluation and feedback of outcomes to military medicine. The educational tradition was described as oriented towards practical skills training without requirements on pedagogical education of educators. The results confirmed previous studies showing that e-learning was underutilized. Contextual understanding and experience of healthcare were seen as crucial factors for successful e-learning development. Extended Nordic

  6. Self-regulation and the new challenges in journalism: Comparative study across European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Karmasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.

  7. Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.

  8. A Study of Public Health Awareness among the Elderly in an Industrially Developing Country

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    Ruhana Zainuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The elderly in Industrially Developing Countries (IDC may encounter problems regarding health. This research is to determine the common diseases or ailments experienced by adults over the age of 40. Approach: A sample of 150 respondents was taken from three states in Malaysia, an IDC. Demographic profiles such as age, gender and race were obtained and questions regarding attentiveness and awareness of health were asked. Four hypotheses were tested. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results: The result showed 85.8% of respondents had one or more diseases. Among them, men and women had different diseases and different race had different disease. In addition, healthy lifestyle, good diet and weight management were determinants of health awareness. Conclusion: The results are very useful for health administrators to plan strategies to improve public health in Malaysia. The study can be replicated in other countries using the same method to derive similar benefits.

  9. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  10. CROSS-COUNTRY STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF BANK FINANCIAL DISTRESS

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    Zhen-Jia-Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bank failures affect owners, employees, and customers, possibly causing large-scale economic distress. Thus, banks must evaluate operational risks and develop early warning systems. This study investigates bank failures in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the North America Free Trade Area (NAFTA, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the European Union, newly industrialized countries, the G20, and the G8. We use financial ratios to analyze and explore the appropriateness of prediction models. Results show that capital ratios, interest income compared to interest expenses, non-interest income compared to non-interest expenses, return on equity, and provisions for loan losses have significantly negative correlations with bank failure. However, loan ratios, non-performing loans, and fixed assets all have significantly positive correlations with bank failure. In addition, the accuracy of the logistic model for banks from NAFTA countries provides the best prediction accuracy regarding bank failure

  11. Cultural-cognitive Dimension and Entrepreneurial Activity: A Cross-country Study

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    Claudia Alvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between independence, risk taking, creativity, and entrepreneurial activity at the country level, in the light of institutional economics, concretely using the cultural-cognitive dimension. The main findings demonstrate through a regression model that risk taking and creativity have a positive and significant influence on entrepreneurship. Data were obtained from the World Values Survey, for the period 2005-2008, from a sample size of 42 countries. The study advances the literature by providing new information on the effect of environmental factors on entrepreneurial activity. Also, the research contributes to the definition of educational policies that promote favorable attitudes to risk taking and creativity, thereby increasing the number of potential entrepreneurs.

  12. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

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    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries.

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

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    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  14. A Giant Step for Developing Countries, Lessons Learned from Feasibility Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Youp [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Gon [Sanamyung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency, hereinafter 'IAEA') research, the booming trend of nuclear renaissance among developing countries have initiated to investigate economic feasibility studies regarding future electricity demand and supply for the introduction of nuclear power generation in massive volume. Although the ambitious dream of public servants in the third nations who desperately want to instill nuclear power generation capacity promising generation abundance in their homeland, it is not easy to calculate economic benefits and its related costs where lots of blurred areas could not defined in plain terminology. For this reason, IAEA urges the new entrant countries should prepare carefully and design cautiously not to deter large lump sum nuclear power plant construction project. Nuclear power generation in civil area can be seen as righteous peaceful usage of nuclear energy in appropriate manner, although the advanced technology, capital intensive characteristics would hinder for the developing countries to implement proper scheduled ambitious nuclear power projects in timely course. In particular, the complicated economic feasibility studies are major tasks for poverty struck sovereigns to fulfill their ambitions. Thus further detailed design might be requested in order to relieve international concerns on possible military usage. This article is exploring to gauge multiple aspects of peaceful usage of nuclear energy and its economic benefits which allow power huger nations to achieve sustainable development and make significant advancement.

  15. Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

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    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the main factors influencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants representing mainly scientific advisory bodies (n=24 and governmental organisations (n=19 participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6, industry (n=4 or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5. Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors influencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations from national bodies (Science area; scientific recommendations from international authorities and experiences of other countries, EU legislation, cultural factors (Wider context and political environment, national capacity to deal with the problem, national legislation, economics, stakeholder engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area. The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well as the point of view (who is expressing the opinion.

  16. Inadequate prenatal care and maternal country of birth: a retrospective study of southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Encarnación; Olvera-Porcel, M Carmen; de Dios Luna-Del Castillo, Juan; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2012-12-01

    To quantify the association between the maternal country of birth and inadequacy in the use of prenatal care, and to identify factors that might explain this association. A retrospective case series was carried out in a public hospital in southern Spain, including 6873 women who delivered between 2005 and 2007. The maternal country of birth was categorised into four regional groups: Spain, Maghreb (north-west Africa), Eastern Europe and Others (non-Spain), while the use of prenatal care was quantified according to a modified Kotelchuck index: APNCU-1M and APNCU 2M. The effect of country of birth on inadequate prenatal care was analysed using a multiple logistic regression model designed to accommodate factors such as age, parity, previous miscarriages, and pre-gestational and gestational risks. Likelihood ratio tests were performed to assess any interactions. A significant association was found between maternal country of birth and inadequate prenatal care regardless of the index used. Under APNCU 1-M the strength of association was strongest for Eastern European origin (odds ratio (OR) 6.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-7.32), followed by the Maghreb (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 4.69-6.64). These associations remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions were observed between age and parity, with the highest risk of inadequacy seen among the Eastern European childbearing women over 34 years of age having 1-2 previous children (OR: 7.63, 95% CI: 3.65-15.92). Prenatal health care initiatives would benefit from the study of a larger number of variables to address the differences between different groups of women. We recommend the widespread use of standardised indices for the study of prenatal care utilisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social roles and alcohol consumption: a study of 10 industrialised countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A; Gmel, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    The empirical evidence as regards the precise associations between alcohol use and social roles, and these associations across genders and cultures is heterogeneous. The literature tends to focus on two central but conflicting theories. The first - classic role theory - assumes that a higher number of social roles is associated with a more structured life and thus fewer opportunities to drink heavily. The second - the multiple burden hypothesis - posits that the increasing complexity of multiple social roles leads to higher stress levels, and thus to increased alcohol use. Survey data on 25-54-year olds in 10 western industrialised countries which participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS) project were used to test whether holding the three main social roles - partnership, parenthood, and paid labour - had a more protective or a more detrimental association with problematic alcohol use than holding fewer roles. Age and education were included as possible confounders, while the outcome variables were risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and heavy-volume drinking. For both men and women and in almost all countries, the study found that those who had all three roles were least likely to drink heavily or engage in RSOD, thus supporting the assumptions of classic role theory. It also found that the protective effect of multiple roles was more consistent for RSOD. There were a few countries where a two-role model gave a better fit. Results for Germany (RSOD), Switzerland, and the Unites States (heavy-volume drinking) indicate that the role of paid labour appears to be particularly relevant for risky alcohol use among women. Despite some variability in the association between paid labour and heavy drinking or RSOD among women, in almost all countries the greater the number of roles a person held, the lower their risk of this type of alcohol use was.

  18. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

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    Psaki Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and

  19. Pharmacists remuneration models in iran and selected countries: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Keshavarz, Khosro; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Vazirian, Iman; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists are members of the healthcare teams that provide valuable services to society. Their incentive to deliver such services is influenced by remuneration methods. In this study, we aimed to review the remuneration models for pharmacists' services and the factors affecting the profitability of pharmacies in some selected countries, including France, Ireland, Canada and Turkey, and compared them to Iran. International data were collected by literature review on Google, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. In addition, domestic data were collected by contacting relevant organizations. There is no payment for pharmacists' cognitive services in Iran and in the countries investigated, except for some Canadian provinces. The dispensing fee system in Iran does not seem to be adequate, especially considering that most of the insurers do not cover these fees. The pricing method in Iran has resulted in a low price level, in comparison to the other countries, and this issue has dramatically affected the profitability of pharmacies in standard practice. It could be concluded that changing the current formulation for the dispensing fee to a more appropriate one, defining a remuneration system for non-owner pharmacists other than salary and implementing the new pricing method are necessary in order to improve the services provided by pharmacies.

  20. Supply Chain Integration in the Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: An Ethiopian Case Study

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    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of information and communication technologies, supply chain integration has been considered a strategic tool for firms to improve their competitiveness. The supply chain integration within processes and between organizations has enhanced value creation. However, the fragmented nature of the business in developing country demonstrates a noticeable difficulty in terms of competitiveness and efficiency. Lack of a relevant literature on practical experience in supply chain integration in developing countries is one of the challenges. The purpose of this research is to identify the level of interorganizational and intraorganizational supply chain integration practices. It also analyzes the challenges faced in the manufacturing firms in developing countries. The methodology followed a thorough review of literature and semistructured interviews amongst the Ethiopian manufacturing industries. The preliminary findings of the study highlight that prevailing approach to supply chain integration is limited to ad hoc functional based boundaries within the firm. The SC integration enablers are also restricted to the traditional way of communications such as telephone, fax, and letters. Firms need to focus on those issues that require attention in pursuance of greater SC integration.

  1. Challenges and possibilities for attribution studies in developing countries: Ethiopian drought of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Sarah; Philip, Sjoukje; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Otto, Friederike; Haustein, Karsten; King, Andrew; Karoly, David; Zegeye, Abiy; Eshetu, Zewdu; Hailu, Beza; Hailemariam, Kinfe

    2017-04-01

    Few publicly available observational stations, irregular records and short time series are common obstacles to trend detection and event attribution in developing countries (and in general, data sparse regions). It is developing countries, however, that also feel the impact of extreme weather events most severely and are therefore most vulnerable to climate change. There is a clear need for objective studies that quantify the extremity of the events and investigate their cause, which can be used in raising risk awareness. Here we outline our multi-method approach, which can help to indicate whether event return times and the attribution are robust and give a fairer idea of uncertainties, using the drought of 2015 in Ethiopia as an example, and share the challenges and possibilities encountered. In a drought-free year, Ethiopia experiences two rain seasons, Belg from February to May, and Kiremt from June to mid-September. In 2015, both rain seasons failed in the north east of the country, leading to one of the lowest precipitation deficits there in at least 50 years. We discuss the steps involved in defining the event, selecting precipitation and soil moisture as indicators for drought and its impact, and selecting observational data and other sources that can be used in addition to station observations, like the CHIRPS and CenTrends datasets. Besides we show the importance of using different models that are validated well, as well as the chosen approach to trend detection and attribution to both global warming and El Nino.

  2. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress.

  3. Dermatologic research in the Nordic countries 1989-2008--a bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersvik, Petter; Nylenna, Magne; Jemec, Gregor B E; Haraldstad, Anne-Marie

    2010-11-01

    Bibliometric methods, based on the count of articles published in scientific journals, are increasingly used to evaluate scientific productivity. Bibliometric studies may identify factors that promote or inhibit research performance. We set out to analyze dermatologic research activity in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway using bibliometric methods. We performed repetitive searches on Medline, using the PubMed interface, for the period 1989-2008. Dermatologic articles were defined as all articles in dermatologic journals plus articles in nondermatologic journals in which the address of first author included an institution of dermatology. Articles were allocated to the country of first author's address. The number of dermatologic articles from Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway was 1896 (214 per million inhabitants), 1502 (281), 1017 (196), and 249 (55), respectively. Dermatologic articles represented 1.4%, 2.3%, 1.6%, and 0.6% of each country's total number of Medline articles in English over the same period. Similar patterns were found in relation to gross domestic product, number of dermatologists, and number of medical schools. After 2000, the yearly number of dermatologic articles from Denmark increased and that from Finland decreased, whereas the numbers from Sweden and Norway remained relatively stable. Despite similarities in social and economic conditions in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway, there are great differences in dermatologic research activity in the four countries, with Denmark performing best and Norway poorest. Historical and cultural factors may partly explain these differences. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. An exploratory study of the cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care in seven European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Jamie; Playle, Rebecca; Durning, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the orthodontic treatment of 429 consecutive patients [172 male (40.1 per cent) and 257 female (59.9 per cent)] carried out by 10 orthodontic specialist practitioners in seven European countries [two in the Czech Republic (A and B), two in Germany (A and B), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, and Netherlands, and two in Slovenia (A and B)]. The median age of the patients at the start of treatment was 13.0 years (minimum 7.3 years maximum 50.3 years). The patients had a range of malocclusions and the majority (97 per cent) were treated with upper and lower fixed appliances. Real exchange rates were calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP) indicators to allow cross-border comparisons of costs. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) was used to measure the effectiveness of treatment and cost per ICON point reduction to compare cost-effectiveness of orthodontic treatment between practitioners in different European countries. The median cost per ICON point reduction for all the cases treated was €57.69. The median cost per ICON point reduction varied greatly between practitioners from €21.70 (Lithuania) to €116.62 (Slovenia A). Analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests showed the differences in cost-effectiveness between the practitioners to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The cost per ICON point reduction is a simple and effective method of comparing cost-effectiveness between orthodontic practitioners in different countries. PMID:18854553

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Kunst, Anton E; Bopp, Matthias; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Kovács, Katalin; Artnik, Barbara; Kalediene, Ramune; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-11-01

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5% at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  6. Electronic Commerce Adoption in the Arab Countries – An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that affect Electronic Commerce (EC adoption in the Arab countries. The five countries that are represented in this study include Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The purpose of this study is analyzing the crucial factors affecting EC adoption among the Arab consumers. The study examines the effect of risk perception, trust and consumer knowledge on their EC adoption. It also highlights consumer’s knowledge mediation in affecting their perception of risk and trust towards EC adoption. Upon filtration, three hundred samples were selected for data analysis in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses including statistical mediation technique were carried out to analyse the data. Results reveal knowledge as the most important factor that contributes to EC adoption and it mediates consumers’ perception of risk and trust in contributing to their EC adoption. The preliminary finding of this study was presented in the International Arab Conference of E-Technology held in Amman, Jordan from 14th to 16th October 2008. This paper presents the complete study and further data analysis with extended report and discussions.

  7. Social roles and alcohol consumption: a study of 10 industrialised countries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The empirical evidence as regards the precise association between alcohol use and social roles, and these associations across genders and cultures is heterogeneous. The literature tends to focus on two central but conflicting theories. The first - classic role theory - assumes that a higher number of social roles is associated with a more structured life and thus fewer opportunities to drink heavily. The second - the multiple burden hypothesis - posits that the increasing complexity of multiple social roles leads to higher stress levels, and thus to increased alcohol use. Survey data on 25- to 54-year olds in ten western industrialised countries which participate in the GenACIS project were used to test whether holding the three main social roles - partnership, parenthood, and paid labour - had a more protective or a more detrimental association with problematic alcohol use than holding fewer roles. Age and education were included as possible confounders, while the outcome variables were risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and heavy-volume drinking. For both genders and in almost all countries, the study found that those who had all three roles were least likely to drink heavily or engage in RSOD, thus supporting the assumptions of classic role theory. It also found that the protective effect of multiple roles was more consistent for RSOD. There were a few countries where a two-role model gave a better fit. Results for Germany (RSOD), Switzerland, and the US (heavy volume) indicate that the role of paid labour appears to be particularly relevant for risky alcohol use among women. Despite some variability in the association between paid labour and heavy drinking or RSOD among women, in almost all countries the greater the number of roles a person held, the lower their risk of this type of alcohol use was. PMID:19232807

  8. Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: a cross-national study in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkevi, Anna; Richardson, Clive; Florescu, Silvia; Kuzman, Marina; Stergar, Eva

    2007-01-05

    To examine the psychosocial correlates of substance use among adolescents in six European countries. Cross-sectional school population survey (ESPAD) based on standardized methodological procedures. High schools in six European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Slovenia and UK. Representative samples of a total sample of 16,445 high school students whose 16th birthday fell in the year of data collection. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported substance use was measured by core items on tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and any illegal drug use. Psychosocial correlates included scales of self-esteem, depression, anomie and antisocial behavior, and items pertaining to family, school and peers. Logistic regression analyses for each potential correlate adjusted for country, taking into account the clustered sample, showed statistically significant associations with each substance use variable separately, in almost every case. Particularly strong associations were found between smoking and going out most evenings and having many friends who smoke, while cannabis and illegal drugs were strongly correlated with having friends or older siblings who used these substances. The self-esteem scale score was not correlated with substance use. Anomie and antisocial behavior were more strongly associated than depression with substance use. In the case of depression, anomie and most of the other items examined, associations were stronger for girls than for boys. The present cross-national study identified correlates of legal and illegal substance use which extend outside specific countries, providing grounds to believe that they can be generalized. They provide evidence for the need to address both the use of the gateway drugs and deviant behavior in conjunction with environmental risk factors when designing and implementing preventive interventions in schools.

  9. Study on the demand of climate finance for developing countries based on submitted INDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 21st Conference of Party (COP21 held in Paris at the end of 2015 has opened a new era for the joint response dealing with climate change globally, and built up a new mode of global climate governance, that is, “all Parties submit INDC – global stocktake – enhance effort of actions – all Parties resubmit INDC – finally achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention.” With 160 INDC reports (covering 188 Parties that the UNFCCC Secretariat has currently received as research objects, this study classifies the mitigation targets of all Parties, and focuses on the systematic analysis of the financial demand, mitigation cost and priority investment areas for developing countries. The results are as follows: among 160 INDC reports, 122 reports clearly include the finance content; 64 reports propose specific amount of financial demand for the implementation of INDC; 31 reports pre-estimate domestic amount and financial demand for greenhouse gas mitigation in 2030, based on which they have calculated that the average mitigation cost for developing countries in 2030 would have reached up to US$22.3 per ton CO2; 28 Parties reclassify the financial demand for mitigation and adaptation areas, and reach the conclusion that the overall financial demand ratio for mitigation and adaptation is 1.4. Should the current mitigation commitments of the Parties from developed countries be used as benchmark, then in 2030 the total amount of financial demand for developing countries in response to climate change would have reached up to US$474 billion.

  10. You Cannot Go Home Again: A Phenomenological Investigation of Returning to the Sojourn Country after Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofi, Victoria; Thompson, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to describe the structure of the experience of individuals who returned home after studying abroad, became disillusioned with their home country, and returned to their sojourn country. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with participants. The emerging bipolar themes of conflict/peace, reality/idealization,…

  11. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  12. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Viennet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  13. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A.; Williams, Craig R.; Faddy, Helen M.; Harley, David

    2016-01-01

    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens’ engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks. PMID:27643596

  14. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R; Faddy, Helen M; Harley, David

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  15. Too little but not too late: Results of a literature review to improve routine immunization programs in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns K Lisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, immunization services have been the center of renewed interest with increased funding to improve services, acceleration of the introduction of new vaccines, and the development of a health systems approach to improve vaccine delivery. Much of the credit for the increased attention is due to the work of the GAVI Alliance and to new funding streams. If routine immunization programs are to take full advantage of the newly available resources, managers need to understand the range of proven strategies and approaches to deliver vaccines to reduce the incidence of diseases. In this paper, we present strategies that may be used at the sub-national level to improve routine immunization programs. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies and projects reported in the published and gray literature. Each paper that met our inclusion criteria was rated based on methodological rigor and data were systematically abstracted. Routine-immunization – specific papers with a methodological rigor rating of greater than 60% and with conclusive results were reported. Results Greater than 11,000 papers were identified, of which 60 met our inclusion criteria and 25 papers were reported. Papers were grouped into four strategy approaches: bringing immunizations closer to communities (n = 11, using information dissemination to increase demand for vaccination (n = 3, changing practices in fixed sites (n = 4, and using innovative management practices (n = 7. Conclusion Immunization programs are at a historical crossroads in terms of developing new funding streams, introducing new vaccines, and responding to the global interest in the health systems approach to improving immunization delivery. However, to complement this, actual service delivery needs to be strengthened and program managers must be aware of proven strategies. Much was learned from the 25 papers, such as the use of non-health workers to provide numerous services at the

  16. THE ASIA PACIFIC BIOETHICS PROGRAM OF THE UNESCO CHAIR IN BIOETHICSCAN RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BE BOTH ETHICAL AND BENEFICIAL TO LOGAL COMMUNITY ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theong H. Low

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstractln 2005 at the 33rd Session of General Conference at UNESCO, it adapted the Universaldeclaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Declaration article 1.1 outlines the principals thatrespond to ethical issue related to medicine, life sciences and associated technologies as appliedto human beings. Thus the international standards for Bioethics are grounded in a language ofrights -to safe guard human dignity and human rights. UNESCO made ethics of Science andtechnology one of its 5 priority areas. lt is charged with promoting the education of ethical issuesof Science and Technology. The UNESCO Program in this area aims to strengthen lhe ethicallink between scientific advancement that is taking place and the Cultural, Legal, Philosophicaland religious context in which it occurs.The disparity of health amongst the world's communitiesis largely determined by the wealth of the countries. Developed countries have access to cleanwaters, vaccines and new medical technologies whereas developing countries do not.Researches in these countries are also funded by the wealthy countries and we will need toprotect these countries from exploitation by those with the means in the name of clinicalresearch.Hence, we have to discuss the necessary conditions for models allowing lnstitutionalReview Boards to grani exceptions in low income countries to circumvent the need for "WorldBest Practices" in their research requirements. There are commentators arguing that "World'sBest Practiees sheuld always be used in ali countries, but financial burden in the developingcouniries prevents this. A total ban cn any research other than the world's best practice wouldprevent exploitation, but this may block important research that can improve health care in thesecountries. So is it possibie to address the potentiai for exploitation while allowing research thathas the potential to benefit the host communities.We argue that lnstitutional Review Boardsshould be allowed to grant

  17. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Anna; Bamba, Sory I; Traore, Mamadou N; Boelaert, Marleen; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Polman, Katja; Pirard, Marjan; Van Dormael, Monique

    2010-08-17

    Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI) have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each). Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts burdening local health systems. The campaign budget

  18. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... countries, a low proportion of patients with RA exercise. These data may alert rheumatologists to motivate their patients to increase physical activity levels Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/15...

  19. ANALISIS KESIAPAN PROGRAM STUDI DALAM PRODUCTION BASED EDUCATION: STUDI PADA PROGRAM STUDI D3 AKUNTANSI POLINES

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    Muhammad Noor Ardiansah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clear studies to identify, verify and analyze readiness program resources in order to study the implementation of PBE resulted in initial position (existing point is not clear that the priority programs and activities that are carried out per year tend to be responsive and not directed priorities. These conditions resulted in analysis of resource readiness courses in the management of production-based learning pattern PBE draw conducted This study aims to identify and verify and analyze readiness resources management courses in the pattern of production based learning, particularly in the Accounting Studies Program. This research is expected to be used to increase the effectiveness of learning and vocational education to improve the quality and relevance of polytechnic graduates. Total score was 33 the existence of resources from the scale of 12-60. The average score is 2.75. The average score was shown the position of Prodi's resources have been used, but its role is unclear (repeatable tend to have clearly defined functions, communicated and documented (defined. Resources have been managed, monitored and evaluated well (managed are: curriculum resources, networking courses, lab facilities, ISO-based management. Resources have been used but not optimal role: resources module practice, the formulation of an internship, practice material / TA, the performance of IC-based lecturer

  20. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alejandra Rico-Uribe

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that social networks and loneliness have effects on health. The present study assesses the differential association that the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness have with health, and analyzes whether this association is different across different countries.A total of 10 800 adults were interviewed in Finland, Poland and Spain. Loneliness was assessed by means of the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Individuals' social networks were measured by asking about the number of members in the network, how often they had contacts with these members, and whether they had a close relationship. The differential association of loneliness and the components of the social network with health was assessed by means of hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for relevant covariates.In all three countries, loneliness was the variable most strongly correlated with health after controlling for depression, age, and other covariates. Loneliness contributed more strongly to health than any component of the social network. The relationship between loneliness and health was stronger in Finland (|β| = 0.25 than in Poland (|β| = 0.16 and Spain (|β| = 0.18. Frequency of contact was the only component of the social network that was moderately correlated with health.Loneliness has a stronger association with health than the components of the social network. This association is similar in three different European countries with different socio-economic and health characteristics and welfare systems. The importance of evaluating and screening feelings of loneliness in individuals with health problems should be taken into account. Further studies are needed in order to be able to confirm the associations found in the present study and infer causality.

  1. Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Eduard J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Methods Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries and others intending to develop them (NG-countries. Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Results Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Conclusions Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them.

  2. Protecting HIV information in countries scaling up HIV services: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eduard J; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Harling, Guy; Santas, Xenophon M; Mosure, Debra; Delay, Paul R

    2011-02-06

    Individual-level data are needed to optimize clinical care and monitor and evaluate HIV services. Confidentiality and security of such data must be safeguarded to avoid stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV. We set out to assess the extent that countries scaling up HIV services have developed and implemented guidelines to protect the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Questionnaires were sent to UNAIDS field staff in 98 middle- and lower-income countries, some reportedly with guidelines (G-countries) and others intending to develop them (NG-countries). Responses were scored, aggregated and weighted to produce standard scores for six categories: information governance, country policies, data collection, data storage, data transfer and data access. Responses were analyzed using regression analyses for associations with national HIV prevalence, gross national income per capita, OECD income, receiving US PEPFAR funding, and being a G- or NG-country. Differences between G- and NG-countries were investigated using non-parametric methods. Higher information governance scores were observed for G-countries compared with NG-countries; no differences were observed between country policies or data collection categories. However, for data storage, data transfer and data access, G-countries had lower scores compared with NG-countries. No significant associations were observed between country score and HIV prevalence, per capita gross national income, OECD economic category, and whether countries had received PEPFAR funding. Few countries, including G-countries, had developed comprehensive guidelines on protecting the confidentiality and security of HIV information. Countries must develop their own guidelines, using established frameworks to guide their efforts, and may require assistance in adapting, adopting and implementing them.

  3. Internal audit of a comprehensive IMRT program for prostate cancer: a model for centers in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Wee Yao; Ren, Wei; Mukherjee, Rahul K; Chung, Hans T

    2009-08-01

    With improving regional prosperity, significant capital investments have been made to rapidly expand radiotherapy capacity across Southeast Asia. Yet little has been reported on the implementation of adequate quality assurance (QA) in patient management. The objective of this study is to perform an in-depth QA assessment of our definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) program for prostate cancer since its inception. The department's prostate IMRT program was modeled after that of the University of California San Francisco. A departmental protocol consisting of radiotherapy volume/dose and hormone sequencing/duration and a set of 18 dose objectives to the target and critical organs were developed, and all plans were presented at the weekly departmental QA rounds. All patients treated with definitive IMRT for nonmetastatic prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Protocol adherence, dosimetry data, toxicities, and outcomes were evaluated. Since 2005, 76 patients received IMRT: 54 with whole-pelvis and 22 with prostate-only treatment. Of the 1,140 recorded dosimetric end points, 39 (3.3%) did not meet the protocol criteria. At QA rounds, no plans required a revision. Only one major protocol violation was observed. Two and two cases of Grade 3-4 acute and late toxicities, respectively, were observed. Five (8.8%) patients developed proctitis, but only one required argon laser therapy. Our comprehensive, practice-adapted QA measures appeared to ensure that we were able to consistently generate conforming IMRT plans with acceptable toxicities. These measures can be easily integrated into other clinics contemplating on developing such a program.

  4. Economic Crisis: Most Vulnerable Immigrants. Case Studies in Berrien Country, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Avendaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life of Mexican immigrants in Berrien County, Michigan; due to the factors that influence transportation, mobilization (legal status, less opportunities of labor type and limitations of social nature (Medicaid, university and perception about quality of life. By applying a methodology of case studies, into the way each face the disadvantages about their legal status and their work, reconstructing the primary conditions of their lives, type of job, residency status in the country, reasons that impelled the immigration and changes before and after the crisis.

  5. Care provider perspectives on medical travel: A three-country study of destination hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Andrew N; Johnson, Tricia J; Lynch, Elizabeth B; Satjapot, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the current and potential role of medical travel in U.S. patient care, very little research has been conducted on clinician and other provider organizations' perspectives on providing international patient care. The present study sought to gain formative insights about medical travel from the providers' perspectives, by conducting structured interviews and focus groups in six hospitals from three countries catering to patients traveling from the United States. Findings highlighted the surprising role of international events and policies in the evolution of medical travel, as well as both the desire and need for more transparent quality standards.

  6. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  7. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  8. Experimental and Demonstration Program, Copper Country Intermediate School District. End of Budget Period Reports 1972 and 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    End of budget period reports are presented for an experimental and demonstration program aimed at increasing the learning process and achievement of K-4 children and to effect internal and external change in teachers' attitudes and behavior. The program, instituted in a rural, low income area, consists of an Orff music program and a theater…

  9. Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus

  10. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  11. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; De Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  12. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries : epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de, Girolamo G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Oakley Browne, M.A.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  13. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  14. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  15. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  16. Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country : an epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Bos, N.M. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a hig

  17. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  18. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Kyong; Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-03-05

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect.

  19. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  20. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  1. One of the Countries That Turkey Models: Finland Secondary Education Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    Teaching of social studies has basis of education dynamism that governments maintain to raise qualified and efficient citizens. That's why; being examined programs in question has importance for the global citizen concept which comes up with globalization. Therefore, how to be raised efficient citizens who build both governments' and world's…

  2. Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Sri Lanka's primary education program is described in this study. Chapter One discusses the present system of education, providing a brief history of the development of the educational system, a discussion of legal provisions concerning education, an overview of the school structure, as well as discussions of educational administration, teacher…

  3. Development Education and Engineering: A Framework for Incorporating Reality of Developing Countries into Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Foguet, A.; Oliete-Josa, S.; Saz-Carranza, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To show the key points of a development education program for engineering studies fitted within the framework of the human development paradigm. Design/methodology/approach: The bases of the concept of technology for human development are presented, and the relationship with development education analysed. Special attention is dedicated…

  4. Group of Twenty Four Countries and Three Tiers: An International Comparative Study on China’s Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hao; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    It is of great signif icance to conduct an international comparative study on China’s and other countries’ urbanization by taking the concept of "scale" as a crucial study point. This paper puts forward that countries with an area over two million km2 or a GDP over 650 billion dollars are comparable with China. Accordingly, there are 24 such countries in the world leading the global socio-economic development. For consisting of almost all types of countries, they can be considered as basic references for international comparative studies on China’s urbanization. Based on the relationship between urbanization and economic levels, the 24 countries can be divided into three tiers. The fi rst tier countries are mainly developed countries at high urbanization and economic levels; the second tier countries are later starters yet urbanized at a rapid speed, thus have fallen into the "middle-income trap" because of an imbalanced urbanization and economic development; the third tier countries including China and India are still in the starting phase of urbanization, and the key to their future development is a steady economic growth and a balanced urbanization and economic development.

  5. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = −.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures

  6. Factors Influencing Adaptive Marine Governance in a Developing Country Context: a Case Study of Southern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S. Evans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance can be conceptualized as distinct phases of: 1 understanding environmental change; 2 using this understanding to inform decision making; and 3 acting on decisions in a manner that sustains resilience of desirable system states. Using this analytical framework, we explore governance in practice in two case studies in Kenya, that reflect the "messiness" of contemporary coastal governance in many developing country contexts. Findings suggest that adaptive marine governance is unlikely to be a smooth process of learning, knowledge sharing, and responding. There are institutional, sociocultural, and political factors, past and present, that influence each phase of both local and state decision making. New local institutions related to fisher associations and Beach Management Units influence learning and knowledge sharing in ways contrary to those expected of institutions that enable collaborative fisheries management. Similarly, state decision making is relatively uninformed by the diverse knowledge systems available in the coastal zone, despite the rhetoric of participation. Historical relations and modes of working continue to play a significant role in mediating the potential for adaptive governance in the future. The case studies are illustrative and point to a number of institutional and political issues that would need to be addressed in processes of governance reform towards more adaptive management in developing country contexts.

  7. Per capita sugar consumption is associated with severe childhood asthma: an ecological study of 53 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Stewart, Alistair; Marshall, Roger; Jackson, Rod

    2011-03-01

    To examine the ecological association between population asthma symptom prevalence in six to seven year-old children and per capita sugar consumption seven years earlier (during the perinatal period). The asthma data (from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood [ISAAC] study) were collected between 1999 and 2004 from 53 countries, and per capita sugar consumption data (seven years before the asthma prevalence) were extracted from United Nations Food and Agriculture (UNFAO) food balance sheets. Linear regression and Spearman's rank coefficient were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and disease outcome. Per capita sugar consumption varied more than six fold-between countries. A log-linear relationship was found between severe asthma symptoms (%) and per capita added sugar consumption in kg/capita/year (exponentiated beta coefficient 1.020; 95% CI 1.005 to 1.034; P = 0.012). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was 0.34 (P= 0.015), which indicates moderate correlation. We have demonstrated an ecological association between sugar consumption during the perinatal period and subsequent risk of severe asthma symptoms in six and seven year-olds.

  8. Use of Multicriteria Risk Ranking of Zoonotic Diseases in a Developing Country: Case Study of Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, A M J; Muellner, P; Baljinnyam, Z; Vink, D; Wilson, N

    2016-03-01

    Many developing countries face significant health burdens associated with a high incidence of endemic zoonoses and difficulties in integrated control measures for both the human and animal populations. The objective of this study was to develop and apply a multicriteria ranking model for zoonoses in Mongolia, a country highly affected by zoonotic disease, to inform optimal resource allocation at the national level. Diseases were evaluated based on their impact on human health, livestock sector health and the wider society through affects on the economic value of livestock, as well as the feasibility of control in both the human and livestock population. Data on disease in Mongolia were collected from various government departments including the Mongolian State Central Laboratory, the Mongolian Department of Veterinary and Animal Breeding, the Mongolian Ministry of Health, Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases, the National Center for Zoonotic Disease and expert opinion from a workshop with a number of Mongolian Government officials and researchers. A combined score for both impact of the disease and feasibility of its control was calculated. Five zoonotic diseases were determined to be of high priority from this assessment (i.e. ovine brucellosis, echinococcosis (hydatids), rabies, anthrax and bovine brucellosis). The results supported some of the findings for high-priority diseases (namely brucellosis, rabies and anthrax) from a previous priority setting exercise carried out in Mongolia in 2011, but also identified and ranked additional animal diseases of public health importance. While the process of model development was largely Mongolian specific, the experience of developing and parameterizing this multicriteria ranking model could be replicated by other countries where zoonoses have substantive impacts on both animal and human health.

  9. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  10. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow...... deaths). Stratification on duration of employment had a large effect on the ERR/Sv, reflecting a strong healthy worker survivor effect in these cohorts. This is the largest analytical epidemiological study of the effects of low-dose protracted exposures to ionizing radiation to date. Further studies......-up. A significant association was seen between radiation dose and all-cause mortality [excess relative risk (ERR) 0.42 per Sv, 90% CI 0.07, 0.79; 18,993 deaths]. This was mainly attributable to a dose-related increase in all cancer mortality (ERR/Sv 0.97, 90% CI 0.28, 1.77; 5233 deaths). Among 31 specific types...

  11. QUALICOPC, a multi-country study evaluating quality, costs and equity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berg Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.

  12. Innovation Toilet and Barriers of Diffusion in Developing Country Case Study: TOTO Electronic Bidet Seat Toilet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Adhiutama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of electronic bidet seat toilet in Japan has diffused to more than sixty percent of Japanese household while it has low rate of diffusion in other countries especially in developing country. From this phenomenon, it is interesting to understand about the barrier of diffusion, which focuses on the adopter categories of diffusion, barrier factors and proposition of key success factors of the diffusion in Indonesia as one of emerging economic and the member of G 20. There have been few studies about diffusion of innovation toilet, and this paper especially examines the diffusion of new innovations on electronic bidet toilet due to its successful diffusion among Japanese household, and further became a standard fixture toilet in Japan. This paper also discusses the product life cycle of electronic bidet toilet in Japan, global diffusion, identifies adopter categories and barrier factors of diffusion in Indonesia. Finally, theoretical propositions are developed on the diffusion of innovation for electronic bidet toilet in Indonesia.Keywords: Innovation toilet, Barriers of diffusion, Indonesia, TOTO Electronic bidet seat toilet

  13. Source country perceptions, experiences, and recommendations regarding health workforce migration: a case study from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kanchan; Quimson, Gabriella; Short, Stephanie D

    2014-10-31

    The Philippines continues to overproduce nurses for export. Little first-hand evidence exists from leading organisations in the Philippines concerning their experiences and perceptions in relation to Filipino nurse migration. What are their views about health workforce migration? This paper addresses this research gap by providing a source country perspective on Filipino nurse migration to Australia. Focus-group interviews were conducted with key informants from nine Filipino organisations in the Philippines by an Australian-Filipino research team. The organisations were purposively selected and contacted in person, by phone, and/or email. Qualitative thematic analysis was performed using a coding framework. Health workforce migration is perceived to have both positive and negative consequences. On the one hand, emigration offers a welcome opportunity for individual Filipino nurses to migrate abroad in order to achieve economic, professional, lifestyle, and social benefits. On the other, as senior and experienced nurses are attracted overseas, this results in the maldistribution of health workers particularly affecting rural health outcomes for people in developing countries. Problems such as 'volunteerism' also emerged in our study. In the context of the WHO (2010) Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel it is to be hoped that, in the future, government recruiters, managers, and nursing leaders can utilise these insights in designing recruitment, orientation, and support programmes for migrant nurses that are more sensitive to the experience of the Philippines' education and health sectors and their needs.

  14. The changing psychology of culture in German-speaking countries: A Google Ngram study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nadja; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-05-05

    This article provides evidence for the long-term affiliation between ecological and cultural changes in German-speaking countries, based on the assumptions derived from social change and human development theory. Based on this theory, the increase in urbanisation, as a measure of ecological change, is associated with significant cultural changes of psychology. Whereas urbanisation is linked to greater individualistic values and materialistic attitudes, rural environments are strongly associated with collectivistic values like allegiance, prevalence of religion, and feelings of belonging and benevolence. Due to an increase in the German urbanisation rate over time, our study investigates whether Germany and the German-speaking countries around show the presumed changes in psychology. By using Google Books Ngram Viewer, we find that word frequencies, signifying individualistic (collectivistic) values, are positively (negatively) related to the urbanisation rate of Germany. Our results indicate that predictions about implications of an urbanising population for the psychology of culture hold true, supporting international universality of the social change and human development theory. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a predicted reversal for the time during and after World War II, reflecting Nazi propaganda and influence. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. The Study Of Fiscal Sustainability For The Case Of Overindebted European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea STOIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims in analysing the fiscal sustainability for the case of European countries most affected by the economic downturn and sovereign debt: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain. For that purpose, we apply fiscal reaction function which indicates the speed and the size of government response to shocks on public debt. We use annual data ranged on 1995-2013. The results show that only for the cases of Italy and Portugal governments managed to fulfil the conditions for a sustainable fiscal policy. For these countries, the response is positive and immediate. On contrary, for Ireland we detect a negative reaction in the sense of a decreasing primary surplus to the increase of public debt by 1 p.p.. For the cases of Greece and Spain, the results are not statistically significant and we cannot conclude whether fiscal policy is sustainable or not. But we can emphasize a positive reaction to the increase of public debt cost in the case of Spain.

  16. Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-02-06

    Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app, describing respondents' characteristics (demographics, smoking status, and other health related app use), and examining differences across countries. This is a cross-sectional exploratory study of adults 18 years and older, passively recruited over one year in 2012, who downloaded this study app (Quit Advisor) via the two largest app stores (Apple and Android). The total number of app downloads after one year was 1751, 72.98% (1278/1751) of them were Apple operation system users. Of these 1751 participants, 47.68% (835/1751) were from the United States, 29.18% (511/1751) were from the United Kingdom, and 16.68% (292/1751) were from Australia. There were 602 participants, 36.75% (602/1638) that completed a questionnaire within the app. Of these 602 participants, 58.8% (354/602) were female and the mean age was 32 years. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of age, operation system used, number of quitting attempts, and language spoken at home. However, there were significant differences between countries in terms of gender and stage of change. There were 77.2% (465/602) of the respondents that were ready to quit in the next 30 days and the majority of these had never sought professional help (eg, "Quitline"). More than half had downloaded smoking cessation apps in the past and of these, three-quarters had made quitting attempts (lasted at least 24 hours) using an app before. Respondents who had attempted to quit three times or more in the previous year were more likely

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  18. Creating organizational innovations in countries in transition using Finnish change laboratory: A case study from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrožić Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Change Laboratory intervention method has been used in several Western countries to support innovation and learning within organizations. This study explored the applicability of the Change Laboratory method to work activities in Eastern European transition economies. The case of a Change Laboratory project at a Serbian publishing house was examined and discussed. The Change Laboratory led to a clear break from previous models and resulted in a new, much more efficient model of work organization based on teams. The studied publishing house can be characterized as an innovator within a relatively laggard industry. This characteristic increased the Serbian publisher’s potential for developing “learning partnerships” with publishing activities in EU Member States. These “learning partnerships” enabled appropriate Western concepts to be found that could be used as stimuli to develop a new model of work for the publishing house during the Change Laboratory.

  19. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe: A Multi-centre Study in 13 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars; Poot, Françoise; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucía; Kupfer, Jörg; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Linder, M Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; Middendorp, Henriët van; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Dalgard, Florence

    2017-01-25

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale. Patient satisfaction with the dermatologist was assessed with an 11-degree scale. A total of 3,635 adult outpatients and 1,359 controls participated in the study. Dermatological outpatients were less able to depend on others, were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress.

  20. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly.

  1. The costs in provision of haemodialysis in a developing country: A multi-centered study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijesinghe Aruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on health care systems in developing countries. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the processes and costs of haemodialysis in Sri Lanka and provide a framework for modeling similar financial audits. Methods This prospective study was conducted at haemodialysis units of three public and two private hospitals in Sri Lanka for two months in June and July 2010. Cost of drugs and consumables for the three public hospitals were obtained from the price list issued by the Medical Supplies Division of the Department of Health Services, while for the two private hospitals they were obtained from financial departments of the respective hospitals. Staff wages were obtained from the hospital chief accountant/chief financial officers. The cost of electricity and water per month was calculated directly with the assistance of expert engineers. An apportion was done from the total hospital costs of administration, cleaning services, security, waste disposal and, laundry and sterilization for each unit. Results The total number of dialysis sessions (hours at the five hospitals for June and July were 3341 (12959 and 3386 (13301 respectively. Drug and consumables costs accounted for 70.4-84.9% of the total costs, followed by the wages of the nursing staff at each unit (7.8-19.7%. The mean cost of a dialysis session in Sri Lanka was LKR 6,377 (US$ 56. The annual cost of haemodialysis for a patient with chronic renal failure undergoing 2-3 dialysis session of four hours duration per week was LKR 663,208-994,812 (US$ 5,869-8,804. At one hospital where facilities are available for the re-use of dialyzers (although not done during study period the cost of consumables would have come down from LKR 5,940,705 to LKR 3,368,785 (43% reduction if the method was adopted, reducing costs of haemodialysis per hour from LKR 1,327 at present to LKR 892 (33

  2. Study on the development of nanotechnology in advanced countries and in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fracalossi Rediguieri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study shows how nanotechnology evolves in developed countries and Brazil, raising aspects of private and governmental initiatives. The investigation was based in scientific literature, electronic articles and conference reports. Several sources of literature were used, including electronic databases and reference lists. By this study, it was observed that, although nanotechnology is in initial stage of development all over the world, the developed countries have had growing public and private investments in the area each year. In those countries, there is a concern toward both, the formation of specialists in nanotechnology and the transference of technology developed in universities and research institutes to industry. In Brazil, the study showed that despite the growing concern of investigators, national research centers and financial centers toward the development of the nanotechnology, there is still a need for more investment and formation of area specialists.O presente trabalho faz um estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da nanotecnologia, com enfoque na área de saúde, em países tecnologicamente mais avançados e no Brasil, levantando aspectos de iniciativas governamentais e privadas. A investigação foi baseada em literatura científica, artigos eletrônicos e relatórios de conferências. Foi observado que, apesar da nanotecnologia estar em estágio inicial no mundo inteiro, os países tecnologicamente mais avançados têm tido investimentos crescentes na área a cada ano, tanto públicos quanto privados. Há grande preocupação nesses países quanto à formação de profissionais especialistas na área e à transferência da tecnologia desenvolvida por universidades e institutos de pesquisa para a indústria. No Brasil, o estudo mostrou que apesar da crescente preocupação dos pesquisadores, centros de pesquisa e centros de financiamento com o desenvolvimento da nanotecnologia, ainda há necessidade de maiores investimentos e forma

  3. Do individualism and collectivism on three levels (country, individual, and situation) influence theory-of-mind efficiency? A cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tuong-Van; Finkenauer, Catrin; Huizinga, Mariette; Novin, Sheida; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether individualism and collectivism (IC) at country, individual, and situational level influence how quickly and accurately people can infer mental states (i.e. theory of mind, or ToM), indexed by accuracy and reaction time in a ToM task. We hypothesized that collectivism (having an interdependent self and valuing group concerns), compared to individualism (having an independent self and valuing personal concerns), is associated with greater accuracy and speed in recognizing and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. Students (N = 207) from individualism-representative (the Netherlands) and collectivism-representative (Vietnam) countries (Country IC) answered an individualism-collectivism questionnaire (Individual IC) and were randomly assigned to an individualism-primed, collectivism-primed, or no-prime task (Situational IC) before performing a ToM task. The data showed vast differences between the Dutch and Vietnamese groups that might not be attributable to experimental manipulation. Therefore, we analyzed the data for the groups separately and found that Individual IC did not predict ToM accuracy or reaction time performance. Regarding Situational IC, when primed with individualism, the accuracy performance of Vietnamese participants in affective ToM trials decreased compared to when primed with collectivism and when no prime was used. However, an interesting pattern emerged: Dutch participants were least accurate in affective ToM trials, while Vietnamese participants were quickest in affective ToM trials. Our research also highlights a dilemma faced by cross-cultural researchers who use hard-to-reach populations but face the challenge of disentangling experimental effects from biases that might emerge due to an interaction between cultural differences and experimental settings. We propose suggestions for overcoming such challenges.

  4. Scale-Up and Case-Finding Effectiveness of an HIV Partner Services Program in Cameroon: An Innovative HIV Prevention Intervention for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Catherine; Forgwei, Gideon; Welty, Thomas; Golden, Matthew; Adimora, Adaora; Shields, Raymond; Muffih, Pius Tih

    2015-01-01

    Background Partner services (PSs) are a long-standing component of HIV control programs in the United States and some parts of Europe. Small randomized trials suggest that HIV PS can be effective in identifying persons with undiagnosed HIV infection. However, the scalability and effectiveness of HIV PS in low-income countries are unknown. Methods We used data collected from 2009 to 2010 through a large HIV PS program in Cameroon to evaluate HIV PS in a developing country. HIV-positive index cases diagnosed in antenatal care, voluntary counseling and testing, and inpatient facilities were interviewed to collect information on their sexual partners. Partners were contacted via telephone or home visit to notify, test, and enroll those found to be HIV positive in medical care. Results Health advisors interviewed 1462 persons with HIV infection during the evaluation period; these persons provided information about 1607 sexual partners. Health advisors notified 1347 (83.8%) of these partners, of whom 900 (66.8%) were HIV tested. Of partners tested, 451 (50.1%) were HIV positive, of whom 386 (85.6%) enrolled into HIV medical care. An average 3.2 index cases needed to be interviewed to identify 1 HIV case. Conclusions HIV PS can be successfully implemented in a developing country and is highly effective in identifying persons with HIV infection and linking them to care. PMID:24220349

  5. The Multidimensional Efficiency of Pension System: Definition and Measurement in Cross-Country Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybalski, Filip

    The existing literature on the efficiency of pension system, usually addresses the problem between the choice of different theoretical models, or concerns one or few empirical pension systems. In this paper quite different approach to the measurement of pension system efficiency is proposed. It is dedicated mainly to the cross-country studies of empirical pension systems, however it may be also employed to the analysis of a given pension system on the basis of time series. I identify four dimensions of pension system efficiency, referring to: GDP-distribution, adequacy of pension, influence on the labour market and administrative costs. Consequently, I propose four sets of static and one set of dynamic efficiency indicators. In the empirical part of the paper, I use Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and cluster analysis to verify the proposed method on statistical data covering 28 European countries in years 2007-2011. I prove that the method works and enables some comparisons as well as clustering of analyzed pension systems. The study delivers also some interesting empirical findings. The main goal of pension systems seems to become poverty alleviation, since the efficiency of ensuring protection against poverty, as well as the efficiency of reducing poverty, is very resistant to the efficiency of GDP-distribution. The opposite situation characterizes the efficiency of consumption smoothing-this is generally sensitive to the efficiency of GDP-distribution, and its dynamics are sensitive to the dynamics of GDP-distribution efficiency. The results of the study indicate the Norwegian and the Icelandic pension systems to be the most efficient in the analyzed group.

  6. Pediatric drug-related problems: a multicenter study in four French-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Di Paolo, Ermindo R; Lavoie, Annie; Quennery, Stefanie; Bussières, Jean-François; Brion, Françoise; Bourdon, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric intensive care patients represent a population at high risk for drug-related problems. There are few studies that compare the activity of clinical pharmacists between countries. To describe the drug-related problems identified and interventions by four pharmacists in a pediatric cardiac and intensive care unit. Four pediatric centers in France, Quebec, Switzerland and Belgium. This was a six-month multicenter, descriptive and prospective study conducted from August 1, 2009 to January 31, 2010. Drug-related problems and clinical interventions were compiled from four pediatric centers in France, Quebec, Switzerland and Belgium. Data on patients, drugs, intervention, documentation, approval and estimated impact were compiled. Number and type of drug-related problems encountered in a large pediatric inpatient population. A total of 996 interventions were recorded: 238 (24 %) in France, 278 (28 %) in Quebec, 351 (35 %) in Switzerland and 129 (13 %) in Belgium. These interventions targeted 270 patients (median 21 months old, 53 % male): 88 (33 %) in France, 56 (21 %) in Quebec, 57 (21 %) in Switzerland and 69 (26 %) in Belgium. The main drug-related problems were inappropriate administration technique (29 %), untreated indication (25 %) and supra-therapeutic dose (11 %). The pharmacists' interventions were mostly optimizing the mode of administration (22 %), dose adjustment (20 %) and therapeutic monitoring (16 %). The two major drug classes that led to interventions were anti-infectives for systemic use (23 %) and digestive system and metabolism drugs (22 %). Interventions mainly involved residents and all clinical staff (21 %). Among the 878 (88 %) proposed interventions requiring physician approval, 860 (98 %) were accepted. This descriptive study illustrates drug-related problems and the ability of clinical pharmacists to identify and resolve them in pediatric intensive care units in four French-speaking countries.

  7. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  9. Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW, were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births, as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth

  10. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  11. A Non Parametric Study of the Volatility of the Economy as a Country Risk Predictor

    CERN Document Server

    Costanzo, Sabatino; Dominguez, Ramses; Moreno, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to explain Venezuela's country spread behavior through the Neural Networks analysis of a monthly economic activity general index of economic indicators constructed by the Central Bank of Venezuela, a measure of the shocks affecting country risk of emerging markets and the U.S. short term interest rate. The use of non parametric methods allowed the finding of non linear relationship between these inputs and the country risk. The networks performance was evaluated using the method of excess predictability.

  12. E-readiness and Entrepreneurship: A Cross Country Study of the Link between Technological Infrastructure and Entrepreneurial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Constand, Richard L.; Gilbert, Arthur H.

    2011-01-01

    This current study focuses on the relationship between a country’s e-readiness environment and entrepreneurial activities. Many government policies assume there is a direct causal relationship between e-readiness and entrepreneurial activity and some past studies have reported evidence supporting such a link. In this paper, a cross country panel data analysis using three different measures of entrepreneurial activity and different measures of e-readiness examines this relationship. The result...

  13. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... negotiation between potential trade-offs among multiple goals, and interests of various stakeholders. The mutual benefits can be communicated through valid impact assessments and the integration of R&D into the practical implementation. Securing the continuity of funding and leadership is crucial...

  14. What’s Wrong with the Study of China/Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans KUIJPER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the thesis is submitted that there is something fundamentally amiss in Western Sinology (Zhōngguóxué, as distinct from Hànxué, which is a kind of old-fashioned philology: ‘China experts’ either pretend to be knowledgeable about everything related to China, in which case they cannot be taken seriously, or–– eventually––admit not to be scientific all-rounders with respect to the country, in which case they cannot be called ‘China experts’. The author expects no tenured professor of Chinese Studies/History to share this view. Having exposed the weakness, indeed the scandal of old-style Sinology, he also points out the way junior Sinologists should go. The fork in that road is two-pronged: translating or collaborating.

  15. A Comparison of Quality Management and Industrial Criteria between Iran and Developed Countries (Case Study: Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Karimimalayer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Consumer’s expectation has soared which brought about a gap between the discerned quality and actual quality of some American-made merchandises. On the other hand, considerable domestic and international market shares of Japanese products derived from the narrowed gap in quality of firms. In some industries, Japanese fine quality products have now replaced the United States as “number one” in such industries. For several years, Total Quality Management (TQM has been implemented in Western Europe since its earlier origin in Japan. In fact, the influence of TQM on a number of notable successful manufacturing organizations is inevitable, together with some less revealed failures. This research describes the details of management in Iran and compare its criteria’s with developed countries such as Japan. To some extent, this study is destined to present some solutions to improve the management and quality in industrial productions.

  16. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils;

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... identified critical factors related to economic viability, public funding, technological development, impact assessments, public policies and regulation, social capital, leadership and coordination as well as public acceptability and image. According to our results, transition to green economies requires...

  17. Are National and Organizational Cultures Isomorphic? Evidence from a Four Country Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Ellemose Gulev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigates whether organizational practices as observed through differing organizational cultures systematically replicate or reject national values. It is among the first to project delineated, narrow national cultural portrayals of Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Denmark against pattern-specific organizational cultures. Through country cluster analysis and correlation tests, the results achieve significance along all three dimensions. Trust allocations, authority perceptions and independence assertions were significant predictors for organizational traits of knowledge sharing practices, structure and control utilization, respectively. This demonstrates the value of assessing national values in conjunction with organizational culture in order to further understand the origins of corporate behaviour and the mechanisms that can help promote organizational effectiveness.

  18. Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: a longitudinal study of body mass index among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

    2007-09-01

    Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES.

  19. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs......: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence...

  20. Implementing services for Early Infant Diagnosis (EID of HIV: a comparative descriptive analysis of national programs in four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Abdoulaye

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant increase in survival for HIV-infected children who have early access to diagnosis and treatment. The goal of this multi-country review was to examine when and where HIV-exposed infants and children are being diagnosed, and whether the EID service is being maximally utilized to improve health outcomes for HIV-exposed children. Methods In four countries across Africa and Asia existing documents and data were reviewed and key informant interviews were conducted. EID testing data was gathered from the central testing laboratories and was then complemented by health facility level data extraction which took place using a standardized and validated questionnaire Results In the four countries reviewed from 2006 to 2009 EID sample volumes rose dramatically to an average of >100 samples per quarter in Cambodia and Senegal, >7,000 samples per quarter in Uganda, and >2,000 samples per quarter in Namibia. Geographic coverage of sites also rapidly expanded to 525 sites in Uganda, 205 in Namibia, 48 in Senegal, and 26 in Cambodia in 2009. However, only a small proportion of testing was done at lower-level health facilities: in Uganda Health Center IIs and IIIs comprised 47% of the EID collection sites, but only 11% of the total tests, and in Namibia 15% of EID sites collected >93% of all samples. In all countries except for Namibia, more than 50% of the EID testing was done after 2 months of age. Few sites had robust referral mechanisms between EID and ART. In a sub-sample of children, we noted significant attrition of infants along the continuum of care post testing. Only 22% (Senegal, 37% (Uganda, and 38% (Cambodia of infants testing positive by PCR were subsequently initiated onto treatment. In Namibia, which had almost universal EID coverage, more than 70% of PCR-positive infants initiated ART in 2008. Conclusions While EID testing has expanded dramatically, a large proportion of PCR- positive infants are

  1. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  2. Nursing Education in Indian Country: Salish Kootenai College Offers a Growing Nursing Program for the Flathead Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Jacque

    1992-01-01

    Describes the nursing program at Salish Kootenai College, focusing on recruitment, retention, individual curriculum plans, remedial/refresher courses in math and science, staffing, clinical practica, student responses, and funding. (DMM)

  3. D3.3 : report on “good practice” case studies of professional development in three countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    This report presents ‘good practice case studies’ of exemplary approaches to innovative in-service professional development of ECEC practitioners in three countries: Denmark, Italy and Poland.The report is part of the project CARE “Curriculum Quality Analyses and Impact Review of European Education and Care”, a collaborative project funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Program, to address issues related to the quality, inclusiveness, and individual, social, and economic b...

  4. Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the popul...

  5. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  6. 34 CFR 668.39 - Study abroad programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Study abroad programs. 668.39 Section 668.39 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.39 Study abroad programs. A student enrolled in a program of study abroad is eligible to receive title IV, HEA program...

  7. The impact of short term clinical placement in a developing country on nursing students: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvund, Ingeborg; Mordal, Elin

    2017-08-01

    Offering nursing students' international clinical placement during the educational program is one response to meet the need of cultural competence among nurses. This paper provides insight into the impact of clinical placement, in a developing country, on third year nursing students. In the study we investigated how short term international clinical placement impacted Norwegian nursing students' development of cultural competency. In this study we utilised a qualitative descriptive design and used individual interviews with eighteen Norwegian nursing students who had all participated in an international clinical placement. The data were analysed using the principles of systematic text condensation. In spite the international clinical placement only was four weeks, the findings suggested that real life experience culturally awakened the students and forced an ongoing process developing cultural competence. However, it is important to give students time to reflection. Although increased cultural awareness and a growing cultural competence was identified by the students undertaking international clinical placement, further research is required. It is important to investigate the best methods to support the students' reflection such that the experiences lead to learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An economic evaluation for prevention of diabetes mellitus in a developing country: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Li, Changping; Gong, Hui; Cui, Zhuang; Fan, Linlin; Yu, Wenhua; Zhang, Cui; Ma, Jun

    2013-08-07

    The serious consequences of diabetes mellitus, and the subsequent economic burden, call for urgent preventative action in developing countries. This study explores the clinical and economic outcomes of strategies that could potentially prevent diabetes based on Chinese circumstances. It aims to provide indicators for the long-term allocation of healthcare resources for authorities in developing countries. A representative sample of Chinese adults was used to create a simulated population of 20,000 people aged 25 years and above. The hybrid decision tree Markov model was developed to compare the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of four simulated diabetes prevention strategies with a control group, where no prevention applied. These preventive strategies were the following: (i) one-off screening for undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with lifestyle interventions on diet, (ii) on exercise, (iii) on diet combined exercise (duo-intervention) respectively in those with IGT, and (iv) one-off screening alone. Independent age-specific models were simulated based on diverse incidences of diabetes, mortalities and health utilities. The reported outcomes were the following: the remaining survival years, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per diabetes or IGT subjects, societal costs per simulated subject and the comparisons between preventions and control over 40 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed based on variations of all assumptions, in addition to the performance and the compliance of screening. Compared with the control group, all simulated screening programmes prolonged life expectancy at the initiation ages of 25 and 40 years, postponed the onset of diabetes and increased QALYs at every initiation age. Along with an assumption of six years intervention, prevention programmes were associated with cost-saving compared with the control group, especially in the population aged 25 years. The savings were at least US$2017 per

  9. A study of brand name and country of production congruity : A consumer study – assessed with the example of a Swedish luxury bed manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Anna; Linnander Obermayer, Erik

    2013-01-01

    As companies become ever more globalised, manufacture firms choose to outsource production to lower labour cost countries. However, as studies have shown, such a relocation of production may lead to undesirably decreased quality perceptions by consumers as the brand origin and country of production are de-coupled. This quality perception linked to congruity between brand origin and country of production has been studied for various products and product classes, but little has been written abo...

  10. Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  11. Information Technology of Study of the State Foreign Debt in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvieieva Iuliia M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to expansion of international relations, growth of interest of states in attraction of foreign capital, appearance of excessive debts and problems connected with them, urgency of the issue of the state foreign debt significantly increased. The problem of state foreign debt is especially sharp in developing countries. Taking into account specific features of functioning of economies of these states, it is necessary to develop information approaches with the aim of studying macro-economic processes, which could assist in creation of improved mechanisms of functioning of the debt policy. The goal of the article is building an information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which would allow conduct of a complex analysis of the studied problem. The article offers a three-stage information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which gives a possibility to analyse and assess the study problem. This article also reveals properties, functions and tasks, which are solve by the information technology. It gives a detailed description of each stage and its notional elements. It forms the structured database for a possibility to carry out an experiment. On the basis of the first stage the article builds econometric models, which reflect interrelations between macro-economic factors, which gives an opportunity to forecast, analyse and assess the state foreign debt.

  12. Low Request of Antibiotics from Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Six Countries: Results from the Happy Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Radzeviciene, Ruta; Reutskiy, Anatoliy; Caballero, Lidia

    2013-11-19

    A total of 59,535 patients with respiratory tract infections were registered in the Happy Audit project, an audit-based, before-and-after study conducted in primary care centres of six countries (Argentina, Denmark, Lithuania, Russia, Spain, and Sweden) in 2008 and 2009. An antibiotic was explicitly requested by the patient in 1,255 cases (2.1%), with a great variation across countries ranging from 0.4%-4.9%. Antibiotics were significantly more often prescribed to patients requesting them compared to those who did not (64% vs. 28%; p countries, suggesting that the different backgrounds and traditions largely explain this variability in patients' requests for antibiotics.

  13. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  14. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday dilem

  15. Dancing with the Devil: A Study of Country Size and the Incentive to Tolerate Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnutzmann, H.; Mccarthy, K.; Unger, B.

    The incidence of money laundering, and the zeal with which international anti-money laundering (AML) policy is pursued, varies significantly from country to country, region to region. There are, however, quite substantial social costs associated with a policy of toleration, and this begs the

  16. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday

  17. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  18. Dancing with the Devil: A Study of Country Size and the Incentive to Tolerate Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnutzmann, H.; Mccarthy, K.; Unger, B.

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of money laundering, and the zeal with which international anti-money laundering (AML) policy is pursued, varies significantly from country to country, region to region. There are, however, quite substantial social costs associated with a policy of toleration, and this begs the questio

  19. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Redondo Cornejo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez Pérez, María José; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W J; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-08-15

    The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. 10 European countries. 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.

  20. The Role of Eportfolios in Finance Studies: A Cross-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Amparo S.; Morales, Lucía; Tarkovska, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of ePortfolios as an efficient assessment tool to support students pursuing a Business degree, where Finance is a major component. We conducted an analysis on the role of ePortfolios in Higher Education at Dublin Institute of Technology (Republic of Ireland) and at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) for undergraduate studies.…

  1. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross...... significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. CONCLUSIONS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment...... sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. RESULTS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence...

  2. Healthcare system and the wealth-health gradient: a comparative study of older populations in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskileyson, Dina

    2014-10-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of the association between wealth and health in six healthcare systems (Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Czech Republic, Israel, the United States). National samples of individuals fifty years and over reveal considerable cross-country variations in health outcomes. In all six countries wealth and health are positively associated. The findings also show that state-based healthcare systems produce better population health outcomes than private-based healthcare systems. The results indicate that in five out of the six countries studied, the wealth-health gradients were remarkably similar, despite significant variations in healthcare system type. Only in the United States was the association between wealth and health substantially different from, and much greater than that in the other five countries. The findings suggest that private-based healthcare system in the U.S. is likely to promote stronger positive associations between wealth and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Oriente Study: program and policy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T

    2010-02-01

    This journal supplement summarizes the many contributions of the Oriente Study to scientific knowledge. This article asks whether this knowledge has actually translated into program and/or policy changes. It describes 2 key areas where this is the case: 1) in defining the "window of opportunity" for nutrition interventions and changing policy regarding the targeting of nutrition interventions; and 2) in building the economic argument for investing in early childhood nutrition. It concludes that the study contributed most of the research evidence supporting the change in policy adopted by the U.S. government in 2009, which encourages the targeting of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs to pregnant mothers and children under 2 y of age. The paper reviews the process and the complementary evidence that led to this policy change. The Oriente Study also provides the first direct, and the strongest, evidence supporting the economic argument in favor of investing in early child nutrition. The results show a direct link between improved nutrition in early childhood and persistent benefits in adult physical status, schooling, cognitive skills, and economic productivity. It is hoped that, given the multiple shocks currently affecting the poor, these powerful results will help stimulate greater investments in maternal and child nutrition in the short term.

  4. Country of origin image attributes as a source of competitive advantage: study in international brazilian fashion industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Mariana Bassi; Universidade de São Paulo - FEA/USP; Polo, Edison Fernandes; Universidade de São Paulo - FEA/USP; Maclennan, Maria Laura Ferranty; Universidade de São Paulo - FEA/USP

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to understand which attributes of the country of origin image are source of international competitive advantage in the context of Brazilian fashion. From the theoretical framework related to competitive advantage, country of origin image, Brazilianness and their attributes in fashion, we conducted exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The results suggest that the image of Brazil is understood by the international fashion market in accordance with the attributes of...

  5. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…

  6. Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society solar energy pilot study. First follow-up report, October 1979, pilot country: United States; co-pilot countries: Denmark and France. CCMS report No. 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    During 1973 to 1978, over twenty nations participated in the NATO/CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study, whose objective was to promote and accelerate the use of solar heating and cooling of buildings. The activities in this information exchange included (1) the regular reporting of national solar heating and cooling programs, (2) the development of a format for reporting the performance of solar heating and cooling systems, (3) the exchange of system performance reports, (4) the establishment of two specialized working groups for solar-assisted low energy dwellings and passive solar applications. At the conclusion of the pilot study in 1978, the participants formulated recommendations for continued action at the international level, as well as for action at the national level. This report describes the progress made in implementing those recommendations. In addition to detailing the steps taken to continue collaboration in various efforts initiated within the Solar Energy Pilot Study, the report contains papers on the 1979 status of the solar heating and cooling programs in seventeen CCMS countries.

  7. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  8. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Christian Makafui; Gross, Janet J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators' perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty's perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3%) of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses' training colleges (P=0.007). The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.

  9. Bhutanese Students' Views of Nature of Science: a Case Study of Culturally Rich Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pabi Maya; Faikhamta, Chatree; Punsuvon, Vittaya

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ninth-grade Bhutanese students' views of nature of science (NOS). A total of 389 students from middle secondary and higher secondary schools from the eastern, western, southern and central regions of Bhutan took part in this study. To generate a representative population, a stratified random sampling technique was used. An adopted and adapted version of the Students Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry (SUSSI) comprised Likert-type items, and open-ended questions were used as a research tool. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analysed and categorized into naïve, transitional and informed views. The results indicated that the majority of the Bhutanese students held naïve views on sociocultural embeddedness, scientific laws, scientific theories and science as a body of knowledge. The study has an implication for curriculum developers and teaching professionals, particularly in culturally rich countries, that explicit instruction of NOS should be reframed based on students' cultural backgrounds and their indigenous knowledge.

  10. An overview of impact of subsurface drainage project studies on salinity management in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priyanka; Goel, Arun

    2017-05-01

    Subsurface drainage has been used for more than a century to keep water table at a desired level of salinity and waterlogging control. This paper has been focused on the impact assessment of pilot studies in India and some other countries from 1969 to 2014 . This review article may prove quite useful in deciding the installation of subsurface drainage project depending on main design parameters, such as drain depth and drain spacing, installation area and type of used outlet. A number of pilot studies have been taken up in past to solve the problems of soil salinity and waterlogging in India. The general guidelines that arise on the behalf of this review paper are to adapt drain depth >1.2 m and spacing depending on soil texture classification, i.e., 100-150 m for light-textured soils, 50-100 m for medium-textured soils and 30-50 m heavy-textured soils, for better result obtained from the problem areas in Indian soil and climatic conditions. An attempt has been made in the manner of literature survey to highlight the salient features of these studies, and it is hopeful to go a long way in selecting design parameters for subsurface drainage problems in the future with similar soil, water table and climatic conditions.

  11. Library services and user satisfaction in developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairaj, Muhammad Ijaz; Naseer, Mirza Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) is a recognised teaching hospital for cardiac care in the Punjab province of Pakistan. PIC has established a library to fulfil the research and information needs of health care professionals. This study aims to evaluate the satisfaction of users with the services of PIC library. A purposive sample of 15 health care professionals was selected. A semistructured interview technique based on an interview guide was used for collection of data. The data were qualitatively analysed using a thematic approach. Users of PIC library were satisfied with the library collection, organisation, reference and circulation services, staff attitudes, cooling and heating. They were concerned about library space, hours, furniture and environment, and suggested more availability of electronic library services, newer collections, better Internet access and comfortable furniture. The study proved useful to investigate users' satisfaction with the services of PIC library. It concludes that the PIC library should maintain and strengthen the services with which users are satisfied, and improve those about which they are concerned. The study will be useful to libraries in other developing countries for improvement in their services. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Assessing emergency medical care in low income countries: A pilot study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Tasleem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency medical care in the government health care system at district level in a low income country – Pakistan. Methods We did a quantitative pilot study of a convenience sample of 22 rural and 20 urban health facilities in 2 districts – Faisalabad and Peshawar – in Pakistan. The study consisted of three separate cross-sectional assessments of selected community leaders, health care providers, and health care facilities. Three data collection instruments were created with input from existing models for facility assessment such as those used by the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Hospitals and the National Center for Health Statistics in USA and the Medical Research Council in Pakistan. Results The majority of respondents 43/44(98%, in community survey were not satisfied with the emergency care provided. Most participants 36/44(82% mentioned that they will not call an ambulance in health related emergency because it does not function properly in the government system. The expenses on emergency care for the last experience were reported to be less than 5,000 Pakistani Rupees (equivalent to US$ 83 for 19/29(66% respondents. Most health care providers 43/44(98% were of the opinion that their facilities were inadequately equipped to treat emergencies. The majority of facilities 31/42(74% had no budget allocated for emergency care. A review of medications and equipment available showed that many critical supplies needed in an emergency were not found in these facilities. Conclusion Assessment of emergency care should be part of health systems analysis in Pakistan. Multiple deficiencies in emergency care at the district level in Pakistan were noted in our study. Priority should be given to make emergency care responsive to

  13. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  14. Choice of the exchange policies in the developments countries: Study of the competitiveness of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benahji Sfaxi Hend

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Breton Woods system, the increased fluctuations of the exchange rates pushed the developing countries to adopt exchange rate policies to avoid rocking of the balance of payments. Since 1973, Tunisia adopted fixed or intermediary exchange rate policies to support or ameliorate her competitiveness and later to balance her current account. By calculating the real effective exchange rate misalignment, we showed that this country did not achieve her goals and that amelioration of competitiveness occurred only as from the moment when she softened her exchange policies. A policy of floating exchange rate is recommended for Tunisia specially why this country is more and more open. .

  15. The spirits of capitalism and socialism. A cross-country study of ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Paldam, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The World Values Survey contains an item on ownership, which is polled 200 times in 92 countries at the four waves of 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. It is developed into the CS-score that measures the aggregate mass support for capitalism and socialism. Four hypotheses are advanced and tested to explain the wide cross-country variation in the CS-score: (A1) It is partly due to the cross-country distribution of income, and consequently the West stands out as the most capitalist-minded area of the ...

  16. Studying the implementation of public programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes and critically assesses approaches that have been employed to study the implementation of public programs. Implementation is defined as the process by which new policies and/or practices are installed in organizations. The report was produced because of the increased interest among researchers and policy makers alike in the linkages between policy and outcome. The study of implementation has barely begun, and it was recognized that methodological issues of a particularly complex nature arise because of certain unique characteristics of the implementation processes: (1) they involve a series of decisions that occur over a long period of time, with no clear beginning or end points; (2) their outcomes have direct or indirect implications that are too complex for single-factor theories; (3) they involve a large number of participants; and (4) they involve situations that are rather unique in terms of agency context, historical moment in time, and other key elements. The approach employed in the report was to examine the methods that have been used in a number of exemplary studies of implementation. These studies are commonly cited in publications and informally in research circles. Descriptive material from each study was used to address three questions: (1) How is evidence collected in studies of implementation; (2) How is evidence analyzed; (3) What are the reasons for believing the conclusions from such studies. The report concludes with recomendations for the conduct of future studies of implementation.

  17. Evaluation of a Life Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use in Two European Countries: One-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Weichold, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Life skills programs are effective tools to combat youth substance use. However there is a lack of studies concerning their effectiveness in Europe. Objective: This study investigated the 1 year follow up effects and the program implementation of a life skills school-based intervention (IPSY: Information + Psychosocial…

  18. Part I. Feasibility Study for a Plan of Action to Investigate the Effects of Air Pollution on Health in PHARE Countries Part II. Air Pollution and Health. Country Descriptions for the PHARE countries. Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland and Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret E; Wolters N; Elliott P; Fletcher T

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility study was carried out on behalf of CEC-DG-I(OPS) in the PHARE countries Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic. Two country visits to each of the countries were involved. On the basis of information supplied by experts met during these visits and

  19. Talent development in European higher education : Honors programs in the Benelux, Nordic and German-speaking countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfensberger, Marca

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the much-debated question of how to unleash the potential of young people with promising intellectual abilities and motivation. It looks at the increasingly important topic of excellence in education, and the shift in focus towards the provision of programs to support talented stu

  20. Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Haritha; Pramya, N; Prabhu, Karthiga; Mascarenhas, Mariano; Reddi Rani, P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India. Girls aged ≤ 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes in women aged > 19 years who delivered in the same hospital during the study period. A total of 620 teenage pregnancies were compared with 14,878 non-teenage women. The obstetric and perinatal outcome was compared in the study and control groups using t test with Yates correction. We calculated Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals(CI) and p values; p teenage pregnancy in the study was 4%. A signicant proportion of teenage mothers were in their first pregnancies and their mean age was 18.04 years. Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of anaemia, past dates, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), normal vaginal delivery, episiotomy, low birth weight, and a significantly lower incidence of caesarean sections/perineal tears in teenage mothers compared to other mothers. In contrast, the incidence of hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction of fetus, pre-term labour and postpartum haemorrhage were similar in both the groups. The data in our study should throw more light on the current thinking of the obstetrical problems facing teenage mothers, in which some of our results support and others refute several long held beliefs about the risks in teenage pregnancy. Early booking, adequate antenatal care and delivery by trained people should improve the obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage pregnancies, which is still an unresolved problem inspite of various government programmes in developing countries.

  1. A Two-Dimensional Approach to Evaluate the Scientific Production of Countries (Case Study: The Basic Sciences)

    CERN Document Server

    Nejati, Ammar; 10.1007/s11192-009-0103-1

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural and biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics and astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996-2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a "quantity-quality diagram", and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm (k-means), into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

  2. Overcoming phase 1 delays: the critical component of obstetric fistula prevention programs in resource-poor countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An obstetric fistula is a traumatic childbirth injury that occurs when labor is obstructed and delivery is delayed. Prolonged obstructed labor leads to the destruction of the tissues that normally separate the bladder from the vagina and creates a passageway (fistula through which urine leaks continuously. Women with a fistula become social outcasts. Universal high-quality maternity care has eliminated the obstetric fistula in wealthy countries, but millions of women in resource-poor nations still experience prolonged labor and tens of thousands of new fistula sufferers are added to the millions of pre-existing cases each year. This article discusses fistula prevention in developing countries, focusing on the factors which delay treatment of prolonged labor. Discussion Obstetric fistulas can be prevented through contraception, avoiding obstructed labor, or improving outcomes for women who develop obstructed labor. Contraception is of little use to women who are already pregnant and there is no reliable screening test to predict obstruction in advance of labor. Improving the outcome of obstructed labor depends on prompt diagnosis and timely intervention (usually by cesarean section. Because obstetric fistulas are caused by tissue compression, the time interval from obstruction to delivery is critical. This time interval is often extended by delays in deciding to seek care, delays in arriving at a hospital, and delays in accessing treatment after arrival. Communities can reasonably demand that governments and healthcare institutions improve the second (transportation and third (treatment phases of delay. Initial delays in seeking hospital care are caused by failure to recognize that labor is prolonged, confusion concerning what should be done (often the result of competing therapeutic pathways, lack of women’s agency, unfamiliarity with and fear of hospitals and the treatments they offer (especially surgery, and economic

  3. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  4. Severity of burn and its related factors: A study from the developing country Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Omair; Nisar, Nighat; Ehmer-Al-Ibran; Shafique, Kashif; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2016-06-01

    Burns are leading cause of fatal injuries and major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The major obstacle in controlling severity is factors related to burn. This study determines frequency of burns and the factors related to it in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 384 hospitalized adult patients with burns were consecutively interviewed during August 2013 to February 2014. Information was collected on socio-demographic profile, intent of burn, severity of burn, health hazards, physical and psychological characteristics. TBSA burn of >15% was considered as higher severity of burn. Higher severity of burns was found in 76.3% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that higher severity of burns were significantly associated with age less than 25 years (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.9), never had been to school (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.9) and intentional burn (OR 20.6, 95% CI 5.0-84.9). Majority of patients had higher severity of burn. The intent of injury was intentional, age less than 25 years and no schooling were found significantly associated with higher severity of burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. A Study of Urban Quality of Life in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Lotfi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid growth of urbanization has led to degradation of quality of life in many developing countries. The qualitative approach towards development concepts provided background for studying the object of quality of life. This concept was declared by Raymond Bauer in 1966 in response to the increase of urban crisis. Today, quality of life refers to the capacity of a place for living life. Approach: The present study aims to analyze quality of life by concentrating on the socio-economic, physical-environmental and mental indexes. The indexes were selected with respect to their importance by conducting a careful examination. The comparative analysis was applied based on hierarchical weighting. Observation and completing questionnaire have been two important tools in this research. Results: The results revealed that there are significant socio-economic gap among the different neighborhoods of the town. The mean of urban quality of life is 8.517 which show a moderate level of quality of life according to the research classification. Conclusion: The research came to conclusion that the different neighborhoods of the town showed different level of quality of life which it leads to socio-economic disparities among the urban zones. So the priority of planning should concentrate on the areas where deprivation decreased the level of quality of life.

  6. The Quest for Comparability: Studying the Invariance of the Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES) Measure across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Jansen, Malte; Nilsen, Trude; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Marsh, Herbert W

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' self-efficacy is an important motivational construct that is positively related to a variety of outcomes for both the teachers and their students. This study addresses challenges associated with the commonly used 'Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy (TSES)' measure across countries and provides a synergism between substantive research on teachers' self-efficacy and the novel methodological approach of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). These challenges include adequately representing the conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy in a measurement model (cross-loadings) and comparing means and factor structures across countries (measurement invariance). On the basis of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 data set comprising 32 countries (N = 164,687), we investigate the effects of cross-loadings in the TSES measurement model on the results of measurement invariance testing and the estimation of relations to external constructs (i.e., working experience, job satisfaction). To further test the robustness of our results, we replicate the 32-countries analyses for three selected sub-groups of countries (i.e., Nordic, East and South-East Asian, and Anglo-Saxon country clusters). For each of the TALIS 2013 participating countries, we found that the factor structure of the self-efficacy measure is better represented by ESEM than by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models that do not allow for cross-loadings. For both ESEM and CFA, only metric invariance could be achieved. Nevertheless, invariance levels beyond metric invariance are better achieved with ESEM within selected country clusters. Moreover, the existence of cross-loadings did not affect the relations between the dimensions of teachers' self-efficacy and external constructs. Overall, this study shows that a conceptual overlap between the facets of self-efficacy exists and can be well-represented by ESEM. We further argue for the cross

  7. Measuring nanotechnology development through the study of the dividing pattern between developed and developing countries during 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mostafa; Zarghami, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the global nanotechnology and nanoscience (NN) indicators in a developmental context, during three 5-year periods from 2000 to 2014. Through bibliometric analyses of the longitudinal data from well-known databases, the growth patterns of NN articles and patents were investigated. Furthermore, the causal relationships among these indicators and some characteristics of the 105 countries studied were examined using regression and correlation analyses leading to the identification of the top 20 "science and innovation giants," in terms of all indicators, as well as the existence of significant, yet different, correlations among the indicators in developing and developed countries. In general, China's growth rate (GR) in NN publications was found to surpass USA, from 2010 to 2014, leading to a change in the ranking of the top countries and moving China, with about 25 % of world's NN articles, to top. A different trend was distinguished for patents in the area of nanotechnology, where USA, as the origin of over half of the world's granted patents, has been the undisputed leader. The shares of developing countries (i.e., the percent ratios of the number of nanotech patents granted to the citizens of developing countries over the total number of nanotech patents granted worldwide) was found to be incompatible with the countries' shares in the total NN articles, indicating a poor correlation between the two factors. However, developing countries were found to be superior in the GR of both NN articles and patents. Finally, the top countries identified can be regarded as suitable for comparative studies, and benchmarking by researchers and policy makers.

  8. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  9. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  10. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  11. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  12. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  13. CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR TOWARDS TELEMARKETING: : A CASE STUDY OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Macrinici, Adela; Bilal, Mian Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Marketing, Direct Marketing, Tele-Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Tele-sales, Developing countries, Customer attitude/behavior, Call center, Outbound calls, Proactive telemarketing, Sales promotion ,Survey, Telemarketing center , Telemarketing sales , Telephone marketers , Cold calls.

  14. Innovation Toilet and Barriers of Diffusion in Developing Country Case Study: TOTO Electronic Bidet Seat Toilet

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Adhiutama; Michihiko Shinozaki; Seiichi Yoshikubo

    2012-01-01

    The innovation of electronic bidet seat toilet in Japan has diffused to more than sixty percent of Japanese household while it has low rate of diffusion in other countries especially in developing country. From this phenomenon, it is interesting to understand about the barrier of diffusion, which focuses on the adopter categories of diffusion, barrier factors and proposition of key success factors of the diffusion in Indonesia as one of emerging economic and the member of G 20. There have bee...

  15. Sociological and psychological predictors of STD infection in homosexual men: a study of four countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, M W

    1984-01-01

    I investigated over 600 homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) regarding the number of times they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and several psychological variables including masculinity and feminity, sex role conservatism, relationships with parents, number of sexual partners, attitudes towards homosexuality, and involvement in the homosexual subculture. Using multiple linear regression in each country, it was found that 19-42% of the ...

  16. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  17. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  18. A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz von Seidlein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia.Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5% of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%] in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]. S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%], Pakistan (8/242 [3%], and Vietnam (5/282 [2%].Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The

  19. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

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    Schmied Virginia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address

  20. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs